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K.V.S.G. Murali Krishna Laxmi Publications PDF

64 Air Pollution




Tropospheric and stratospheric ozone depletion, aerosol scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation, greenhouse gas warming, rain and precipitation quality, long-range transport of air pollutants, heat-islands and urban air quality are known to be the main global air pollution problems. Man at the end of the 20th century has at last realized that the complexities of pollutant interaction with the atmosphere are not confined to a local scale. In the name of �Pollution

Control by Dilution� millions of tonnes of a variety of toxic air pollutants are released into the atmosphere by man which are transported to places several thousands of kilometers away from the source through atmospheric circulation systems causing irreparable damage to the quality of air on continental and global scales. The impacts of air pollution on biosphere and the quality of life have drawn considerable public attention, and air pollution problems are being considered and tackled on a global scale. The word �global� need not necessarily mean that the pollutant under consideration encompasses the entire globe and are not unique to individual locations. The environment in which we live is unfortunately the host medium for air pollutants also. Man is the sole culprit in polluting the air and he alone should take the responsibility to clean the atmosphere and protect the environment. The various global effects of air pollution are discussed in this chapter.

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20: Involvement of Tryptophan-Pathway-Derived Secondary Metabolism in the Defence Responses of Grasses

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF


Involvement of Tryptophan-PathwayDerived Secondary Metabolism in the

Defence Responses of Grasses

A. Ishihara,1* T. Matsukawa,2 T. Nomura,3 M. Sue,4 A. Oikawa,5

Y. Okazaki6 and S. Tebayashi7


Tottori University, Koyama, Tottori, Japan; 2Kinki University, Kinokawa, Japan;


Toyama Prefectural University, Imizu, Toyama, Japan; 4Tokyo University of ­Agriculture, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan; 5Yamagata University, Tsuruoka, Japan;


RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Yokohama, Japan;


Kochi University, Nangoku, Japan

20.1  Abstract

The tryptophan (Trp) pathway diverges from the shikimate pathway at chorismate. The first committed enzyme for Trp synthesis is anthranilate synthase. Anthranilate is then converted to Trp in five steps. The secondary metabolites derived from this pathway have been shown to play important roles in the defence systems of members of the grass family (Poaceae). The most intensively investigated group of the secondary metabolites derived from this pathway is the benzoxazinones (Bxs) in maize, wheat and rye. Detailed analysis of Bx biosynthesis has been conducted using molecular genetic and biochemical techniques. Because Bxs are present as glucosides, and their active forms are considered to be aglycones and degraded compounds from these, the enzymes involved in the sequestration and release of aglycones have been investigated in depth. In addition, the multiple functions of Bxs in defending against pathogens and herbivores have been elucidated. In oats, anthranilate is converted to avenanthramide (Av) phytoalexins. Analysis of the metabolic fates of Avs has revealed their conversion to dimers and incorporation into cell walls for the purpose of reinforcement. Thus, Avs have functions in both the chemical and physical defence systems of oats in their interactions with pathogens. In rice, Trp was found to be converted into serotonin in leaves infected by pathogenic fungi. Serotonin is also incorporated into cell walls, and it has been suggested that it may be involved in the reinforcement of cell walls. The accumulation of serotonin was also found in multiple Poaceae family species, indicating that the accumulation of serotonin in response to pathogenic attack was acquired early in the evolution of this family.

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Kingdom: Plantae: MCAT Biology

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
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6. La Gran Hondonada, Argentina

Darin A. Croft Indiana University Press ePub

Basic Information

Location Western Chubut province, Argentina.

Geology Volcanic ash–derived mudstones and paleosols (ancient soils) of the Sarmiento Formation (unnamed member).

Geologic Age Late Eocene, about 38–37 million years (based on biostratigraphic correlation).

Mammal Age Mustersan.

Mammals Identified 37 species (appendix 6).

LA GRAN HONDONADA REPRESENTS A NEAR-INSTANTANEOUS EVENT in which an entire mammal community was preserved en masse. Thus, it provides a snapshot of southern Argentina during the late Eocene. The animals preserved at La Gran Hondonada were killed by a severe drought, a cloud of volcanic ash, or some other agent that littered the landscape with skeletons. Their remains were exposed to scavengers and the elements only briefly before being washed into a river by heavy rains and an ensuing flash flood. As a result, they were preserved in excellent condition in a concentrated, U-shaped deposit that reflects the ancient river channel (26 ft/8 m wide by 4 ft/1.3 m high). Only part of this rich deposit has been excavated; it is not known how much farther it extends into the earth.

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3: Patent Eligibility Issues in Life Science Innovations: Contentious Court Cases

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Patent Eligibility Issues in Life

Science Innovations: Contentious

Court Cases

Ananda M. Chakrabarty*

University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois

3.1  Introduction

While industrial biotechnology primarily involves chemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, the recent advancements in biotechnology in the area of genome manipulation, synthetic biology, stem cells and improved plant breeding have created many opportunities but also new legal questions and challenges. Intellectual property (IP) generation, particularly having patentable inventions in industrial biotechnology and other life science areas, is prerequisite for both industrial and economic development. The patent laws in the USA date back from 1790 to 1793 to cover, in the words of

Thomas Jefferson, one of the framers of the US

Constitution, ‘any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new or useful improvement thereof’. The US Congress in 1952 replaced the word ‘art’ with the word ‘process’. In subsequent decisions by the courts, the predominant theme of the US patent laws has been to emphasize Thomas Jefferson’s philosophy that

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