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Birds

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Table B-1 Annually Occurring Birds of Indiana as of 2000

Notes: Species (N = 309) which are (or formerly were) observed most years in Indiana, their characteristic habitat use, seasonal status, and abundance. a Abbreviations: C = common, U = uncommon, R = rare, EX = extirpated, RI = reintroduced. Taxonomic order follows American Ornithologists’ Union (1998), as supplemented (Chesser et al. 2009).

a Using habitat categories as defined in this book. Assignments are based mainly on habitat and abundance notes in Mumford and Keller (1984), Keller et al. (1986), Castrale et al. (1998), and Robinson (1996).

b Includes urban and suburban forest, roads, utility rights-of-way, industrial/commercial, and other categories.

c Includes early successional shrublands, open oak savanna, mature mesic forest, floodplain forest, and other categories.

Table B-2 Birds of Forest Lands

Notes: Species (N = 156) which characteristically use (or formerly used) early successional or mature forest habitats, their seasonal status, and present abundance. Abbreviations: 1 = primary habitat, 2 = secondary habitat, C = common, U = uncommon, R = rare, EX = extirpated.

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9 Estimating Spread Rates of Non-native Species: The Gypsy Moth as a Case Study

Venette, R.C. CABI PDF

9

Estimating Spread Rates of

Non-native Species: The Gypsy

Moth as a Case Study

Patrick C. Tobin,1* Andrew M. Liebhold,2 E. Anderson

Roberts3 and Laura M. Blackburn2

1University

of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 2USDA

Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Morgantown, West

Virginia, USA; 3Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic

Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

Abstract

Estimating rates of spread and generating projections of future range expansion for invasive alien species is a key process in the development of management guidelines and policy. Critical needs to estimate spread rates include the availability of surveys to characterize the spatial distribution of an invading species and the application of analytical methods to interpret survey data. In this chapter, we demonstrate the use of three methods, (i) square-root area regression, (ii) distance regression and (iii) boundary displacement, to estimate the rate of spread in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, in the USA. The gypsy moth is a non-native species currently invading

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10 Annelids and Worm-Like Fossils

Richard Arnold Davis Indiana University Press ePub

Figure 10.1. Cincinnatian worms and worm-like fossils. A. Tentaculites richmondensis (Miller), CMC IP 17551, Waynesville Formation, Clinton Co., Ohio. Slab showing parallel alignment of shells. Scale in mm. B. Annelid worm, Protoscolex ornatus Ulrich, CMC IP 37990, Kope Formation, Covington, Kentucky. This is a rare case in the Cincinnatian of soft-body preservation. × 7.5. C. Tubes of Cornulites sp. attached to the column of the crinoid Iocrinus subcrassus, University of Cincinnati collections, Corryville Formation, Hamilton Co., Ohio. Scale in mm. D. The machaeridian Lepidocoleus sp. cf. L. jamesi (Hall and Whitfield), University of Cincinnati collections, Corryville Formation, Boone Co., Kentucky. Scale in mm.

 

Because worms are largely soft-bodied, their fossil record is rather limited. Nonetheless, numerous fossils occur in the Cincinnatian that can be attributed to the Phylum Annelida or related worms. Annelids, the segmented worms, include predominantly freshwater and terrestrial leeches and earthworms, and the predominantly marine polychaetes. In the modern oceans polychaetes are highly diverse and abundant and play many important ecological roles. Throughout the Cincinnatian common tooth-like microfossils called scolecodonts indicate that polychaetes were also components of the Ordovician marine ecosystem (Eriksson and Bergman 2003). Although they resemble conodonts, another category of tooth-like fossils, in size and form scolecodonts are distinct in having a jet black appearance in contrast to the amber color typical of conodonts (Plate 5). The definite polychaete affinity of scolecodonts is established by rare cases (not Cincinnatian) of scolecodonts found with the body fossil of a polychaete worm as assemblages of paired tooth-like elements forming a jaw apparatus. In modern polychaetes an entire apparatus consists of three pairs of different individual elements. Because scolecodonts usually occur as dissociated elements, their taxonomy has been complicated by assignment of separate names for each element. In recent work the recognition of likely associations of elements has begun to alleviate this problem.

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2 Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Agricultural Water Management – A Review

Hoanh, C.T.; Smakhtin, V.; Johnston, R. CABI PDF

2

Adaptation to Climate Change

Impacts on Agriculture and

Agricultural Water Management –

A Review

Shreedhar Maskey,1* Dinesh Bhatt,1,2 Stefan

Uhlenbrook,1 Krishna C. Prasad3 and Mukand S.

Babel4

1UNESCO-IHE

Institute for Water Education, Delft, the

Netherlands; 2Ministry of Irrigation, Department of Irrigation,

Lalitpur, Nepal; 3Chandra Engineering Consultants, Mills Area,

Janakpur, Nepal; 4Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani,

Thailand

Abstract

This chapter reviews the global literature on impacts of climate change on agriculture and prospects for adaptation.

Sensitivity of agriculture to climate change varies across the globe. Developing countries, where more than 800 million people are already undernourished, will be hardest hit. We review approaches for assessing the impact of climate change on agriculture and irrigation water requirements, and present recent progress in the assessment of adaptation measures. The challenges and constraints associated with climate change impact and adaptation research are critically discussed.

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11 Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases in the Urban Ecosystem in India

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

11

Climate Change and Vectorborne Diseases in the Urban

Ecosystem in India

Ramesh C. Dhiman* and Poonam Singh

National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Sector-­8,

Dwarka, Delhi, India

11.1  Introduction

foci in tribal and forested areas (NVBDCP,

2005; Dhiman et  al., 2010). As the urban

Of the various communicable diseases, ecosystem warrants a different intervention vector-­borne diseases (VBDs) are of consid- strategy to rural areas, the problem of erable public health importance. With malaria control in urban areas having more changing ecological, climatic, socioeconomic than 50,000 population has been planned and developmental activities, the spatial and under the Urban Malaria Scheme. Presently temporal distribution of VBDs are also the scheme is implemented in 131 towns in changing. New areas are reporting re-­ 19 states and Union Territories in India.

Dengue, which is associated with urbanemergence of VBDs, which were forgotten for decades. With the institution of strength- ization, is spreading fast. Of 35 states, denened intervention measures, well-­known gue has been reported in 32 states. The

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