3469 Chapters
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Medium 9780253010438

3 Race Purity and the Law: The Racial Integrity Act and Policing Black–Indian Identity in the Twentieth Century

Arica L. Coleman Indiana University Press ePub

It’s powerful . . . That one drop of Negro Blood—because just one drop of black blood makes a colored man. One drop—you are a Negro! Now why is that? Why is Negro blood so much more powerful than any other kind of blood in the world . . . Explain it to me. You’re colleged.

LANGSTON HUGHES, SIMPLE TAKES A WIFE

. . . for the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color line.

W. E. B. DU BOIS, SOULS OF BLACK FOLK

A cursory view of Virginian newspapers at the turn of the century makes evident, as Du Bois’s prophetic articulation demonstrates, that there was an intense preoccupation regarding the color line among the citizenry of the Commonwealth. As the mantra “emancipation equals amalgamation” was rearticulated within a post-slavery context, White southerners began to equate the push for social equality with Blacks as an endorsement of miscegenation. White Virginians, like most White southerners, viewed miscegenation as an affront to White womanhood and as an endangerment to the purity of the White race; they, therefore, swore their allegiance to the tenets of White supremacy by vowing strict adherence to remain pure from the taint of Negro “blood.” Consequently, anti-miscegenation sentiment intensified within the Commonwealth. No other subject, it seemed, could arouse the imagination and cause a public sensation (or panic) as an accusation in support of or engagement in an interracial affair. “A Miscegenation Case in Hanover,” an article printed in the Sunday edition of the Richmond Times-Dispatch on August 4, 1902, provides a glaring example of the sensationalism garnered by such a charge. According to the article, a mob of White citizens had gathered around the Hanover County Courthouse to get a glimpse of the couple being charged for the crime of miscegenation. The couple’s names were withheld; however, they were nevertheless described as a “fair and young” White woman from Connecticut and an “ugly negro man” from Virginia. The crowd hooted and jeered as the offending couple was led away from the courthouse to the jailhouse. The article concluded by informing its readers that the citizens of Hanover County were more amused by the incident than anything. They found laughable what many viewed as the White woman’s “unconscious attempt” to subvert Virginia’s anti-miscegenation law.

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Medium 9780253018472

2 Atia Sattar · “Germ Wars: Dirty Hands, Drinking Lips, and Dixie Cups”

JONATHAN PAUL EBURNE Indiana University Press ePub

2.1. Gaar Williams. Meet Me at the Town Pump. Signed, a Typhoid Germ. Indiana Medical History Museum, Indianapolis.

2

GERM WARS

DIRTY HANDS, DRINKING LIPS, AND DIXIE CUPS

Atia Sattar

The conflict between germs and cups first came to my attention in a laboratory at the Indiana Medical History Museum, where I stumbled across an illustration by Hoosier cartoonist Gaar Williams (1880–1935) entitled Meet Me at the Town Pump. Signed, a Typhoid Germ (figure 2.1). In this drawing, a typhoid germ appears as an amphibious creature with webbed hands and feet, sitting at the edge of a wooden tub filled with water. In his right hand is the common dipper or public drinking cup of the day, a single metal can for everyone in the town, attached by chain to the water pump. Bearing this instrument of public service near his mouth, drops of water falling from his typhoid lips, the impish germ invites townsfolk to meet him at the pump. His invitation to drink is clear. Williams’s striking cartoon, I soon discovered, was not the sole critique of the common dipper, a public service turned danger to public health. In fact, the public war against germs in early twentieth-century America was waged on the rims of drinking cups.

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Medium 9780253356819

2 “Dream Flowers”

Carspecken, Lucinda Indiana University Press ePub

“Taste every word, Meggie,” whispered Mo’s voice inside her, “Savor it on your tongue. Do you taste the colors? Do you taste the wind and the night? The fear and the joy? And the love. Taste them, Meggie, and everything will come to life.”

