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Medium 9780253018328

Part Four: The Vertebrate Chassis Moves to Land

Matthew F. Bonnan Indiana University Press ePub

When something left the ocean, to crawl high above the foam.

RUSH, High Water

IN THE MOVIE COMMANDO, ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGERS CHARACTER holds a villain over a cliff and says, “Listen, loyalty is very touching. But it is not the most important thing in your life right now. But what is important is gravity!” Such a quote could equally well apply to our common ancestor: without the buoyancy of water, gravity was one of the most ‘pressing’ issues facing the early tetrapods. If we were being strictly chronological, then the next order of business would be an examination of these early transitional tetrapods and their relatives. Until recently, that would have been very difficult to do, because all that was known were animals like Eusthenopteron and primitive but full-blown tetrapods. However, the last few decades have seen an explosion of new finds of early tetrapods and transitional tetrapodomorphs that have given us some incredible insights into the origins of the tetrapod chassis. In addition, new research on previously known specimens has revealed some surprising results.

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Medium 9781603442909

Part 4

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra, Luis E. Marin, Alberto Trejo-Garcia, and Virgil L. Sharpton

In 1980 Luis Alvarez et al. proposed a revolutionary theory: the large mass extinction that occurred at the CretaceousTertiary (KT) boundary (65 million years ago) was a consequence of the impact of a large bolide with Earth (Alvarez et al. 1980). This theory was considered highly controversial, particularly because it took over a decade to discover the crater. However, research about these phenomena on Earth became relevant only a couple of decades ago. The investigations on some important craters, such as Sudbury crater (e.g., Dressler and Sharpton 1999), Manson crater (e.g., Grieve 1989), Popigai crater (e.g., Masaitis et al. 1999), and Ries crater (e.g., Stffler 1977; Hrz et al. 1983; Newsom et al. 1990; Von Engelhardt 1990), along with about 120 other craters discovered so far on the surface of Earth, proved that these events are not as rare as once thought. With the discovery of Alvarez et al. (1980) it was also proposed that these kinds of phenomena might have had a relevant, if not main, role in the evolution of life on Earth. In this chapter we present a brief summary of the importance of the Chicxulub impact crater, its discovery, and how it influences regional hydrogeology.

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Medium 9781780646534

4: Checks and Balances in Biotechnology-Related Patents: In Agreement to the Indian Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Checks and Balances in

Biotechnology-Related Patents:

In Agreement to the Indian Patents

(Amendment) Act, 2005

Om Prakash1* and Poonam C. Singh2


Maharana Pratap Govt P.G. College, Hardoi, Uttar Pradesh; 2CSIR-National

Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

4.1  Introduction

A new idea or information may be kept confidential indefinitely; however, it is equally unmanageable to keep the same idea a secret while reaping its benefits.

The intellectual property (IP) protections provide confidentiality, management and provide commercial opportunities to a new idea with a cost for a defined period. India has a vibrant culture, unique lifestyle, lots of traditional knowledge and a dynamic economy, which provides unique knowledge and innovations leading to IP (Birtchnell, 2013). This national asset needs to be protected and commercialized after a qualified evaluation for the benefit of both inventor and people. In India the competent authority is ‘The Indian Patent Office’ (IPO), which carries out the evaluation following the provisions of ‘The Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005’ (IPAA2005).1 Though the fundamentals of patent laws are the same all over the world, procedural differences exist, which make them stringent or liberal. However, patent evaluation is more of a techno-legal evaluation than an exact scientific evaluation.

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Medium 9781780643236

17 Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete Phytopathogens

Ganesan, S. CABI PDF


Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete


M. Tofazzal Islam,1 M. Motaher Hossain2 and

M. Mahfuzur Rahman3*


of Biotechnology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural

University, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Bangabandhu

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh;

3WVU Extension Service, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

17.1 Introduction

Intensive agriculture is heavily dependent on synthetic pesticides for pest management. This high pesticide use in agriculture causes environmental pollution and is a serious threat to the lives of non-target organisms including humans.

The deleterious effects of pesticides on various terrestrial and aquatic organisms have been documented in many reports (Dayan et al., 1999).

