3469 Chapters
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Medium 9780253014429

8 Gender and Reproductive Health in China: Partnership with Foundations and the United Nations

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Joan Kaufman, Mary Ann Burris, Eve W. Lee, and Susan Jolly

China’s sexual and reproductive health and rights story has a mixed history. On the one hand, huge improvements in basic health care since 1949, including access to and promotion of family planning and facility-based birth delivery and the legalization of abortion since the 1970s, have led to impressive reductions in maternal mortality and child survival (Fang and Kaufman 2008; Xing et al. 2011). On the other hand, the imposition of a strict birth control policy has led to major violations of reproductive rights and a highly distorted sex ratio at birth in favor of boys (Hvistendahl 2009). Activism by women’s groups and human rights advocates on reproductive rights is constrained by the uncompromising nature of the top-down population policy. A large youth population with rapidly changing sexual attitudes, identities, and behaviors (Zheng et al. 2010) has come of age in the last decade. These youth require information and services even while government services continue to focus on married couples and promote youth abstinence. An escalating AIDS epidemic (Ministry of Health, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and World Health Organization 2010) is challenged by the restrictions on civil society organizations that can best reach groups at risk and affected by the disease, and by continuing stigma.

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Medium 9780253358530

6. Fellini’s 9½

Teresa de Lauretis Indiana University Press ePub

6

The title of Fellini’s film Giulietta degli spiriti/Juliet of the Spirits (1964) is a richly suggestive verbal image of woman, evoking youth, love and death, desire and loss—the love of Shakespeare’s Juliet doomed forever, recast in modern times and so enduring—an image of femininity eternal. It is also, of course, a shrewd commercial move to enhance box-office returns by casting toward its audience hints of two or three things about her we want to know more of. The “spirits” that beset her, that haunt or accompany this woman, allude to her secret, innermost being (in Italian the word spiriti means “spirits,” in all the English acceptations, but also ghosts, phantasms, fantasies, and thus points to the supernatural and to the realm of the psyche as much as it suggests spirituality, if not more); and if those “spirits” can be given representation, her mystery can be probed and known via their representation in the film.

On the one hand, then, the film promises, (this) woman is a mystery, but her secret will be told. On the other hand, however, as any filmgoer knows, this “Juliet” is also the star of the film, Giulietta Masina, wife of the director, Federico Fellini, the film thus being her film, in a sense, as much as his. Will the film reflect Masina’s real life, her relationship with Fellini? Are those her own “spirits”? Is the film (auto)biographical? This woman, then, is a well-known personality of the entertainment world, but she too has a secret (a “real life”) that may be told. And I, spectator, am solicited by this title; I am incited to want to know more; I become involved with this Juliet; I am implicated, whether as a woman or as a man, in this woman’s story—this narrative image—because the image in the title already contains or intimates at least one story.

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Medium 9780253012296

5 Is Propaganda Modernity? Press and Radio for “Africans” in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi during World War II and Its Aftermath

PETER JASON BLOOM Indiana University Press ePub

Mhoze Chikowero

Anthropologist Debra Spitulnik (1999, 63) observed that the introduction of electronic media in Zambia went hand in hand with the introduction of cultural practices, orientations, and evaluations related to the ideas of progress, sophistication, consumption, innovation, and Westernization. She bundled this nexus under the cover term “modernity.” Spitulnik argues that this cover term does both too much and too little. While she problematizes the concept, she proceeds to utilize African radio listener feedback to Lusaka Radio collected by anthropologist Hortense Powdermaker (1962) and broadcaster Harry Franklin (1950) to reinforce the notion that radio was an instrument and signifier of modernity. Spitulnik teases out a question, which I suggest must be reinforced: whose discourse is this “modernity”?

This chapter uses internal official communication among policymakers and memoirs by former broadcasters from World War II and early postwar colonial Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi, not necessarily to search for modernity in Africa, but to show that the metanarrative constitutes what V. Y. Mudimbe calls a “colonizing structure” (Mudimbe 1988, 4). While clothed in the useful register of modernity, this official archive locates the coming of radio as an instrument of colonial statecrafting. I argue that by celebrating “local uses” and readings of Western technology outside this colonial context, we risk legitimizing the colonial designs of the Western technologies simply because Africans, as agents of history, have often put such technologies to (other) use(s). African uses of these technologies will have to be assessed within the broad context of the colonial philosophies and schemes of domination because radio, like the press and cinema, was a technology of domination first and foremost. This colonial archive confesses to this propaganda design, and available African perspectives similarly name it as such.

