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Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF



(iii) In some animals (e.g., transgenic rabbits, cows, goats, etc.), important genes have been transferred to get large amount of rare and expensive pharmaceutical or biologically important proteins in their milk, urine or blood. This technology is known as molecular farming. Generally, the transgenes are desirable to be expressed in mammary tissue so that the protein is secreted in their milk from which it can be easily isolated.


DNA fingerprint of an individual is the Southern blot of his DNA that is digested with a restriction endonuclease and hybridized with a specific radioactive probe (generally DNA). This technique, for the first time, was developed by Alec Jeffreys (1985-86) and colleagues in U.K. and is extremely reliable in comparison to the conventional analysis techniques of serum proteins, erythrocyte antigens (A, B, O blood group), etc. It is used with almost absolute certainty for many purposes, e.g.,

(i) Identification of criminals through blood stains, semen stains, hair roots, etc.,

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15: Role of Microorganisms in Alleviation of Abiotic Stresses for Sustainable Agriculture

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF


Role of Microorganisms in Alleviation of

Abiotic Stresses for Sustainable Agriculture

Usha Chakraborty,1* Bishwanath Chakraborty,2 Pannalal Dey1 and Arka Pratim Chakraborty2

Plant Biochemistry Laboratory1 and Immuno-Phytopathology Laboratory2,

Department of Botany, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India


Abiotic stresses affect plants in different ways and are causes of reduction in crop productivity. In order to increase crop productivity it becomes necessary to evolve efficient low-cost technologies for abiotic stress management. Soil microorganisms, surviving in the soil under extreme conditions, have shown great properties, which, if exploited can serve agriculture for increasing and maintaining crop productivity.

While it is well established that beneficial soil microorganisms can promote growth and increase productivity through mechanisms such as nutrient mobilization, hormone secretion and disease suppression, it is also becoming increasingly clear that their effects may be more far-reaching. Several studies have reported that soil microorganisms may have mechanisms for alleviation of abiotic stresses in plants such as water and temperature stress, salinity, heavy metals etc. Some of these include tolerance to salinity, drought

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Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF






The principal genetic material of living beings is Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid which are chemically called as Nucleic acids. These are complex molecules composed of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Phosphate and are larger than most proteins.

In 1869, a young Swiss physician had isolated it from puss cells of salmon sperm, a previously identified macromolecular substance, to which he gave the name—nuclein but he was unaware of the structure and function of nuclein. In 1889, with the help of his student Richard Altman, he recognised nuclein with higher molecular weight and was associated with basic protein to which he gave the name, protamine. Emil Fischer, in 1880 identified Purines and Pyrimidines. Altmann, in 1899 for the first time used the term

Nucleic acid to describe the phosphorus containing nuclein. Kosser was awarded Nobel prize, in 1910 for demonstrating the presence of two types of pyrimidines (C and T) and two types of purines (A and G) in nucleic acids. Ascoli Levine and Jones discovered two kinds of nucleic acids—DNA and RNA. They are polynucleotides, which means a polymer consisting of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three components. These are:

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5 Handles, Probes, and Tools: A Rhetoric of Nature

Martin H. Krieger Indiana University Press ePub

A Craft of Science; Some Handles onto the World (Particles, Crystals, Gasses; Analogy; Phase Transitions; Knowledge Is Handling). Probes; Objectivity and Inelasticity; Probes and Handles. Tools and Toolkits; A Physicist’s Toolkit; So Far.

THE ARGUMENT IS: PHILOSOPHY HAS OFTEN PROJECTED A VISUAL analogy of knowledge – the knower as spectator – into its discussions of science. But physicists speak of what they are doing in terms of an Archimedean, haptic, and instrumental analogy. They sensitively get hold of the world (the Archimedean fulcrum) and so get a feel for it; and they craft explanations by employing as concepts just those instruments or tools they use to take hold of the world. Knowledge is handling, and Kantian transcendental conditions are actual experimental setups and theoretical models. The Archimedean analogy not only describes the physicist’s research work itself, but also the physicist’s theoretical structures – handles being degrees of freedom, probing modeling our interaction with Nature, and tools often being physical models and mathematics as well as experimental equipment. In earlier chapters we have been describing some components of such a toolkit. Here we review those descriptions in terms of handles, probes, and tools. Then we explore the technical and rhetorical structure of the toolkit, both in terms of mathematical and diagrammatic tools and in terms of a rhetoric for addressing Nature. The story of craft and handles is a commonplace for the physicist. It is the way physicists describe their work, just how it is actually done, as Maxwell described (p. xi).

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Heat: AP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub

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