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7: How to Avoid Forest Degradationor Upgrade Degraded Forest Ecosystems: A Classic World Forestry Problem

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


How to Avoid Forest Degradation or Upgrade Degraded Forest Ecosystems:

A Classic World Forestry Problem

7.1  When Did the Problems Evolve and

What Attempts were Made at Mitigation?

Degrading forests has been one of the activities of man almost since he left the tropical rainforest (TRF) and humid tropical deciduous forest (TDF) for open woodlands and savannahs. As soon as man mastered the technology and there were enough people, degraded forests and bare hills were created to an extent that they caused manifold political, social, economic and environmental problems to the tribe, nation or region. This is part of human history and nothing new. It is not what is often (politically correctly) claimed: a typically modern-era colonial– post-colonial phenomenon of the tropics.

But it certainly has been aggravated in the tropics by the political conditions which developed after decolonisation. In addition, profit-maximising neocolonial exploiters and land speculators were the new phenomena, particularly global in the postmodern era. Forest resource degradation by over-logging for illegal or semi-legal export timber in the meantime has spread to warm-temperate forests in the Pacific Rim, north and south.

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Medium 9780929398150

1. Hairpins on the trail

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF


Hairpins on the Trail

owhere are cowboys, both real and imaginary, more noticeable than on cattle drives. From journals and diaries to the silver screen, the drama of stampede, crossing the herd, prairie fire, storm, bandits, Indians, gunplay and death is clearly a man's province. The few women in the fictional treatments are generally at the end of the trail waiting to offer comfort. Some go so far as to say that there were no women on cattle drives, just as there were no women on board sailing ships, period. The thought of women going up the trail with wild animals and rough men offended the sensibilities of polite society, or it might have ifpolite society had known such a state of affairs was going on in a remote part of the continent where even neighbors did not see each other once a year.

Women, of course, did go up the trail. They shattered old standards and left behind evidence that they were there with the first herds. But they weren't called cowgirls.

The mountains of Colorado provided a properly rugged setting for a drive where a new hand took breakfast with the crew and then mounted up to help gather a thousand Longhorns scattered in the canyons and valleys around Long's Peak.

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Medium 9781574411423

Folklore in the Big Thicket - Archer Fullingim

Edited by Francis E. Abernethy University of North Texas Press PDF



Archer Fullingim is editor, printer, and publisher of THE KOUNTZE

NEWS. He is also a fire-brand Democrat who can raise more Cain with Republicans and with Birchites in his one editorial column than all the rest of Texas' liberal newspapers combined. In the

Thicket he is a controversial figure, sworn at as often and as vigorously as he is sworn by.

Archer's writing style is his own, very personal and idiomatic rather than grammatically pure and iournalistically bland. His news stories, as well as his editorials, tumble along like the energetic and rapid-fire monologues which he sometimes delivers to his visitors.

The Printer writes and talks about everything in the Thicket.

Banner headlines will announce that a bear or panther has been spotted in the nearby woods; or a lead will pose the question, "Do

Panthers Scream?" Several issues will be devoted to both sides of this problem. He can write an exciting front-page story about the size of watermelons or the shape of gourds raised in the Thicket.

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Medium 9780253006844

4 Diversity and Competition: Politics and Conflict in New Immigrant Communities

RICHARD CIMINO Indiana University Press ePub

Weishan Huang

Falun Gong (FLG) stepped onto the world stage with its sit-in demonstration in Beijing on April 25, 1999 – with more than 10,000 participants, the largest public protest in China since the Tiananmen Square incident in 1989. Since then, New York City has become the center of the group’s resistance efforts. Established by its charismatic leader, Master Li Hongzhi, Falun Gong is an interesting case study of a modern Buddhist-Taoist–qi-gong faith group with a highly mobilized group of followers.

