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Medium 9780253002136

4. A Soft Hero

Benjamin Maria Baader Indiana University Press ePub

STEFANIE SCHÜLER-SPRINGORUM

Women write diaries, men write books. Women talk about their lives, men talk about the world. And when historians ask questions, they tend to ask female subjects about the private sphere and male subjects about the public sphere. At least since Karin Hausen’s pathbreaking essay on the polarization of “gender characteristics,” we know that this alleged division between the two spheres is part and parcel of a middle-class gender ideology. Indeed, Marion Kaplan has shown how useful an investigation of the “female sphere”—based primarily on private or personal sources—can be for our understanding of the “making of the Jewish middle class.”1 Yet, although this process was so very central to the entire nineteenth century, we still know very little about how it took place for the other half of humanity: for men. What effects did the development of a German Jewish bourgeoisie have on gender relations and gender models? Or, to put the issue differently: To what extent was the degree of involvement in this development, and the awareness of and assimilation into it, different for Jewish men and women? If we are looking for new gender-historical approaches to German Jewish embourgeoisement, it is high time to look at Jewish men as men—as gendered beings confronted with normative expectations. Scholars have typically viewed the public activities and positions of Jewish men—for example, programmatic or ideological writings published by the Centralverein or by Zionists—not only as the official Jewish history, but indeed as a straightforward reflection of Jewish men’s attitudes. Their personal or “private” documents have thus far been studied essentially for references to “public” topics, and have not been seen as sources in their own right.

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Medium 9780874259803

Diversity Letter Game

Jonamay Lambert HRD Press PDF

2

Diversity Letter Game

Objective

The purpose of this activity is to have participants define for themselves the meaning of diversity.

Time

10 minutes

Materials

Flipchart and marker

Paper

Procedure

1. Show the participants the previously-prepared flipchart and explain that the group’s task will be to come up with what they feel makes up diversity.

2. Group participants in pairs and ask them to think of as many words as possible for each letter, helping clarify the term “Diversity,” and write them down. Tell them they have 3 minutes to complete this assignment.

3. After 3 minutes call “Stop,” and ask each pair to orally report the words they chose for each letter.

4. Reconvene the group and have the participants call out their words.

Record the responses on the flipchart and compare.

Conclusion

Summarize by pointing out the variety of words that the participants used to define diversity. Explain that diversity is much broader than race and gender and that the challenge is to learn how diversity impacts everyone, everywhere.

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Medium 9780253016461

Epilogue: Revolutionary Social Morality and the Multi-Racial National Family, 1959–2000

Karen Y. Morrison Indiana University Press ePub

Revolutionary Social Morality and the
Multi-Racial National Family, 1959–2000

What are the present ramifications of Cuba’s long history of racialized reproduction? Many commentators begin by pointing to the island’s specific and often debated demographic proportions of mulattoes, blacks, and whites. The most recent Cuban census, from 2012, reports these proportions by “skin color” as 64.1 percent white, 26.6 percent mulatto, and 9.3 percent black.1 By contrast, a 2007 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency assessment listed those proportions at 51 percent mulatto, 11 percent black, and 37 percent white.2 Important questions arise from these statistics: Which group in fact numerically predominates, and why should it matter? Some scholars focus less on demographics and more on the political value of race, often noting the continuing presence of anti-black discrimination within the context of proclaimed revolutionary egalitarianism. For them, the presence of a racial democracy is called into question. Yet, beyond politics and demography, a more complete inquiry into racial meaning in Cuba would also acknowledge the additional complexity found in more intimate and reproductive domains. Such an analysis would account for the everyday notions Cubans hold about self, otherness, and familial concepts of belonging.

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Medium 9780253007445

8. Opening the Distribution of the Sensible: Kimberly Rivers and Trouble the Water

Kenneth W. Harrow Indiana University Press ePub

What does trash look like? It depends on where you stand when you are looking: the site of enunciation as site of subjectivity. If standpoint epistemology requires us to see the world through the eyes of oppressed women, what would a trashy epistemology look like?

Feminist standpoint epistemology calls for social change and activism based on seeing and understanding the world through the eyes and experiences of oppressed women—women treated like trash and called trashy. The common language focuses on what signifies the lack of value in material terms as well as figuratively.

Trash is what is discarded, what one averts one’s gaze from, what repels and stinks, what is the last resort for people who have nothing, what animals scavenge through, what people who become scavengers rely upon as their last resort, so it is the last resort for those who are last. It is also collected and abjected to the edges of town, to the margins of society, to the borders of our consciousness. It is, in film, associated with melodrama and Nollywood, genres that persist in returning for popular audiences, for “common” taste, to commercial cinemas that refuse the rejections of the scions of culture.

