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Four. Citizenship and Slavery

Jr.Howard McGary Indiana University Press ePub


One of the most important events of Reconstruction was the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.1 Section One of this Amendment states:


all persons born or naturalized and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States: nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.2


The importance of this amendment for the political standing of blacks was cited by Senator Lot M. Morrill of Maine during debate in the Senate on the legislation:


If there is anything with which the American people are troubled, and if there is anything with which the American statesman is perplexed and vexed, it is what to do with the negro, how to define him, what he is in American Law, and what rights he is entitled to. What shall we do with the everlasting, inevitable negro? is the question which puzzles all brains and vexes all statesmen. Now, as a definition, this amendment [to Section I which establishes the citizenship of the native of African descent] settles it. Hitherto we have said that he was nondescript in our statutes; he had no status; he was ubiquitous; he was both man and thing; he was three fifths of a person for representation and he was a thing for commerce and for use. In the highest sense, then … this bill is important as a definition.3

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Medium 9780253016294

1. The Wicked Major: Embodying Cultural Difference

Matthias Krings Indiana University Press ePub

IT WAS GETTING close to midnight when the musicians finally intoned the hymn of Magajiyar Jangare. The amplified sound of the garaya, a two-stringed lute, distorted and cracking through the megaphones that served as loudspeakers, sent shivers down my spine. I had witnessed a number of public bori possession dances before and knew that this was the sign for the spirit mediums to begin their preparations. On that night in December 1992, Idi and his group had been performing in Unguwa Uku, one of the bustling quarters outside the old city of Kano, Nigeria, since the last prayer, at about eight that evening. For hours, Idi had sweetly praised women and men among the audience with words sung to the tunes of the spirit hymns. Those who were praised had reciprocated with cash, thus expressing their close relationship to particular spirits as well as their acknowledgement of Idi’s praise. Now Idi sang the lines which prompted those willing to come forward to serve as the spirits’ “horses,” or mediums, on that very night: “Children of bori, come forward, your mother has arrived, the one with the large zane-wrapper.” The six-gourd rattle players sitting in front of Idi gave their best and sped up the rhythm. Clad only in single cloths tied around their waists or above their chests, the nine “children of bori,” six men and three women, came up and sat down in the middle of the makeshift dance floor, an open space surrounded by more than 300 people. Soon some of the mediums began to yawn. With trembling bodies and bulging eyes, groaning and frothing from their mouths, they produced the physical signs of possession trance. The scene grew wilder by the minute. As if violently thrown across the dance floor by invisible hands, some mediums traversed the open space half-crawling, half-jumping—raising clouds of dust. Finally, when the spirits had fully mounted their horses, the scene calmed down again. Each medium now moved and spoke according to the personality of the particular spirit he or she embodied.

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Medium 9780253012586

27. Listening to My Grandfather

Anand Pandian Indiana University Press ePub

Some time ago, I had a dream about my grandfather. What happened was very simple. In the dream, I’m in Madurai again. I’m telling some people that I have just a little more work to do. Ayya is also listening. “I need to go to just two more villages,” I say. And then Ayya says, excitedly, “I’ve also been to those places!”

In the dream, he tells me a story about those villages, a story that I can’t remember now. He also says that he’s already spoken with the same people I’m hoping to meet there.

I remember waking from this dream, in Baltimore, with a feeling of fullness. It seemed that his life and mine had somehow come together in a larger circle of experience.

The dream came at a time when I was deeply immersed in the events of Ayya’s life. Expressed there, no doubt, was the hope that he approved of what I was doing with his stories. There was also the sense of following a path that he had already traced, of somehow inheriting his way through the world. In the dream, I was proposing to go places that my grandfather had literally already been himself. So once again there was the idea that he might be pleased with this devotion to his legacy: a proper heir, the eldest son of his eldest son.

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Medium 9780253019028

Over Seas

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

Mer d’Asphalte. ©2012 Rym Khene.

KOFI WAS LOOKING over the whitewashed walls of the Elmina Castle. Three centuries before, he might have seen a row of desperate Africans, shackled together and exiting through the narrow Door of No Return. They would have shuffled across the beach and boarded a ship whose crew would have given some of them to the sea and sold the survivors in the Americas. But on that day the beach was teeming with fishermen and fishmongers. Men, their upper bodies chiseled by years of battling the sea, dragged in gigantic nets laden with fish and rubbish while women waited impatiently with deep enamel basins in hand, their eyes trained on the day’s catch, poised to haggle with the weary fishermen.

They didn’t come to the castle to see the dark and airless slave dungeons but to stand on the rampart overlooking the sea and boyishly fantasize about when they, too, would cross the expanse of foamy water to America.

