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Medium 9781780642895

9 Land Managed for Multiple Services

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

9

Land Managed for Multiple

Services

Richard Aspinall

James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK

9.1 Introduction

Land systems and their dynamics are managed to provide a variety of ecosystem services used by individuals and society. This chapter uses examples from agricultural land use to examine the nature and sources of the multiple goods and services produced by land systems as a set of services that are directly influenced by land management.

First, the global-scale and scope of land change and pressures on land are reviewed briefly; this reveals the extent of the impacts of management on the global system. Second, the specification of land systems as coupled human–environment systems incorporating natural, technological, financial and human capital and flows is emphasized. This system’s formulation supports the analysis and understanding of land dynamics at multiple spatial, temporal and organizational scales, and helps to reveal the full range of inputs of different forms of capital, and also the importance of human–environment relationships in the production of ecosystem goods and services. Third, the nature of different goods and services produced from land, and the sources of these goods as they relate to agricultural land systems and land management are reviewed, using examples based on farming in Scotland. This provides an understanding of ecosystem services that are based on land and land management, and emphasizes the roles of human activities in the delivery of ecosystem services. It (i) discusses the human processes by which ecosystem services are realized in land

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Medium 9781576337134

Reactions: AP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 19 Family Polygonaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

19

Family Polygonaceae

RHUBARB

Origin and History

Rhubarb has an ancient history. Its roots were used medicinally as a laxative in cool regions of Asia by the

Chinese 4,500 years ago (Grubben, 2004). Traders introduced rhubarb to Europe through Italy from the east in about 1608 (Thompson and Kelly, 1957).

However, rhubarb did not become an important food crop until the 18th century in Great Britain (Grubben,

2004). The use of rhubarb as food is a relatively recent innovation and coincided with the availability of affordable sugar to common people. In 1815 it was accidently discovered that rhubarb could be “forced” to produce petioles during the winter when warm soil was placed over a quiescent plant at a construction site during the winter months. Forced rhubarb became very popular as a fruit substitute because it provided a colorful, fruity-tasting vegetable in the winter when fresh fruits and vegetables were otherwise not available. The appreciation of rhubarb as a spring and summer garden vegetable also grew during the 1800s. Rhubarb was introduced to the USA, most likely from Italy in the late 1700s, and by 1806 it was widely grown in New England (Thompson and Kelly,

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Medium 9788131803660

Ch_5b

Dipak Chandra Ghosh, Nripesh Chandra Ghosh, and Prabir Kumar Haldar Laxmi Publications PDF

Quantum Mechanics

& 393

According to kinetic theory of gases, the average kinetic energy of the material particle,

1 2

3 mL = k T

2

2 h l= k : Boltzmann constant

3m kT

E= then

n Group velocity : vg =

dw dE

= dK dp

where E = hw and p = hK

w

K n Heisenberg�s Uncertainty Principle :

· The product of uncertainties in determining the position (Dx) and momentum (Dp) of a particle at the same instant is Dx Dp ³ h

· The uncertainty in determining energy (DE) and time (Dt) is given by DEDt ³ h

· The uncertainty in determining angular momentum (DJ) and angle (Dq) is given by

DJDq ³ h

n Phase velocity : vp =

Applications :

1. Non-existence of free electron in an atomic nucleus

2. Radius of the Bohr�s first orbit. o dinger Wave Equation : n Schr && odinger equation

1. Time independent Schr &&

2 m

D2y + 2 E - V y = 0 h

a

f

2. Time dependent Schr && odinger equation h 2

¶y

Ñ + V y = ih

¶t

2m

F

H

I

K

Ñ2 º

where

¶2

¶2

¶2

+ 2 + 2

2

¶x

¶y

¶z

n Expectation values :

· Expectation value of any observable A is defined by

$ y dx dy dz

= y * A

z

· Expectation value of momentum is

=

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Medium 9781576753705

9: For Better Or for Worse

Seidensticker, Bob Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

“MY NAME IS OZYMANDIAS, king of kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!” This quote from Percy Shelley’s poem “Ozymandias” (1817) is the inscription on a statue of a ruler better known today as Ramses II of Egypt. The once-mighty statue now lies broken and scattered in the desert. The poem ends: “Round the decay of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, the lone and level sands stretch far away.”

Like the works of King Ramses, something that seems a permanent feature can fade away, ignored and forgotten as it is replaced by something new. Technological wonders that are new and exciting today are taken for granted tomorrow. In a similar way, our interaction with technology can be like a mediocre marriage, where initial infatuation fades and we take our partner’s good points for granted—for better or for worse.

