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“Wagon Train Experience”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WAGON TRAIN EXPERIENCE by Carol Hanson

Nineteen-eighty-six was the Sesquicentennial of Texas—a mouthful to be sure—but a year in which our State attempted in a variety of ways to celebrate, memorialize, discuss, and make all sorts of tributes to all our Texas ancestors and the history of all that’s

“Texan.” One of the more unique events of the year was the

Sesquicentennial Wagon Train that began on January 2 in Sulphur

Springs and wandered around the entire state for six months until it pulled into the Fort Worth Stockyards on July 3 to celebrate the

Fourth of July there. It was my privilege to have the experience of riding a few days on the Wagon Train in May of that year, along with two of my brothers—who thoroughly enjoyed it as well. This is my account of our short journey.

I had contacted the Wagon Train Association in mid-March of

1986 to inquire as to the possibility of our traveling with the train.

Since we had no wagon, horses or other appropriate animals, we were at the mercy of whatever arrangements were available to the general public. But the Association wanted to involve as many citizens of Texas who wanted to be there, so they had a wagon set aside specifically for folks like ourselves who just wanted a chance to experience the ride for a short time. Our confirmation, postmarked “No Trees, Texas,” came about ten days later, saying that we could meet them in Tahoka.

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Medium 9780253003096

1. Geographies of Borrowed Time

Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

On June 13, 2010, a story about the plunder of rosewood trees out of several national parks in Madagascar made the cover of the New York Times (Bearak 2010). Not only Malagasy citizens but also international readers concerned about biodiversity protection had been following the story for several months, ever since the coup d'état of the previous March that ousted the pro-conservation and pro—United States president, Marc Ravalomanana, and left Madagascar's hinterlands open to a new scramble for Madagascar's untapped resources: A new wave of imperialist expansion, now launched from the East rather than Europe.1

A ring of Chinese and Malagasy merchants, dubbed the “rosewood mafia” in news reports, armed gangs of “thugs” to intimidate residents and park guards around the rain forests that line the northeastern Antongil Bay. The “Timber Barons,” as they are also called, having Malagasy names such as Bematana, Bezokiny, and Body, and Chinese ones such as Chan Hoy Lane and Sam Som Miock, infiltrated major towns on the east coast (Wilmé et al. 2009). They hired local villagers for dirt-cheap wages and shipped in extra hands from “deep China” (Gerety 2009a). North American and European expatriates were flown out to safer havens. Conservation activities ceased while local officials, colluding with the Timber Barons, gave the loggers free rein in the national parks.

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Medium 9781605095844

2 What Did We Lose and Where Did It Go?

John McKnight Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

TO GRASP THE FULL EFFECTS of a consumer society, it is useful to understand two of its core elements: (1) the systems and management that have developed to provide the scale necessary for consumerism, and (2) the professional industries that have been constructed to service it. By seeing the consumer ecology for what it is, we can become citizens again. We can shift our thinking and re-decide who we take ourselves to be: producers of our own future or purchasers of what others have in mind for us.

Before proceeding, a small disclosure: For the sake of clarity, we contrast the system world and the community world in what may seem like dramatic or black-and-white terms. That representation actually is close to how we see things, but it does not imply that we are free from the grip of what we speak of. We too shop and accumulate to please our interests (books, art, music, other sorts of things) beyond what is required and keep going back for more.

So while this discussion is a critique, it is not a criticism or judgment of any of us who are encased in modern life. It is not even a judgment of consumption or its supporting institutions. It is intended to be as clear as possible about the limits of system life and what unconscious participation in it can cost us.

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Medium 9780253356772

9 Beyond the Parity Principle

Harri Englund Indiana University Press ePub

The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” While the Second World War had attached new urgency to the definition and implementation of human rights, the 1990s wave of liberalization in Africa and elsewhere revived this project in the context of crumbling autocracies and widespread poverty. Much as its principled attention to all human beings could inspire fresh political, economic, and legal challenges to the status quo, the discourse on human rights was often highly selective in practice. Of the first article’s emphasis on freedom and equality, only the idea of freedom came to inform the public interventions by Malaŵi’s human rights activists and democratic politicians. As has been seen, the very concept of human rights was translated into Chicheŵa through the concept of freedom.