On the other hand, diverse classes of natural products discovered from plants and environmental microorganisms have been found to inhibit growth and reproduction of plant pests.

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Medium 9781780645599

1: Aloe Vera

Ambrose, D.C.P. CABI PDF


Aloe Vera

Ravindra Naik1*, J.S. Rutra Priya1 and R. Arul Mari2

ICAR – Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Regional Centre,

Coimbatore, India; 2Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India


1.1  Botany

1.1.1  Introduction

Aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., syn. A. barbadensis Mill.), a traditional medicinal plant, is used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The word ‘aloe’ has its roots in the Arabic word ‘alloeh’, which means

‘radiance’. The innermost part of the leaf is a clear, soft, moist and slippery tissue that consists of large thin-walled parenchyma cells in which water is held in the form of viscous mucilage (Newton, 2004; Naik and Annamalai, 2013). Therefore, the thick fleshy leaves of aloe plants contain not only cell wall carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose, but also storage carbohydrates such as acetylated mannans (Ni et al., 2004).

Aloe vera is an industrial crop and in the food industry it has been utilized for the preparation of health food drinks, beverages such as tea and milk, and ice cream and confectionery. The gel from aloe vera also finds application in the cosmetic and toiletries industry for the preparation of creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos and facial cleansers.

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Medium 9781780644639

10 Policy Options Towards Climate Resilience: Agent-based Assessment of Farm Households in West Africa

Singh, N.P. CABI PDF


Policy Options Towards Climate

Resilience: Agent-based

Assessment of Farm

Households in West Africa

T. Wossen,1* S. Nedumaran2 and T. Berger3


Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Hanoi,

Vietnam; 2International Crops Research Institute for the

Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 3Institute of

Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and

Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany


This chapter will present the impacts of farm-level adaptation strategies on farm household income and food security under the changing climate in Northern region of Ghana using a bio-economic modelling approach. The modeling approach captures the heterogeneity of important resources of farm households such as access to credits, irrigation and non-farm income sources under the context of climatic change.

10.1 Introduction

While reducing poverty and ensuring food security is a major priority of many governments of developing countries, the complex and ever-changing impacts of climate variability coupled with dependencies on weather-sensitive agriculture has become a major threat for poverty and food insecurity reduction efforts. According to the Food and

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Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 11 Family Solanaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF


Family Solanaceae


Origin and History

The potato is an ancient crop. Potatoes were used as food at least 8,000 years ago according to carbon dating of starch grains found in archaeological excavations in the Andean regions of Peru and

Bolivia (Brown, 1993). The potato was unknown to the outside world until the Spanish explorer and conqueror Gonzalo Jiminez de Quesada (1499–

1579) and his men took it to Spain. The Spanish thought the potato was a kind of truffle and called them “tartuffo”. However, potatoes soon became a standard supply item on the Spanish ships because sailors who ate them did not suffer from scurvy

(Brown, 1993).

Both wild and cultivated potato plants survive well in soil because of their high moisture content and starch and other nutrient reserves, which enable repeated regeneration of shoots. Unharvested tubers remain dormant in the soil but sprout under favorable conditions, enabling continued survival without replanting. The Inca’s ability to preserve harvested potato tubers as chuño, a product made by the mashing and naturally drying tubers during repeated freezing and thawing cycles at high-elevations, increased their versatility as a food crop.

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Medium 9780874217070

Topographical Memoir of Charles H. Dimmock

Steven K. Madsen Utah State University Press ePub

Terby Barnes found this important manuscript in the Rodgers Family Papers on a research trip in 1984 to Washington, D.C. She subsequently transcribed the document and shared it with me. (A typescript of her transcription can be found in the holdings of the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City.) In 2007 I visited the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress and made my own copy and transcription of the file, published here.

Dimmock wrote the 23–page manuscript on legal-sized paper, possibly supplied from the law firm in Maryland where he worked. In April 1860, Macomb “ran over to ‘Balt[imore]’ and …transacted my business with Mr. Dimmock.” Macomb possibly obtained the document from him at that time. More likely, he picked up the 1860 manuscript map drawn by both men, now located in the Cartographic Division of the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Why Macomb failed to enter Dimmock’s topographical data in his report of the San Juan Exploring Expedition is open to speculation. One reason might be that Dimmock later joined the Confederacy in the Civil War which Macomb would have considered treasonous.