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Medium 9780870818257

9 The Salvation Army

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

“I want to send my Army to France,” said the Salvation Army’s U.S. commander Evangeline Booth to Gen. John J. Pershing, who headed the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) overseas. It was spring 1917, and the United States had just entered the European conflict. “I have an army in France,” Pershing replied. “But not MY army,” Evangeline Booth shot back.1 And thus the Salvation Army became one of the devoted social service organizations working with U.S. troops during the First World War.

By the time the vanguard of Pershing’s two-million-man force arrived in France in June 1917, Commander Booth had been busy organizing her own army. She was, after all, the imperious daughter of the fiery father of the Salvation Army, William Booth, who took his stand in 1865 in front of London’s Blind Beggar saloon to proclaim the simple message of salvation to the city’s outcast masses.2 Earlier in the war, she had been eager to aid wounded soldiers and civilians throughout the battle zone. She appealed to the public through newspaper articles and pleas in the Salvation Army publication The War Cry asking for contributions of old linen. Enlisting volunteers to help, Salvationists cut and rolled the linen into bandanges, sterilized and packed them into bales, and shipped them overseas. In New York City, Commander Booth herself supervised the Old Linen Campaign.

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Medium 9780253334121

14. MASTURBATION

Alfred C. Kinsey Indiana University Press ePub

The previous section of this volume has been occupied with an examination of the factors which affect human sexual behavior. Such biologic items as age and the age at onset of adolescence, and such social factors as educational level, occupational class of the subject and of the subject’s parents, the rural-urban backgrounds of the individual, and the religious backgrounds have been analyzed as factors affecting the total sexual outlet and each of the particular types of sexual outlet. The remainder of this volume will summarize the record for each source of outlet: masturbation (in the present chapter), and nocturnal emissions, pre-marital intercourse, homosexual contacts, and other sources of outlet (in the subsequent chapters). Although many of the specific data in this section will be drawn from material presented elsewhere in the book, these chapters will be especially concerned with interpretations of the data, and will summarize the nature of each type of behavior, emphasize the individual variation that occurs, discuss the correlations of each type of activity with each other source of outlet, and show something of the significance of these factors to the individual and to the society of which he is a part.

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Medium 9780870818257

3 The Army Nurse

Lettie Gavin University Press of Colorado ePub

Several thousand skilled and patriotic U.S. nurses went to France in 1917–1918 to tend the sick and wounded of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF).1 Perhaps many had signed on with a romanticized notion of what nursing entailed. Popular illustrations depicted a pretty young woman wearing a crisp white uniform emblazoned with a scarlet cross, a halo cap and flowing veil covering her hair. She hovered daintily over a smiling wounded soldier sitting up in bed, a spotless bandage wrapped around his head, his left arm trussed up in an immaculate sling. He smiled gratefully at his nurse, and probably fell in love with her on the spot.

Nothing in this popular fantasy could have prepared the nurse for the reality: lice-infested, mud-crusted uniforms, bloody bandages, gaping shrapnel wounds, hideously infected fractures, mustard gas burns, frantic coughing and choking from phosgene inhalation, groans and shrieks of pain, trauma from exposure, fatigue, and emotional collapse. Could the nurse have imagined her own horrified reaction when she saw that “every available spot—beds, stretchers and floor space—was occupied by a seriously wounded man. The overflow cases lay on the wet ground, waiting their turn to be moved under cover: We stood, tears mixing with the rain, feeling anger and frustration.”2 “A steady stream of patients [was] carried into the X-ray room . . . where the plates all showed foreign bodies and often the bubbles . . . of the dreadful gas gangrene.”3

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Medium 9780253010544

6 Staking a Claim as Normal through Work and Relationships with Men

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

Stigmatization Appears to be a major barrier for women to overcome in order to disclose their HIV status. While stigmatization is a critical factor for everyone living with HIV, the force of stigmatization may be intensified in specific ways for women, since they must make their way through the multiple layers of challenges of particularly gendered forms of HIV stigmatization. Gendered HIV stigma may be internalized, causing psychological pain, or it may manifest itself in more concrete ways, such as preventing women from working or going to school and thus making them feel they are not valued members of society and unable to realize their full potential as human beings. Nevertheless, women find ways of shielding or “disguising” themselves from the full force of gendered HIV stigma and othering that takes place in their lives. One way women respond is to find ways to normalize themselves. Discourses about men and about work emerged in our interviews as normalizing processes to counter stigma.