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Medium 9780253017529

6 “When Your Darun Speaks to You”: Ethics of Revelation and Concealment in Lyric Poetry

Zuzanna Olszewska Indiana University Press ePub

Ethics of Revelation and Concealment in Lyric Poetry

In midwinter in early 2006, I attended a Friday poetry session at Dorr-e Dari with Zeinab, one of the granddaughters of my host family, who was beginning to take an interest in poetry. We were sitting in the second-last row, so I couldn’t see the poets who were reading very clearly, but I had a good overview of the room. One of the young women who wrote more daring poetry had put in a rare appearance at the session. She wore colorful, distinctive clothing and a lot of makeup, including dramatic sweeps of black eyeliner. Her poems were equally forthright, dealing with women’s sexuality and the problems attached to it. On this occasion, she read her poem before the audience: it was long and in blank verse, and I couldn’t follow all of it, as I was still having problems catching all the intricacies of poetic language.

But I noticed that the reactions of the people around me were increasingly agitated. Some of the women in the back row behind me were whispering among themselves and muttering muffled curses. Suddenly one of them got up, pressed past the others in her row, and hurriedly left the room, having to walk through most of the audience and pass demonstrably close to the speaker to reach the door. One by one, a handful of other people also got up and walked out. The poet’s eyes flicked to the door, but she retained her composure and read to the end of her poem. Twelve-year-old Zeinab watched the scene wide-eyed, thoroughly enjoying herself, and later recounted it gleefully for her aunts back home. The poem ended and there was a scattering of applause. I had not understood much of the poem, except for a fragment that went something like, “And God and his girlfriend Madonna sat eating pizza at the breakfast table.” I tried later to get a copy of this poem, but the poet was reluctant, and I unfortunately had not recorded the session.

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Medium 9780253009524

5. Gangamma as Ganga River Goddess

Joyce Burkhalter Flueckiger Indiana University Press ePub



As my fieldwork associate and I arrived at Tatayyagunta temple to attend the alankara of the goddess during the Navaratri festival in the fall of 1999, I noticed a young woman wrapped in a wool shawl,1 wearing a large red bottu, sitting in the interior temple mandapam in front of a microphone. She gestured for us to come and sit down next to her and proceeded to ask who I was. When I told her my research interests in Gangamma, she identified herself as a purana pandita (lit., female scholar/reciter of the puranas), and said that she knew the stories (using the words caritra and patalu, history/biography and songs, respectively) of Gangamma. And she immediately launched into the story of the descent of the river goddess Ganga, which proceeded to flow into the narratives of Adi Para Shakti and Yogamaya Devi (the girl child substituted for Krishna when his nemesis, the king whose downfall had been predicted by the birth of this baby, smashed the baby against the ground). Annapurna’s performance voice is extraordinarily strong and confident. But in this case, the performance was rushed, and the clattering fan overhead and crowd noise resulted in an unclear recording.

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Medium 9780253009913

5 - Organicist Modern and Super-Natural Organicism

Fehérváry, Krisztina Indiana University Press ePub

THE IDEAL OF modern, urban apartment living was, almost from the start, complemented by ownership of a summer cottage (nyaraló) or weekend getaway (hétvégi ház), sometimes called a víkend ház.1 In the early 1960s, the state amended the “one-family, one-house” rule to allow additional ownership of a small, unheated cottage on a plot of land. Such cottages could not be used as a permanent home address and, unlike the primary residence, were subject to a small property tax. Members of Dunaújváros's professional class acquired tiny summer cottages by Lake Balaton or little weekend houses near the Danube, where Budapest's gentry used to have summer villas. Some had plumbing, others only an outhouse. Many working-class city dwellers bought vegetable plots further from the river as a source of extra cash or to supplement their household diets. These “hobby gardens” (hobbi kert) might have a tiny cottage on them, but just as often they had only a toolshed and some cooking utensils.

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Medium 9780253011428

6. “Art, Memory, and the City” In Bogotá: Mapa Teatro's Artistic Encounters with Inhabited Places

Edited by Arijit Sen and Lisa Silverman Indiana University Press ePub


A young woman wearing a pink formal gown walks through a recreated bedroom. Candles and spotlights illuminate her figure as she steps atop a bed and begins jumping on a mattress. Rather than speak lines, her performance—part of a collective interpretation of Heinrich Müller's Prometheus titled Project Prometeo: Acts I & II—is an embodied one.1 Her body is framed by her live-time performance as projected upon one of two very large screens (more than three-stories high); on the other screen we see historical and contemporary images and listen to sound recordings of the neighborhood that once existed upon the empty fields where she performs (figure 6.1). She continues climbing up and down off of the bed as other performers begin or continue to enact their own interpretations of the myth. We see a married couple sitting at a dining room table playing cards, a clown performing in a playroom, a man sitting at an imagined doorway lighting matches.

