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III. Representative Bryophyte and Lichen Species of the Miniature Forests of Cape Horn / Especies Representativas de Briofitas y Liquenes de Los Bosques en Miniaturia del cabo de Hornos

Bernard Goffinet and Ricardo Rozzi and Lily Lewis and William Buck and Francisca Massardo University of North Texas Press PDF

Acrocladium auriculatum (Acrocladiaceae)

Characters for field identification: Plants grow horizontally and form highly branched mats, usually with many sporophytes. The branches are spreading and conspicuously pointed. The leaves are broad and spoon-shaped, with hollow blades and rounded apices. The operculum of the capsules are characteristically white.

Habitat: Soil and decaying tree trunks in Nothofagus forests; rocks and live tree trunks in humid

Nothofagus forests

Distribution: Southwestern South America.

Did you know? The characteristic pointed branches have given this moss its generic name

Acrocladium [Acro (tip) + clad (branch)]. The name auriculatum [auricul (auricle) + tum (lobed leaf base)] describes the heart shaped leaves. Many of the names given to bryophytes describe characteristic features of the particular species or genus.

Adam M. Wilson

Lily Lewis

Características para la identificación en terreno: Las plantas crecen horizontalmente formando alfombras muy ramificadas, usualmente con muchos esporofitos. Las ramas se expanden y son notoriamente puntiagudas. Las hojas son anchas y en forma de cuchara, con hojas ahuecadas y

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10. The Pleistocene

Fzy, István Indiana University Press ePub

The last 2.6 million years of Earth history following the Tertiary period is called the Quaternary. This period includes the time of the last big glaciation (the Pleistocene) as well as the geological present (the Holocene). The study of the wildlife of the Holocene forms the subject matter of botany, zoology, and anthropology.

During the Pleistocene the large amount of snow that had gradually accumulated in the Carpathian Mountains turned into firn (compacted ice) and subsequently into glacial ice. However, the European continental ice shield, constantly moving from north to south, never reached the Carpathian Basin, which remained a refuge for plants and animals. Deposits of the Ice Age (loess, gravel, sand, and travertine) can nevertheless be found in many places—on the surface or just below it—all over the Carpathian Basin. These sediments can be rich in vertebrate fossil remains, especially mammal bones, and this is one reason why Hungarian Pleistocene research is so well known internationally.

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Motion and Forces: GED Physics

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781786390325

14 Methods for Evaluating Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Traits

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF


Methods for Evaluating Plant

Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Traits

Antonio Castellano-Hinojosa*1,2 and E.J. Bedmar2

Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín-CSIC. E-419, Granada, Spain; 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of

Pharmacy, Campus of Cartuja, University of Granada, Granada, Spain


14.1 Introduction

14.1.1  Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

The presence of microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa and algae is critical to the maintenance and health of soil function, in both natural and managed agricultural soils. This is due to their involvement in key processes such as soil structure formation, decomposition of organic matter, toxin removal, suppression of plant disease and, overall, the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur (Doran et al., 1996; van Elsas et  al., 1997; Mishra et  al., 2015;

Keswani et al., 2016). Bacteria are the most common of those microorganisms reaching

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8 Seed Moisture Testing

Kelanaputra, E.S.; Nelson, S.P.C.; Setiawati, U. CABI PDF

Seed Moisture Testing



Seed moisture content is critically important for efficient seed processing.

In order to achieve the highest seed germination, the moisture must be controlled: if it is too low, the seed will die; and if too high, it will stimulate fungal growth and result in seed loss during processing.

8.1 Tools

Oven – used to dry seed.

Balance – used to weigh wet and dry seeds.

Glass beaker – used to contain seeds for oven drying.

Hammer – used to crack open seeds to separate the kernel from the shell.

Plastic bag – used to contain cracked seed parts.

Cutter – used to separate the embryo from the kernel.

8.2 Methods

Step 1

The first step is to take seed samples from a representative sample of seed bunches being processed.

© Eddy S. Kelanaputra, Stephen P.C. Nelson, Umi Setiawati, Baihaqi Sitepu, Fazrin Nur,

Brian P. Forster and Abdul Razak Purba 2018. Seed Production in Oil Palm: A Manual�39

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