This chapter seeks, first, to understand the changing ecology of Chinese immigrant communities in New York and to discuss the gentrification of Flushing, which is triggered by transnational capital. Second, the chapter introduces the practices of Falun Gong and focuses on the strategic campaigns of the movement in New York, particularly its parades in immigrant communities. The research has discovered that, to understand the politics of diversity within ethnic Chinese politics, we have to locate the immigrant community in a global milieu. The conflict between Falun Gong and China’s government has been translated onto the streets of New York City, a development that reveals the politics of immigrant communities as a reflection of domestic politics in their home countries.

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Medium 9780253347695

I. Preconception(s)

Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi Indiana University Press ePub

A definition of childbirth depends heavily on a mixture of the experience, imaginative power, and world view of the definer and his or her culture. Whether childbirth also depends on something “out there” believed independent of definer or participant is an unresolvable philosophical conundrum that current poststructuralist theories disallow. But to a great extent, childbirth depends on the preconceptions that any particular individual brings to bear on it.

Although not automatically construed as part of childbearing, preconceptions are just as important as the actual biological stages. So strongly do our preconceptions—the particular images of childbirth to which members of both sexes have been acculturated—influence us that they often determine a woman’s experience of childbirth, including its physical manifestations, just as they do a man’s expectations of what it is or should be. If a woman (or man) preconceives childbirth as so awe inspiring that “it is difficult to describe without becoming intensely poetic or religious,”1 how different her experience will be from that of a woman who preconceives it, as does noted contemporary obstetrician Frederick Leboyer, as “the torture of an innocent.”2 And equally at odds with both is the common contemporary preconception that birth is merely a mechanical process.3

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Medium 9780253329059

Twelve “Eighty-Six the Mother” Murder, Matricide, and Good Mothers

Elizabeth Bell Indiana University Press ePub

Lynda Haas

It is hard to speak precisely about mothering. Overwhelmed with greeting card sentiment, we have no realistic language in which to capture the ordinary/extraordinary pleasures and pains of maternal work. (Ruddick 1989, 29)

Phone conversations at my house are frequently the most trying moments of the day; regardless of what my children are involved in before I pick up the receiver, all three decide they need my immediate, undivided attention the moment I begin to talk. People without children, I’m sure, find the constant interference—“just a minute, no—no chocolate milk right now”—frustrating. I must admit, I too am usually frustrated; but, I have learned that motherhood means

being constantly interruptible, responsive, responsible. Children need one now. . . . The very fact that these are real needs, that one feels them as one’s own (love, not duty); that there is no one else responsible for these needs, gives them primacy. (Olsen 1978, 18–19)

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Medium 9780253016713

4 Inner Space and High Ceilings: Agents and Ideologies of Ethnogentrification

Daniel Monterescu Indiana University Press ePub

I moved to a mixed Arab-Jewish building in Jaffa last spring, a refugee from the astronomical rents in Tel Aviv. . . . Jaffa radicalized me, in a way. I think about politics when I walk through Ajami, the neighbourhood that was, until recently, an Arab ghetto. . . . I think about politics when I look at the crumbling and neglected Muslim cemetery, right next to the architecturally striking new building that houses the Peres Center for Peace. . . . Jaffa is an interesting and cool place to live. . . . I just did not expect to feel like a colonizer for having moved 15 minutes’ walk from Tel Aviv. But, I do.

LISA GOLDMAN, “Jaffa, Habibti, Our Relationship Is Complicated”

In front of a newly built cubist construction on 60th Street in ‘Ajami, a large and colorful marketing sign promising “authentic and luxurious housing” read, “Living in Jaffa is a matter of style. Investing in Jaffa is a matter of wisdom.” A few days after it had been posted, someone covered the large board with black graffiti exclaiming in Hebrew, “House Thieves” (Ganavey Batim). The contractor in turn soon taped over the graffiti a yellow band with additional marketing content. Stemming from a local dispute involving the Palestinian Sawaf family, who originally lived on the lot and claimed to have been cheated out of their house, and Yoseph Shiloah, a famous Jewish-Israeli comedian who bought the land and later sold it to a private developer, this public correspondence of messages captures the political implications embedded in gentrification. Thus aggressive marketing of urban renewal (“luxurious housing”), on the one hand, and local protest against urban removal (“house thieves”), on the other, illustrate the contentious politics of urban space. Claiming to be deceived into signing the contract that positioned them as “illegal squatters,” the Sawaf family was promised replacement housing but eventually found themselves without a roof over their heads, living in a tent at the nearby public park.

