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Medium 9781576337974

Weather Patterns: ACT Earth Science

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781941011041

5.11 Environmental and Population Changes.GM

Dr. Glen Moulton Currtech Integrations, LLC PDF

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals that are a real problem for the environment. POPs are toxic chemicals that stay active in the environment for a long time. Common examples of

POPs include DDT, aldrin, and chlordane.

POPs have 2 specific problems associated with them.

1. biomagnification

2. human health

POPs can biomagnify, or accumulate in organisms. The main problem is that organisms cannot remove the POPs from their bodies. So, once an organism has consumed the POPs, they keep it in their body forever.

Biomagnification is especially harmful for predators that eat a large number of prey organisms that have consumed the POPs. When this happens, the POPs of the prey accumulate in the predator. For instance, if a POPs is sprayed on a crop to kill the bugs and a bird eats the bugs, then the bird gets the POPs from the bugs. If a bird eats enough bugs, then the bird will die or not reproduce. Remember, POPs stay active for a long time after they have been used. The consumer at the top of the food chain receives the POPs from all previous organisms.

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Medium 9788131807002

CH14-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

14

CELL CULTURE

A

ll biotechnological processes are performed within bioreactors (may be a culture vessel, an open tank or sophisticated fermenters) containing correct medium provided with optimum growth conditions, like pH, temperature, aeration, light (for photosynthetic organisms), etc., The growth of the organisms is the increase of cell material that can be measured in terms of many parameters, like mass (dry weight or fresh weight), total amount of proteins, photosynthetitic pigments, number of cells, etc., Doubling time is the period required for doubling the biomass

(due to cell division as well as due to cell growth) which varies from organism to organism, e.g., for bacteria it is about 0.25–1.00 h, for yeast 1–2 h, for plant cells 20–70 h and for animal cells 15–48 h

(generation time is the time period required for doubling of the cell number due to cell division).

Plant cells (similar to microorganisms) are mainly grown in liquid or solidified nutrient medium for various purposes, like artificial micropropagation of certain plants, production of valuable compounds

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Medium 9788131807002

CH6-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

6

MENDEL�S LAWS OF

INHERITANCE

T

he term ‘genetics’ was coined by W. Bateson (1905) and is the science that deals with heredity and variation. Heredity is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring, whereas variation can be hereditary (that are transmitted from generation to generation and arising mainly due to independent assortment of chromosomes and recombination in sexual reproduction and to some extent due to mutations) or environmental (that do not get transmitted to next generation).

A. Weisman (1834–1914) experimented on inheritance by cutting the tails of mice and allowing them to breed. This was repeated for 22 generations and it was observed that complete tail character was still inherited. He then proposed that the higher organisms contain two types of tissues:

(i) Germplasm: This tissue is meant for reproduction and any change in these cells affects the progeny, e.g., any change in egg or sperm will be transmitted to the offspring.

(ii) Somatoplasm: Its cells do not enter the sex cells and the variations arising here are not transmitted to next generation, e.g. the tails of mice, therefore, the cut tail character was not transmitted to the offsprings of mice with cut tails and they were born with intact tails.

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Medium 9781780644264

13: Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

13

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl

Cindy-Leigh Hamilton,1 Sudeshna MazumdarLeighton,2 Icolyn Amarakoon3 and Marcia Roye1*

Biotechnology Centre, The University of the West Indies,

Mona Campus, Jamaica; 2Department of Botany, Delhi

University, Delhi, India; 3Department of Basic Medical

Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona

Campus, Jamaica

1

13.1  Introduction

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a geminivirus of the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae, has impacted

­tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation world­ wide in tropical and subtropical regions for many years (Picó et al., 1996). The virus was first reported in the Jordan Valley,

Israel, in the 1940s. Years later, it was isolated

(Czosnek et al., 1988) and sequenced (Navot et al., 1991), and was among the first begomoviruses shown to consist of a single genomic

DNA molecule. TYLCV also infects several other economically important crop plants including pepper (Capsicum spp.), bean (Pha­ seolus vulgaris) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.), as well as numerous weed species (Roye et al.,

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Medium 9789383828593

Ch_13_F

K.V.S.G. Murali Krishna Laxmi Publications PDF

Odour Pollution

225

13

ODOUR POLLUTION

�Odour� is undoubtedly the most complex problem of air pollution. Unfortunately, the only good measuring device for odour pollution is the human nose, which is notoriously undependable. Some individuals cannot detect odours easily whereas some have the ability to detect very minute quantities of substances in the range of 1 ppb also. Moreover, people have a mixed reaction to a given odour. Perfumes, very much liked by some people, may be very much disliked by others.

