1663 Chapters
Medium 9781786390837

3 Hatch, Survival and Sensory Perception

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

3 

1

Hatch, Survival and Sensory

Perception

Edward P. Masler1 and Roland N. Perry2,3

USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA; 2University of Hertfordshire,

Hatfield, UK; 3Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

3.1 Introduction

3.2  Biology of Hatching

3.3 Survival

3.4  Sensory Perception

3.5  Conclusions and Future Prospects

3.6 References

3.1 Introduction

The need to understand the functional biology of nematodes is central both to fundamental science and to practical aspects. Research on the biology of economically important cyst nematodes frequently has the declared aim of identifying novel control targets based on disruption of the nematode life cycle. The knowledge from such research also provides a fascinating exposition of the complex aspects of host–parasite interactions and the sophisticated mechanisms involved. In this chapter we focus on three aspects, hatching, survival and sensory perception, and explore the links among them and the associated interfaces between the cyst nematodes and their hosts.

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Medium 9781780643731

11: Influence of Arsenic and Phosphate on the Growth and Metabolism of Cultivated Plants

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF

11

Influence of Arsenic and Phosphate on the Growth and Metabolism of Cultivated Plants

Asok K. Biswas*

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Study, ­

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India

Abstract

In growing cereal and legume seedlings arsenate is more toxic for root growth than shoot growth. Arsenate treatment affects the activity of antioxidant scavenging enzymes, level of oxidative stress markers, sugar and starch contents as well as carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme activities causing adverse effects on growth and metabolism of seedlings of cereals and legumes. In wheat and rice arsenate treatment decreases total and soluble N2 contents, nitrate and nitrite contents and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase that lead to limitation of NO3 uptake by root. The activities of ammonium assimilating enzymes, i.e. glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, are decreased whereas deaminating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is increased leading to an accumulation of toxic NH3. Arsenic treatment results in an alteration of shape of chloroplast and disorganizes the membrane structure in bean plants. All such alterations inhibited growth and development of test seedlings. On arsenate exposure, levels of various Krebs cycle intermediates and also activities of different respiratory enzymes are decreased causing changes in growth pattern in rice and wheat seedlings. In presence of arsenate, the glutathione level and the activities of the synthesizing enzymes that are required for normal growth and metabolism of rice seedlings are suppressed. The production of phytochelatins on arsenate exposure enhanced the detoxifying mechanism against arsenate in the test seedlings. Arsenate forms complex with the thiol group of phytochelatin and gets sequestered in the plant vacuole enabling researchers to design a process of detoxification of arsenic.

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Medium 9780253356024

Soils

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Table S-1. U.S. Soil Taxonomy

Notes: NCSS = National Cooperative Soil Survey; NOSS = Northwest Ohio Soil Survey; NRCS = Natural Resources Conservation Service; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Source: Soil Survey Staff 1999.

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Medium 9781603447652

4. Ecosystem-Based Management of Mobile Bay, Alabama

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

John F. Valentine, Kenneth L. Heck Jr., Michael R. Dardeau, and Hank Burch

Most marine communities are inextricably linked with other communities by both the passive and active transport of materials and organisms via currents, larval drift, and active migrations. Cross-habitat movement of nutrients, detritus, prey, and consumers (i.e., spatial subsidies) all exert major effects on populations and food webs (for example, Vetter 1994, 1995; Persson et al. 1996; Polis and Hurd 1996, Polis and Strong 1996; Harrold et al. 1998; Rose and Polis 1998; Vetter 1998). The ecological productivity of most estuaries is driven by inputs of energy, in the form of detritus and/or drifting and migrating organisms, and nutrients from upstream watersheds (for example, Day et al. 1989; Deegan et al. 1990; Deegan 1993; Deegan et al. 1995; Rabalais et al. 1996; Deegan and Garritt 1997). Conversely, a number of marine organisms migrate upstream into such watersheds to feed and reproduce. Oddly, despite the well-documented importance of such geographically broad trophic linkages, estuarine environmental management is frequently focused on ecologically irrelevant small-scale, permit-based activities that overlook the cumulative effects of chronic anthropogenic activities within physically dynamic and highly linked watersheds. Such is certainly the case in coastal Alabama where ecosystem-based management is lacking.

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Medium 9781780645216

33: Industrial Additives Obtained Through Microbial Biotechnology: Biosurfactants and Prebiotic Carbohydrates

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

33 

Industrial Additives Obtained

Through Microbial Biotechnology:

Biosurfactants and Prebiotic

Carbohydrates

Iramaia A. Néri-Numa,1 Bruno N. Paulino,1 Marina G. Pessôa,1 Meissa R.E.

Abrahão,1 Murillo Lino Bution,1 Gustavo Molina1,2* and Gláucia M. Pastore1

1

Department of Food Science, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys

(UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil

Abstract

Industrial biotechnology has expanded considerably in recent years bringing new possibilities for the production of industrial additives. Among the most studied compounds are the the non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) that are related to the bioavailability of minerals, modulation of the immune system, prevention of gastrointestinal infections, regulation of metabolism disorders related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, and many other important health allegations. There is an increasing market for health-promoting NDO food ingredients whose

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