3997 Chapters
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Medium 9780253016980

2. Canton, Illinois, 2008–

Bob Hammel Indiana University Press ePub

Two

First Cook factory at Canton, opened and dedicated in 2009.

“And here comes Bill Cook, not with hundreds of dollars—millions! He gave us hope. He gave us life.”

—Michael Walters

Even the people closest to Bill Cook aren’t sure how long he thought about it before he began the remarkable, even charming, resuscitation job he did on the hometown he loved: Canton, Illinois, which had been given up as moribund by most.

Harriett Beecher Stowe invented the best word for how that Bill Cook ruminating materialized into today’s revitalized Canton. Like Stowe’s twinkly-eyed slave girl Topsy’s self-description in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, every evidence is that it just growed.

And it’s not done. As so many rusting relics that got their restorative TLC, particularly in the senior years of Bill and Gayle Cook, Canton today has an onward-and-upward look of its own momentum.

It’s a kind of love story not new in Canton. It’s hard to tell if it’s more a case of man influencing town than town influencing man, but either way, “charming” still is what that love story is.

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Medium 9781574411843

Chapter 11. A Note on the Pacing White Mustang Legend

Edited by Francis Edward Abernethy and Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

11

A NOTE ON THE PACING WHITE

MUSTANG LEGEND by James T. Bratcher of San Antonio

By 1832, the year Washington Irving reported him in his camp journal that became A Tour on the Prairies,1 stories of a remarkable wild stallion were making the rounds of western campfires. Mustangers had gone after the horse but without success. According to those who had chased him or heard about him in locales as far separated as the Rio Grande Plain to the south and the Canadian

Rockies to the north, he was snow white in color, of regal bearing, and with a flowing mane and tail. In some accounts, however, his color varied in a notable detail. Western chronicler Josiah Gregg, and also Mayne Reid, the Irish adventure-novelist who spent time in the West, reported him as having black ears.2 Neither Gregg nor

Reid had seen the horse with his own eyes, nor had Irving. In

Commerce of the Prairies (1844), Gregg shrewdly guessed that the stallion was “somewhat mythical from the difficulty one finds in fixing the abiding place of [this] equine hero.”3

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Medium 9780253019301

10 Ibrahim ibn Khidr al-Qaramani: A Merchant and Urban Notable of Early Ottoman Aleppo

Christine IsomVerhaaren Indiana University Press ePub

Charles Wilkins

THE OTTOMAN conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1516–1517 constituted the single largest addition of territory to Ottoman domains in the empire’s history and held great importance for the empire’s evolution. The Mamluk sultans dominated Egypt, Syria, and Western Arabia (the Hijaz) and had governed a large population; protected major routes of communication between Europe, Asia, and Africa; and claimed legitimacy as upholders of Islamic law and tradition in the heartland of Muslim civilization. From an economic point of view, the joining of Mamluk and Ottoman lands under a single, powerful ruler after 1517 created a vast, secure, and relatively integrated single zone of trade that must have expanded commercial opportunity. Ottoman state practices in the economic sphere also differed substantially from those of the Mamluks. What did it mean to be an Ottoman merchant at this moment in history? This chapter considers the career of Ibrahim ibn Khidr al-Qaramani (d. 1557),1 an Anatolian Muslim trader resident in Aleppo, once a city of the Mamluk Sultanate and now incorporated into the Ottoman domains. Though hailing from a Turkish-speaking Anatolian town, al-Qaramani must have developed a hybrid cultural identity, because he lived much of his life in a predominantly Arabic-speaking city and married into at least one local family.

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Medium 9781574412567

"Larger Than Life, Even in Death”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

LARGER THAN LIFE, EVEN IN DEATH by Robert J. (Jack) Duncan

In one respect, death is a lot like a Hollywood film: at the end, everything presumably fades to black just before the credits roll.

Throughout history, many Texans have been larger than life, even in death. Occasionally, one finds an unusual inscription on a tombstone, runs across a newspaper article about a fatal “freak” accident, or while waiting in the barbershop for a haircut, hears someone discussing a person who “cheated” death, or an odd event or final request having to do with death or burial. This article examines several such diverse vignettes.

Many people have firm ideas about what is to be done to their bodies after death. In Texas, My Texas, James Ward Lee mentions the death, in 1923, of an old man named Isham Summers in Red

River County. Summers had been a prosperous bottomland farmer.