There is a marked disagreement with reference to the offensiveness of selected odours. In addition, there are two other problems which interfere with the detection and measurement of odour. They are (i) unfamiliar odour is more easily detected and is more likely to cause complaints than a familiar one and (ii) because of odour fatigue, given sufficient time, a person may become accustomed to almost any odour and be conscious of it only when a significant change in intensity occurs.

Food processing, oil refining, paper and rubber industries, tanneries, sugar mills, distilleries etc., are the major odour emitting industries. Odours may not cause direct damage but are as much a nuisance as noise, dust or corrosion. Until now, very little attention was given to the control of odorous air contaminants, consequently, Osmics, the science of smell, has remained unexplored to a great extent.

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Medium 9780253356024

2. Soils

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Soils are integral to any functioning ecosystem, providing the nutrients for plants and habitat for many vertebrate animals and insects, and multitudes of microorganisms. They require hundreds of years to develop and are good indicators of the climate, vegetation, and organisms involved in their formation. Therefore, knowledge of them provides suggestions for how best to use landscapes for productive agriculture or for the preservation and/or restoration of more natural conditions. Current soil characteristics indicate that most of Indiana was covered (in “presettlement” times, shortly before 1800) by beech/maple and oak/hickory forests, with smaller areas of dry prairie, savanna, and wetlands in the northwestern portion of the state.

Almost all of this book’s information on soils is presented in this chapter, rather than being distributed among the 8 habitat chapters, as is the case for wildlife. We will first discuss how soils are identified and classified, and describe the national and state-level databases on soil distribution. We will then survey the soils of Indiana geographically from north to south, using the state’s 10 natural regions, which were defined with some consideration of soil types (Homoya et al. 1985).

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Medium 9781610910484

WATER BRIEF 1 - Bottled Water and Energy

Peter H. Gleick Island Press ePub

Peter H. Gleick and Heather Cooley





The consumption of bottled waterfresh water sold in individual, consumer-sized containersis growing rapidly. More than 200 billion liters of bottled water were sold in 2008 (the last year for which reliable, public data are available), mostly in North America and Europe, but with rapidly expanding sales in many developing countries as well.16

During that same year, the Beverage Marketing Corporation, which tracks beverage sales, estimated that consumers in the United States purchased around 33 billion liters of bottled water, or an average of more than 110 liters (nearly 30 gallons) per person. Bottled water sales have increased by 70 percent since 2001 in the United States, though they declined slightly in 2008 from the previous year. They now far surpass the sales of milk and beer (Table WB 1.1). The only beverage category with larger sales is carbonated soft drinks.

Bottled water is purchased by consumers for a wide variety of reasons, ranging from convenience to worry over the availability and quality of potable water from municipal systems. But new efforts are under way to cut the use of bottled water and to address its major environmental and social consequences. Among the issues of growing public concern are the impacts of water extractions on local watersheds, equity issues associated with commercializing a public resource, the environmental consequences of producing and disposing of plastic bottles, and the energy (and resulting greenhouse gas emissions) required to bottle water (Gleick 2010). We address the issue of energy here (and in detail in Gleick and Cooley 2009).

