3469 Chapters
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Medium 9780253010438

1 Notes on the State of Virginia: Jeffersonian Thought and the Rise of Racial Purity Ideology in the Eighteenth Century

Arica L. Coleman Indiana University Press ePub

This belief is founded on what I have seen of man white, red, and black . . . they [American Indians] are formed in mind as well as in body on the same module with the “Homo sapiens Europaeus” . . . I advance it therefore, as a suspicion only, that the blacks . . . are inferior to the whites in endowments both of body and mind.


In 1780, while the United States remained at war for its independence from Britain, Joseph Jones, a member of the Virginia congressional delegation, received a questionnaire from then secretary of the French legation to the United States, François Marbois. Marbois had compiled and distributed the questionnaire to delegates in order to obtain information concerning each of the thirteen states. Comprised of twenty-two questions, Marbois’s questionnaire inquired of such things as the state’s history (pre- and post-colonization), climate, waterways, natural resources, boundaries, inhabitants (particularly aborigines and Africans), militia, education, religious worship, commercial production, and currency. Jones presented Marbois’s inquiry to the one person he felt capable of handling such a myriad of questions concerning the Virginia colony: Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson enthusiastically worked on answering the questionnaire. He reorganized the questions and set out to answer them, in most cases, as “accurately” as possible.1

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Medium 9781936227068

20. Never in My Wildest...

Davis, Belva Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

• • •

One day it was gone. I dug into the crevices of my address book searching for my folded piece of paper, and I realized it must have fallen out when I was distracted. How many years had I carried it everywhere with me? How many times had I reread the words I wrote to myself back when I was a young single mother caring for two children and juggling three part-time jobs to pay the rent? How many times did it sustain me when I felt lost in a gaping chasm between my means and my desires?

And suddenly I realized that the paper was no longer necessary. I knew its words by heart: “Don’t be afraid of the space between your dreams and reality. If you can dream it, you can make it so.”

Today the Internet has breathed fresh oxygen into my mantra—it shows up on sixty thousand Google hits, and counting. Why is it that we Americans, and in particular African Americans, are so often invigorated and empowered by the motif of dreams? Perhaps because historically our dreams were the only things we could call our own? Perhaps because we’ve seen the glory of dreams come true?

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Medium 9780253012111

1. Geographies of the Holocaust

Indiana University Press ePub

Alberto Giordano, Anne Kelly Knowles, and Tim Cole

THE HOLOCAUST DESTROYED COMMUNITIES, DISPLACED millions of people from their homes, and created new kinds of places where prisoners were concentrated, exploited as labor, and put to death in service of the Third Reich’s goal to create a racially pure German empire. We see the Holocaust as a profoundly geographical phenomenon, though few scholars have analyzed it from that perspective.1 We hope this book will change that by demonstrating how much insight and understanding one can gain by asking spatial questions and employing spatial methods to investigate even the most familiar subjects in the history of the Holocaust.

At its most fundamental, a geographical approach to the Holocaust starts with questions of where. Print atlases of the Holocaust, for example, have focused on the location of major concentration camps and Jewish ghettos, the routes of train lines used to transport prisoners to the camps, and the journeys of individual survivors, such as Primo Levi’s path as he sought his way home after being liberated from Auschwitz.2 Other examples include maps of where people were arrested, where they were sent, where they were murdered. The facts of location are basic to understanding any historical event. In the case of the Holocaust, such facts are exceedingly voluminous, because the Nazis kept detailed records of their operations and because many people who were caught up in the events as victims or bystanders recorded where their experiences took place.

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Medium 9780253014429

14 Toward a Healthier Philanthropy: Reforming China’s Philanthropic Sector

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Xu Yongguang

When Deng Xiaoping’s Open Door policy reforms first began to be implemented, the Chinese economy was in a precarious state. In 1978 the national GDP amounted to the equivalent of $148 billion in current value. The next three decades witnessed a remarkable transformation as China progressed from economic stagnation to become the world’s second-largest economy, with a GDP of $7.3 trillion by 2011 (World Bank 2013). This spectacular growth has frequently been hailed as “China’s economic miracle,” or “a miracle with Chinese characteristics” (Wu 2004). But it has not come without huge social upheaval, as the transition to a market economy also saw the disintegration of an already-strained state welfare system, most notably in rural areas, which had previously been organized under the Cooperative Medical System. Against a backdrop of limited state welfare provision and rising wealth inequality, the growth of modern Chinese philanthropy has been both heartening and necessary.

