161 Chapters
Medium 9781786390837

2 Genomics and Transcriptomics – a Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode Biology

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF


Genomics and Transcriptomics – a

Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode


Sebastian Eves-van den Akker1,2 and John T. Jones3,4,5

Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee,

Dundee, UK; 2Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich

Research Park, Norwich, UK; 3The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee,

UK; 4The University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, UK; 5Ghent

­University, Ghent, Belgium


2.1 Introduction

2.2  A Note of Caution

2.3 �Current Status of Genome and Transcriptome Projects for

Cyst Nematodes and Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes�

2.4  Key Findings from Genome/Transcriptome Projects

2.5  Population Genetics and Metagenetics

2.6  Identification of Key Biochemical Pathways and Targets for Control

2.7  Mitochondrial Genomes

2.8  Horizontal Gene Transfer

2.9 Accessibility

2.10  Conclusions and Future Prospects

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Medium 9781786396242

3 Media Preparation for In Vitro Culture of Ganoderma

Rahmaningsih, M.; Virdiana, I.; Bahri, S. CABI PDF

Media Preparation for In Vitro

Culture of Ganoderma



The preparation of growth media is the first step in isolating any microorganism (bacteria and fungi) from the environment. Media may be solid or liquid. The culture medium formulation will affect the success of mycelium growth in culture. Although there are many culture media described for fungi, only a few of them have proven to be excellent in culturing

Ganoderma. This chapter explains how to prepare the different media used in culturing Ganoderma isolates that cause BSR disease. The methods provided here are for 1 l of medium (Tables 3.1 and 3.2), which may be scaled up or down depending on capacity and the volumes required; a table is provided giving the volumes of media needed with respect to the required numbers of cultures (see Chapter 5 of this manual, Table 5.5).

3.1  Water Agar Medium

Water agar (WA) is the simplest agar medium (Himedia, 2015). WA is often recommended as it is cheap and supports spore germination collected from

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Medium 9780253351982

Epilogue: Diving in the Cincinnatian Sea

Richard Arnold Davis Indiana University Press ePub


Many paleontologists, ourselves included, became fascinated with fossils and embarked on scientific careers long before we ever encountered living marine animals. For many of us, the greatest thrill has been our first encounters with living representatives of the animal groups we knew first only as grey, lifeless forms encased in rock. Both of us have been privileged to examine firsthand living relatives of animals of our favorite groups of fossils—crinoids for Meyer and nautiloid cephalopods for Davis. Our experiences have fueled a curiosity that affects practically anyone who contemplates the fossil richness of the Cincinnatian or other comparable fossiliferous strata. Many times, in the field, we stand on a Cincinnatian outcrop where fossils are abundant in almost every rock, and we wonder: what did the Cincinnatian sea actually look like? How did these creatures behave when alive? If we could travel back in time to dive into the Cincinnatian sea, what would we see?

In his book The Crucible of Creation, the paleontologist Simon Conway Morris (1998) takes the reader on a journey through time in an imaginary time machine that lands on the shores of the Cambrian sea in western Canada of 520 million years ago. The time machine then descends into the sea and enables time traveling scientists to view the varied and bizarre animals found as fossils in the famous Burgess Shale. Conway Morris recreated the environment of the Cambrian sea and the life within it from the evidence of the fossils and rocks, but he embellished the scenario with a measure of speculation and fantasy.

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Medium 9781626562462

One Humanity’s Home in the Heavens

Garan, Ron Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Humanity’s Home in the Heavens

On July 17, 1975, at 7:19 p.m. GMT, Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov and American astronaut Tom Stafford reached across the hatches of their docked Soyuz and Apollo spacecraft and shook hands 140 miles above Earth. The event, which represented the end of a long, expensive space race and the beginning of a movement toward the peaceful exploration of space, was the end result of an agreement forged in May 1972, when President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin formalized a commitment to making a peaceful joint program of space exploration a reality. Speaking on the significance of this agreement, Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev noted, “The Soviet and American spacemen will go up into outer space for the first major joint scientific experiment in the history of mankind. They know that from outer space our planet looks even more beautiful. It is big enough for us to live peacefully on it, but it is too small to be threatened by nuclear war.”1

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Medium 9781780643540

4: Almond in the Southern Hemisphere

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF



Almond in the Southern Hemisphere

Michelle Wirthensohn1,* and Luis Iannamico2

The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; 2Instituto Nacional de

Tecnología Agropecuaria, Alto Valle, Argentina

4.1  The Australian Almond Story

4.1.1 History

The first recorded instance of almonds arriving in Australia occurred in the early 1800s, as food in the form of kernels or in-shell. An early advertisement in the Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser of 27 July 1822 shows that

‘­Jordan almonds’ were imported to Tasmania and available for sale, presumably only for eating.

Other newspaper advertisements from The

Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser

(1804) tell of almond trees ‘of a particularly fine sort’ for sale by a nursery, coming from the

‘Cape’, presumably meaning Cape Town, South

Africa. Five years after the colony of South Australia was founded, Thomas Shepherd reported in the South Australian Magazine (1841) that several cultivars of almond were growing in the

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