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1 Bernissart and the Iguanodons: Historical Perspective and New Investigations

Pascal Godefroit Indiana University Press ePub

Pascal Godefroit*, Johan Yans, and Pierre Bultynck

The discovery of complete and articulated skeletons of Iguanodon at Bernissart in 1878 came at a time when the anatomy of dinosaurs was still poorly understood, and thus considerable advances were made possible. Here we briefly describe, mainly from documents in the archives of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, the circumstances of the discovery of the Bernissart iguanodons. We also provide information about their preparation and mounting in laboratories, for exhibitions, and in early studies. We also summarize the latest results of a multidisciplinary project dedicated to the material collected in the cores drilled in 2002–2003 in and around the Iguanodon Sinkhole at Bernissart.

1.1. The Sainte-Barbe pit and mine buildings in 1878, at the time when the iguanodons were discovered.

The discovery of the first Iguanodon fossils has become a legend in the small world of paleontology. Around 1822, Mary Ann Mantell accompanied her husband, the physician Dr. Gideon Algernon Mantell, on his medical rounds and by chance discovered large fossilized teeth. Her husband found the teeth intriguing. With advice from Georges Cuvier, William Clift, and William Daniel Conybeare, he described them and named them Iguanodon, “iguana tooth,” because of their superficial resemblance to those of living iguanas (Mantell, 1825). Iguanodon was one the three founding members of the Dinosauria—along with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus—named by Richard Owen in 1842.

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9 Precision Agriculture in Lime: Potential for Application of Precision Agriculture Technologies in Lime Cropping Systems



Precision Agriculture in Lime: Potential for Application of Precision Agriculture

Technologies in Lime Cropping Systems

Aitazaz A. Farooque1*, Qamar U. Zaman2, Arnold W.

Schumann3 and Travis J. Esau2


School of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edward Island,

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada; 2Engineering Department, Faculty of

Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 3Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida, USA


Lime belongs to the Rutaceae family and has a similar genotype to citrus. Limes primarily originated from India and China, followed by expansion to the

Mediterranean regions and to the Americas

(Reuther et  al., 1967). Total production (both lemon and lime) around the globe has been reported to be 15.14 billion kg which is three times higher than the production levels in the 1980s

(US International Trade Commission, 2013). Brazil and México are the world’s largest lime-producing countries (United Nations Food and Agriculture

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9. Population Counts

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 9.1. Counts are an important component of management programs. Counts may be used to regulate quail harvest or evaluate the efficacy of habitat management. (Photograph by Fidel Hernández)

THE ECOLOGY OF BOBWHITES comprises 2 main pillars: habitat and population. Biologists and managers often gather information on these components to evaluate quail status. They may spend hours measuring habitat variables such as percent cover of bare ground, forbs, and brush and number of nesting clumps/acre. They also may collect data on the population such as the number of whistling males/stop, coveys flushed/hour, or age ratios. The need for habitat information is clear; it helps guide habitat management. Likewise, population information helps guide population management.

In this and the subsequent chapter we discuss 2 types of population measures—counts and age ratios—that may be used to evaluate bobwhite populations. We also discuss how this information may be used in management.

Why count bobwhites? They existed long before managers started tallying numbers. They also will persist in cattle country without score cards on population size. In fact, counting bobwhites often may not be needed on ranches or leases, especially where harvest is light and habitat is good. The same is not true for states. Game-management agencies must have data on population sizes or trends to evaluate the effects of hunting regulations and to satisfy the concerns of sportsmen and sportswomen.

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7: Potato Mosaic and Tuber Necrosis

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF


Potato Mosaic and Tuber Necrosis

 Mohamad Chikh-Ali and Alexander V. Karasev*

 Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences,

 University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA

7.1  Introduction: The Aetiologic

Agent, Disease Symptoms,

Distribution and Economic


Potato virus Y (PVY), the aetiological agent of potato mosaic or potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), is the most economically important and devastating virus infecting potato crops worldwide (Singh et al., 2008;

Gray et al., 2010; Karasev and Gray, 2013b).

PVY is the type species of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, the second largest family of plant viruses after Geminiviridae.

The virus has a single-stranded positive-­sense

RNA genome of about 9.7 kb with a covalently linked VPg protein at the 5′ terminus and a poly-A tail at the 3′ terminus (Adams et al.,

2012). The genome RNA of PVY has two non-­ translated regions, 5′ and 3′, flanking a single open reading frame that encodes for a large polyprotein. Upon translation, the polyprotein is co- and/or post-translationally cleaved by three viral-specific proteases, P1, HC-Pro and

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10. Finite Element Analyses and Virtual Syntheses of Biological Structures and their Application to Sauropod Skulls

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


In morphology and paleontology, the analysis of bony structures began with the art of drawing and the technique of photography. The first analytical calculations were possible by using simplified models, and quantitative measurements of strains on bone surfaces provided important opportunities for interpreting bony structures in recent animals. The development of finite element structure analysis (FESA) was a decisive step in obtaining spatial information about strain and stress distribution in models of both extinct and extant creatures. However, the inductive approach of FESA does not provide precise explanations for the existence of bone tissue in a specific position of a given finite element model. In contrast to FESA, the deductive technique of finite element structure synthesis (FESS) was developed for deducing a biological structure from a few initial conditions and boundary conditions. This makes FESS ideal for discovering which morphological structures can be explained in terms of mechanics and which cannot. Three examples of the applications of FESS illustrate its power: the virtual synthesis of the skull of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) and of the skulls of the sauropods Diplodocus and Camarasaurus. These studies demonstrate the utility of FESS for the virtual synthesis of bony structures to test assumptions and hypotheses regarding the relationship between function and structure. By obtaining a high degree of conformity between the virtual model and the real object, the method is satisfyingly validated.

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