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Medium 9780253356727

5. Sephardi Theater: Project and Practice

Olga Borovaya Indiana University Press ePub

Sephardi Theater is one of the least documented and least studied sociocultural practices in the lives of Ottoman Jews. Since the extant memoirs hardly, if at all, mention it,1 the only available source of information on Sephardi Theater is the Ladino press, which played an exceptional role in its development. Moreover, the conceptualization of Sephardi Theater offered and promoted by Ladino periodicals was an integral element of the whole project, indispensable for its proper realization, if not for its very existence. Outside the framework of the Ladino press, Sephardi Theater cannot be adequately construed, and the data related to it appear as an unstructured assortment of random facts.

It is, perhaps, its chaotic and peculiar makeup that accounts for the fact that, as a cultural phenomenon, Sephardi Theater has attracted the attention of very few scholars; the most important of them is Elena Romero, who dedicated a few years to its comprehensive description. Her doctoral dissertation2 consists of Romanized (more precisely, Hispanicized) editions of fourteen Ladino plays with notes, detailed descriptions, and other bibliographic materials. Romero has also published a number of articles on Sephardi Theater and a valuable collection of the materials found in most extant Ladino periodicals on the shows performed by Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire.3 Finally, a chapter of her monograph on Sephardi print culture4 offers the first and only overview of Ladino theater.5

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Medium 9780253009678

1 The Great Recession: Definition, Duration, and Impact

Kristin Seefeldt Indiana University Press ePub

A recession is an overall slowdown in economic activity in a geographic region, as opposed to a slowdown in sales by a particular company or in a specific industry sector. The key measures of economic activity are Gross Domestic Product (GDP), income, employment, industrial production, and sales of goods at the wholesale and retail levels. The GDP is a measure of the overall value of goods and services produced by the economy. It is widely watched by market actors to determine whether the economy is expanding or shrinking.

Countries around the world vary in how a recession is defined and who is empowered to make the determination. In the United Kingdom, for example, recessions are generally defined by the government with a strict numeric definition: two consecutive quarters—or a total of six months—of negative growth in GDP constitutes a recession. The term “negative growth” means that the overall size of the economy is actually declining rather than increasing, as is typical of a healthy economy.

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Medium 9781574410679

Getting a Wife

Eddie Stimpson, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

Getting a Wife

One day I got to wondering how my mother and dad come to get married. Of course I no the boys and girls was very much acquainted because they all lived nabor to each other. They got to see each other whin they walk those three to seven mile to school together. In good weather they cut across the fields. In bad weather they went around on the roads.

They had an even better oppitunity to get closer to each other at the parties, especial during those days whin there was a party each week and the famleys would go together from house to house. There was all way sodie pop, ice tea, lemonade and for the grown up folks, beer, wine and whiskey. There was all way food too-bolonie, sandwich, fried chicken, potato salad and plenty cookies and cakes. And music. There was all way music. Uncle Devil Horse, my dad-dad, and grandmother brother, could really play the gitar and banjo. He would play for all the parties in and around the community, both black and white.

At those parties there was all way somebody there or came by to play the gitar or banjo, piano, or just beat on a pan or bucket. Those parties were not only an oppitunity for the boys and girls to get together but men and women who may not no each other might drop by for a good time. There was never no problum knowing whin the party was or where, especial when

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Medium 9781574415322

Lee Haile - “There’s Gold in Them There Hills—or, Silver at Least”

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

THERE’S GOLD IN THEM THERE HILLS—

OR, SILVER AT LEAST by Lee Haile

I guess I was bitten by the treasure hunter’s bug early in life and it has stayed with me to this day. Luckily, though, I am too lazy to have wasted much time in pursuit of treasure. After growing up digging post holes with just a crowbar and a coffee can to get the dirt out or prying enough rocks out of the way until you had a hole, I would look into these old mine shafts that were dug into solid rock and think, man, that is way too much work!

One of the reasons I do like finding and crawling in caves is the thought of finding treasure hidden there. And to me treasure is just about anything from bones to gold. I heard a few years ago about some people who crawled in a cave over around Georgetown and found a saber-toothed tiger. Now that was a treasure.

When I was going to college in 1980 out at Sul Ross in Alpine,

Texas, I ran around some with Hiram Sibley. He told me this story one day while we were out at their ranch in the Glass Mountains.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Fifteen: Motherhood in freedom and fatherhood too

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

nancies are planned. Many more unintended pregnancies never occur.

There’s been a dramatic decrease in teen pregnancies. Many more children are born very wanted. More birth control options exist. Maternal and child health have dramatically improved. A whole generation of young women assumes it is their perfect right to get the education and jobs they want, and to have the family size they want when and if they want it. Not that all problems have been solved, not by a long shot.

