2129 Slices
Medium 9788131807002

CH2-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

40

A TEXTBOOK

OF

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Thus, more precise definition of carbohydrates is that they are polyhydroxy aldoses or ketoses or their condensation products (chains or rings of C with 2 or more –OH groups).

(i) aldoses

(– CHO in terminal position)

(ii) ketoses

(>C=O in sub-terminal position)

Depending upon the number of monomeric units, carbohydrates are of three types:

I. MONOSACCHARIDES

The word saccharide means, sugar. These are made up of only one monomeric unit and cannot be hydrolysed. They are commonly known as sugars and are sweet in taste and soluble in water. All monosaccharides and nearly all disaccharides are reducing sugars, as they can reduce a number of reagents, e.g.,

(a) Fehling’s solution (Cu++ ⎯→ Cu2O red ppt.),

(b) Benedict’s reagent (CuSO4 ⎯→ Cu2O red ppt.),

(c) Tollen’s reagent (AgNO3 ⎯→ Ag)

They have 3–7 C in backbone and are also found as building blocks of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Many are intermediates of respiratory and photosynthetic pathways.

All monosaccharides, except some, e.g., dihydroxyacetone that does not contain any C*

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Medium 9781845939625

15. Ripening Mutants

P Nath CAB International PDF

15

Ripening Mutants

Cornelius S. Barry*

Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, MI, USA

15.1 Introduction

Fleshy fruits are botanically and chemically diverse, yet ripening processes are surprisingly conserved and often include changes in colour and cell-wall dissolution, together with subsequent fruit softening, the synthesis of aroma compounds and conversion of starch to sugars.

These changes increase palatability and help to signal seed maturity, facilitating dispersal by frugivores. Due to the importance of fleshy fruits in providing sources of sugars, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fibre to the human diet, considerable research effort has focused on identifying the processes, enzymes and regulatory proteins that contribute to the development and ripening of fleshy fruits yet limit their postharvest deterioration. In recent years, the development of genomics resources for fleshy fruit-bearing species, including available genome sequences, large expressed sequence tag collections and publically available gene expression data, have greatly increased our understanding of the genes correlated with events that occur during the ripening process. However, despite the development of these resources, functional analyses of putative ripening-related genes is the main factor limiting understanding of the ripening process. While gene-silencing approaches are useful in some fruit crop species, some of the most significant

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Medium 9788131803660

Ch_6b

Dipak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, and Prabir Kumar Haldar Laxmi Publications PDF

Classical Statistics and Quantum Statistics &

457

Solved Problems

Problem 1. In a system of 14 distinguishable particles distributed in two equally probable halves of a box, determine the probability of distribution (10, 4), (14, 0), (7, 7).

Solution. Given,

Total number of particles n = 14

Total number of compartments C = 2

\

Total number of microstates = Cn = 214 = 16384

(i) Number of microstates in the macrostate (10, 4)

W(10, 4) = n Cn1 = n Cn2

= 14C10 = 14C4 =

\

14 !

10 ! 4 !

[Q n1 + n2 = 14 = n ; n2 = 14 � n1]

= 1001

Probability of the macrostate (10, 4)

Wa10, 4 f

1001

1001

=

.

14

C

2

16384

(ii) Number of microstates in the macrostate (7, 7)

P(10, 4) =

n

W(7, 7) = 14C7 =

\

=

14 !

= 3432

7!7!

Probability of the macrostate (7, 7)

Wa 7, 7 f

3432

3432

=

14

C

2

16384

(iii) Number of microstates in the macrostate (14, 0)

W(7, 7) =

n

W(14, 0) = 14C0 =

\

=

14 !

=1

14 ! . 0 !

Probability of the macrostate (14, 0)

Wa14, 0 f

1

1

=

.

14

C

2

16384

Problem 2. Write down the various microstates and macrostates for a system of three particles in

2 compartments when

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Medium 9781780647708

1: Introduction

Egli, D.B. CABI PDF

Introduction

1

Seeds as a Food Source

Humans have always relied on the green plant to produce the calories needed for their sustenance, either directly or indirectly after conversion by animals, and as a source of fuel and fibre. As a result of this reliance on green plants, the sun was essentially the only source of energy until the exploitation of fossil forms of solar energy ushered in the industrial revolution. Agricultural production systems became increasingly dependent upon these fossil forms of energy (coal, petroleum), but solar energy, diffuse but reliable, continued to be the primary source of our food supply (Hall and Kitgaard, 2012, p. 4). The green plant driven by solar energy will, for the foreseeable future, continue to feed humankind.

The plants utilized by humans are consumed in many different ways; for some, fresh fruits are harvested, in other cases stems, leaves, roots or tubers represent the economic yield. The entire above-ground plant is harvested in some vegetable or forage crops whereas immature fruits or seeds represent the economic yield of other vegetable crops. But the crop plants making the largest contribution, by far, to the world’s food supply, are those harvested at maturity for their seed.

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Medium 9781576750278

CHAPTER 5: GOVERNMENT BY MEDIOCRACY AND THE ATTENTION ECONOMY

Hazel Henderson Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

me·di·oc·ra·cy\mē-dē-′ä-krƏ-sē n : a new form of governance based on media as the nervous system of the new body politic (still not sufficiently analyzed by political scientists, pundits, or the media themselves).

at·ten·tion econ·o·my\Ə-′ ten(t)-shƏn i-’kä-riƏ-mē\ n : a form of economy associated with mediocracies, based on the production of information, entertainment, and other goods and services that compete with politicians and educators for the attention of individuals. Attention economies are the dominant sectors in mediocracies: movies, video and audio cassettes and CDs, TV and radio, books, magazines, computers and software, advertising, tourism, education, and politics. Calculated in this way, attention sectors accounted for the lion’s share of the world’s GDP in 1995. It would be useful if economics, which studies scarce means applied to supposedly infinite wants, would switch its focus from money to studying the ultimate scarcity for humans: their time and attention. Spending our precious time earning inflating paper money is not worth so much of our attention.

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