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Medium 9781780645681

14 Summing Up

Kassam, A.H. CABI PDF

14 

Summing Up

Amir H. Kassam,1* Saidi Mkomwa2 and Theodor Friedrich3

University of Reading, UK; 2African Conservation Tillage Network,

Nairobi, Kenya; 3Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

Havana, Cuba

1

Reducing soil disturbance by tillage in agricultural land began in the Great

Plains in the USA in the 1930s in response to the devastation caused by prolonged drought and tillage. This period became known as the ‘Dust Bowl’.

Several practices, including stubble mulching, were developed to reduce or eliminate tillage and retain plant residue on the soil surface to alleviate wind and water erosion. This collection of practices led to what became known as conservation tillage, culminating in no-till systems that avoid any soil disturbance by no-till seeding, and maintaining a mulch cover of organic matter on the soil surface. The book Ploughman’s Folly by Edward Faulkner (1943), an extension agronomist in Ohio, USA, was an important milestone in the development of conservation agriculture practices. Faulkner questioned the wisdom of inversion ploughing and explained the destructive nature of soil tillage. Research in the UK, USA and elsewhere during the late 1940s and

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Medium 9780253006288

3. The Audacity of Reverend Wright: Speaking Truth to Power in the Twenty-First Century

David H. Ikard Indiana University Press ePub

3

 

The Audacity of Reverend Wright

Speaking Truth to Power
in the Twenty-First Century

He's a politician, I'm a pastor. We speak to two different audiences. And he says what he has to say as a politician. I say what I have to say as a pastor.

—Rev. Jeremiah Wright

A civilization is not destroyed by wicked people; it is not necessary that people be wicked but only that they be spineless.

—The Fire Next Time, James Baldwin

Although it seems heaven sent, we ain't ready to have a black president

—“Changes,” Tupac Shakur

IN THE FIRE NEXT TIME James Baldwin tackles a thorny political issue of his day concerning how Black America should respond to rising influence of Malcolm X,1 Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam (hereafter NOI). While Baldwin disagrees with their invented religious doctrine, which casts whites as devils and blacks as God's chosen people, he nevertheless agrees with many of their assessments of how the dominant culture manipulates power. In particular, he defends Malcolm X's argument for black self-defense in the face of sanctioned state and federal violence. In response to Malcolm's assertion that whites expect blacks to accept levels of subordination that they wouldn't dream of acquiescing to themselves, Baldwin writes, “In the United States, violence and heroism have been synonymous except when it comes to blacks, and the only way to defeat Malcolm's point is to concede it and then ask oneself why this is so” (58). Instead of treating the NOI as a discrete political/religious culture, Baldwin highlights the ways in which the black nationalist group reproduces the white male supremacist ideology that it fiercely attacks. Rather than reject the premise of racial superiority outright, the NOI merely inverts and revises it to serve their own political ends. The “curse of Ham” is replaced by the narrative about mythical white corruption, dating back to the beginning of time. Responding to the “white liberal” assessment of the NOI as morally corrupt, anti-American, and irredeemably racist, Baldwin opines that what these “white liberals” hate about how the NOI expresses its will to power is precisely what it defends to the death about the right of white dominance over all other non-white groups in the United States. Baldwin notes that the NOI's contrived religious narrative about whiteness and devilry is no more or less fanciful and insidious than the biblical account of the “curse of Ham” that whites used to justify slavery and the Jim Crow era of segregation that followed. Contrary to what liberal whites might like to believe, what they were witnessing in the NOI was a reflection of their own domination theology. Not one to be pigeonholed into established modes of thinking, Baldwin writes that he refuses

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Medium 9781574415735

Primer on Poke Sallet

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF

Primer on

Poke  Sallet

pP

I have just returned from Addie Ruth Adams’ kitchen. It’s greens season. You also take some note of greens season,

I suppose. All cooks do. There may be few, mighty few, of you who don’t understand the fine points of greens, so an explanation is in order.

Aunt Addie, 90 years old and still “at herself,” as the saying goes, comments:

“There’s collard greens, turnip greens, and mustard greens. You cook ’em all alike. Boil ’em, ladle on some grease, and boil ’em some more. Then throw the stuff out the back door and go buy a can of spinach. It’s easier to open a can, and the roughage is just as dramatic.”

Well, that takes care of that! Mabel Claire, who has been standing with a pencil in hand to take down the particulars of preparing mustard, collard, and turnip greens, just throws her hands in the air.

“But Addie,” says Gertie Lou, who is only 73, “What about poke?”

“What about poke?” Addie fires back.

“Well, if it’s poke season I gather it down by the spring or in marshy places. And it’s sure good.”