It would be futile, however, to expect that a conceptual shift from freedom to equality would by itself rectify the neglect of social and economic rights that the emphasis on political and civil liberties has seemed to reinforce. As central concepts in liberal political and moral theory, freedom and equality have been shown to carry multiple meanings and open up potentially contradictory possibilities. Feminist theorists, for example, have argued that once decoupled from its association with personal autonomy and self-rule, “freedom” can prompt questions of how social relations and institutions both enable and constrain subjects (Hirschmann 2003: 35–39; see also Friedman 2003). Such questions become particularly contentious when they no longer assume a categorical distinction between the subject’s desires and socially prescribed conduct, or that submission to external authority necessarily subverts the subject’s potentiality (Mahmood 2005: 31). As for “equality,” some philosophers have at least since Rousseau recognized how the apparent neutrality of formal equality can consolidate existing inequalities by denying differences in situations, resources, and needs (Hirschmann 2003: 223–224). Moreover, equality comes with variable complexions and goals, with the demand for one type of equality (such as equal rights) inconsistent with the demand for another type (such as the equality of incomes) (Sen 1992).

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Medium 9781780641409

2: Rainforest Use: Necessity, Wisdom, Greed, Folly

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

2

Rainforest Use: Necessity,

Wisdom, Greed, Folly

2.1  Original Inhabitants and Secondary

Refugees: Forest-dwellers and the

Rainforest

Life on earth has been, since its origin in the

Archaeozoic period of the Praecambrium, essentially expansive and acquisitive. Life multiplies and reaches out towards the limits of the carrying capacity of habitats. Local to global scarcities of resources are the inevitable consequence. Scarcity provokes competition, forces evolution and drives conquest of new habitats. Natural “genetic biotechnology” increases the efficiency to acquire and assimilate foreign substance to one’s own.

Human biological and social evolution are no exception to this natural rule (Markl, 1986, p. 19), except for the challenges, opportunities and dangerous temptations of the three special gifts of language, abstract thinking and free will (see Chapter 1). The early abode of the precursors of the human species most probably was the aseasonal to weakly seasonal tropical (rain) forest. An indication is the association of the fossils of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia, with faunal and floral fossils of a closed forest, suggesting that some kind of rainforest was the habitat of the hominids 4 million years ago, in which they lived and died (Woldegabriel et  al., 1994). The rainforest canopy provides the only type of habitat on earth in

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Medium 9780253000811

4. The Stranger's Code

Bruce Whitehouse Indiana University Press ePub

4

THE STRANGER'S CODE

On the morning of Christmas eve, in 2005, I was conversing with a friend in his shop when three Congolese men in civilian clothes suddenly entered. One rapped loudly on the counter and bellowed, “Séjours et recensements, s'il vous plait.” They were apparently policemen who had come to conduct a contrôle, a spot-check of individuals’ official documents, in this case residence permits (permis de séjour) and recensements de police, forms showing that the bearer had registered with the local police station. There was no formal requirement in Congo to have a recensement, but many of my West African friends had had to pay modest fees to obtain the document after policemen had discovered them without one. As always, I was carrying my passport with a valid one-year Congolese visa, but I had never gotten a recensement, and though the men had taken no notice of me up to that point, given their brusque entry and aggressive demeanor I thought they might choose to make an issue of this. In any case my friend behind the counter, a Malian in his forties named Balla, quickly launched into a verbal counteroffensive at maximum volume, matching bluster with bluster. Balla's cousin, who also worked in the shop and had good relations with the local police chief, hurriedly came in from the street upon hearing the commotion. He took one of the three visitors aside and began speaking to him in a low voice. Concerned that my presence might be attracting unwanted attention for Balla and his business, I sneaked out the door and went home while Balla and one of the Congolese continued talking loudly past each other.