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Medium 9780253016065

5 Bones That Turned to Stone: Systematics

Rachel C. Benton Indiana University Press ePub

5.1. Hackberry endocarps, including specimens from the Brule Formation of Wyoming (top row and lower left three squares on the bottom row), and modern specimens (lower right square). The fossil endocarps are typically nearly smooth, with only a trace of the reticulation pattern seen in the modern specimens. The fossil endocarps occur in at least two size ranges. The original calcite shells have been recrystallized into coarse calcite crystals. The endocarps have two outer shells of calcium carbonate that can separate. The top row of fossils shows a progression from a complete endocarp (upper left) to an almost completely separated pair of shells (upper right). Grid in centimeters. Photo by the authors.

The sheer abundance and diversity of the paleontological record within the White River Badlands is indeed impressive. This has been well documented by the extensive amount of scientific literature that has been published on this region over the past 150 years. As a result, the fauna of the Big Badlands has played a key role in our understanding of how the North American biota has evolved and adapted in response to climatic change. The enormous depth of this topic has forced us to set some limits. The systematic discussions of paleontology are limited to taxa that have a published occurrence within a 100-mile radius of the Cedar Pass Area within Badlands National Park. However, many of the images featured in the systematics chapter come from areas outside the scope of this project but are of the same genus and species found in published records for Badlands National Park and the surrounding region.

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Medium 9781780646138

36: On the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources in Europe: A Stakeholder Analysis

Maxted, N. CABI PDF

36 

On the Conservation and Sustainable

Use of Plant Genetic Resources in Europe:

A Stakeholder Analysis

L. Frese,1* A. Palmé,2 G. Neuhaus,1 L. Bülow,1 N. Maxted,3

G. Poulsen2 and C. Kik4

1

Julius Kühn Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants,

Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops, Quedlinburg, Germany;

2

Nordic Genetic Resource Center, Alnarp, Sweden; 3School of Biosciences,

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 4Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN), Wageningen University and Research Centre,

Wageningen, the Netherlands

36.1  Introduction

Europe will in the future be facing increasing challenges for food security, largely caused by a growing human population and a changing climate (Underwood et  al., 2013). In addition, other factors such as changing consumer demands and environmental regulations are likely to have a considerable impact on food production. Actions on several different levels are needed to address these challenges (Underwood et  al., 2013). A central issue is the genetic enhancement of crops to give large, high-quality harvests in sustainable agricultural production systems.

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Medium 9780870819247

CHAPTER SEVEN Norris Geyser Basin

T. Scott Bryan University Press of Colorado ePub

The Norris Geyser Basin is very different from the other geyser basins in Yellowstone in several ways. Only the geyser eruptions look the same. The casual visitor to Norris immediately notices that the scene is stark. The Porcelain Basin is a barren depression almost totally devoid of plant life, drab gray without the pastel shades of other areas. Runoff channels are sporadically lined with mats of true algae, such as purple-brown Zygogonium and green Cyanidium, Galdiera, and Chlorella, but not with the yellow, orange, and brown cyanobacteria typical of the other geyser basins. The few other visible colors are dominated by the rich orange-brown of iron oxide minerals, occasional spots of brilliant red and orange arsenic sulfide compounds, and rare olive-green patches of iron arsenate hydrate (the mineral scorodite).

Norris’s unique appearance results from the presence of acid water, which is not common in the other geyser basins. Large amounts of sulfur are brought to the surface. In the springs it forms sulfuric acid when it is oxidized by the metabolism of another primitive form of life, a member of Archaea called Sulfolobus. The siliceous sinter deposited in the acid water is spiny and does not form the thick masses so common in the alkaline areas such as the Upper Geyser Basin. Norris does have some springs of alkaline water, and they tend to deposit geyserite at rates greater than elsewhere.

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Medium 9780253002303

3 Geological and Ecological History of South America during the Cenozoic Era

Fariña, Richard A. ePub

3.1. Polar view map showing Gondwana, the supercontinent of the south, as it appeared in the late Mesozoic, when it started to split up into the current landmasses.

Illustrated by Sebastián Tambusso.

