132 Chapters
Medium 9781780645254

12 History and Management – Southern Asia

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

12

History and Management –

Southern Asia

Asad Shabbir,1* Bharat B. Shrestha,2 Muhammad

H. Ali3 and Steve W. Adkins4

1University

of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation

Plant Breeding Institute, the University of Sydney, Narrabri, New

South Wales, Australia; 2Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal;

3First Capital University of Bangladesh, Chuadanga, Bangladesh;

4The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia

12.1  History of Invasion and Spread in Southern Asia

In Southern Asia, parthenium weed is now present in most countries, including India

(Yaduraju et  al., 2005), Pakistan (­Shabbir and Bajwa, 2006), Sri Lanka (­

Jayasuriya,

1999), Nepal (Shrestha et al., 2015), Bangladesh (Karim, 2009) and Bhutan (Biswas and

Das, 2007). Although there are no confirmed reports of its presence in Afghanistan or

Maldives, it is highly likely that it is present in Afghanistan. Khan et  al. (2014) has reported anecdotal evidence that the weed may be present in the southern parts of

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Medium 9781780645254

2 Biology and Ecology

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

2

Biology and Ecology

Steve W. Adkins,1* Alec McClay2 and

Ali Ahsan Bajwa1

1The

University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia;

Ecoscience, Alberta, Canada

2McClay

2.1  Introduction

Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus

L.) is now recognized as a major invasive weed worldwide. Yet back in the 1950s, when it first came to the attention of land managers in Australia, it was a virtually unknown plant. International focus wasn’t drawn to its weed potential until the mid1970s, after reports of dense infestations forming in central India associated with increasing health problems, and its rapid spread in Australia. Understanding the biology and ecology of this unique weed is essential for determining its impact in the natural and agricultural environment, and also in helping design new and improved, cost-­effective management strategies. This chapter provides details of the biology,

­ecology and origins of this weed and a discussion of why this plant has become such a successful invader of many new landscapes in over 40 countries around the world.

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Medium 9781780648378

1: Cherry Production

Quero-Garcia, J.; Iezzoni, A.; Pulawska, J. CABI PDF

1 

Cherry Production

Géza Bujdosó1* and Károly Hrotkó2

National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre Fruitculture Research

Institute, Budapest, Hungary; 2Szent István University, Faculty of Horticultural

Science, Budapest, Hungary

1

1.1 Introduction

Sweet (Prunus avium L.) and sour (syn. tart,

Prunus cerasus L.) cherry ripen first among stone fruits, followed by apricot, peach and plum. Because sweet cherry is first on the fresh market, it is in high demand in the late spring and early summer. Sweet cherry cultivars with a red fruit colour dominate the market, while cultivars of yellow, white or blush colour are in less demand. Sour cherries have smaller fruit size and are less firm than sweet cherries. The vast majority of sour cherries are processed; however, sour cherries with higher sugar content are becoming more common on the fresh fruit market in recent decades.

Sweet cherry cultivars span a longer maturity period than sour cherries. In temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, sweet cherry cultivars mature from the end of April (in southern growing regions) to

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Medium 9781780641478

10: Quality assurance for molecular testing in plant health

Boonham, N.; Tomlinson, J.; Mumford, R. CABI PDF

10

Q

  uality assurance for molecular testing i n plant health

Aude Chabirand,1* Geraldine Anthoine,2

Adrian Fox3 and Lynn Laurenson3

1

Plant Health Laboratory, Anses (French

Agency for Food, Environmental and

­Occupational Health and Safety), Saint

Pierre 97410, ­Réunion, France; 2Plant Health

­Laboratory, Anses (French Agency for Food,

Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), Angers, France; 3Fera, Sand

Hutton, York, UK

10.1  Introduction

An accurate diagnosis in the field of plant health is a prerequisite to the effective control of plant pathogens. Quality assurance for molecular testing consists of activities that ensure the quality and confidence of a diagnosis performed in a molecular laboratory.

It is based both on management and technical requirements.

Molecular biology is playing a growing part in plant health laboratories, so the develop­ ment of quality management systems for molecular testing has become a concern for many laboratories. The requirements for accreditation to the international standard are given in the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrochemical

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Medium 9781845939076

13 Invasive Alien Plants in Tropical Forests of the South-eastern Ghats, India: Ecology and Management

CAB International PDF

13

Invasive Alien Plants in Tropical

Forests of the South-eastern

Ghats, India: Ecology and

Management

N. Parthasarathy, L. Arul Pragasan and C.

Muthumperumal

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences,

Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India

Introduction

Study Area

Biological invasion is reported to be the second leading cause of species extinction after habitat loss, and is one of the major causes of biodiversity depletion (Jose et al.,

2009). Invasion science has attracted attention from ecologists because of its significant ecological impacts and economic costs worldwide (Liu et al., 2005). Human activities have important influences on the dispersal of exotic plants (Mack and

D’Antonio, 1998; Sax, 2002; Liu et al., 2005).

Invasive species affect both biological and cultural systems. Study of the ecological and economic effects of invasive species has paralleled their progressively pervasive influence worldwide, yet their cultural impacts remain largely unexamined and therefore unrecognized. Invasive alien species pose a serious threat to the biodiversity of native species (Singh et al., 2006), particularly in the tropics, and the Indian subcontinent is no exception to this. Biological invasions have emerged as a major ecological and environmental policy issue, displacing native species in both terrestrial and marine habits at unprecedented rates (Mack et al., 2000;

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