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9 Goodbye to Aztlán, 1975–1994

Manuel G. Gonzales Indiana University Press ePub

The political generation that emerged in barrios after the mid-1970s, labeled by Chicano historians the Post-Chicano Generation—or the Hispanic Generation, given its more conservative nature—lived in a time of rapid and confusing change. Most Chicano scholars, swayed by the high expectations of the preceding decade, have tended to be critical. Political gains from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, for the most part a period of Republican ascendancy, appeared to them to be minimal. Socially and economically, too, the vast promise held out by the movimiento remained unfulfilled. And yet, upon closer examination of this disappointing and seemingly unproductive era, it is possible to detect more hopeful signs for the future. This chapter will try to present a balanced portrait of the Mexicano community in the United States during these two decades, a transitional period between Chicanismo and the contemporary age, by focusing on its frustrations and achievements, on its pain and promise.

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Medium 9780253001153

8. Paris: The Liberating Quality of Race

Elisa Joy White Indiana University Press ePub

Built during the 1960s period of urbanization and a booming industrial French economy, the banlieues were meant to provide adequate housing to immigrants who had come to work in the now closed factories. Generations later, they represent less a place for opportunity and mobility and more a trap of exclusion and nihilism. The main event that provoked approximately two weeks of burning and civil unrest in the Paris banlieues occurred on October 27, 2005. Two teenagers, Zyed Benna and Bouna Traoré, of Malian and Tunisian ancestry, respectively, were fatally electrocuted while hiding in an electrical facility after being chased—along with other teenagers—by police in pursuit of their identity papers, a common practice officially purported to curtail crime but in actuality one which facilitates the criminalization of youth of color and perpetuates the mistaken assumption that they are not citizens (see Johnstone 2005). The youths were mostly of North and sub-Saharan African descent and, therefore, represented communities that are restricted from a full realization of citizenship and removed from the idealist notions of what French society offers. For our purposes here, it is notable that an African Diaspora community is again in a position to expose the predominant ideological narrative of a nation as false or at least duplicitous. What is also significant is that while race-based inequalities are articulated in terms of immigration and cultural difference in the politics of disavowal in Ireland and explicitly presented as racial in the United States vis-à-vis its history of de jure racial exclusion, in France the articulation of race is silenced via its subsumption in the greater project of egalitarian discourse and perceived assimilation. So, even as race seems on the surface to be the clear indicator or mark of exclusion, the racial discourse has hinged on the inability to become French. The narrative of nationality trumping race is still operational in France but, as seen through the uprisings, the narrative is a misrepresentation of the lived reality of residents of the banlieues. These circumstances place black French in the position of forcing the nation to consider the mythical dimensions of republicanism, egalitarianism, and, above all, liberty.

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Medium 9781609948870

Chapter 1 Ancient Roots and Mestizo Ancestry

Bordas, Juana Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

MOST PEOPLE TODAY ARE genetically mixed. Our blood has intertwined through ongoing migrations—our genetic streams run together from unknown sources. The difference for Latinos is that the fusion of races, nationalities, and cultures was so pervasive that it spread across our entire hemisphere, producing a people traditionally known in Central and South America as Mestizos, the offspring of the indigenous people and Europeans, primarily the Spanish.

The mestizaje, as the process was termed, is not a commonly embraced concept by Latinos in the United States. There are advantages, however, to including it as part of the complex Latino identity. What is important to note is that the Mestizo experience is a precursor to the Latino culture and the bedrock of its inherent diversity.1 (Although México is technically part of North America, in this book it is considered part of Central America due to cultural and historical antecedents.)

The lineage of many Hispanics comes from Indian mothers and Spanish fathers. Mothers traditionally preserve—and transmit—tradition, values, spiritual practices, and customs. Much of the culture, consequently, reflects this indigenous background. The integration of the Spanish and native cultures can be seen at the family dinner table. Rice and beans is a primary dish for all Latino subgroups. The Spanish introduced rice, while beans are indigenous, or American Indian. Corn tortillas come from native cultures, and flour for white tortillas comes from Europe. The many varieties of chilies and salsas are from the Americas. Ham, or jamón, and chorizo, now Latino favorites, were brought by the Spanish.