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Medium 9780253018793

3 Social Justice and the Patriarchal Citizen

Martin, Kevin W. Indiana University Press ePub

The Personal Status Code is useful to the citizen when he is a boy, so that he knows his relationship to his family, his rights, and his duties, and it is useful to him as a young man so that he knows how to raise his family. It is also useful to a married couple throughout their relationship, until they are compelled to separate by divorce or death. And it is useful to all the people when they must clarify the conditions of a will or a bequest. Therefore there is no citizen who is not in need of it.

NAJAT QASSAB HASAN, Qanun al-Ahwal al-Shakhsiyya ma‘a Sharh Qanuni wa Insani Kamil

AMONG SYRIAS ECLECTIC array of legal forms, codes, and genres, Najat Qassab Hasan afforded the Personal Status Code (PSC) particular significance for its role in codifying the features of the patriarchal citizen. Thus it was frequently featured in his radio broadcasts, journalism, and other publications. Governing the realm of family law (chiefly marriage, divorce, guardianship, and inheritance), the Code of Personal Status in effect during the Democratic Years drew on Islamic law for various sects of Muslims, canon law for Christians and Jews, and yet another corpus for Syria’s sizeable and politically significant Druze minority.1 The PSC of 1953 was one of military dictator Adib al-Shishakli’s modernizing reforms. In this area, as in many others, the restoration of civilian government did not constitute the comprehensive repudiation of Syria’s authoritarian legacy that so many Syrians and outside observers have imagined it did. This and previous codes were remnants of the Ottoman legal system, which subdivided civil law into the categories ahwal ‘ayniyya (financial affairs) and ahwal shakhsiyya (personal affairs), and treated individuals first and foremost as members of a religious community.2

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Medium 9780253014429

8 Gender and Reproductive Health in China: Partnership with Foundations and the United Nations

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Joan Kaufman, Mary Ann Burris, Eve W. Lee, and Susan Jolly

China’s sexual and reproductive health and rights story has a mixed history. On the one hand, huge improvements in basic health care since 1949, including access to and promotion of family planning and facility-based birth delivery and the legalization of abortion since the 1970s, have led to impressive reductions in maternal mortality and child survival (Fang and Kaufman 2008; Xing et al. 2011). On the other hand, the imposition of a strict birth control policy has led to major violations of reproductive rights and a highly distorted sex ratio at birth in favor of boys (Hvistendahl 2009). Activism by women’s groups and human rights advocates on reproductive rights is constrained by the uncompromising nature of the top-down population policy. A large youth population with rapidly changing sexual attitudes, identities, and behaviors (Zheng et al. 2010) has come of age in the last decade. These youth require information and services even while government services continue to focus on married couples and promote youth abstinence. An escalating AIDS epidemic (Ministry of Health, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and World Health Organization 2010) is challenged by the restrictions on civil society organizations that can best reach groups at risk and affected by the disease, and by continuing stigma.

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Medium 9781780641409

3: Sustainable Forestry in Rainforests: Reality or Dream, Hope or Chimaera?

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

3

Sustainable Forestry in Rainforests: Reality or Dream, Hope or Chimaera?

3.1  The Concept of Sustainable

Forestry: Origin and Postmodern

­Relevance

The story of the rainforest’s turbulent history

(Section 1.1) and the responses to logging

(Chapter 2) demonstrate very clearly that various structural and functional features contribute to a capacity of self-sustainability.

The abilities to adapt, repair, restore, reorganise and colonise are intrinsic features which together are a powerful arsenal of the rainforest ecosystem. But this arsenal has its limits, which nature occasionally – and modern mankind continuously – exceeds, but native forest people and modern foresters have learned by trial and error to respect.

The year 2013 saw the 300th anniversary of the first formal scientific definition of sustainable forestry and the need to counteract timber famine (Carlowitz, 1713), recognition of the need to enforce sustainability in forestry. In 1713, the Berghauptmann (mine head man) Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining official and forester-at-heart in Saxony, central Germany, published the book

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Medium 9781574410815

3: The Gods and Their Ways

Rod Davis University of North Texas Press ePub

3

THE GODS AND THEIR WAYS

One sultry morning a couple of weeks after the initiation at Lorita’s home, I drove down to the lower end of the Quarter to meet Ava Kay Jones at the Old U.S. Mint, a refurbished brick office building now used as a museum, library and public meeting place. I had met Ava about the time I met Lorita, when Ava was working as lead dancer for her Voodoo Macumba Dance Troupe. Since then, she had not only taken further steps towards becoming an orisha voudou priestess—steps that would lead me in a circle back to her many months down the road—but had also opened a botanica, Jambalaya. Until it closed, another victim of the New Orleans economy, it was the only voudou establishment in the Quarter with any claim to authenticity. Lorita’s Lazarus Spiritual Church Supply, and the other authentic ones, were all elsewhere in the city.

