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Medium 9781780643540

19: World Almond Market

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF


World Almond Market

Ned T. Ryan*

Former Chairman, Almond Board of California, Modesto, California, USA

19.1 Introduction

In order to make good almond marketing decisions, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the world almond market and how it works. In this chapter, we will look at the history and growth of the almond market, its structure and behaviour, then some of the specific decisions a grower or processor makes within this context, and finally ways to minimize risk in an almond market known for volatile prices.

19.2  History and Growth

One of the most remarkable features of the world almond market is the growth over the past 35 years. California production grew from an average of 155,000 metric tonnes (t) in the period

1979–1982 to 909,000 t in 2011 – a six-fold increase, and an annual growth rate of 6%. The annual growth rate from the 1997 crop to the

2011 crop is 7%. Shipments showed similar increases over the same periods, keeping carryover inventories low. Another remarkable feature of the world almond market is the concentration of production – California produces two-thirds of the world supply and exports 70% of its crop.

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Medium 9781786392756

3 Technology and innovation in the Bioeconomy

Viaggi, D. CABI PDF


Technology and Innovation in the Bioeconomy

3.1  Introduction and Overview

Innovation, and hence technology, is one of the main focuses of the bioeconomy. From the perspective of technology, the bioeconomy can be viewed as a continuing evolutionary process of transition from systems of mining non-renewable resources to farming and processing renewable bio-based ones (Zilberman et  al., 2013). However, in addition to this, a number of features are unique to the bioeconomy or at least highly relevant to it. Some of these include: biotechnologies that affect genomes, biomass breaking down to building blocks, biorefinery concepts and the high use of information technologies, technologies for closing cycles in the economy (waste recovery) and technologies that affect the provision of ecosystem services by affecting the environment. Knowledge and information are also key issues throughout the bioeconomy.

A key issue for the scope of this book is the way a meaningful representation of bioeconomy technologies can be developed for the purposes of economic studies (Viaggi, 2016). Another key topic is the uptake mechanisms of specific bioeconomy technologies that may, in fact, be connected to an increasingly intricate network of intersectoral relationships. It should be emphasized that the combination of technologies is of particular importance. The same applies from a disciplinary perspective, as interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are

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Medium 9780253009661

4 The Famine and Its Impacts, 1840s to 1860s

Ian N. Gregory Indiana University Press ePub


It has almost become a cliché to argue that Ireland’s population development over the last 150 years has been unique. It is the only developed nation in the world with a current population below that in the mid-nineteenth century and the only European country to have suffered a century of demographic decline in its recent history.1 However, spatiopolitical qualifications must be applied to this assertion. The population decline of the area that is now the Republic has been remarkable, but the area that is now Northern Ireland was able to arrest its population decline at a much earlier stage. Furthermore, at the time of the Great Famine all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, and what might be described as a long-term regional population decline seems less spectacular when it is considered within the context of the U.K.’s rapid urban population growth, to which Irish migrants made a significant contribution.2 Still, the impact of the Great Famine of the mid-nineteenth century on the shaping of modern Ireland cannot be trivialized. More than any other event it has defined both the literal and the metaphysical places of the Irish in the world. It has sent shock waves down through the centuries that are not only demographic but also socioeconomic, cultural, and political.

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Medium 9781845939076

3 Invasive Species: Ecology and Impact of Lantana camara Invasions

CAB International PDF


Invasive Species: Ecology and

Impact of Lantana camara


Gyan P. Sharma1 and Akhilesh S. Raghubanshi2


of Environmental Biology, University of Delhi, Delhi,

India; 2Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India


Invasion of exotic species is among the most important global problems experienced by natural ecosystems. Although biological invasion is a natural process, the recent enhanced rate of invasions is clearly a human-instigated phenomenon and constitutes one of the most important effects that humans have exerted on the planet.

Disturbance, whether regular or episodic, is a natural feature of dynamic ecosystems

(Sousa, 1984; Gurevitch and Padilla, 2004), but it also facilitates the invasion process.

As a result of the rapid modification of natural habitats, the pace of invasion has accelerated particularly during the past century (Schei, 1996). Extinction of species related to invasion is an outcome of human activities. Invasive species are the second largest threat to global biodiversity after habitat destruction, and the number one cause of species extinction in most island states (Schei, 1996). In the past, many of the irretrievable losses of native biodiversity due to biological invasion have gone unrecorded but, today, there is an increasing realization of the ecological costs of this process. Over 40% of the plants listed as threatened and endangered species in the

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Medium 9781780645599

8: Chester

Ambrose, D.C.P.; Manickavasagan, A.; Naik, R. CABI PDF

8 Chester

A.F. Alonge*

University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

8.1  Botany

8.1.1  Introduction

The term ‘vegetable’ is not attributed to green leaves alone but also to the flowers and young seeds of some plants and even to the roots of herbaceous plants that are edible (i.e. not poisonous or toxic to the body).