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Medium 9780253012296

11 The African Personality Dances Highlife: Popular Music, Urban Youth, and Cultural Modernization in Nkrumah’s Ghana, 1957–1965

PETER JASON BLOOM Indiana University Press ePub

  Nate Plageman

From now on, today, we must change our attitudes, our minds. We must realize that from now on, we are no more a colonial but a free and independent people! But also, as I pointed out, that entails hard work. … As I said in the Assembly just minutes ago, I made a point that we are going to see that we create our own African Personality and identity; it is the only way in which we can show the world that we are masters of our own destiny.

—Kwame Nkrumah, Independence Day Address, 6 March 1957

When dancing rock ’n’ roll [as a young man in the early 1960s] I felt joy. I felt joy because it was a new life. I wore trousers at that time, my first time wearing trousers, and a good shirt and went out. And we used to behave like Yankees you know? … I felt proud, that wisdom was taking place, that I was different than others.

—Bob Biney, 1 April 2005

On any given weekend evening in the late 1950s and early 1960s, thousands of Ghanaian men and women left their homes, set out for a nearby nightclub, and enjoyed an evening of popular musical recreation. Shortly after dusk, they put on a fashionable set of clothes, met up with their dancing partner or a group of friends, purchased admission tickets and rounds of refreshments, and found a table where they could relax and converse. Around eight o’clock, a set of bandsmen took the stage and began to play long and varied musical sets designed to pull the gathered crowd out of their seats and onto the nightclub dance floor. Most dance bands solicited audience participation by playing selections from the local highlife, a combination of local and international musical elements that prompted individuals to move in a simple side-to-side pattern accentuated by any number of additional steps or improvisations (Hanna 1973, 144–51). In Accra, the nation’s largest city, administrative capital, and popular musical center, prominent dance bands such as E. T. Mensah’s Tempos, King Bruce’s Black Beats, and Jerry Hansen’s Ramblers Dance Band also played a range of international styles, including ballroom forms, calypso, jazz, swing, and rock ’n’ roll, that had their own accompanying forms of dancing. Since the city’s vibrant popular music scene was varied and eclectic, many nightclub enthusiasts patronized the venue and ensemble that featured their favorite styles so that they could congregate with others of similar tastes, display their well-practiced dance moves, and have a great deal of fun (Plageman 2013, 100–46).

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Medium 9781574416527

Chapter 10 - The Texas Prison Rodeo Goes Hollywood (1960–1964)

Mitchel P. Roth University of North Texas Press ePub

The Texas Prison Rodeo Goes Hollywood (1960–1964)

“The state should pay for stuff the rodeo paid for.”

—George Beto, c. 1962

IN the 1950s, most Americans equated Texas with cattle culture and perhaps the last vestiges of the mythic western frontier. But the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963 would impact not just the national consciousness, but the way Americans viewed the Lone Star State as well. Indeed, many observers commented that the series of tragic events that unfolded in Dallas symbolized a Texas where other forces were at work, more Deep South than Wild West, a place that the rest of the nation increasingly linked with “bigotry, backwardness and backlash.”1

As the Texas prison system moved into the 1960s, it remained like many of the “warm weather gulags of the South,” overcrowded and still playing catch-up with the modern era. One observer even prosaically suggested that these “plantation prisons” including Angola, Louisiana, Parchman, Mississippi, and the Texas prison system, “remained fixed in a terrible social amber, mostly unchanged since the post-Reconstruction boom years of Southern corrections.”2 In the 1960s, perhaps seen as a move toward distinguishing Texas from other southern agricultural prison systems, the prison “farms” were rechristened prison units, but this did little to change conditions. Prisoners, violent and non-violent alike, continued to languish in dorms out on the prison farm units, where they were sustained with what passed for food and inadequate medical care, while guarded by the ever-present trustees, who remained free to abuse and exploit fellow inmates, all in the name of keeping order.