A small, voluptuous, articulate purveyor of both her faith and her talent, Ava became the center of attention whenever she walked through the Quarter in her white dress, big earrings and white kerchief, as striking a picture of a m’ambo, a Haitian priestess, as even the long-time residents were likely to encounter. Some people didn’t know what to make of her—she didn’t fit known stereotypes. Others treated her almost like a celebrity. More than once, whether we were snacking on coffee and croissants or splitting po’boys at an oyster bar, I watched black wait staff scrutinize her minutely, as though something inside, half-forgotten, were registering. Ava sensed it, too. It was one of the reasons she had made her choice, to give up a career as an attorney to devote her life to the orisha.

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Medium 9781576754382

5. Building a Cooperative Restaurant

Rinku Sen Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

95

Mamdouh’s idea of building a cooperatively owned restaurant started out as an innovative project with great emotional appeal, looking both to the past and to the future for inspiration. Looking back, it would provide a memorial tribute to the fallen Windows workers, many of whom had dreamed of owning their own restaurants. It would provide employment with an ownership stake for former Windows workers and others who had become unemployed after September 11. Looking ahead, the cooperative would prove that a high-end restaurant could operate without a racial hierarchy; it would allow invisible restaurant workers to shift into the owner’s role, thereby giving them equal standing with other employers when the time came to comment on labor issues. A portion of the restaurant’s profits would be used to fund more co-ops over time.

Many people invested huge amounts of time, money, and energy in pursuing this agenda, not least of all Mamdouh and Saru. More than fifty members worked for several years to raise money and organize themselves. A group of Italian cooperatives invested hundreds of thousands of dollars. Attorneys, chefs, and students donated their time to work out an unending series of details. However, although the effort attracted lots of support, it got too little of the conventional kind—it was never fully financed and executive chefs were hard to recruit.

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Medium 9781576754467

CHAPTER 3: Make Work Pay

Shannon Daley-Harris Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Your profession is not what brings home your paycheck. Your profession is what you were put on earth to do. With such passion and such intensity that it becomes spiritual in calling.

— VINCENT VAN GOGH, DUTCH
POSTIMPRESSIONIST PAINTER

How do you feel about the work you do? Most of us at some time have had one of those jobs where the minutes drag by and we count the days until we can finally pick up a paycheck and enjoy the weekend. Then there are those jobs that feel more like a calling, where the time flies and at the end of the day we have a deep sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. And at some time in our lives, each of us has most likely known what it feels like to be unemployed or underemployed.

With living wages and full employment, we can create a path out of poverty. UN Millennium Development Goal 1, eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, has a target of cutting in half by 2015 the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day.

“Working poor” should be an oxymoron, yet the reality is that millions of people in our nation and billions around the world work hard at jobs every day and still find themselves in poverty. In the United States, about 37 million people (one in eight) live in poverty even though most of them work. Around the world one out of every five people earns less than $1 a day. At worst millions are forced to beg and scavenge or are trafficked as modern-day 32slaves—bought and sold into prostitution, domestic servitude, or agricultural work.

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Medium 9781607321569

EIGHT. Immigrant Heterogeneity and Class Consciousness in New Rural US Destinations

E. Paul Durrenberger University Press of Colorado ePub

DAVID GRIFFITH

Immigrant groups tend to be associated with processes that fragment labor markets, work sites, communities, and other social spaces where class allegiances develop. Loyalties and affiliations are more likely to be based on local histories, ethnicity, national origin, enclaves, neighborhoods, important cultural places, or other dimensions of shared experience that may differ from time to time and place to place, such as church membership and political affiliation. Further, the growth and persistence of petty capitalist activity and multiple livelihoods among immigrants are corollaries to the fragmentation of production into enterprises that produce specific products, whether houses or hazardous toys, through subcontracting (Smart and Smart 2005; Griffith 2006).