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Medium 9781574412024

Chapter 16. Small-Town Texas Wisdom

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF


hen I was old enough to drive legally, Mister Barney

Ragland asked me to come and work in his store with him and his wife, Mis’ Mattie. They owned a Mom &

Pop grocery at the east end of Main Street in my hometown of

Junction, Texas. It was a small, rectangular, stucco, cinder block service station and grocery store painted white, with Raglands

Grocery in black letters across the front. My folks bought most of their groceries and gasoline from Mis’ Mattie and Mister Barney.

The year was 1942, and I worked there after school and on weekends, except for Sunday mornings when I attended church with my parents.

The Raglands taught me all the things I had to learn to serve the customers who drove into the service station or came in the grocery store. In those days you waited on everyone. I already knew how to service a car, but I had to learn how to slice, weigh, and price meat and to wrap it in white butcher paper. All fresh foods were wrapped in paper and tied with string. People didn’t go around the store with a basket gathering up the things they wanted to buy. They’d stand in front of the counter that divided the store and tell you they wanted a can of peas and you’d go over to the shelf and get a can of peas, and so it went. I liked waiting on people and I really liked working for Mis’ Mattie and

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Medium 9780253019417

7 The Poetics of Language Revitalization: Text, Performance, and Change

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub


Gerald L. Carr and Barbra Meek

The term performance has reference to the realization of known traditional material, but the emphasis is on the constitution of a social event, quite likely with emergent properties. . . . Two latter considerations will be essential—the performance as situated in a context [and] the performance as emergent, as unfolding or arising within that context.

—Dell Hymes ([1975] 1981, 81)

COLLECTING TEXTS FROM Native American cultures has been a central part of American anthropology since its Boasian beginnings. The Americanist tradition, as this program has been called by Regna Darnell and others (see Valentine and Darnell 1999), differentiated itself from its British counterpart by emphasizing, among other things, the necessity of creating texts (Malinowski’s [1935] emphasis on collecting texts being a notable exception). This textualizing tradition targeted Native American/First Nation cultures; its adherents were urged on to “salvage ethnography” by the belief that indigenous peoples would soon succumb to the colonizing forces of the US and Canadian governments. Texts—including mythological narratives, life histories, and elicited linguistic paradigms—would provide materials for the documentation of both the culture and the language of the vanishing tribes. But it was not just for archiving the peculiarities of soon-to-be extinct cultures that texts were to be collected. (En)textualizing practices reflect the Americanists’ theoretical focus on studying language and culture together. In the first few decades of the twentieth century, Boas and his students amassed a huge number of texts, many of which would be subjected to new analytical tools by later anthropologists.

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Medium 9780253356376

5 Maling, a Hanunóo Girl from the Philippines

KATHLEEN M ADAMS Indiana University Press ePub

Harold C. Conklin

Just before dawn, one day in late September 1953, seven-year-old Maling tiptoed to the edge of my sleeping mat to wake me with a short but sad announcement: “namatay yi kanmi ’ari’” (our younger brother is dead). Still an infant, Gawid had succumbed to an unknown malady during the night. On his death, the Mt. Yagaw Hanunóo family with whom I had been residing in the small hamlet of Parina for almost a year immediately arranged for his burial and began the observance of a five day religious restriction on agricultural work, bathing, and travel. To understand how Maling interpreted this turn of events as she waited for me to get up and help with the preparations, it is necessary to know the part she had played in the activities connected with Gawid’s birth eighteen days earlier.