He wanted the preparations for his burial to be carried out by friends and family, as was the custom in the South in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He had appended this note to his handwritten will: “I have at all times a suit, shirt, and underclothes nice enough to be buried in. Do not buy anything. I do not want an undertaker at any time. I want a coffin made of heart lumber and I want the carpenter well paid for making it. Take my body to the cemetery in a spring hack.”1

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Medium 9780253020666

5 Performing Masculinities

Ch. Didier Gondola Indiana University Press ePub

5   Performing Masculinities

If a man is not a man, then what is he?

Rotundo (1993: 20)

THIS CHAPTER SEEKS to accomplish two intertwined goals. The first is to illuminate the context in which sexual predation ceased to be enacted as a discrete, idiosyncratic phenomenon—the sordid business of a handful of faux Yankees—and became an integral and systemic part of Billism (as addressed in detail in chapter 6). The second is to discuss the extent to which the quest for masculinity and manhood lay at the center of the rituals that Bills performed.

Perhaps we should begin with a theoretical discussion of masculinity: not only how it stood at the nexus of global cultural flows (namely, films) and local practices, but also how it remained intrinsically relational, contextual, reactive, and above all protean and performative. Adolescents, as Mary Bucholtz (2002: 529) reminds us, perform ritual activities that often dramatize and seek to abolish the liminality of youth—that transitional space of invisibility, ambiguity, and possibility, as Victor Turner (1967: 95) defined it, a space that is neither here nor there but betwixt and between. Because youths are rendered “inactive” by adult society, confined as it were to a “standby” status until they undergo the proper rites of passage, they seize on the immanence of the possible to display agency. Though not inherently transgressive and delinquent, the activities that adolescents engage in to display their agency and prove their valor to their peers, to adults, and to girls tend to be violent and narcissistic. The reason for this ties in with the Oedipal complex: violent behaviors are more likely to register, to be noticed, and to challenge the authority of the father figure than are nonviolent ones, especially within a society divided by social and/or racial fault lines.

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Medium 9780253006424

5. Worldwide Women

PEG Z BRAND Indiana University Press ePub

ELEANOR HEARTNEY

In a season rife with related events [i.e., 2007], the Brooklyn Museum’s “Global Feminisms: New Directions in Contemporary Art” is an eagerly anticipated component of a nationwide reevaluation of feminist art. It takes its place alongside the presentation of “WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution” at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, and the installation of Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party (1974–79) and opening of the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum, for which “Global Feminisms” acted as the opening salvo; there are also numerous panels, lectures, and other activities around the country. While “WACK!” reviews the contributions of feminist artists in the late 1960s and ’70s, “Global Feminisms” is meant to bring the story up to date with work by a generation of women artists born after 1960, and to represent the global sweep and diversification of the feminist art movement. As such, it was designed to appeal to a younger generation that has been resistant to the feminist label.

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Medium 9780253012890

9 The Particular

Foreword by Saskia Sassen Edited by Hil Indiana University Press ePub

RACHEL HARVEY

MOST DEFINITIONS OFGLOBALIZATIONREFER TO THE GROWING ecological, social, institutional, and cultural connectedness of the world. Beyond this basic consensus, analyses of the core characteristics and implications of this increased interdependency diverge. Hyperglobalists proclaim the power of global processes to undermine local and national economies, polities, and culture. Others contend that such sweeping propositions are strong overstatements. One line of argument focuses on the resilience and continued distinctiveness of local and national sociocultural processes in the face of globalization. Building on this point, a third framework contends that the global is produced by the very processes and formations it is thought to overrun.1 Together these three perspectives result in globalization being simultaneously identified as a contemporary condition, an unfolding process, an eventual endpoint, a universalizing trend, and multidimensional phenomena (Van Der Bly 2005). The existence of these strongly contrasting viewpoints, and the difficulty in resolving their differences, is not solely attributed to divergent theoretical points of departure, objects of study, methods, and data. Rather it is grounded in a critical dimension and dynamic—the particular.

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Medium 9781576754498

7 A New Agriculture for One-Acre Farms

Polak, Paul Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

BIG FAT GREEN CUCUMBERS!” SAID KRISHNA BAHADUR THAPA emphatically as he embraced a green armful lovingly.

I had asked him what the key was to his first big bump in income. Then, of course, we had no choice but to follow him respectfully into his field, watch as he snipped far more cucumbers than we would ever be able to eat, and admire each one of them. Then we had to chow down on slice after slice—but not before he garnished each one with a delicate sprinkling of salt.