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Medium 9781603444750

3. Principles of Habitat Management

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 3.1. Bobwhites sustain a high level of mortality. In any given year, only about 20%–30% of the population will survive. Hawks, particularly Cooper’s and sharp-shinned hawks, contribute to the high mortality of bobwhites. The hawk in this photograph is a Cooper’s hawk. (Photograph by Steve Bentsen)

EVERY WINTER, thousands of northerners migrate to Texas. Convoys of motor homes, travel trailers, and camper trucks move south like Canada geese (Branta canadensis). These migratory humans travel hundreds of miles to escape blizzards and ice storms for the sunny days and fuzzy warmth of southern Texas.

Northern journeyers pass through several plant communities en route to the Rio Grande Plains. Depending on route, they might see maple-beech (Acer-Fagus) forest, oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) forest, longleaf pine-wire grass (Pinus palustris-Aristida stricta) savannas, tallgrass prairie, mesquite-silver bluestem (Bothriochloa laguroides) prairie, juniper (Juniperus)-oak woodland, and eventually, South Texas brushland.

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Medium 9780253019301

11 Mihrimah Sultan: A Princess Constructs Ottoman Dynastic Identity

Christine IsomVerhaaren Indiana University Press ePub

Christine Isom-Verhaaren

THE OTTOMAN Empire’s vast territories were united under the rule of the house of Osman, highlighting that the dynasty was an essential component of imperial identity, providing the ideology that held disparate lands together. The imperial family included children of the sultan who competed with each other in a quest for power and status. Generally, historians have focused on the accomplishments of males of the dynasty because only they could reign. However, women of the dynasty often wielded great power and influence, contributing to the survival of the dynasty beyond bearing children. The most famous of these women were the mothers of reigning rulers, the valide sultans. Ottoman princesses, the most notable of whom was Mihrimah Sultan, could also influence events and increase the power and prestige of the ruling family. During her lifetime, few individuals beyond her immediate family glimpsed the princess; however, from the sixteenth century until the present, millions—tourists and locals alike—have gazed on the mosques that she created through her architectural patronage. These have become enduring memorials to her name and to the glory of the house of Osman.

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Medium 9780253353856

Part 6 Central Asia in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Scott C Levi Indiana University Press ePub

The people of Central Asia have long benefited from their position at the center of the Eurasian landmass. Throughout much of their history, Central Asians have enjoyed bilateral commercial relations with the neighboring civilizations of China, Russia, the Middle East, and India. And Central Asia’s location, beyond the frontiers of the larger agrarian civilizations, has also made it an infrequent target for military conquest. Indeed, in those instances when military conflicts did occur, geographic obstacles and a virtually unlimited supply of horses and nomadic manpower generally placed the advantage in the Central Asians’ favor. But in the rapidly changing world of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Central Asia’s geographical position proved to be far less advantageous than it had in the past.

This transition was underway well before 1758–59, when the armies of the Manchu Qing dynasty (1644–1911) established Chinese control over East Turkestan, later designated as Xinjiang (New Province). This victory extended Qing authority further to the west than any Chinese dynasty had achieved since the Tang era (618–907), and for those in Central Asia it represented a traumatic event. Several million Muslim Turks found themselves subjects of the distant non-Muslim Qing emperor, and many more were left wondering how such an unfortunate development could come about. This was compounded as the Russian Empire concomitantly encroached from the north and subsumed the steppe. The legendary biographies of Timur, included here in original translation, illustrate some of the ways that Central Asians grappled with their altered position in eighteenth-century Eurasia.

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Medium 9781574415193

25. Refuge

Sherry Robinson University of North Texas Press ePub



I believe that the white man’s God is a very rich God, and he gives the white man everything he wants; but the Indian’s God is a very poor God and he has nothing to give us, and the Indians have got nothing. That is the difference between the white man and the Indian.