For that occasion, Maling’s father, Panday, had rethatched a small, dilapidated annex to the family house and had built a sturdy rail fence around its wooden piles and storm props to keep the foraging pigs away from the space under the bamboo slat floor. Although the period of pregnancy had not been marked by any of the anomalies recognized by the Hanunóo, the customary magical precautions such as refraining from unnecessary binding, tying, or planting activities had been strictly observed for the preceding week by both Panday and his wife, Sukub. On the day before the birth, after a brief final weeding of the maturing rice crop in her steep jungle clearing, Sukub harvested enough bananas for the next two days and returned to Parina to spend most of the afternoon and evening in her rattan hammockswing.

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Medium 9780253356338

9 Apparitions of the Virgin in Egypt: Improving Relations between Copts and Muslims?

DIONIGI ALBERA Indiana University Press ePub


Translated by David Macey

Devotional practices centered on saints in contemporary Egypt are often seen as an essentially, or primarily, communitarian phenomenon. We therefore study Coptic practices on the one hand, and Muslim rites on the other. When it comes to saints, religions never mix, or so it is said, rather as though similar practices existed in parallel but never came into contact. Yet if we divorce Christians and Muslims in this way and establish a watertight frontier between their respective practices, we overlook one phenomenon that is at work in contemporary Egypt: the existence of practices common to both. Copts and Muslims are sometimes observed gathering around holy figures, who may or may not be “shared,” and giving their piety free rein without any religious distinctions. They do meet and mingle in holy places. We therefore simply cannot study Egypt’s religious dimension by restricting devotional practices relating to the sacred to either the Christian or the Muslim community. There are overlaps, and there are places that encourage worshipers of both religions to come together, and there are events and saintly figures that encourage them to do so. Two figures stand out: St. Georges, who is often identified with Al-Khidr by Muslims, and the Virgin Mary, who is mentioned in both the Bible and the Koran. This study will concentrate on the latter by looking at an unusual phenomenon. Egypt seems in fact to be something of a special place, as Mary has often appeared there since the 1960s. In most cases, her apparitions have given rise to some form of encounter between Christians and Muslims. This chapter looks at how such encounters are structured, at what makes them possible, at the way they are reported in the press, both communitarian and governmental, and at the extent to which they have survived the changes that have taken place in Egyptian society, where the religious divide is now more pronounced than ever. Written sources (articles in the press and Coptic hagiography) and interviews, some of them with Orthodox Coptic priests, will be used to evoke the memory of these encounters and to look at their contemporary relevance.

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Medium 9780253010155

11 Army Surplus: Notes on Exterminism

Patrick M. Brantlinger Indiana University Press ePub

The camp is the space that opens up when the state of exception starts to become the rule.


Currently thousands of American veterans are homeless. Over a million are “at risk of homelessness due to poverty, lack of support networks, and dismal living conditions in overcrowded or substandard housing.”1 The website for the National Coalition of Homeless Veterans reports that roughly “67,000 veterans are homeless on any given night. Over the course of a year, approximately twice that many experience homelessness. Only eight percent of the general population can claim veteran status, but nearly one-fifth of the homeless population are veterans.” Although the current unemployment rate among all veterans, 6.7 percent, is lower than the overall rate of 7.9 percent of the labor force, it is still too high. Moreover, 56 percent of the unemployed veterans are African American or Latino, even though they constituted only 12.8 percent and 15.4 percent, respectively, of the population of the United States. The Obama administration has helped reduce unemployment among veterans, which for several years was significantly higher than the national rate.2 But how can “our country’s heroes” be homeless and unemployed in a nation that prides itself on being a model of democracy and prosperity for the rest of the world? How can homelessness for anyone occur in the United States? In any prosperous, democratic society, no one should be tossed into the gutter. Yet that is precisely what has been happening in the United States as jobs have disappeared, as banks and mortgage companies have cashed in on the foreclosure crisis, and as thousands of Americans have seen their pensions and retirement savings wiped out. The United States is devolving into a third-world country: at least forty-seven million Americans now live in poverty, a rapidly increasing number.3

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Medium 9780253017529

1 Border Crossings and Fractured Selves: A History of the Afghan Presence in Iran

Zuzanna Olszewska Indiana University Press ePub

A History of the Afghan Presence in Iran


It doesn’t matter

on which side the sun came up,

on which side the moon went down.