In part I we surveyed the technology landscape, finding and fixing important misconceptions. In part II we will focus on the constancy of technological change. Like each generation’s conceit that it invented sex, too often we deceive ourselves that we’re the only generation struggling with and delighting in technology change. Rather, this survey will show a very long and interesting history. 124

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Medium 9781786392015

16 Geothermal Generation

Henderson, P. CABI PDF

16

Geothermal Generation

Geothermal electricity generation uses the heat found in the earth’s crust. This heat in part dates back to the hot origins of our planet and also from heat generated by radioactive decay. While it is generally considered a renewable resource, it is possible to locally exhaust a heat source by removing more heat or water than is being generated by the earth. The actual design of the power plant depends on the temperature of the resource. Generally geothermal resources do not supply steam at the temperatures used in a conventional steam turbine. Flash plants use water at temperatures greater than 200°C; the steam is separated from the water, which is passed back into the reservoir. Binary-cycle power plants have been designed to utilize cooler geothermal reservoirs. Hot water is pumped from a geothermal well, passed through a heat exchanger and the cooled water is returned to the underground reservoir. A second fluid with a low boiling point, typically a butane or pentane hydrocarbon, is pumped at pressure through the heat exchanger, vaporized and then passed through a turbine. The vapour exiting the turbine is then condensed by cold air radiators or cold water and cycled back through the heat exchanger.

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Medium 9781909287020

1.3.Cell signalling

Becerra, Dr José Chartridge Books Oxford ePub
Medium 9780749469276

09 Be unforgettable: satisfy the customer’s memory – Stage 4 of the Neuromarketing method

Patrick M Georges Kogan Page ePub

09

Be unforgettable

Satisfy the customers memory Stage 4 of the Neuromarketing method

Pleasure and emotions have opened the doors to your customers memory. Now you must stay there, because without memory there can be no decision to purchase.

This fourth stage of the Neuromarketing method attempts to:

Increase your customers memory

If it is repeated, it is retained and must be true

The method of increasing the memory of customers through repetition is well known to marketers and sales representatives. As set out by Georges (2004a):

Describe the unique benefits of your product in one half-page. Learn them by heart and follow the procedure. I will repeat it to you to be perfectly clear: one hour with the potential customer. Right at the outset, tell him exactly what you have written; repeat it after one minute; repeat it after 10 minutes and repeat it just before leaving him. Send him this text the day after; send him the offer one week later, accompanied by your text, and your first reminder is three weeks later.

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Medium 9781780643236

9 Role of Natural Products in Disease Management of Rice

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

9

Role of Natural Products in Disease

Management of Rice

D. Krishnaveni,* D. Ladhalakshmi, G.S. Laha, V. Prakasam,

Asma Jabeen, S.K. Mangrauthia and M. Srinivas Prasad

Department of Plant Pathology, Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India

9.1 Introduction

Rice plays an important role in ensuring the food security of India. It has great importance in Indian culture and from birth to death its existence always prevails. Almost half of the world’s population consumes rice as a staple food. India contributes 21.5% of global rice production. Within the country, rice occupies onequarter of the total cropped area and contributes about 40–43% of total food grain production.

The major rice-producing states in India are

West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar

Pradesh (Shobha Rani et al., 2010). With the advent of significant progress in the areas of agricultural research, extension, education and other infrastructural facilities, there has been a corresponding increase in rice production in

India. At the same time the adoption of improved technologies such as high yielding varieties by the average farmer is very low.

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Medium 9781780645216

7: Microbial Nanoformulation: Exploring Potential for Coherent Nano-farming

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

7 

Microbial Nanoformulation: Exploring

Potential for Coherent Nano-farming

Sandhya Mishra,1 Chetan Keswani,2 Akanksha Singh,1

Braj Raj Singh,3 Surya Pratap Singh2 and Harikesh Bahadur Singh1*

1

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 3Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials),

Aligarh Muslim University, India

Abstract

Recently nanotechnology has emerged as the sixth revolutionary technology after the green revolution of the

1960s and the biotechnology revolution of the 1990s. Today when agricultural scientists are facing major challenges such as reduced crop production, nutrient deficiency and climate change, nanotechnology has offered promising applications for precision farming. This innovative technology embraces wide applications such as plant disease control, enhanced nutrient uptake, improved plant growth and sustained release of agrochemicals.

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Medium 9781780644011

18: Varietal Generation and Output

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF

18 

Varietal Generation and Output

T.S. Walker,* A. Alene, J. Ndjuenga, R. Labarta, Y. Yigezu,

A. Diagne, R. Andrade, R. Muthoni Andriatsitohaina,

H. De Groote, K. Mausch, C. Yirga, F. Simtowe, E. Katungi,

W. Jogo, M. Jaleta, S. Pandey and D. Kumara Charyulu

The substantive findings in Chapters 6–17 are synthesized and reviewed in this and the following chapter, which draw heavily on Walker et al.,

2014. Findings are synthesized from two perspectives: a cross-sectional analysis across the

20 crops in 2009–2011 and a before-and-after comparison with the 1998 benchmark and the

2009–2011 data. Findings in this chapter are organized from the evaluation framework of inputs and outputs that was described in Chapter 3.