A vegetable is a plant whose fruits, shoots, stems, leaves and roots or other parts are used for food. They vary in function, i.e. in some cases the leaves serve as food or medicine while in others the stems, young roots and seeds may also serve similar or some other functions. Traditionally, the people of south-eastern Nigeria and other West African countries utilize chester plants (Heinsia crinita) for both food and therapeutic purposes (Fig. 8.1).

very conspicuous leafy calyx lobes, producing yellow or reddish fruits and sweet, acidic fruits which are edible.

8.1.3  Location

Chester is usually found sparsely distributed in tropical rain forest. The shrubs are most common in West Africa, mostly in Nigeria and might also be found in African countries such as Ghana, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire,

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Medium 9781786395917

6 Pollination

Setiawati, U.; Sitepu, B.; Nur, F. CABI PDF




Pollination is effected through a window in the specialized isolation bag.

This reduces the risk of contamination (pollen, disease and insects). Prior to pollination, the area around the isolation bag is sprayed to kill insects, as these can carry unwanted pollen. Pollen is normally mixed and diluted with talcum powder to provide a volume easy to handle. This mixture is blown on to receptive female inflorescences using specialized equipment that has been surface sterilized. The isolation bag is also shaken to spread the pollen over the entire inflorescence. Labels are then attached showing pollination dates and parental genotypes. The isolation bags may be removed once fruit set is established and harvested when fruits are mature.

Pollination is normally carried out in the morning, when nectar is visible on female florets. Mature pollen grains of oil palm are binucleate, containing one vegetative and one generative nucleus. When the pollen grain arrives on a receptive stigma of a female inflorescence, it begins to germinate. The pollen tube grows down the style, carrying with it the two nuclei; the generative nucleus divides to produce two sperm cells, which are deposited into the ovary, where they effect fertilization (see Chapter 1, Section 1.4 of this manual). For more details on oil palm pollen development, see Nasution et al. (2009).

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Medium 9780253357212

21 Dinosaur Remains from the “Sables Verts” (Early Cretaceous, Albian) of the Eastern Paris Basin

Pascal Godefroit Indiana University Press ePub

Eric Buffetaut* and Laetitia Nori

Dinosaur remains have been known from the early Albian marine “Sables verts” (greensand) of the Argonne region of the eastern Paris Basin since the 1870s. The scanty material available was obtained in the course of commercial phosphate exploitation, an activity that ceased in the early twentieth century. This chapter describes dinosaur bones and teeth from the Sables verts collected in the late nineteenth century that have not hitherto been described. The distal end of a humerus is the first indisputable record of an ankylosaur from the Sables verts. Limb bones and teeth are referred to the enigmatic theropod Erectopus, previously described from the Sables verts. Sauropod caudal vertebrae are the first record of that group of dinosaurs from the Sables verts. Dinosaur diversity in the Sables verts is thus higher than previously recognized, but this is certainly only a fraction of the dinosaur fauna from which this assemblage is derived, which probably inhabited the Anglo-Brabant landmass to the north. In contrast to earlier Cretaceous assemblages from Europe, ornithopods are conspicuous by their absence. The mid-Cretaceous dinosaurs of Europe remain poorly known.

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Medium 9781786396211

4 Options for Mutation Breeding in Oil Palm

Nur, F.; Forster, B.P.; Osei, S.A. CABI PDF

Options for Mutation Breeding in

Oil Palm



Theoretical and practical options for mutation breeding in oil palm are discussed. In theory, haploids are considered the ideal targets, as the induced mutation can be fixed instantly on conversion to doubled haploids. However, haploid/doubled haploid technology is in its infancy in oil palm and therefore other practical targets need to be considered. The two obvious targets are pollen and seed, as these are produced in large numbers in breeding and commercial seed production. Schemes for pollen and seed irradiation and subsequent mutant population development are compared. The irradiation of germinated seed is currently considered to be the better approach in terms of convenience and time. A major constraint in mutation breeding in oil palm is the long life cycle. Oil palm has a long juvenile stage, and it takes 4–5 years from sowing a seed to getting seed of the next generation. Traditionally, mutant selection has relied on phenotypic selection, which can only take place in the second mutant generation (M2) due to the presence of physiological disorders and chimeras in the M1. However, now that the oil palm genome has been sequenced, it is feasible to select for mutants genotypically in the

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Medium 9781603447652

12. Landscape, Land Use, and Management in the Coastal Zone of Yucatan Peninsula

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira, Francisco A. Comin, and Luis Capurro Filograsso

To reach the sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems, we must first understand the interrelationship between different physical and biological components controlling the functioning and dynamics that regulate the systems. This ecosystem approach is especially applicable in coastal environments because they are the final destination of all drainage basins regardless of whether the basins are superficial or underground; the hydrological connectivity between inland and coastal marine ecosystems is strong. This connectivity must be acknowledged in all coastal environments analyzed using the ecosystem approach.