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Medium 9780874217919

6 The Way It Was

Bruce L. Smith Utah State University Press ePub

I do not want to settle down in the houses you would build for us. I love to roam over the wild prairie. There I am free and happy. When we sit down, we grow pale and die.

—Chief White Bear, Kiowa

Traveling the reservation, I found the Christian mission church remained the most prominent building in many small towns: St. Edward’s, St. Michael’s, St. Stephen’s. Those stone and log chambers were where God-fearing men and women found the Great Spirit, rather than in the peaks and plains, rivers and woodlands, or in the eagle and bison. The incongruity was no less poignant than announced by a motel I once passed on Route 66 near San Bernardino, California. The motel consisted of 19 stucco tepees. The sign in front read, “Sleep In A Wigwam—Get More For Your Wampum.”

A half mile beyond the gravestone of Sacagawea and another two miles southwest of Chief Washakie’s resting place stand the log buildings of Father John Roberts’ mission, the reservation’s first, built in 1887. For 55 years in the adjacent Shoshone Episcopal Mission Boarding School, on lands consecrated by tribal rituals, Father Roberts taught Indian girls their Christian catechism. To some, these juxtapositions symbolize how missionaries brought the Word of Christ and a proper education to Native Americans. To others, it is a reminder of how waves of Spanish, French, and English intruders conquered, subjugated, and culturally cleansed hundreds of American nations.

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Medium 9781457183515


Mark Frauenfelder Maker Media, Inc ePub


A heated bed and a sleek enclosure offer an affordable multimaterial option.


Price as tested $899

Print volume 4.7″×4.7″×4.7″

Heated bed? Yes

Print materials ABS, PLA

OS supported Mac, Windows

Print untethered? Yes, after file is sent from computer

Open-source hardware? No

Open-source software? No

Printer control software Up software

Slicing software Up software

Looking like a futuristic kitchen appliance, the $899 Up Mini from Chinese company Delta Micro Factory (PP3DP) is no DIY kit project — it’s designed entirely with the average consumer in mind. It can print compact volumes up to 4.7″×4.7″×4.7” on a removable perf board, which sits on a heated PCB bed.

Setting up this printer is almost as easy as plugging in a microwave and pressing the popcorn button. Just connect the printer and install the Up software from the website; it’s easy to navigate and download the latest version for Mac or PC. Grab the PDF manual while you’re there.

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Medium 9781449396596

21. Observing the Effect of Rhizobia on Plant Growth

Robert Bruce Thompson Maker Media, Inc ePub

Youll need the following items to complete this lab session. (The standard kit for this book, available from www.thehomescientist.com, includes the items listed in the first group.)

Ammonium nitrate1

Fertilizer, nitrogen-free (concentrate A)

Fertilizer, nitrogen-free (concentrate B)

Fertilizer, nitrogen-free (concentrate C)

Graduated cylinder, 10 mL

Inoculating loop

Rhizobia inoculum1

Ruler, mm scale

Seeds, bush lima bean



Chlorine laundry bleach

Foam cups, 16 oz./500 mL

Lamp, fluorescent plant (optional)

Paper towel


Plastic wrap (Saran or similar)

Soft drink bottle, 2-liter

Vermiculite (or other sterile growth medium)

Water, distilled

If you purchase materials separately rather than using the kit, make sure to obtain a rhizobia culture that is suitable for lima beans. Rhizobia is available in many variants, each of which is specific to a particular plant or range of plants. For example, rhizobia that is suitable for alfalfa or clover does not work for lima beans, and vice versa. Rhizobia cultures sold in lawn and garden stores may contain a mixture of many rhizobia variants that works with several plants. Read the label.

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Medium 9781607320692

SEVEN The Chicago Behavioral Science Committee

Debora Hammond University Press of Colorado ePub

The Chicago Behavioral
Science Committee

The great variety of living entities that evolution has produced are complexly structured open systems. They maintain within their boundaries their thermodynamically improbable energy states by continuous interactions with their environments. Inputs of both matter-energy and information are essential for living systems. The total inputs are lower in entropy and higher in information than the total outputs. Living systems theory is an integrated conceptual approach to the study of biological and social living systems, the technologies associated with them, and the ecological systems of which they are all parts.