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Medium 9780253356567

3 Passing through Racial Performatives

Nadine Ehlers Indiana University Press ePub

Race and the laws regulating it have been premised on a paradox, or what can be understood as an internal contradiction. For there has been a belief that race is at once in plain sight and is yet potentially hidden. Race is seen to be a ‘truth’ that the body of the subject announces; the body is viewed as a legible text upon which the schema of race is inscribed and through which it is transparently conveyed. The subject becomes synonymous with the body, which functions as the disciplinary mechanism through which the social and legal position of the subject is defined and regulated, and it is this body that marks the parameters of subjectivity. At one and the same time, however, the racial body has been positioned within this rhetoric as that which could belie ‘truth,’ escape detection and confound the workings of the hegemonic racial economy that desperately relies upon identifiable demarcation between racial subjects. This epistemological loop is a recurrent motif in American racial ideology. For while social discourse and legal measures have advanced that race is inevitably pronounced by the body, the fear has always been present that race may defy visibility.

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Medium 9780253016447

10. Nabil Ayouch: Transgression, Identity, and Difference (Morocco)

Edited by Josef Gugler Indiana University Press ePub

Jonathan Smolin

Nabil Ayouch is one of Morocco’s most prominent and innovative film directors.1 Born in 1969 in Paris, he is the son of the well-known Moroccan advertising and micro-credit executive Noureddine Ayouch and a French mother of Jewish-Tunisian descent.2 Nabil Ayouch studied theater in Paris during the late 1980s and worked in advertising in the early 1990s while directing three short films between 1992 and 1994.3 Ayouch made his first feature-length film, Mektoub, in 1997. In 1999, Ayouch moved to Morocco and founded Ali n’ Productions in Casablanca, which produced his subsequent films in addition to a number of successful works for Moroccan television, including the well-known series Lalla Fatima.4 In 2005, Ayouch and Ali n’ Productions were awarded with unprecedented funding from Radiodiffusion Télévision Marocaine (RTM) to produce thirty television films that feature Berber-related themes—both in Berber language and Moroccan colloquial Arabic—as part of a project called Film Industry, Made in Morocco. Ayouch used this opportunity to train a new generation of screenwriters, actors, and directors for these films. The project was completed in 2007.5 In France, Ayouch founded a new production house, Les Films du Noveau Monde, in 2006.

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Medium 9781574412239

13. The Trials and Tribulations of a Dirt Road Country Doctor

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF



OF A DIRT ROAD COUNTRY DOCTOR by Mildred Boren Sentell

Dr. J. D. Davis, an early Fisher County doctor, wrote for his family and friends a recollection of his experiences in the early part of the century. He finished his narrative in August of 1935, when he was seventy-four, and it has been passed through the generations to his great-grandson, Gaza Seabolt, who has kindly allowed me to use it as a basis for this paper. His family were unreconstructed Confederates, and they carried on the traditions and views of those in the region of Georgia from which they drew their heritage.

Dr. Davis’ parents immigrated to Texas from Georgia in 1857, making the move with an ox wagon and team. “The day they landed in Winnsboro, Father had the total sum of $20 in money and a family of twenty.” Mr. Davis and the older boys worked in a saw-mill, hunted for meat and farmed for a living, and built a home on 269 acres of timbered land. On August 14, 1861 (the opening year of the War Between the States), J. D. Davis was born. He was named for Jefferson Davis.

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Medium 9781574415193

6. Early Texas

Sherry Robinson University of North Texas Press ePub


Early Texas

(L)ittle by little the Apaches are showing their claws.

—Father Francisco Hidalgo, 1723

The People must have been incensed as they spied Spaniards clearing land to build a fort and mission in the middle of country they’d held for forty years. In 1718 the presidio at San Antonio de Béxar rose on the San Antonio River, and the Franciscans founded the Mission San Antonio de Valero for the Coahuiltecan tribes. They would add four more missions by 1731.1 The presidio’s last stone was barely in place when the Apaches began raiding.

The Marqués of San Miguel de Aguayo, governor of Texas and Coahuila, tried to make peace with the Apaches in 1720. Their eloquent response: red cloth dangling from arrows stuck in the ground. In April 1721, the Apaches attacked a pack train, killed the driver and wounded a soldier. Aguayo sent detachments to patrol the area and take any Apaches alive, but they avoided contact and continued raiding.2

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Medium 9780253010964

Epilogue: So What Does it All Mean?