These lightly salted cucumber slices tasted juicy and slightly bitter to me, but nothing special. They were just fresh cucumbers. But to Nepalis in the middle of the hot, dry winter, there was something magical about them. Their juiciness seemed to belie the parched landscape, and most Nepalis attributed healing and illness-preventing powers to them. In the market at Mugling, cucumbers sold for thirty to forty rupees a kilo (about forty-five cents US) between January and May, three times the normal price of ten rupees per kilo, because Indian farmers couldn’t grow cucumbers in winter and few Nepali farmers had access to irrigation water in the dry season. We saw eight- and ten-year-olds dressed in tatters hawking cucumber slices at bus stops, and along the road to Kathmandu at a spring with cool water where everybody stopped for a drink, a little shop with bamboo walls and a banana-leaf roof sold them at three times the normal price.

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Medium 9781574415735

Addie’s Household Helpful Hints? Ask Watkins

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF

Addie’s Household

Helpful Hints?

Ask  Watkins

pP

After Addie put in her two cents’ worth about poke sallet,

I knew she’d be just the one to offer helpful hints about household issues, health, ailments, and more. She gave me quite a surprise when she said in a very confidential tone,

“Ask Watkins.”

“Ask Watkins what? Who is he?” I whispered back to her, although it was only us sitting at her kitchen table.

“You know. The Watkins man, Mr. Parker, who used to come ’round every month, knock on the front door— not the back door because people might talk. He’d have a bag of stuff to show you, and his car was full of stuff in case you wanted any of it right then and there.”

“How could his name be Mr. Parker when you said his name was Watkins?”

“No, no. You don’t get it.”

“No, I don’t,” and I was getting just as testy about it as she was. One of us didn’t understand, and it was me!

“Mr. Parker sold Watkins products, named after

Mr. J. R. Watkins. And there was a Watkins Cook Book and a Watkins Household Hints. I have both books. They were published in 1941 and sold for one dollar and fifty cents.

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Medium 9781607321712

TEN The Impact of World Bank Policies on Indigenous Communities

James B. Greenberg University Press of Colorado ePub

Salomón Nahmad

The neoliberal macroeconomic, agrarian, and environmental reforms implemented in Mexico since 1982 were designed to sustain economic growth, increase the population’s standard of living, and fight poverty. The reforms acknowledged that the natural resources were being exploited and that those extracting these resources should assume the obligation of protecting and preserving the environment from a sustainability perspective. Nevertheless, under neoliberal reforms, economic development actually diminished, particularly within the peasant and indigenous sectors. As a result of the emphasis on urban-industrial development, natural resources were poorly regulated and are still intensively exploited, with adverse impacts not only on the environment but also on indigenous and peasant communities. This chapter reviews and analyzes why some of these programs failed.

Neoliberalism, as defined in this book, includes economic policies such as deregulated markets, privatization, and democratization; diminished social programs (e.g., cuts to existing programs, reduced staff, less funding); and restructuring of public agencies. However, although economically developed countries expect open markets from others, they place tariffs and restrictions on the importation of competing products. Neoliberalism, as a technocratic, mercantilist, and macroeconomic (and not necessarily philosophical) movement, has a geopolitical dimension that is alienated from social and collective interests. Social anthropology in general opposes these principles, since the study of human diversity implies equilibrium in human relations that should preclude all forms of exploitation and colonialism. Neoliberal policies include multilateral trade agreements and government programs that underlie these social programs. For example, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was signed in 1994 with the aim of achieving harmonious development among Mexico, Canada, and the United States; expanding world commerce; reducing commercial distortions; and ensuring a predictable commercial framework for planning productive activities and encouraging investments. Also, NAFTA was intended to create new job opportunities and improve labor conditions and standards of living in the three countries.

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Medium 9780253019301

5 Interpreting Ottoman Identity with the Historian Neşri

Christine IsomVerhaaren Indiana University Press ePub

Murat Cem Mengüç

SOMETIME BETWEEN 1487 and 1492, an Ottoman author named Mevlânâ Mehmed Neşri (ca. 1450–1520) composed a history book titled Kitâbı Cihannüma (The book of world observer).1 Cihannüma became the first book of world history composed in Turkish that included a history of the Ottomans. As such, it represented the Ottoman past within an erudite context and as a text designed for popular readership. Considered the most influential narrative of Ottoman history among later Ottoman historians, the book seems to have appealed to later generations because of its more accurate chronology, use of otherwise neglected sources, and inclusion of popular accounts and hearsay, which had their roots in Turkic Anatolian traditions.