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Medium 9781605095844

1 The Limits of Consumption

McKnight, John Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

THE ESSENTIAL PROMISE of a consumer society is that satisfaction can be purchased. This promise runs so deep in us that we have come to take our identity from our capacity to purchase. To borrow from Descartes, “I shop, therefore I am.” This dependency on shopping is not just about things; it includes the belief that most of what is fulfilling or needed in life can be bought—from happiness to healing, from love to laughter, from rearing a child to caring for someone at the end of life.

In our effort to find satisfaction through consumption, we are converted from citizen to consumer, and the implications of this are more profound than we realize. This is clearest when we explore two particular consequences of a consumer society: its effect on the function of the family and its impact on the competence of the community.

One social cost of consumption is that the family has lost its function. It is no longer the primary unit that raises a child, sustains our health, cares for the vulnerable, and ensures economic security. The family, while romanticized and held as a cultural ideal, has been a casualty of the growth of consumption and therefore lost much of its purpose. Its usefulness has been compromised.

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Medium 9780253021359

11. Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: The Flying Ace, the Norman Company, and the Micheaux Connection

Pearl Bowser Indiana University Press ePub

PHYLLIS R. KLOTMAN

THE NORMAN STUDIOS PRESENT:
The Greatest Airplane Thriller Ever Filmed.
Six Smashing Reels of Action!
Love! Laughs! Mystery!

So exults the multihued Flying Ace publicity poster, with flaming plane, parachuting villain, primping heroine (in seductive heart inset), and stalwart hero in the uniform of his country—the “flying ace” himself. All this and an “all colored cast” in the six-reel film which Richard Norman completed in 1926.

The Flying Ace (1926; sometimes referred to as The Fighting Ace or The Black Ace) is about Captain William Stokes, World War I flyer-hero and former railroad detective, who is called upon by his former boss to solve the mystery of a disappearing paymaster and the $25,000 payroll he was carrying. With his partner (and one-legged sidekick), Stokes unravels the clues to the crime, apprehends the villain, clears the stationmaster (who was falsely accused), and woos the stationmaster’s daughter. But the real star of the film is the plane—prop though it was—at least according to the publicity. It is the symbol of Captain Stokes’s heroism, his past triumphs, and his ability to use the new technology to good purpose. Melodrama abounds, but the audience is primed for aerial exploits.

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Medium 9780253010797

2 - “Everybody is a Petty Trader”: Peri-urban Trade in Postconflict Maputo, Mozambique

Peter D. Little Indiana University Press ePub

Peri-urban Trade in Postconflict Maputo, Mozambique

A COMMON SIGHT IN Africa's sprawling urban and peri-urban areas is the widespread proliferation of petty traders, hawking items from foods to cigarettes to cheap imported electronics. These street hawkers and other self-employed traders represent the fastest-growing segment of the labor market in Africa, attracting the unemployed, the displaced, and the impoverished as well as those seeking to supplement declining wage incomes (ILO 2002; Brown et al. 2010; Hansen and Vaa 2004). Under the economic reform programs described in the introduction, it was assumed that these informal activities would eventually disappear—or at least decline in importance—as private investment grew and nonfarm industries and formal sector employment expanded. This has not been the case and, in fact, the phenomenon has accelerated in the 2000s as cities in Africa have grown faster than in any other world region, but industrialization and job creation has been disappointingly minimal. Moreover, spiraling inflation and declining real incomes make it difficult even for those with salaried employment to subsist without holding multiple occupations, including petty trading. As Mamdani points out in the case of Uganda, economic reforms and restructuring turned waged workers and others into “part-time hawkers” (1990: 438).

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Medium 9780253348920

3. Colonial Rupture and Innovation: The Colonizer as Inadvertent Patron

Sidney Littlefield Kasfir Indiana University Press ePub

3

COLONIAL RUPTURE AND INNOVATION: THE COLONIZER AS INADVERTENT PATRON

Narrating warriorhood in early colonial Kenya and Nigeria invoked parallel stories of what the British referred to as “spear-blooding” and “headhunting.” In both situations, the British colonial administration directly intervened to contain (in Samburu) or suppress (in Idoma) a cultural practice that seemed to flagrantly undermine what the colonizers saw as their civilizing mission. I now take up the backstory, which is about the spears and the heads and their own subsequent transformations, for what they reveal about the capacity of colonialism to affect artisanal practice. Far from suppressing the inventiveness or creativity of blacksmiths and woodcarvers, colonial interventions unintentionally stimulated it. Quite simply, while literary representations and informal discourse both reflected and influenced colonial policy, those policies often misfired, and what began as an attempt to coerce or control was either impossible to implement or contained internal spaces and contradictions that allowed unintended and unforeseen results to emerge. This was the case for both the Samburu spear ban and the banning of Idoma war dances that used skulls.

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