Cornelia Funke, Inkheart

The first time I went to the Bag End campsite at Lothlorien, to stack firewood, I had the impression of being immersed in one of the Tolkien stories I had grown up with. It was a cool day with intermittent clouds, there were elm and oak trees around me and it felt like English weather. As a teenager, I had especially enjoyed the descriptions of Bag End, which is Bilbo and Frodo’s house in the Shire in The Lord of the Rings. The Shire is a kind of idealized England; not much like the real thing, but rather what many of its inhabitants wished it was. The associations stirred up by the name Bag End were evocative of this fictional world.

In the Tolkien novel, the forest of Lothlorien and the elvin community there are described in impressionistic rather than specific ways. There is a Council, presided over by Queen Galadriel and Lord Elrond. There are song lyrics, descriptions of music and food and of the natural surroundings and structures, but little detail as to how things work. What the reader comes to know of it is that it is a hidden oasis of beauty and goodness and that it is a magical place where no evil can come. It is the last earthly home of the elves, who protect and are protected by the trees. It is a sanctuary. The novel also describes a small fellowship of diverse beings—an elf, a dwarf, a wizard, several humans, and several hobbits—who are closely bonded in a common goal.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 13 – Law Libraries/Libraries

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

general and law libraries

All TDCJ units provide inmates access to both a general library and to a legal library. However, access to the general library is considered a privilege that can be revoked for disciplinary infractions. On the other hand, every inmate in TDCJ—whether in solitary confinement, in the lowest levels of administrative segregation, or in transit—will be able to either visit the legal, or law, library or have legal materials brought to him. The courts have held that TDCJ cannot deny any meaningful access to the courts, and the system, in my opinion, has done a decent job of fulfilling that mandate.

While access to the legal libraries is pretty uniform throughout the system, there is a wide gap between what access is allowed by the different units to their general libraries. The libraries are attached to the unit educational departments and are usually supervised by librarians with free-world training and staffed by TDCJ officers with a few convict clerks to perform the checking in and out of books, updating card catalogues, etc. Access to the library itself is dictated by security. As security on the different units is dictated by the attitude of the wardens and higher-ranking officers, one unit may be more accommodating of inmates who desire to use the library, while others may consider it an unnecessary privilege and a security headache. So, one unit may offer each inmate two hours weekly in the library, while another may leave the library open all evening to any inmate who is otherwise unoccupied. One unit may call inmates from separate living quarters on a sporadic basis, or only call thirty inmates at a time, and then allow them to stay only fifteen minutes at a time, hardly enough time to browse, much less read a newspaper or magazine.

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Medium 9781609949273

21. Back to work

de Graaf, John; Wann, David; Naylor, Thomas H. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Back to work

Markets flatter our solitary egos but leave our yearnings for community unsatisfied. They advance individualistic, not social, goals, and they encourage us to speak the language of “I want” not the language of “we need.”

—BENJAMIN BARBER, A Place for Us

It is illogical to criticize companies for playing by the current rules of the game. If we want them to play differently, we have to change the rules.

—ROBERT REICH, Supercapitalism

If you think your actions are too small to make a difference, you’ve never been in bed with a mosquito.

—ANONYMOUS

The work of building and rebuilding a culture is never finished, because the context—the environment and human activities—is constantly changing. At this moment in history, it’s clear that overconsumption as a way of life can’t continue, but what will take its place? That’s the weighty issue facing us on our desks, on our blog sites, in our state legislatures. Our mission is to invent equitable and efficient ways of meeting our needs in a world of diminishing resources, a changing climate, and a still-rising global population. This is a big moment, and these changes will not be automatic.

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Medium 9780253205667

One: The Call of the Old People

Felicitas D. Goodman Indiana University Press ePub

On the eve of my twelfth birthday I had a severe headache, and it startled me, for I had never had that kind of a headache before. The next morning, I bled for the first time. I went to my mother, and she showed me what to do. There was great trust between us, and because she was not upset, I was not either. When the shock came, it was in a different guise. My mother took a piece of chalk and drew a little cross on the bedroom door. “This means,” she said, “that we now have an adult daughter in our house.” I puzzled over what that might mean—sex education had not been invented yet—but did not ask her. I always kept the most disquieting questions to myself.

