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24 Role of Trichoderma Secondary Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF


Role of Trichoderma Secondary

Metabolites in Plant Growth Promotion and Biological Control

Jyoti Singh,1 Rahul Singh Rajput,2 Kartikay Bisen,2 Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*


Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi-221005, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

24.1 Introduction

After World War II ended, the world’s population started rising due to instant increase in population of less developed countries.

The resultant effects of this tremendous growth will be observed on living standards, resource use and the environment for a long span of time (UNPD, 2008). Cultivation of plants is closely linked to the development of human civilization, which has been ongoing for more than 10,000 years, and therefore plant diseases have been a major concern to mankind for a long time.

In agriculture, the maximum loss is due to plant diseases, which is a major challenge faced by cultivators of each crop at any time.

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14 Small-Scale and Mobile Electric Generators

Henderson, P. CABI PDF


Small-Scale and Mobile Electric


There are a huge number of small-scale electric generators capable of generating up to 20 MW. Diesel generators are present in almost all large power plants and substations. They are used at most coal, gas and oil-fired power plants and almost all nuclear power plants as an emergency back-up power source to run safety critical pumps, fans, hydraulic units, battery chargers, turning gear motors for steam turbines, etc. They even act as back-up power supplies at hydroelectric generation facilities, giving emergency power to the spillway gates, for example. If an entire grid system fails, diesel generators are usually made available for what is termed in the USA a black start. Diesel, gas and petrol generators are also frequently used as back-up facilities for hospitals, airports and data handling facilities, and other buildings that need to maintain uninterrupted electrical power. Diesel generators dominate the back-up market, although some small-scale gas turbines are also used.

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10 Annelids and Worm-Like Fossils

Richard Arnold Davis Indiana University Press ePub

Figure 10.1. Cincinnatian worms and worm-like fossils. A. Tentaculites richmondensis (Miller), CMC IP 17551, Waynesville Formation, Clinton Co., Ohio. Slab showing parallel alignment of shells. Scale in mm. B. Annelid worm, Protoscolex ornatus Ulrich, CMC IP 37990, Kope Formation, Covington, Kentucky. This is a rare case in the Cincinnatian of soft-body preservation. × 7.5. C. Tubes of Cornulites sp. attached to the column of the crinoid Iocrinus subcrassus, University of Cincinnati collections, Corryville Formation, Hamilton Co., Ohio. Scale in mm. D. The machaeridian Lepidocoleus sp. cf. L. jamesi (Hall and Whitfield), University of Cincinnati collections, Corryville Formation, Boone Co., Kentucky. Scale in mm.


Because worms are largely soft-bodied, their fossil record is rather limited. Nonetheless, numerous fossils occur in the Cincinnatian that can be attributed to the Phylum Annelida or related worms. Annelids, the segmented worms, include predominantly freshwater and terrestrial leeches and earthworms, and the predominantly marine polychaetes. In the modern oceans polychaetes are highly diverse and abundant and play many important ecological roles. Throughout the Cincinnatian common tooth-like microfossils called scolecodonts indicate that polychaetes were also components of the Ordovician marine ecosystem (Eriksson and Bergman 2003). Although they resemble conodonts, another category of tooth-like fossils, in size and form scolecodonts are distinct in having a jet black appearance in contrast to the amber color typical of conodonts (Plate 5). The definite polychaete affinity of scolecodonts is established by rare cases (not Cincinnatian) of scolecodonts found with the body fossil of a polychaete worm as assemblages of paired tooth-like elements forming a jaw apparatus. In modern polychaetes an entire apparatus consists of three pairs of different individual elements. Because scolecodonts usually occur as dissociated elements, their taxonomy has been complicated by assignment of separate names for each element. In recent work the recognition of likely associations of elements has begun to alleviate this problem.

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Moles: MCAT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781576336618

Acids-Bases: MCAT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub

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