1663 Chapters
Medium 9781780644998

4: Pest Control in Organic Citrus Groves

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Control in Organic Citrus Groves

Kaouthar Grissa-Lebdi1* and Hajer Sahraoui2

National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia (INAT), Tunisia; 2Citrus Technical Center,

Beni-Khalled, Tunisia



Citrus production takes place throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world (Spreen, 2012). About 140 countries grow citrus in the world and it is estimated that the total harvested surface is 9.6 million ha (FAO, 2015), with a total worldwide production of fresh citrus fruit amounting to 121,273.2 thousand t (FAO, 2015). The leading citrus-fruit-producing countries are

China (29,567 thousand t), Brazil (18,966 thousand t), the USA (9394 thousand t),

Mexico (7503 thousand t), India (7400 thousand t) and Spain (6512.6 thousand t), representing close to two-thirds of global production (FAO, 2015). Citrus production can be divided among four primary groups: (i) sweet oranges; (ii) mandarins (also known as tangerines); (iii) grapefruit; and (iv) lemons and limes (Spreen, 2012).

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Medium 9781780644738

2: Phytochemical Processing: Extraction Methods

Kumar, S. CABI PDF


Phytochemical Processing:

Extraction Methods

2.1  Introduction

The plant kingdom represents an enormous reservoir of biologically active molecules, and plants with ethnopharmacological information have been the main source of early drug discovery. A large proportion of the drugs used in modern medicine have either been discovered directly from plants or modified synthetically from a lead compound. In addition, in the form of natural products or as functional foods, plants and their extracts offer an alternative to specifically targeted drugs in the treatment and prevention of many diseases. As diverse biological activities of plant extracts and phytochemicals are being reported, investigations of higher plants with known ethnobotanical information have attracted the attention of researchers. Phytochemicals have high commercial value in the local and global markets because of shifting from illness-oriented products to wellness-promoting products. Besides that, the prevalence of chronic diseases that cannot be cured by conventional drugs makes the phytochemical industry an upcoming industrial sector. However, a common pitfall associated with this sector is that the production of these phytochemicals is carried out mainly through various traditional methods, leading to high losses and low yield. To make the phytochemical industries viable and profitable, various transformations like suitable processes that include planting and harvesting, raw material preparation and value-added production are needed. Also, for the successful modernization of phytochemical processing, process technology needs to be optimized for extraction and product formulation. Several steps involved in phytochemical processing include size reduction through to chopping and grinding to good storage, to ensure that active phytochemicals are maintained before processing. Extraction is a key step in the iterative process of drug

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Medium 9780253002303

5 The Great American Biotic Interchange and Pleistocene Habitats in South America

Fariña, Richard A. Indiana University Press ePub

5.1. Maps of Central America illustrating the progression of geologic events during the late Cenozoic that led to closure of the Central American Seaway. Current coastline of the region shown in white outline. Emergent land represented by dark regions, shelf (shallow ocean) sediments by light gray, and abyssal (deep ocean) sediments by dark gray. Central American region during the (A) middle Miocene (approximately 16–15 Mya), showing relatively small areas of emergent land; (B) late Miocene (7–6 Mya); and (C) late Pliocene (about 3 Mya). As the formation of the isthmus neared completion, a few relatively narrow marine corridors remained.

Illustration by Sebastián Tambusso based on Coates and Obando (1996) and Woodburne (2010).


Most people, including those reasonably familiar with the modern South American fauna, would be surprised to learn that most of the creatures currently inhabiting South America are relatively recent immigrants. Deer, pumas, jaguars, llamas, foxes, field mice, otters, and possibly peccaries and tapirs have ancestors that reached this continent less than about 3 Mya. The situation was much different in the Lujanian, which will be discussed once we examine how the modern assemblage of South American mammals was shaped.

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Medium 9780253011664

14 Summary and Conclusion

Daniel Duzdevich Indiana University Press ePub


AS THIS ENTIRE BOOK IS ONE LONG ARGUMENT, IT MAY BE convenient to briefly review the main observations and inferences.

I do not deny that many and serious objections can be advanced against the theory of descent with modification by means of natural selection, and I have endeavored to grant them full force. At first it seems very difficult to believe that complex organs and instincts are perfected by the accumulation of countless minor variations and not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason. This difficulty may seem beyond our imagination, but it cannot be real if we accept the following: (1) Gradations leading to the perfection of any organ or instinct, each one good for its individual possessor, do exist or could have existed. (2) All organs and instincts are ever so slightly variable. (3) There is a struggle for existence during which each profitable deviation of structure or instinct is preserved. I do not think the validity of these propositions can be disputed.

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Medium 9780253356024

2. Soils

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Soils are integral to any functioning ecosystem, providing the nutrients for plants and habitat for many vertebrate animals and insects, and multitudes of microorganisms. They require hundreds of years to develop and are good indicators of the climate, vegetation, and organisms involved in their formation. Therefore, knowledge of them provides suggestions for how best to use landscapes for productive agriculture or for the preservation and/or restoration of more natural conditions. Current soil characteristics indicate that most of Indiana was covered (in “presettlement” times, shortly before 1800) by beech/maple and oak/hickory forests, with smaller areas of dry prairie, savanna, and wetlands in the northwestern portion of the state.

Almost all of this book’s information on soils is presented in this chapter, rather than being distributed among the 8 habitat chapters, as is the case for wildlife. We will first discuss how soils are identified and classified, and describe the national and state-level databases on soil distribution. We will then survey the soils of Indiana geographically from north to south, using the state’s 10 natural regions, which were defined with some consideration of soil types (Homoya et al. 1985).

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