David H. Ikard Indiana University Press ePub

Come out of the fog, young man. And remember you don’t have to be a complete fool in order to succeed. Play the game, but don’t believe in it – that much you owe yourself. Even if it lands you in a strait jacket or a padded cell. Play the game, but play it your way – part of the time at least. Play the game, but raise the ante, my boy. Learn how it operates, learn how you operate – I wish I had time to tell you only a fragment. We’re an ass-backward people, though. You might even beat the game. It’s really a very crude affair. Really pre-Renaissance – and that game has been analyzed, put down in books. But down here they’ve forgotten to take care of the books and that’s your opportunity. You’re hidden right out in the open – that is, you would be if you only realized it. They wouldn’t see you because they don’t expect you to know anything, since they believe they’ve taken care of that …

Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man


The epigraph from ralph ellison’s invisible man is the advice that the “crazy” vet from the Golden Day – a bar/juke joint where a bunch of “shell-shocked” black war veterans hang out – gives invisible man as he heads north to find an internship after being expelled from his university for mishandling Mr. Norton, a millionaire white philanthropist. As the reader will recall, invisible man first encounters the crazy vet at the Golden Day. After Mr. Norton passes out during the melee at the bar, sparked in large part by his white presence, the vet and former surgeon revives him and rightly diagnoses the medical cause of his unconsciousness. When Mr. Norton inquires about his medical knowledge, the vet tells him about his experiences in the military as a brain surgeon; how acts of dehumanization and violence led to ulcers and his becoming sour on the notion that black accommodationism is the most viable path to success and prosperity in America: “These hands so lovingly trained to master a scalpel yearn to caress a trigger. I returned to save life and I was refused…. Ten [white] men in masks drove me out from the city at midnight and beat me with whips for saving a human life. And I was forced to the utmost degradation because I possessed skilled hands and the belief that my knowledge could bring me dignity – and other men health!”1 While the vet does not provide Mr. Norton or the reader with details about the particulars of his racial beat down, we can deduce that he was brutally beaten because he operated on a white person, and most likely a white woman, in a life-or-death scenario and was rewarded for his heroics with violence and humiliation. Though the virulently paternalistic and blind Mr. Norton labels him bitter, the reality is that the vet is justifiably indignant – he tried to use his surgical skills to save white lives even though, as a group, whites were chiefly responsible for his socioeconomic subjugation as a black man. In effect, he played by the white supremacist rules of black accommodationism and still couldn’t avoid racial violence and dehumanization.

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Medium 9781574414820

Chapter 21. Buffalo Hunters and a New Union

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub



Pappy Bond had a plan in late 1974. The new captain in Narcotics had taken over a division troubled by unsafe arrest practices and accusations of brutality, wiretapping and other questionable activities that often turned the tide in the criminals’ favor. Bond attacked the growing drug problem in the Bayou City through a special inter-departmental recruitment technique. He perused the lists of arrests from Patrol and wrote down the names of the arresting officers most often appearing.

On his yellow notepad, he scribbled the names of the top three from Central Patrol, Northeast, Shepherd and Park Place. He interviewed each of them, flattered their egos by citing their aggressiveness, and appealed to their purposeful demeanor as being just what HPD needed to take on drug dealers.

He sought and signed up the people who later nicknamed themselves the “Buffalo Hunters” on the day shift. The night shift became known as “Ripley’s Raiders” after Narcotics Lieutenant Billy Ripley. These hunters and raiders were younger officers unafraid to plunge head-on into the more challenging and dangerous police situations and live to write detailed reports. One of them was Bob Thomas, who endured his share of meanness and violence as a patrolman in Third Ward and with the Park Place Rangers, known in the 1970s as HPD’s toughest patrol division. In his three years on the force, Thomas had heard more shots fired and saw more blood than hundreds of officers with far more years on any beat.1

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Medium 9780253012920

9. African Music Flows

Indiana University Press ePub

Daniel B. Reed and Ruth M. Stone

A man walked down the street in the busy Adjame marketplace in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in West Africa. Amid the sounds of the street—honking horns, ringing cell phones, goat cries, people’s’ voices—he heard the latest hit song by reggae singer Tiken Jah Fakoly drifting toward him from a CD seller’s stall in the market. The song began with a distinctive slide guitar line, which was a sample from a 1990 recording by Geoffrey Oryema of Uganda in eastern Africa. Anchored by the repeating guitar line, the song developed as a twenty-one-string harp lute, the kora, entered along with a drum set and a keyboard. The man hesitated before the CD stand, taking in the song’s compelling groove or rhythmic pattern and contemplating the lyrics, which criticize the treatment of young girls in village contexts. Finally, an amplified call to prayer coursed out of loudspeakers, reminding him to continue on toward the mosque for the Friday prayer.

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