Very soon I discovered all on my own what being an adult apparently meant, and confided it to my diary: “The magic time is over.” For all of a sudden and without the slightest warning, I realized that I could no longer effortlessly call up what in my terms was magic: that change in me that was so deliciously exciting and as if I were opening a door, imparting a special hue to whatever I chose. I noticed the curious impediment first with the fresh, crunchy snow which fell right after my birthday. It was nice, but I could not make it glow. Bewildered, I began paying more attention to my seeming disability. The orange glow of dawn streaming through the bedroom window was the same as before; so was the smell of the horses on the market. But I had changed.

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Medium 9781574415735

New Year’s Wish

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF

New Year’s Wish

pP

There was a practice in my little Baptist church in

Jacksboro—that’s in Jack County, right next door to

Middle County—that occurred every New Year’s Eve. We held what was called a Watch Night event—we probably called it a service, but it never was a service except for a prayer and a little homily from Brother Bilberry, who will always remain my pastor, just as Turtle and Jacksboro will always be my towns.

We sang songs, played games, partook of covered dishes and left-over desserts from Christmas, but also of freshly prepared foods from the fabulous cooks whose only chance to show off their skills was at church and community occasions. 

Just a little before midnight, Brother Bilberry and his wife would gather us in a circle and he would begin with a beautiful prayer and the meaning of the New Year. We might sing a hymn—I remember especially “Tell Me the

Old, Old Story” (“of unseen things above”). It reminded me personally of the mystery of Christmas and all the other mysteries of Christianity—unseen things above.

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Medium 9781576753125

DEFY CONVENTION

Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Making a positive difference in the world, big or small, comes down to sacrifice. I refer to this as the “extra mile” concept. It used to be a Roman law that a soldier could ask a citizen to carry his pack for a mile. Being a law, the citizen had to do it. As the story goes, one day a soldier saw a citizen and said, “Would you please carry my pack?” The citizen not only carried the soldier’s pack one mile, but carried it an extra mile as well. The impressed soldier asked, “Why did you go that extra mile?” The citizen replied, “The first mile was for the state, and the second mile was for you.”

My father applied the “extra mile” concept in his life. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1924. The leaders of the country thought we had just fought the war to end all wars—World War I—and they did not think we needed many officers.

So my father was released from the Navy after his senior cruise. He entered Harvard Business School in January 1925, and after graduation he began a career on Wall Street, ending up with the National City Bank. His career was going well, and he was being groomed for a vice presidency. Then in 1940, when I was one year old, he came home and said to my mom, “Well, I quit today.”99

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Medium 9781574416558

“The East Texas Communal Hunt.” Hunters & Healers: Folklore Types & Topics, PTFS XXXV, 1971

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt and Kira E. Mort University of North Texas Press PDF

The East Texas Communal Hunt

pP

Twenty-five million years ago—or thereabouts—a marked climatic change took place in the earth’s history. The great forests began to diminish in size, and broad grasslands took their place.

In the shrinking forests a struggle for dominance was taking place between two groups of tree-dwelling primates, the ancestral great apes and ancestral man. The apes turned out to be the fitter of the two species in this battle, and they forced their weaker kin first to the fringes of the forests and then out on the broad savannahs.

Those early men who could not adapt to the new environment perished. The smartest and the strongest survived, occupied a new biological niche, and began their evolutionary journey to what we call the modern man.