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Medium 9780253020420

Appendix 2: Chronology of Ancestry

Alexander W. Clowes Indiana University Press ePub

Chronology of Ancestry

Geoffrey Clowes (1465–1525)

Sir William Clowes (1544–1604)

Thomas Clowes (1800–1862)

Caroline Pratt Clowes (1803–1884)

Emily Seppings (1830–1914)

Anna Clowes (1831–1914)

Josiah Herbert Clowes (1836–1911)

Ellen Seppings (1839–1914)

George Archibald Clowes (1842–1905)

Josiah Pratt Clowes (1844–1914)

Kate Allen Campbell (1856–1917)

Frank Whitehill Hinkel (1858–1946)

Thomas Herbert Clowes (1861–1933)

Ernest Guy Clowes (1867–1947)

Weston Sydney Clowes (1871–1947)

Helen Violet Clowes (1879–1910)

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Medium 9780253358530

3. Gaudy Rose: Eco and Narcissism

Teresa de Lauretis Indiana University Press ePub


What’s in a name? asks Juliet, who is a woman and knows the tide, the ebb and flow, the pull of the real. Eco answers her question simply, yet implicating the whole of philosophy and the vicissitudes of Western epistemology: everything and nothing. Stat rosa pristina nomine. Nomina nuda tenemus.1 But Juliet’s, of course, was a rhetorical question, and Eco’s answer is not what she wants. We leave Juliet at the balcony unfulfilled, as she must be, and go on to scene two.

Imagine now Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, naked, without guilt and (naturally, you might think) without language. But no, these Adam and Eve do have a kind of language, a rudimentary code made up of two sounds which combine to form a restricted set of signifiers and their corresponding semantic units or signifieds. The sounds are A and B, and with them Adam and Eve express their appreciation of the lush nature that surrounds them. Theirs is a happy life, unmarred by conflict or uncertainty, a world of simple, lasting values. Things are either edible or inedible, good or bad, beautiful or ugly, red or blue. But one day God speaks, and he says:

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Medium 9781574416329

8. Cultural Competency

Richard Gonzales UNT Press ePub
Medium 9780253007469

9. Notable Families and Capitalist Parasites in Egypt’s Former Free Zone: Law, Trade, and Uncertainty

Edited by Sherine Hafez and Susan Slyomo Indiana University Press ePub



Christine Hegel-Cantarella

Al-Sawy stationery store on Gumhurriya Street in Port Said is notable for its tall ceilings and dark wooden shelves stacked neatly with a vast assortment of office supplies.1 The proprietor is a small man in his seventies dressed neatly in a suit, standing behind the glass display case, who thoughtfully regards each request before retrieving it for the customer and placing it alongside the register. Unlike most of the other stationary shops in town, this one caters to professionals and carries expensive leather desk sets, briefcases, and fine pens. Yet Al-Sawy also stocks the typical array of inexpensive pencil sharpeners, colorful notepads, two-hole punches and other office supplies, as well as a full range of booklets of commercial documents. These include booklets of shkt shkt (non-bank issued checks), kambiylt (bills of exchange or drafts), and iylt amna (trust receipts). These single-copy (non-carbon) forms produced by small Egyptian printing companies are used to inscribe and secure various types of delayed transactions.

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Medium 9781574415681

5. Sexual Violence in the Politics and Policies of Conquest

Edited by Linda Heidenreich with Antonia I. Castañeda UNT Press ePub

Chapter 5

In the morning, six or seven soldiers would set out together . . . and go to the distant rancherias [villages] even many leagues away. When both men and women at the sight of them would take off running . . . the soldiers, adept as they are at lassoing cows and mules, would lasso Indian women—who then became prey to their unbridled lust. Several Indian men who tried to defend the women were shot to death.