These fragmenting processes became more common in organizing local economies and production during the last quarter of the twentieth century as corporations shopped in global labor markets for cheap labor and more recently as neoliberal economic policies swept large parts of the globe. What we once called the “new” international division of labor, in other words, is now over three decades old (Nash 1983; Sanderson 1985). The fragmentation of work breaks up realms of shared experience and frustrates class allegiances and class consciousness among direct producers, reinforcing the sustained political and cultural assaults on labor organizing that deepened after Ronald Reagan fired unionized air traffic controllers in the early 1980s (Griffith 1993; Hage and Klauda 1989; Newman 1988; Durrenberger and Erem 2005). Ironically, these divisive processes, while eroding most direct producers’ power, at times create opportunities for direct producers to become petty capitalists and, usually by necessity, engage in multiple livelihoods to meet household demands for consumption and reproduction (Smart and Smart 2005; Zlolniski 2006). Janitors may become janitorial contractors, for example, by hiring their kinsmen and friends, or farm workers may work themselves into positions as farm managers or labor contractors, drawing on network and village ties to shape up their crews.

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Medium 9781574410679

Recration or Play Time

Eddie Stimpson, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

Recration or Play Time

I suppose all kid think of nothing but playing, and my growing up was the same. As I think back on those days I remember there were known games and there were creative games. I think I enjoy playing most whin mother would play with us.

There were never any store bought toys except maby on

Xmas. There might be a Tom Mix or Lone Ranger cap gun for me and a doll for each of the girls. The girls all way got a black doll. Mother would help the girl make clothes for them. That was good for the girls because it taught them to sew. I'm sure it help Ruth. The size of famley she had, she had to make clothes.

She still do a lot of sewing. I don't no about Bessie Lee. She didn't take time to do any thing but tear up and stir up trouble.

In winter whin we could not go outside, or after school, we play jacks, pitty pat cards, and dominoes. We had Chinese checkers. All five of us would play at once. My Dad and I would play checkers while my mother and sisters play jacks. Some time we could get mother to play hide in seek. If there were snow we get old tubs, tires, boxes and use for sled. We would push each other and slide down the hill behind our house. If the water in the stream was froze hard enough we would skate on the icy stream. There was a lot more snow then than now.

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Medium 9780253020888

6. Conclusion: “Driven” Women

Leyla J. Keough Indiana University Press ePub

This book has looked at the gendered moral economies at multiple sites where mobile women workers from Gagauz Yeri have been constrained or uplifted by gendered ideas and practices in Moldova and Turkey and state and nongovernmental organization policies. From this exploration, what can be concluded, not only about the effects on women and families of migrating for work in an era of global neoliberalism, but also about gendered mobilities and agency more generally?

The women from Gagauz Yeri who commute to Turkey to work are actually continuing to express and act on values derived from an earlier socialist worker-mother model and ideals (the alternative would be to remain at home and lose the worker role). Yet even when those women try to function according to those worker-mother ideals, their migrant domestic work and their experiences abroad eventually prompt new desires for consumer goods, a revision of the gendered obligations to their families, new labor relationships that differ from those of the socialist state, and new expectations of their home country. This development is in keeping with one of Pierre Bourdieu’s classic tenets: namely, that individual actions may be motivated by traditional or conventional attitudes (the individuals may be trying to act as previous generations did), but because of the march of time (and in this case the women’s movements over space) the actions do not—and cannot—mean the same thing that they did for previous generations. Bourdieu refers to this dynamic as the “Don Quixote” effect (1984). In fact, individuals who desire to “stay the same” as previous generations often must make deliberate changes to their current practices. Thus, these migrant women workers may have the intention of fulfilling their roles as socialist worker-mothers, but their practices and the conditions of their work align them as well with the global neoliberal capitalist structures and values of the contemporary era, not with the socialist past.

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