—Lipan chief to Sam Houston, 1853 1

The Americans decided, as the Spanish had before them, that they needed a line of forts. By late 1849 the army had 1,205 soldiers at thirteen posts to watch over 2,000 miles of frontier. Most were new recruits with no knowledge of Texas, and three-fourths were foot soldiers who were useless against mounted Indian parties. It wasn’t difficult for tribes to monitor their comings and goings. As citizens clamored for greater protection, the War Department responded with more troops and more forts. By 1852 Texas accounted for 3,016 out of 10,000 of the army’s soldiers. The millions spent were mostly wasted, groused Houston. He was certain he could keep peace for $100,000 a year, but peace, however inexpensive, was unpopular. “The Indians must be pursued, hunted, run down, and killed, driven beyond the limits of the State,” thundered the Texas State Gazette.2

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Medium 9780253019271

Part I: Beardstown: A Place in the World

Faranak Miraftab Indiana University Press ePub

BEARDSTOWN IS LOCATED AT THE EDGE OF THE ILLINOIS RIVER, 250 miles southwest of Chicago and fifty miles west of Springfield (see figure 1.1). It became a major shipping port and blue-collar industrial town soon after it was founded in 1829. By the mid-nineteenth century, Beardstown was the largest center of meatpacking in the United States and gained its title of the “Porkopolis” (Schweer 1925, 10). From the late nineteenth century to the first half of the twentieth, Beardstown was the seat of several heavy industries, a place where men worked in well-paying union jobs with benefits and security. Today Beardstown locals take pride in being “the watermelon capital of the nation,”1 the home of Beardstown Ladies Investment Club,2 and the site of Lincoln’s 1858 debate with Stephen Douglas as well as his Almanac Trial.3 But before looking at Beardstown’s history, I would like to take you on a brief tour to introduce the places and institutions that are important for establishing the local context.

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Medium 9780253006424

15. Feminist Art, Content, and Beauty

PEG Z BRAND Indiana University Press ePub


Art reconfigures experience. Art is a mentalized physical object. Danto remarks that art is embodied meaning.1 Hein says that feminist art chats on the edge.2 Our mental life is filled with meaning, but art opens the question of the meaning of experience. There is the felt quality of it, which, when it becomes the focus of our attention, allows us the autonomy of reconfiguring how we respond to our sensory encounters with the world. A salient aspect of the art experience, the way in which our attention is directed to the immediate, to the sensory exemplar, in an aesthetic stance, frees us to rethink and re-feel as an act of self-trust. Brand has noted how we toggle back and forth between, on the one hand, the immediate, and on the other, our thoughts and feelings about our world and our place in that world.3 Art, chatting on the edge of experience, nevertheless invites us to choose our stance in that world. I suggest that that is the beauty, or, at least the value, of art. The art experience presents us with a sensory exemplar that can convey, and exhibits, content. The exhibited content of the mode of presentation of the exemplar suggests a reconfiguration of the content of experience outside of art as well as within. Art, then, is that part of experience that changes us by changing the content of our experience. My claim here is that feminist art provides us with a paradigm of what art does, and that is why I admire it.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 5 – Work

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub



It comes as a shock to the mostly lazy, unskilled criminals who come into the Texas prison system that, unlike the federal system or most other state prisons, Texas inmates must work. And they do not get paid. Anything. (More on the financial situation in Chapter nine: Money.) Inside and outside, in snow and rain, day and night, whenever TDCJ needs something done, chances are that an inmate is assigned to do it.

Most inmates who are physically fit are first assigned to work in the fields, in what are called work squads, hoe squads, or sometimes just the Line. The Line is not actually considered a job. It is a way of indoctrinating inmates—especially younger, first-time inmates—to the system, and it is punishment for inmates losing other jobs through disciplinary infractions. Sometimes, it is just punishment for angering the wrong officer.

On most units, the Line does field work. Inmates in the fields plant, weed, thin, and harvest fruits and vegetables. Texas prison crops range from watermelons, peanuts, eggplants, and beets to the more traditional vegetables and, of course, King Cotton.

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Medium 9781574414707

Chapter 26

Mark T. Smokov University of North Texas Press PDF


“He’s gone!”


ver since his capture, Curry had been planning and preparing for the eventuality of his escape.1 The first night, as he gripped the bars of his cell, he was alert to every move that went on in the jail. The following day, he asked for a special brand of shoes and socks made of materials that could aid an escape. That same day he probably secured some rope or strips of canvas before being given a replacement for his “torn” hammock. He succeeded in obtaining pieces of window molding and lengths of broom wire during the tantrum he threw in April 1902. Subsequent violent outbursts resulted in additional materials which he would use in his escape.