 

In this chapter, we provide a broad outline of the tectonic, climatic, and biotic changes that occurred in South America over the course the Cenozoic, focusing on the mammals, given that they have served as the main basis for establishing the biostratigraphic framework in South America. Our story will extend only through to the Pliocene (because the changes in South America before this time were essentially self-contained, given its long isolation from North America and, through it, other landmasses) so that we may consider, in Chapter 4, the North American mammals and their fate during this earlier period. With the stage thus set for subsequent events, we return, in Chapter 5, to the thread of the South American climate and biota, consider the events and conditions that led to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, and explore the changes that occurred once the faunas from the two continents began to intermingle during the Pliocene and, especially, the Pleistocene.

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Medium 9781780644264

17: Mealybug Wilt Disease

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

17

Mealybug Wilt Disease

Cherie Gambley1* and John Thomas2

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Stanthorpe,

Queensland, Australia; 2Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane,

Queensland, Australia

1

17.1  Introduction

Mealybug wilt disease (MWD) is a serious field disease of pineapples worldwide that was first described in Hawaii in 1910 (German et al.,

1992). Depending on the age of the plant at the onset of the disease, reductions in fruit yields range from 30% to 55% in Hawaii (Sether and

Hu, 2002a). The disease is often referred to as isolated wilt as it typically occurs in secluded patches within the crop or along the edges

(Sether et al., 2010) as shown in Fig. 17.1.

MWD is thought to be caused by a complex involving viruses, mealybugs and ants. The viruses are transmitted by mealybugs, which in turn are tended by ants. Although a number of distinct viruses have been associated with the disease, the identity of the causal agent(s) has not been determined unequivocally.

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Medium 9788131804742

ch2-2.pdf

Dr. A. Jayakumaran Nair Laxmi Publications PDF

44

Basics of Biotechnology

Proteins-Structure and Functions

Proteins or polypeptides play an outstanding part in every cell activities. They act as biological catalysts

(= enzymes), take part in the regulation of the cell’s metabolism and in the interaction between cells and are required for the generation of specific structures. They are linear chains consisting of a sequence of

20 amino acids in different combinations linked exclusively by peptide bonds. The different combination and sequence of amino acids are responsible for the diverse nature and functions of proteins

(Table 2.6).

Figure 2.23 Formation of peptide bond.

The peptide bonds are formed by the reaction of the primary amino group of one amino acid with primary carboxyl group of another amino acid with the elimination of a molecule of water

(Fig. 2.23). Thus it is a condensation reaction. This type of linkage causes a polarity for the polypeptide chain. One end has the amino group and is termed as the N-terminus, while the other end terminates by a free carboxyl group and is termed as the C-terminus. Amino acid sequences are written from N- to Cterminus, the direction in which protein synthesis proceeds. The exact sequence of amino acids (also called the protein’s primary structure) is determined by the nucleotide sequence of the gene, the part of the DNA strand, which codes for the protein. The 3-dimensional structure and the function of the protein very closely depended on the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide.

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Medium 9781780643595

4 Hierarchical Models for Evaluating Surveillance Strategies: Diversity Within a Common Modular Structure

Edited by Frith Jarrad, Samantha Low-Choy and Kerrie Mengerson CABI PDF

4

Hierarchical Models for Evaluating

Surveillance Strategies: Diversity

Within a Common Modular

Structure

Samantha Low-Choy*

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Abstract

4.1 Introduction

This chapter introduces a hierarchical modelling approach to biosecurity surveillance, arguing that this provides a common structure for representing many different existing models, ostensibly proposed within different quantitative paradigms. A Bayesian formulation is demonstrated to provide a natural framework for analysing such hierarchical models. The chapter commences with a description of Bayesian models for estimation and prediction of pest prevalence as well as detectability, and uses this as motivation for describing the concept of

Bayesian learning. The role of prior distributions in facilitating estimation with uncertainty is then discussed in detail.

Attention then turns to the process of constructing hierarchical Bayesian models for surveillance, including how to model search effort, detectability, prevalence and other important features. The generality of the approach is illustrated through a commentary on stochastic scenario trees, via three-stage Bayesian hierarchical models, three-stage cluster sampling and four-stage multi-scale detection. The chapter concludes with comments on how to choose among quantitative methods, and a comparative discussion of features in the modular modelbased view described here.

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