—James Grier Miller and Jessie L. Miller, Living Systems1

At the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1953, members of the University of Chicago Committee on the Behavioral Sciences presented a symposium on the use of homeostatic models in the study of behavior. In his introduction, James G. Miller explained that the group had coined the term “behavioral sciences” in 1949 to refer to “all the overlapping biological and social disciplines concerned with the study of behavior, human or subhuman,” and that they had been meeting regularly during the previous year “to work toward the development of integrated theory.” While they agreed unanimously on the use of formal models in such an endeavor, there were considerable divergences in their respective approaches, reflected in Miller’s opening comment, which might apply equally to the evolution of general-systems thought: “Throughout our papers you may expect to hear between our lines Pogo the Possum’s cry of academic freedom, which has served for a year to unite us in brotherly schism: ‘I disagree with every word you say, and will fight to your death for my right to deny it.’ ”2

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Medium 9781449338145

2. Gadget: Tropospheric Gas Detector

Patrick Di Justo Maker Media, Inc ePub

We can easily go several hours without drinking water. We can comfortably go the better part of a day without eating food. But try and go more than a few minutes without breathing. (No, dont really try.) Understanding the composition of the lower atmospherethe troposphereis among the most important environmental measurements we can take.

Everything floating around the tropospherenitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and all sorts of pollutionwinds up in our lungs, on our plants, in our food, and in our water (see Figure2-1). It dusts our windows, our automobiles, and our buildings. For this reason, the authors (as well as organizations like the American Lung Association) believe that its vitally important to know whats inside every breath we take.

In the old days, when people wanted to know what was in the atmosphere, they used chemically-treated filter paper, and hung it in a breeze. The chemicals reacted with whatever was in the air and would respond by changing color. Or they bubbled the atmosphere through water and measured the different compounds that resulted as gas dissolved in water. This kind of work could only be performed in a dedicated chemistry lab.

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Medium 9789380386607


Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF






Mitochondria (Gr. mito - thread, chondrion = granule) are filamentous or granular cytoplasmic organelles of all aerobic cells of higher animals and plants and also of certain microorganism including algae, protozoa and fungi. They are found in all eukaryotic cells except RBCs of mammals. The mitochondrion was first discovered by Kolliker in

1850 as granular structure in the striated muscles.


Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is relatively small, simple, double stranded and an exception for the DNA of some algae and protozoans, it is circular. The size of mitochondrial genome is very much larger in plants than in animals. Thus, mtDNA varies in length from about 5 µm in most animal species to 30 µm or so higher in plants. It is localized in matrix and is probably attached to the inner membrane at the point where DNA duplication starts.

Mitochondrial Ribosomes

Mitochondria contain ribosomes (called mitoribosomes) and polyribosomes. In yeast and Neurospora, ribosomes have been described to a 70S class, similar to that of bacteria.

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Medium 9781603442909

Northern Gulf of Mexico

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

James G. Flocks, Nicholas F. Ferina, and Jack L. Kindinger

This paper provides a summary of previous studies and a synthesis of the surficial geology of the MississippiAlabama shelf, located between the modern Mississippi River Delta and the Florida carbonate platform. Presently, sedimentation processes on the shelf are a function of prevailing winds and currents; however, in the past, the shelf was the focus of numerous delta cycles. Major episodes of deposition and erosion on the shelf have been primarily in response to oscillations in sea level. As sea level fell during the last ice age, deltas moved across the shelf to the shelf edge, incising river valleys across the middle shelf and creating stacked delta sequences on the slope. The delta complexes regressed during the last sea-level rise, infilling valleys while also providing sediments for erosion. Shoals were formed throughout these processes and are found along the shelf and modern shoreline. Data collected from the shelf, incorporated into this summary, include bathymetric, geophysical, and sediment cores. The purpose of the report is to integrate past studies with archived data to provide a comprehensive overview of the geology and geomorphology of the shelf. In addition, areas of further study are identified in the summary as a bulleted list of future needs and goals.

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