In your alleys, sorrow.

In your alleys, beauty.

In your alleys, the sound of the handcart men

who cry out the freshness of their wares;

the footsteps that startle

the always-mute walls out of sleep;

the eyes that turn my dark midnights

into delirious muttering.

In your alleys

is a fluttering of wings that comes from distant mountains.

I begin from your farthest walls,

a place where even my friends don’t come anymore,

with my old briefcase in my hand,

like a shepherd whose sheep have all been torn apart by wolves,

like a commander to whom no letter is posted.

Longing for the wild winds of the Pamirs,

the song of a dobeiti in the mountains;

longing for the fresh fish of Helmand,

and soldiers invalided by war,

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Medium 9781574412383

“The Galloping Gourmet; or, The Chuck Wagon Cook and His Craft”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF



The trail drive of the American cowboy is well known to the reading and viewing public of the entire world, thanks to the influence of television and movies and their enormous capacity for education. As is also well known, unfortunately Hollywood is not always careful with its facts—indeed, a new folklore might well be said to have developed because of the public media’s part in the passing on of information and mis-information. Such is the nature of oral transmission itself; one might recall: one old cowpoke remembers singing to the cattle to keep them calm; another points out that the average cowboy’s voice was far from soothing, and his songs might well have precipitated (rather than averted) a stampede. Of course, with the dulcet tones of Gene Autry and the Sons of the Pioneers as evidence, the popular view is of the romantic persuasion, as is much of the lore of the American cowboy.

Usually overlooked are the factual matters of the cowboy cook and his rolling kitchen. Of course, “everybody” knows that chuck wagon cooks are genially irascible—“as techy as a wagon cook” goes the old saying.1 George “Gabby” Hayes of the Western movies of the ’40s is an excellent model; and all Western movie buffs know that a chuck wagon looks pretty much like an ordinary covered wagon with a pregnant tailgate. But that’s about as much as most folks know. The day-to-day routine of the cook gets him up hours before breakfast to rustle grub for a bunch of unruly, and often unappreciative, cowpokes. Then there is the day-long battle to keep ahead of the herd, arriving at pre-designated meal-stops with enough time to spare to put together a meal that would stick to the ribs. But all that is a largely unsung epic!

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Medium 9780253015495

3 Remembering-Images: Empty Cities, Machinic Vision, and the Post-9/11 Imaginary

Thomas Stubblefield Indiana University Press ePub

P.S. As this issue went to press, we were still alive. – The Editors

A special 1954 issue of Life on the H-bomb

The thing seen doesn’t need [the operator/viewer] to be there to be seen. The photograph is precisely . . . [a] “world seen without a self.”






From the early perspectival diagrams of the Renaissance to the modern models of city planners, the image of the empty city has historically operated as what Barthes calls “a pure signifier,” an empty sign “into which men put meaning.”1 In this capacity, such images provide the “degree zero” of the built environment, that substrate of underlying possibilities from which the city is reimagined from a seemingly omniscient viewpoint. Despite the interventions of theory in the postwar era, it was the popular culture of the nuclear age that compromised the apparent neutrality of the image of the empty city.2 Cold War sci-fi films such as The World, the Flesh and the Devil (1959), Five (1951), On the Beach (1959), Target Earth (1954), and The Day the Earth Caught Fire (1961) recast the emptiness of such images as the aftereffect of a horrific event rather than the condition of possibility for a perfect legibility of space, and in the process intertwined the narrative of progress with an unimaginable violence. While “the bomb” has since moved to the back burner of collective anxieties, the motif of the empty city has persisted, accommodating more timely forms of disaster such as climate change (The Day after Tomorrow), biological warfare (I Am Legend), global infertility (Children of Men), drug-resistant viruses (The Andromeda Strain), and, most recently, terrorist attack. Throughout this varied history, the image of the vacant city has forged what Vivian Sobchack refers to as an enduring “iconography of emptiness . . . [which] marks the American cinematic imagination of the post-holocaust city.”3

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