Curry was running out of time. His attorneys had to file an appeal before the U.S. Supreme Court by July 10, 1903, or else Curry would be transported under heavy guard in a steel-lined mail car to the Columbus,

Ohio, federal penitentiary.2 However, on Saturday afternoon of June 27, he was ready to put his escape plan into action. Curry was housed on the second floor of the jail with only one guard, Frank Irwin, for company. At about 4:15 Curry was pacing the corridor between the two rows of cells when he struck up a conversation with the guard, Irwin. Irwin was walking around the outer corridor between the main cage and the jail wall. He stopped at the window in the south wall where there was a good view of the Tennessee River. “I think, Charley, that the river is rising slowly for so much rain,” Irwin said to Curry. As Curry responded to the guard’s statement, he began walking to the south end of the inner corridor. He was standing directly behind Irwin with only the bars of the cage between them, when he called the guard’s attention to an object in the river.

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Medium 9781574411997

Chapter 6. The Texas Department of Corrections (1962–1972)

David M. Horton and George R. Nielsen University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 6




untsville, Texas, home of the famed Walls Unit and the administrative center of the Texas Department of Corrections (now the

Institutional Division of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice), is the county seat of Walker County, approximately seventy-five miles north of Houston. Founded in 1835 as an Indian trading post, the town is situated in the lush “Big Piney Woods” area of deep East Texas. The green, gently rolling hills dotted by stands of tall pine trees sustained an economy driven principally by farming, ranching, timber harvesting, and the Texas Department of Corrections. The population of Huntsville in 1962, not counting prisoners, was approximately 12,500.1

The school year no longer dictated Beto’s schedule, and on

March 1, 1962, within three weeks of accepting the appointment, he occupied his new post. The moving van left Springfield in the snow and arrived at Huntsville in the rain. Dan, a senior in high school, remained behind to complete the school year with his friends. The rest of the family moved into the director’s mansion across the street from the Walls. Built for Ellis in 1951, the mansion was a spacious building and provided 5,000 square feet of living space. Constructed of red brick and in keeping with its

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Medium 9780253356772

5 Inequality Is Old News

Harri Englund Indiana University Press ePub

Wayilesi yakwanu, “the radio from your place,” an editor of Nkhani Zam’maboma remarked to me one day when the BBC World Service blared in the newsroom. Before I could think of a response, the editor went on to state that even white people should have a program like Nkhani Zam’maboma. “White people also misbehave” (azungunso amapalamula), she asserted, making them seem comparable to the Malaŵian figures of authority whose deceptive appearances made the headlines on Nkhani Zam’maboma. Listening to his colleague’s comments, another editor of the program concurred with the view that white people, for all their superiority in wealth and education, should also be exposed as liars and adulterers. But he asked me if witchcraft (ufiti) existed where I came from. My answer that it did not exist in the same way as in Malaŵi confirmed the idea he already had about witchcraft and science as the defining domains of Africa and Europe, respectively.1 After a pause, however, the editor recalled that even white people could adopt Malaŵian ways, to the extent that a white priest had joined the gule wamkulu secret society, an incident that the editor said had been reported on Nkhani Zam’maboma.

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Medium 9780253008350

6. Guns for Sale: Feud, Trade, and Solidarity in the Arming of the MRO

Keith Brown Indiana University Press ePub

In the first two decades of its existence, the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization posed challenges to both the irredentist nationalism of Bulgaria and the status quo of Christian subjection to the Ottoman state, in which the Greek Orthodox Church served as willing handmaiden. The evidence of the Ilinden Dossier and the consular archives makes it clear that the MRO’S campaign to win and maintain popular loyalty for its distinctive mission of political autonomy deployed the threat and practice of violence by terrorists (especially against those identified as spies or traitors) and by četas (in deterring violence against MRO supporters and preparing the population for the uprising). That campaign also sought to foster trust and establish legitimacy through the accompanying machinery of communication, control, and logistical support.

Much of the work of the organization, then, directly targeted the Orthodox Christian inhabitants of Macedonia who were its primary constituents. But even among these ostensible beneficiaries of the organization’s success, the MRO triggered a range of reactions, from total commitment through partial, tepid, or wavering support and stubborn neutrality to bitter resistance. Additionally, the MRO operated in a context where it had also to navigate relationships with at least two other constituencies: the international audience of potential intervenors, also split between sympathizers, bystanders, and adversaries; and representatives of Ottoman governmental and economic misrule, who could include landowners, tax collectors, field guards, and gendarmes.

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