Junipero Serra, 1773

In words reminiscent of sixteenth-century chroniclers Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Bartolomé de las Casas, the father president of the California missions, Junipero Serra, described the depredations of the soldiers against Indian women in his reports and letters to Viceroy Antonio María Bucareli and the father guardian of the College of San Fernando, Rafael Verger. Sexual assaults against native women began shortly after the founding of the presidio and mission at Monterey in June 1770, wrote Serra, and continued throughout the length of California. The founding of each new mission and presidio brought new reports of sexual violence.

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Medium 9780253014467

9. World War I

Elena I. Campbell Indiana University Press ePub

The outbreak of war in July 1914 imposed new pressures on the Russian empire. Military defeats intensified imperial authorities’ old misgivings about non-Russians’ “separatism.” All of the belligerent states raised the issues of nationality and religion to destabilize the enemy, thus making questions about the loyalty and patriotism of Russia’s diverse subjects acute. This was especially the case for those residing in border areas or who had become prisoners of “propaganda camps” in Germany and Austria-Hungary.

State authorities’ concerns about the loyalty of Muslim subjects increased when Turkey entered the war. As during the Crimean War, tsarist officials found themselves wondering if Muslims would support the imperial cause or side with the enemy. This time, however, Russia also had to deal with the legacy of the unresolved Muslim Question. In 1914, Russia entered the war while having within its borders a much larger Muslim population than sixty years earlier. Significant portions of Muslims resided in the recently conquered region of Turkestan and were not fully integrated into the empire’s social and political institutions. At the same time, as we have seen, during those sixty years Russia had witnessed significant social and political transformations that affected Muslims living in the empire’s European provinces. Some were soldiers of the imperial army defending Russia against Germany and its allies. Muslim intelligentsia responded to the state’s appeal for support of the war effort and used it as an opportunity to assure their own role in the imperial politics while they pressed the government to accept their vision of Muslims’ place in a modernizing imperial society.

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Medium 9781609948870

Chapter 4 Conciencia: Knowing Oneself and Cultivating Personal Awareness

Bordas, Juana Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

THE BRILLIANT MEXICAN ARTIST Diego Rivera sketched a powerful black-and-white etching titled “Conciencia.” He rendered a young teacher holding beautiful apples in her mantle surrounded by eager children. Rivera, a symbolic artist, included an open book, suggesting the quest for knowledge. The title “Conciencia” implies we must look for deeper meaning. Conciencia can be translated as “consciousness,” “awareness,” and “self-knowledge.” Rivera’s portrayal suggests the teacher as our inner guide. The children symbolize our pure and receptive self, poised to learn and grow. The apples are pearls of knowledge.

The concepts of confianza and personalismo point to two critical questions for Latino leaders: Who are you? What kind of person are you? Answering these questions requires the practice of conciencia, or in-depth reflection, self-examination, and integration. Conciencia is the connection the leader has with his inner core—the reliable, consistent self that provides direction and guidance. Conciencia is the mechanism for character formation and personal development.

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Medium 9781574411423

Boom-Town Tales - Alice Cashen

Edited by Francis E. Abernethy University of North Texas Press PDF



John Cashen hit town in 1904, the first year of the Batson oil boom.

He had sailed the world, starting at his home on the Isle of Man, before he arrived, but this was his stopping place. He went to work on the rigs, made his stake, built a house, and headed back to the

Isle of Man to take a bride.

John and Alice, the author's mother, had a hectic honeymoon.

Their ship docked at New Orleans, on their way back to Batson, but the authorities would not let John off because his eyes looked infected. What really happened was that he had smoked too many wedding cigars in the cramped quarters of the ship and the smoke had irritated his eyes. Anyhow, in spite of a long argument John had to return with the ship to Liverpool, and Alice had to go on alone to set up housekeeping in one of the wildest boom towns in oil history. John signed on a freighter at Liverpool, lumped ship in

New York, and showed up broke in Batson a year later.