In contrast, coastal environments, in addition to the human problem of drinking water supply, have other problems such as rapid urbanization, destruction of wetlands (including salt marshes, sandy beaches, and mangroves), and health issues caused by pollution, collapsing artisanal and industrial fisheries, salinization and pollution of aquifers, siltation and hindrance navigation, increasing muddiness of waters, and decreased biological productivity. All these problems result in coasts that are inhospitable and where sustainable activities are impossible, especially tourism and enjoyment of life.

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Medium 9780253021021

17 Too Many Tracks: Preliminary Description and Interpretation of the Diverse and Heavily Dinoturbated Early Cretaceous “Chicken Yard” Ichnoassemblage (Obernkirchen Tracksite, Northern Germany)

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

17.1. The Chicken Yard level at night, photograph from a higher layer on the east side; artificial low-angle light from the northern margin. The surface is moderately to heavily dinoturbated. Courtesy Tobias Landmann/Schaumburger Zeitung, 2011.

Too Many Tracks: Preliminary Description and Interpretation of the Diverse and Heavily Dinoturbated Early Cretaceous “Chicken Yard” Ichnoassemblage (Obernkirchen Tracksite, Northern Germany)


Annette Richter and Annina Böhme

THE MODERATELY TO HEAVILY DINOTURBATED BERRIAsian Chicken Yard level from the Obernkirchen tracksite (Lower Saxony, northern Germany) is preliminarily described and analyzed. Its ichnoassemblage is characterized by an extraordinary high track density composed of several different morphotypes and size classes of theropod and ornithopod true tracks with an overall similar preservation quality. The occurrence of didactyl tracks of a new, so far unnamed ichnotaxon that can be attributed to deinonychosaurian dinosaurs is particularly remarkable. Despite the high track density and associated frequent overprinting of tracks, several trackways were identified. Their orientation analysis tends toward a primarily bimodal orientation pattern despite the overall chaotic appearance. Also, the history and development of the term “dinoturbation” and its application to Mesozoic dinosaur tracksites are reviewed, and the different factors and scenarios that may have led to high dinoturbation in general and at the Chicken Yard level in particular are discussed together with some recommendations for the analysis of heavily dinoturbated paleosurfaces.

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Medium 9781780646534

20: Changing Paradigm for Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Drug Discovery Research: Where India Stands

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Changing Paradigm for

Intellectual Property Rights

Protection in Drug Discovery

Research: Where India Stands

Pritom Chowdhury,* Sangeeta Borchetia and

Tanoy Bandyopadhyay

Department of Biotechnology, Tocklai Tea Research Institute,

Jorhat, Assam, India

20.1  Introduction

The advances in molecular biology and development of recombinant DNA technology during the

1940s and 1970s, respectively, have opened up a new horizon between nature, biology and human health. The invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique during the 1980s, which many state as the technology breakthrough of the

21st century, continues to play a pivotal role in biological sciences. This revolution led to the elucidation of genetic code, which underpins the central dogma of molecular biology: DNA makes RNA

(specifically messenger or mRNA), which makes proteins. The only exception to this universal theory is RNA tumour viruses, which contain enzymes that use viral RNA as a template for the synthesis of DNA, thereby discovering the principle of reverse transcription (Brown, 2006). These technologies give the biomedical researcher the means to manipulate the gene of their interest, related to a particular disease and identify the genetic codes responsible for expression of a particular disease trait. This advancement in the field of genomics and proteomics has provided information on understanding the mechanism of human diseases.