But the social context in which I write Behind Every Choice Is a Story is very different than the world in which I grew up and had my children.

We speak today, literally, from a different reality.

Birth control became family planning became reproductive and sexual health. It’s not just about birth control and abortion any more, but also about desiring parenthood and being able to achieve it in freedom. It’s about the fullness of life for ourselves and our daughters and sons, now and into the future. It is still about wanted children, sexual pleasure, healthy mothers, and emancipated women to be sure.

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Medium 9780253011800

3. Troubled Geographies: A Historical GIS of Religion, Society, and Conflict in Ireland since the Great Famine

IAN N GREGORY Indiana University Press ePub

THREE

Troubled Geographies: A Historical GIS of Religion, Society, and Conflict in Ireland since the Great Famine

NIALL CUNNINGHAM

THROUGHOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN IRELAND RELIGION has played a central role in the persistence of complex communal identities.1 Notwithstanding what has been considered to be the substantive resolution of “the Troubles” in Northern Ireland, religious identity has continued to significantly influence attitudes and behavior.2 However, this is not to be reductive: the divisions between Catholics and Protestants have not been representative of substantive theological conflict; instead, they have reflected the political chasm between nationalists, the overwhelming majority of whom are Catholic, and Protestants, who have always made up the vast majority of the unionist political bloc that seeks to maintain the constitutional link with the rest of the United Kingdom. Many scholars have set out to appraise these complexities and their outcomes, but few have explored them through an overtly geographical framing to understand how the conflict that has so dogged Northern Ireland in contemporary decades relates to longer-term (re)configurations of identities right across the island. In that context, this chapter will provide some insights into “Troubled Geographies: Two Centuries of Religious Division in Ireland,” a major project funded by the UK’s Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) that has gone some way in addressing this lacuna.

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Medium 9780253016744

2 Al-Fātiḥ wa al-Maftūḥ: The Case of Sunni-Shi‘i Relations in Bahrain

Justin Gengler Indiana University Press ePub

TINY THOUGH IT is, the 33-island archipelago of Bahrain, situated 15 miles off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia in the Persian Gulf, is an ideal location in which to examine the disruptive influence of group-based political mobilization on the normal function of the rentier state. Indeed, for a kingdom but half the size of London, Bahrain holds a number of distinctions: the global center of pearl production and trading until the 1930s; the first Gulf country in which oil was discovered and mined; the former home of colonial Britain’s Residency of the Persian Gulf and present base of the U.S. Fifth Fleet; and, since the 2003 fall of Iraq’s Ba‘athist regime, the only Middle East nation still ruled by a Sunni minority. While the exact proportion is itself a much-debated and highly divisive issue, it is generally agreed that, despite a decade-long campaign of naturalizing Sunni foreigners, Shi‘a still comprise somewhere between 55 percent and 65 percent of the total population of Bahrain, making it one of just three Middle East states, along with Iran and Iraq, wherein this perennial minority holds an absolute majority.1

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Medium 9780253349781

1. Darwin and Feminism: Preliminary Investigations for a Possible Alliance

Stacy Alaimo Indiana University Press ePub

Elizabeth Grosz

[Darwin has] not succeeded in explaining living beings, but in constituting them as witnesses to a history, in understanding them as recounting a history whose interest lies in the fact that one does not know a priori what history it is a question of.

—Isabelle Stengers, Power and Invention

There has traditionally been a strong resistance on the part of feminists to any recourse to the question of nature. Within feminist scholarship and politics, nature has been regarded primarily as a kind of obstacle against which we need to struggle, as that which remains inert, given, unchanging, and resistant to historical, social, and cultural transformations.1 The suspicion with which biological accounts of human and social life are treated by feminists, especially feminists not trained in the biological sciences, is to some extent understandable. “Biology” not only designates the study of life but also refers to the body, to organic processes or activities that are the objects of that study. Feminists may have had good reasons to object to the ways in which the study, the representations and techniques used to understand bodies and their processes and activities, have been undertaken—there is clearly much that is problematic about many of the assumptions, methods, and criteria used in some cases of biological analysis, which have been actively if unconsciously used by those with various paternalistic, patriarchal, racist, and class commitments to rationalize their various positions. But there is a certain absurdity in objecting to the notion of nature or biology itself if this is (even in part) what we are and will always be. If we are our biologies, then we need a complex and subtle account of that biology if it is to be able to more adequately explain the rich variability of social, cultural, and political life. How does biology, the bodily existence of individuals (whether human or nonhuman), provide the conditions for culture and for history, those terms to which it is traditionally opposed? What are the virtualities, the potentialities, within biological existence that enable cultural, social, and historical forces to work with and actively transform that existence? How does biology—the structure and organization of living systems—facilitate and make possible cultural existence and social change?