Hypotheses from that chapter are revisited at the end of each thematic section. Where appropriate, results from South Asia reported in Chapters 13 and 14 are cited to provide a spatial benchmark for the outputs of data analysis in sub-Saharan

Africa (SSA).

Varietal Generation: Full-Time

Equivalent Scientists by Crop

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Medium 9781780644264

10: Sugarcane Mosaic

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G.; Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

10

Sugarcane Mosaic

Laura Silva-Rosales,1* Ricardo I. Alcalá-Briseño2 and Fulgencio Espejel1

Plant-Virus Interaction Laboratory, Department of Genetic

Engineering at Cinvestav-Unidad Irapuato, Guanajuato,

Mexico; 2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida,

Gainesville, Florida, USA

1

Monocot species, in particular grasses, are cultivated over large areas worldwide for human and animal consumption and lately for biomass energy production. However, viruses like

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), alone or in conjunction with other viruses or microorganisms, have emerged in some regions as devastating problems for their cultivation. Here we present the taxonomy, distribution, diversity and economic importance of this virus that infects maize and sugarcane as well as provide some insights into its evolution. Efforts to obtain resistance through classical breeding and transgenic approaches are also described.

10.1  Structure, Taxonomy and Diversity

SCMV, a member of the genus Potyvirus in the

Potyviridae family of plant viruses, belongs to the replication group IV. As such, its genome consists of a single-stranded (+) RNA molecule. Its length of 9.6 kb is encapsidated by approximately 2,000 monomers of the coat protein (CP) forming flexuous filaments of about 750 nm in length (Riechmann et al.,

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Medium 9781780646534

10: Chinese Innovation System: The Case of Agricultural Knowledge Sharing

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

10

Chinese Innovation System: The

Case of Agricultural Knowledge

Sharing

Liliana Mitkova1* and Xi Wang2†

1

Institut de Recherche en Gestion, University of Paris Est Marne-la-Vallée

(UPEM) Champs-sur-Marne France; 2Central University of Finance and

Economics, Beijing, China

10.1  Introduction

The open innovation model has been adopted so as to adapt to the rapid diffusion of knowledge, shortening of the life cycle of products and high international competitiveness. This model proposes to enhance a firm’s innovative ability by acquiring knowledge from external sources, as well as benefit financially by using external paths to market for internally generated technologies (Chesbrough,

2003; Gassmann and Enkel, 2004). Enterprises can benefit from technological and market discontinuities into the open innovation model by sharing knowledge with other institutions and firms. In fact, knowledge sharing is a key component of open innovation (Islam, 2012) and Lichtenthaler

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Medium 9781603444750

10. Sex and Age Ratios

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 10.1 Sex and age ratio data are relatively easy to collect from harvested bobwhites. This information can be used to gain insight on bobwhite survival and productivity. (Photograph provided by Dale Rollins)

THE SEX AND AGE of bobwhites in the harvest provides information that may be used to index or induce additional attributes of populations such as production, survival, and distribution of hatches during the breeding season. As was the case with population counts, this information may be useful in evaluation of management efforts or habitat types. For example, estimates of average annual survival may be used to evaluate quail responses between a pasture with a grazing system and one with continuous grazing. Hatching distributions may be used to evaluate if supplemental feeding in a pasture influences the length of the hatching season differently than in a pasture with no feeding. Age ratios may be used to compare the productivity of bobwhite populations among habitat types or properties.

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Medium 9781603445887

9. Lessons in Bridge Infrastructure Vulnerability

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

9

Jamie E. Padgett and Matthew Stearns

The performance of regional bridge infrastructure has a significant impact on the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of the transportation system following hurricane events, which is crucial to facilitating post-event response and recovery activities (Fig. 9.1). Hurricane Ike caused notable damage to the infrastructure of the Houston/Galveston Area when it made landfall on September 13, 2008. Many local bridges were completely destroyed and although the majority of these were small timber structures in rural areas, multiple major bridge structures also suffered damage from debris, storm surge and wave loading. Much of the damage can be attributed to inundation of the decks, or superstructures, of the bridges, debris impact, and erosion of abutment supports and approaches.

This chapter presents a holistic overview of the damage to bridge infrastructure in the Houston/Galveston area caused by Hurricane Ike. Typical failure modes are evaluated by assimilating a rich data set of post-event assessment surveys and inspection reports. The data assembled include field reconnaissance conducted by the authors, HNTB (a nationwide bridge design firm) through the Texas Department of Rural Affairs, the Texas Department of Transportation, and interviews with local municipalities or other bridge owners. The performance of timber bridges, often located in rural areas, as well as major highway bridges is assessed. The damage summaries presented include a discussion of factors contributing to the damage, repair procedures, and simple capacity/demand checks for case studies in which bridges over water crossings were damaged during Ike.

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