Alice Cashen, the author of these boom-town stories, was born in Batson, into a part of the Big Thicket where the boomers had ripped out a hole in the forest and planted their own kind of trees.

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Medium 9781780641409

4: Principles and Strategies of Sustainability

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF


Principles and Strategies of Sustainability

4.1  Timescale and Hierarchy of Sustainability Principles and Strategies

The principle of sustainability has been recognised as the basic principle of economics and environmental management as long as conscious economic and long-term thinking has existed in humans, possibly at least from the hunter-and-gatherer stage. However, it has not always been practised. Plato (427–347 bc) and

Socrates (470–399 bc) lamented the bare hills of Attica, Greece, and realised that the driving forces of deforestation, soil exhaustion and soil loss, and common resources generally, were human greed for wealth and lust for power (The Republic of Plato, translated by

Davies and Vaughan, 1935). We still witness the same connections working all around us in all spheres of life, today – 2400 years later – not only in forestry and forest products processing and consumption, making sustainability a pretentious buzzword in media and politics. In theory, true sustainability (Section 3.1) should be the universally guiding principle of all aspects and levels of forestry and forest industries and trade. The reality is that in most tropical rainforest (TRF) countries, achieved sustainability is reported to exist in official statements and politically correct publications, without convincing evidence; in others, it is simply ignored. Reliable data and information

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Medium 9780253015402

2 Milk Dumping across America’s Dairyland

Ann Folino White Indiana University Press ePub

The May 1933 Wisconsin Dairymen’s Strike



The May 27, 1933, issue of Newsweek, published on the same day that the Chicago World’s Fair opened, told a very different story about the Agricultural Adjustment Act’s impact on the American way of life. It featured a panoramic image of men, with bayonets fixed, running across an open field; they charge forth in profile, virtually silhouetted. The photo captures motion from right to left, along receding horizontal planes; the figures seem to run into and out of frame, in focus in the foreground and blips in the background. This perspective creates the impression of a continuous stream of men entering the field of battle. The photo’s caption states “National Guardsmen Charge into Milk Strike Pickets at Durham Hill, Wis., before the Armistice.” The drama unfolding before the reader is war.

During six days of protest, from May 13–18, 1933, the Wisconsin Cooperative Milk Pool strike took over the eastern half of Wisconsin along Lake Michigan, from the Illinois border to the far north and west toward the middle of the state. Throughout the roughly thirty counties included in this area (of Wisconsin’s seventy-one counties total), Milk Pool strikers cruised highways and flagged trucks to stop for inspection. If a truck refused to stop, the strikers would throw out harrows, chains, and other obstructions to block the road. The only trucks allowed through picket lines were those bearing a white cross on the windshield: these trucks carried “public welfare” milk. All other trucks were subject to attack, an act that entailed strikers jumping onto trucks, yanking out milk cans, pouring milk onto the road, and smashing the cans. Armed county deputies and national guardsmen rode in the trucks to ensure that the milk would arrive at dairy corporations. They carried gas bombs, rifles, clubs, and bayonets. They stood guard over arrested strikers with machine guns. Due to the occupation of towns by deployed men, hundreds of guard patrols, and protesters, some Wisconsinites encountered strike participants during daily activities. The gas-permeated atmosphere also impacted bystanders caught in the fray. Meanwhile, many Wisconsin citizens sought out milk dumping. They drove down rural roads, gathered and waited near hot spots such as dairy processing and distribution plants in anticipation of milk dumping, and visited sites where milk dumping had occurred.1 It was a display that mattered to them and that they had been anticipating because of months of news headlines. When cultural studies scholar Jon Robert Adams critiques the “United States’s time-honored link between its sense of national self and the performance of American men at war,” he considers wars that pit an American “us” against a foreign “them.”2 In the May 1933 Milk Pool strike, the dairymen (us?) and the state of Wisconsin (them?) staged the very real challenges to an imagined national self in the context of the AAA.

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