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Medium 9781609948870

Chapter 3 Personalismo: The Character of the Leader

Bordas, Juana Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I WAS A YOUNG LEADER working as the executive director of Mi Casa Women’s Center when my mentor Bernie Valdez showed me, through his example and extraordinary life, how personalismo was a powerful determinant in leading people. Like many early Latino leaders, Bernie didn’t read leadership books. He earned respect because of the kind of person he was and by the way he valued and validated everyone.

The first time I picked up Bernie for our monthly lunch, I expected his home to mirror his stature in the community. Much later, Bernie would have the Colorado Hispanic Heritage Center and a public library named after him. Yet he lived in a little house behind the stadium where the Broncos played football. It was the house where he and Dora had raised their children. He lived simply and modestly, much like the people he led.

Bernie had worked in the sugar beet fields and been a union organizer. By the time we were having lunch together, he had served as president of the Denver Board of Education, headed the Social Services Department, and started numerous community organizations. Bernie had impeccable follow-through, no matter how long it took or how difficult it would be. “You have to work hard and not give up,” he would tell me. In the turbulent 1960s, when Latinos were just beginning to forge their identity and to organize as a community, Bernie inspired others to do the same. The decades it took to desegregate the Denver Public Schools are a testament to his endurance and persistence.

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Medium 9780253001924

9 Policy and Constitutional Objections to Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act

Edited by Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter discusses Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act.1 Section 203 requires some jurisdictions to print ballots and offer election-related materials in foreign languages. As a constitutional matter, this provision raises serious federalism concerns and equally serious concerns about Congress exceeding its authority to enforce the right to vote regardless of race. Its constitutionality aside, this provision is also objectionable on a variety of policy grounds.

In August 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law Congress’s amended reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act, which, among other things, extended Section 2032 of the Voting Rights Act for another twenty-five years. Though it and other provisions did not expire for another year, their reauthorization was a priority for the 109th Congress. Congress appeared to recognize the need for a strong documentary record justifying the reauthorization of these provisions. But the hearings in the House stand out for their one-sidedness, with few witnesses suggesting any policy or legal doubt for reauthorization. The hearings in the Senate included more witnesses expressing these policy and legal doubts. Ultimately, however, Congress chose to adopt without revision the bill as reported by the House Judiciary Committee.3 The refusal to adopt even modest changes to the structure of the reauthorization and the desire to secure a reauthorization one year prior to expiration suggest that while Congress went through the motions of fulfilling the doctrinal requirement of demonstrating an ongoing pattern of discrimination to justify reauthorization, substantively its deliberative process and constitutional obligations gave way to political expediency.

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Medium 9780253016713

3 The “Mother of the Stranger”: Palestinian Presence and the Ambivalence of Sumud

Daniel Monterescu Indiana University Press ePub

Yafa! My tears have dried up.

I weep for you with stricken eye.

Will I ever see you?

Will I live long enough?

How are your sister towns? How are they?

I long for them

As if each were a paradise.

And those we left behind?

Those we left for dead.

I’m weary! I’m weary!

But in my weariness I only complain to God

And to no one else.

Yafa. Yafa!

MAHMOUD SALIM AL-HOUT, “Yafa,” translated by Reem Kelani and Christopher Somes-Charlton

In the late 1990s, on the crumbling wall of Jaffa’s Kazakhane Muslim graveyard overlooking the Mediterranean, faded graffiti comprising a drawing of an orange reads in black and orange colors, “Jaffa, the city of the sad orange that will smile again” (Yafa madinat al-burtuqala al-hazina allati satabtasim). A direct reference to Ghassan Kanafani’s The Land of the Sad Orange (Kanafani 1980), this statement reflects the tragic transformation of the former orchard city known in the Palestinian discourse as “the city of flowers” (madinat al-zuhur).1 The unbridgeable gap between reality and memory is metaphorically represented in the opposition between the “sad orange” and the mythical “Bride of Palestine” (‘Arus Falastin). “Jaffa came a long way since its golden days before the occupation, the days of the Arabs [ayyam al-‘Arab],” I was told by my Palestinian walking companion. “Back then, Jaffa was known as ‘the Bride of the Sea’ [‘Arus al-Bahr]. Today, ‘Arus al-Bahr is no more than a crappy local newspaper.”

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Medium 9781576754467

Our Day to End Poverty: Guide for Places of Worship

Daley-Harris, Shannon Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

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