What nature selected to survive was an upright biped with high forward eyes, arms freed from the work of locomotion, an opposable thumb, and a highly developed brain. Because he did not have the speed of a deer, the armor of a turtle, the spines of a porcupine, or the fecundity of a rabbit, he could not afford to be as stupid as any of them. What he did have and that which kept him alive was a combination of qualities that put together made him a match for the other animals. He had brought from his life in the forests a sense of color and depth perception. He could run, swim, and climb as well as most animals, and he could think and throw things better than them all. And somewhere along the evolutionary way he had picked up a gene that had given him a hunter instinct that was as strong as a cat’s. He was a hunter of meat, strong red meat that gave him enough nourishment at one feeding to allow him to sit around and enjoy the fruits of thought and nourish the arts of his culture.

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Medium 9780253003089

2. Migration as Coping with Risk and State Barriers: Malian Migrants’ Conception of Being Far from Home

Edited by Abdoulaye Kane and Todd H Lee Indiana University Press ePub

ISAIE DOUGNON TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH BY HELENE GAGLIARDI

Death, starvation, overexploitation, poverty, life sans papier, states’ barriers (arrests and imprisonment), unemployment—just to name a few—are the words most used to redefine migration in order to discourage young Malians from undertaking dangerous trips to Europe or large African cities. What, however, is the real impact of this communication strategy, even coupled with setting up the legal and physical barriers? In fact, we see that in spite of discursive campaigns against migration and small-scale rural development projects to create job opportunities, youth migration from rural and urban Mali is intensifying and the destinations are more diverse. This chapter tries to demonstrate that the policymakers’ discourse on the danger of migration is, in fact, at the core of Malian conceptions of traveling outside their community. In most West African societies, “migration” means a pilgrimage into the wilderness. How, given this grassroots’ understanding of migration, will state policies be able to stop rural and urban movement toward African and European cities?

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Medium 9781574413205

Jackrabbit Drives (and Other Types of Rabbit Hunting) in the Pleasant Valley Community, Fisher County, Texas

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

7978-ch04.pdf

10/6/11

8:16 AM

Page 209

JACKRABBIT DRIVES (AND OTHER

TYPES OF RABBIT HUNTING) IN THE

PLEASANT VALLEY COMMUNITY,

FISHER COUNTY, TEXAS by Ruth Cleveland Riddels

Jackrabbit drives were conducted in Fisher County as early as 1920 and continued until after World War II. In The Picture Book of

Fisher County, compiled by The Fisher County Historical Commission, page 192, there are two pictures of groups of men with guns that were labeled “Rabbit Drive, 1920” and “Rabbit Drive, 1941.”

During those years the jackrabbit population had increased to plague proportions, “eating everything in sight.” Rabbits will not only eat plants above the ground but will then dig up the roots.

Rabbits also will eat the bark off young trees, and large jackrabbits standing on their hind legs can eat a lot of bark. I don’t know what the conditions were that caused the increase of the jackrabbit population to the extent that the jackrabbits were a menace to all edible plants and the livelihood of rural families, nor do I know why the jackrabbit population has never increased to the point of being such a menace again. They certainly were not hunted to extinction, as plenty of them can still be found in west Texas.

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Medium 9780253012296

3 Film as Instrument of Modernization and Social Change in Africa: The Long View

PETER JASON BLOOM Indiana University Press ePub

Rosaleen Smyth

In this chapter I will ground the theme of modernization in sub-Saharan Africa in its authentic historical context by demonstrating its colonial roots. The central focus will be the efforts made to use film as an instrument of modernization and development communication. In doing so I will turn the current academic orthodoxy on its head. Development communication did not have “its origins in postwar international aid programs,” which were in turn “derived from theories of development and social change that identified the main problems of the post-war world in terms of a lack of development or progress equivalent to Western countries,” as stated in a 2001 report to the Rockefeller Foundation (Waisbord 2001). On the contrary, starting in the 1920s ideas about using mass media as a means of changing mindsets from “traditional” to “modern” and encouraging the adoption of new methods of agriculture and healthcare, among other techniques, were being explored and experimented with in Britain’s African colonies. This was long before the hatching of modernization and development communication theories in American universities and research institutes were in the heat of postwar reconstruction and enshrined in Daniel Lerner’s The Passing of Traditional Society (1958), Wilbur Schramm’s Mass Media and National Development (1964), and David McLelland’s The Achieving Society (1961). These works were published to great acclaim at the height of the Cold War. And, what is more, it was not just the British colonial administration acting in isolation; even then it was acting in concert with international entities including the aforesaid Rockefeller Foundation.