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Medium 9780253002358

3 An Age of Dinosaurs

Rudolf A. Raff Indiana University Press ePub

We left Canada for Pittsburgh, a mysterious city in Pennsylvania, during the fall of 1949. I know this move was an enormous break in the lives of my parents, hopeful for my father, wrenching for my mother. The trip was just a big adventure into the unknown for me, a train journey to the faraway exotic South. Rail service was efficient and comfortable in those days, with sleepers, dining cars, and authoritative conductors wearing neat blue uniforms. There were lots of windows to gaze out from. The trip was long, and not understanding just how near the equator we were headed, I watched for hours in hopes of seeing exotic creatures by trackside as we crossed into tropical Pennsylvania. Despite my hopes, I was to be disappointed by the scarcity of coiled rattlesnakes and waving palms – but not by Pittsburgh. How could it fail to satisfy? I had never seen a city before. We lived for a couple of months in the Webster Hall Hotel just across the street from Mellon Institute, where my father’s research lab was then located. At night the horizons were lit a lurid orange by the blast furnaces. The glow of the furnaces would fade out to extinction in Pittsburgh by the 1980s, and the steel industry would follow. Best of all, our first temporary home was also just two blocks from the Carnegie Museum with its wonderful gallery of dinosaurs. My first visit to that vast, gloomy exhibit hall was unforgettable. I was eight and had never been in such a cavern. The hall contained towering chocolate-colored skeletons, monsters like nothing living today, standing silent, mouths armed with impressive teeth, leg bones the size of trees. Like most children, I was enraptured by dinosaurs. Naturally, I knew none of the scientific drama and wonderful megalomania that lay behind those skeletons. The dinosaurs themselves were enough for my eight-year old sensibilities.

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Medium 9781780647845

12 Harvesting and Post-harvest Management

Khan, M.M.; Al-Yahyai, R.; Al-Said, F. CABI PDF


Harvesting and Post-harvest


Ahmad Sattar Khan1* and Zora Singh2

Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab,

Pakistan; 2Curtin Horticulture Research Laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin

University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia


The majority of lime fruit produced in the world are consumed as fresh. Preservation of the natural quality of lime fruit after harvest either for local or international markets is a prerequisite to maintain consumer confidence to buy limes. The literature on the harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus is fairly vast and has been reviewed in the past by various scientists, but information on post-harvest handling of limes is very scant. Similar to other horticultural fresh produce (Mahajan et al., 2014), the major challenge in post-harvest handling of limes is how to reduce post-harvest losses. Harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus fruit are important operations, which subsequently determine the storage and shelf life as well as the quality of lime fruit. Like other non-climacteric citrus fruits, limes are harvested at attainment of full maturity leading to maximum acceptability to consumers. Appropriate harvest maturity and method of harvest ensure good post-harvest handling with higher economic returns. Various post-harvest treatments are applied to limes in order to delay senescence and reduce mechanical injuries, physiological disorders and decay.

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Medium 9781780642635

17: Amino Acid Export in Plants

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF


Amino Acid Export in Plants

M.B. Price and S. Okumoto*

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

17 .1  Abstract

Amino acids are the main form of nitrogen transported in the plant body, and the transport of amino acids across cellular and sub-cellular membranes is considered essential for nitrogen economy in plants. In particular, the long-distance transport of amino acids through the phloem and xylem, and the transfer of amino acids between the phloem and xylem during nitrogen cycling, requires both cellular importers and exporters. Even though some of the amino acid carrier proteins were identified more than 15 years ago, the physiological roles of many amino acid transporters are still unclear. There is even less known about the proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of amino acids. Recently, however, there have been reports of amino acid carrier proteins that can mediate both export and import, and might play roles in nitrogen cycling and other physiological processes. In this chapter, we will summarize what is known about plant amino acid exporters and their physiological roles.

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Medium 9780253008831

24 First Report of Probable Therizinosaur (cf. Macropodosaurus) Tracks from North America, with Notes on the Neglected Vertebrate Ichnofauna of the Ferron Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) of Central Utah

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Gerard Gierlinski and Martin Lockley

Although known for Some Years, Vertebrate tracks from the Ferron Sandstone in the San Rafael Swell (Emery County, Utah) have never been described in detail. A new find attributed to cf. Macropodosaurus, one of the least known dinosaur tracks, is the first report of the ichnogenus from North America. Macropodosaurus is otherwise known only from the type locality in central Asia and a recently reported site in Poland. Recent studies suggest that the distinctive tetradactyl tracks may represent the aberrant theropodan group known as the Therizinosauroidea. We also reinterpret the so-called Moore Trackway as that of a quadrupedal rather than a bipedal ornithopod.

The purpose of this chapter is to report on two dinosaur tracksites in the Ferron Sandstone Coal Cliffs region of Emery County, Utah (Fig. 24.1). The first site, alongside 803 Road about 6 km east-southeast of Moore, was previously reported by DeCourten (1998) and referred to by Jones (2001) as the Moore Trackway at the Moore Tracksite. Cassingham (2005) referred to the locality as the Moore Cutoff Road site. Although previously described by Jones (2001), the tracks need interpretation in detail and herein are attributed to a quadrupedal ornithopod with an unusual gait.

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