In Cihannüma, Neşri employed an unapologetic Turkic description of the Ottomans, which was not necessarily appreciated at the Ottoman court at the time. Upon its completion and presentation to Sultan Bayezid II, the book seems to have achieved no special favors for its author. In other words, the most influential Ottoman history for later generations may have been written outside the Ottoman court’s influence and ideological preferences. This chapter discusses this issue and the relevance of Cihannüma to representations of Ottoman identity. It focuses on the historical context in which it was composed, discusses Neşri’s Turkic sympathies, and analyzes a short passage from the book.

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Medium 9780253013873

14 Zombie Cocktails

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

We take great pleasure in drinking big zombies.

Simone de Beauvoir, America Day by Day

When Betsy Connell, female lead in Jacques Tourneur’s I Walked with a Zombie (1943), confesses that is she isn’t in fact familiar with zombies, her interlocutor, Dr. Maxwell, first tells her that she is dealing with “a ghost, the living dead” and then informs her more cheerfully that the Zombie is also a drink, at which point Betsy finds herself on more familiar territory. “I tried one once,” she says, “but there wasn’t anything dead about it.” Uttered in 1943 at the height of Hollywood’s tiki craze, these lines are no doubt an inside joke. By this time, actors and audience alike were more than familiar with the real Zombies that had overrun America’s bars and the mystical powers they allegedly possessed. And much like Val Newton’s cinematic living dead, the Zombies served at bars such as Don the Beachcomber and Trader Vic’s evoked echoes of Haitian vodou, supernatural possession, and the mystical, transatlantic origins of the zombie myth.1

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Medium 9781574416541

13. Unique Enforcement Operations

David S. Turk University of North Texas Press ePub
Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER SEVEN. Amazonian Ritual Communication in Relation to Multilingual Social Networks

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Ellen B. Basso

In this chapter I describe several approaches to how we might enhance our understanding of Amazonian ritual communication, offering suggestions for incorporating aspects of language use in the region into the new orientation to regional ethnogenesis (Hornborg 2005). As we have learned from studies of Amazonian welcoming rituals and other ceremonial dialogues, ritual practice probes the sources of community, helping participants to understand how latent hostility and tension among participants are transformed into some concrete, positive social relationships. Writers exploring this subject have adopted processual, affective, and ultimately evolutionary models involving the “sensory preconditions of meaning” (Urban 1986, 1988, 1989, 2002; Erikson 2000; Surrallés 2003). Along the same lines, a look at the more private “little” rituals of everyday life (Haviland 2009) demonstrates their considerable overlap with public discursive contexts (Basso 2007, 2009a, 2009b). Joking and avoidance relations, greetings, leave-takings, protests, and the languages of trade and marketing seem to have important resonances within the far-better-known public ceremonial practices of Amazonia. Furthermore, linguistic anthropology oriented to psychological questions about experience and personal meaning is also one of the rare sites of interest in the specific details of non-communitarian “chaotic” discourse and of “language ordeals” (Basso 2009a), communicative phenomena that have quickly led us away from assuming the presence of social “community” and “solidarity,” the idea of inherently unified communities. This suggests that people can belong to many communities or cultures at once, an idea that may be combined with the fact that “many traditional communities have had elaborate internal differentiation from time immemorial” (Gumperz 1996b:362). What these data suggest are the benefits of (1) an orientation to social networks rather than to sodalities; (2) a recognition of multilingual discursive areas rather than an assumption of monolingualism; and (3) the value of looking at stance alignments between participants in ritual practice, particularly the epistemic and evidential aspects of ritual communication and how these are manifested in what has been called the “I” of discourse (Urban 1989; Rumsey 2000).

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Medium 9780253017437

15 Neocannibalism, Military Biopolitics, and the Problem of Human Evil

Foreword by David Parkin Edited by Will Indiana University Press ePub

NANCY SCHEPER-HUGHES

In this chapter I address a controversial topic in contemporary biopolitics/necropolitics (Mbembe 2003): the biomedical abuse and plunder of dead bodies, among these, the bodies of enemies, with the complicity and collaboration of militarized states. Although biopiracy of human biomaterials is not new, the technological capacity to harvest and to distribute these anonymously worldwide through “cannibal markets” in blood, skin, bones, organs, bodies and body parts, DNA, and reproductive material to feed the desires of these new commodities for transplant medicine, for science and research, for commercial pharmacology, and for recreation and display is a late-twentieth-century innovation.

The emergence of death camps, torture camps, and refugee camps alleged to be organ harvesting camps in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries points to the demise of classical humanism, holism, and history—the end(s) of the body and the ends of history as we once knew it (or believed we did). Partible/divisible bodies, part-histories, part-truths, and new and robust critiques of moral anthropologies have replaced Enlightenment certitudes and universal codes of human rights and ethics.

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