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Medium 9781603446938

Nonprofit Resources for Nonprofits

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

The following nonprofit organizations, media, and agencies provide support and offer resources such as books and training to support nonprofit organizations’ fundraising and other essential functions, for example, board support, membership, administration, and general management.

Alliance for Nonprofit Management, San Francisco, CA
http://www.allianceonline.org

American Society of Association Executives, Washington, DC
http://www.asaecenter.org

Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.arnova.org

Association of Fundraising Professionals, Arlington, VA
http://www.afpnet.org/

The Center on Philanthropy & Public Policy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
http://cppp.usc.edu

Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN
http://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu

The Chronicle of Philanthropy, Washington, DC
http://philanthropy.com

Council on Foundations, Arlington, VA
http://www.cof.org

Dorothy A. Johnson Center for Philanthropy, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI
http://www.gvsu.edu/jcp/home-45.htm

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Medium 9781574411584

Epilogue: Tell me your story

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Epilogue

Tell me your story

The earliest humans understood the power of stories. Stories connect us with our fellow humans. They teach and inspire. And they move us to make a better world.

I encourage you to tell your stories. Telling my story in this book helped open up conversations with my children that deepened our relationships. It can do the same for you.

That’s the personal part. There’s also the political. For too long, reproductive health, sex, and sexuality have been taboo subjects. But the more we tell the personal stories that illuminate these social issues, the closer we will be to creating a society that respects our reproductive rights.

Just as the stories in Margaret Sanger’s Motherhood in Bondage helped advance the cause of birth control in 1928, so the brave individuals who shared their life-affirming stories in Behind Every Choice Is a Story are advancing reproductive rights today.

Telling our stories challenges the disconnect between our real lives and the restrictions set by our institutions. It’s easy for Congress or

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Medium 9780253353856

Part 1 Central Asia in the Early Islamic Period, Seventh to Tenth Centuries

Scott C Levi Indiana University Press ePub

Already by the middle of the seventh century AD, merely two decades after the installation of the first caliph, Abu Bakr, on the throne of the Muslim polity in Mecca, the armies of the Arab caliphate approached the banks of the Amu Darya River, a distance of more than 1,600 miles from their soon-to-be capital in Damascus. Having defeated the Sasanian Empire, the Arabs proceeded eastward and endeavored to cross the great river into the little known (to them) areas beyond it. This was not a trivial matter; indeed, the initial phase of the Arab conquest, although achieving some temporary success, did not yield any long-term results, and the Arabs were quickly pushed back to their base in the city of Merv.

The state of affairs beyond the Amu Darya was complicated. Different Iranian civilizations had deep roots in the region, and for centuries they had played a vital role in the trans-Eurasian exchange of goods and ideas. The population was heterogeneous: most spoke Iranian dialects, some spoke Turkic, and there were a variety of scripts in use. Their religious landscape was shaped by the Zoroastrian, Buddhist, Manichean, and Jewish traditions, and also by diverse Christian sects; their lands had witnessed the passage of great armies; and their politics, culture, and economy were profoundly influenced by the symbiosis between nomadic and sedentary populations. Politically fragmented, the ancient principalities of Soghdiana—the sedentary heartland of Central Asia including Samarqand, Bukhara and Ustrushana, Farghana, and Shash—raised tribute for the Turkic Qaghan in the beginning of the seventh century. To the southeast, in Tukharistan, and further to the east, along the Tarim river basin, the different city-states paid duty to Tang China until the middle of the seventh century, and then to the Tibetan Empire and the Turks.

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