1663 Chapters
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Medium 9780253021021

3 The Early Cretaceous Dinosaur Trackways in Münchehagen (Lower Saxony, Germany): 3-D Photogrammetry as Basis for Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Shape Variation and Evaluation of Material Loss during Excavation

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

3.1. The Münchehagen locality in Lower Saxony, Germany.

The Early Cretaceous Dinosaur Trackways in Münchehagen (Lower Saxony, Germany): 3-D Photogrammetry as Basis for Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Shape Variation and Evaluation of Material Loss during Excavation


Oliver Wings, Jens N. Lallensack, and Heinrich Mallison

LOWER CRETACEOUS SANDSTONES IN LOWER SAXONY, northern Germany, are well known for their abundant fossil dinosaur tracks. One of the most productive sites is Münchehagen, which is well known for the only German Cretaceous sauropod trackways and hundreds of tracks of ornithopods and theropods, often forming long individual trackways with dozens of consecutive footprints. The largest theropod trackway T3 from the layer that has produced the best preserved true tracks (Lower Level) shows variations in the footprint morphology that allow use of this data as an example for studying the variability of tridactyl dinosaur track measurements.

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Medium 9780253355089

12. Why so Huge? Biomechanical Reasons for the Acquisition of Large Size in Sauropod and Theropod Dinosaurs

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


To understand gigantism, the pros and cons of large size must be clearly recognized. Although the disadvantages connected with extraordinary size are dealt with in the other chapters in this book, a better understanding of the biomechanical advantages of large body size is needed. We therefore focus on the question of which immediate, proximate advantages are connected with gigantic body size, and we analyze the biomechanical advantages and limitations of several size parameters. We discuss the neck length required for harvesting large volumes of food, which is limited by the muscle and skeletal mass necessary to maneuver a long neck. We also look at the limb length needed for increasing locomotor speed and reducing energy consumption per unit distance covered, although this is limited by reduced step frequency. Finally, in agonistic encounters, the decisive factors are the kinetic energy contained in the colliding bodies, and the forces and impulses exchanged between the animals. All factors depend on speed, so a deficiency of mass can be made up by greater speed. Great mass and length are equivalent to slowness, especially in the defensive and evasive movements of limbs and neck. Volume alone is a protective trait against bite attacks. Thickness of skin, and skeletal and muscular cover of the most vulnerable organs increase linearly with size. In short, an increase of body dimensions and body mass offers quantitative biomechanical advantages. These parameters, however, follow a linear or cube root function—that is, they are not very impressive, and in some cases, they reach asymptotes at larger sizes, so that their advantages become smaller with increasing size. Body mass and dimensions of body segments set limits to the quickness of evasive and defensive movements. After quantitatively defining the advantages and limitations on the basis of various biomechanical laws, we argue that these numerical advantages can be understood as selection pressures that have led to gigantism.

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Medium 9781780645216

37: Whole Genome Sequence Typing Strategies for Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli of the O157:H7 Serotype

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Whole Genome Sequence Typing

Strategies for Enterohaemorrhagic

Escherichia coli of the O157:H7 Serotype

Brigida Rusconi and Mark Eppinger*

Department of Biology and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious

Diseases, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, USA


Escherichia coli of the O157:H7 serotype is the dominant Shiga-toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in

North America that causes widespread and potentially lethal outbreaks of food-borne disease. Unlike other E. coli, the O157:H7 lineage features a genetically homogenous population structure, which hinders phylogenetic marker development. Historically classified using selective media, O157:H7 isolates were further differentiated using

­molecular and phenotypic typing strategies, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or metabolic profiling. The introduction of cost-efficient and rapid next generation sequencing technologies allowed the field to transition from assessing the plasticity in only few selected loci to whole genome sequence typing approaches. The resulting enriched polymorphic marker base already provided increased phylogenetic accuracy and resolution. In this chapter, the whole array of established and latest typing assays that have been specifically developed for this lineage are discussed. The synergistic use of a wealth of sequence information combined with epidemiological and phenotypic metadata will open the avenue for genome-wide association studies that will not only allow to link bacterial genotype to disease severity, but is also crucial for biosurveillance, risk assessment and informed countermeasures in the event of an outbreak.

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Medium 9780253011831

12 The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Boundary in Mexico

Indiana University Press ePub

The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Boundary in Mexico

Wolfgang Stinnesbeck and Eberhard Frey



Dramatic changes in both terrestrial and marine biota occurred repeatedly during the Phanerozoic. During short periods of the geological time, biodiversity underwent major incisions, with the dramatic loss of taxa both on continents and in the oceans and the collapse of entire ecosystems. The most prominent of these global mass extinctions were identified early on by scientists in the nineteenth century who recognized these drops in diversity and used the fundamental turnover in biota to delimit the Paleozoic from the Mesozoic era (Permian-Triassic boundary) and the Mesozoic from the Cenozoic (Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary).

Approximately 70 percent of species disappeared from Earth at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) global mass extinction, 65 million years ago (Ma) (Gradstein et al., 2004), among them non-avian dinosaurs, marine reptilians such as plesiosaurs and mosasaurs, and the pterosaurs. The extinction of these prominent reptilian groups of the Mesozoic era drew tremendous public interest to the K-Pg boundary, but the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions were far broader and also included dominant Cretaceous invertebrates such as ammonites, belemnites, inoceramids, reef-building bivalves known as the rudists, and the majority of coccolithophorids and planktic foraminifers.

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Medium 9780253000996

1 - Written Accounts of the Dodo

Jolyon C. Parish Indiana University Press ePub

First Encounters: Van Neck's Account

The first eyewitnesses of the dodo to record its appearance were the Dutch-men and Zeelanders of the fleet of Admiral Jacob Cornelisz van Neck. These were part of the second expedition to the East Indies, the Tweede Schipvaart. The fleet consisted of eight ships: the flagship Mauritius (with Van Neck on board), the Amsterdam (with Vice-Admiral Wybrand van Warwijck on board), the Hollant, the Overijssel, the Gelderland, the Zeelandt, the Utrecht, and the yacht Vrieslandt. The eight ships departed from Texel in the Netherlands on May 1, 1598. During a storm near the Cape of Good Hope on August 8 the fleet was split up; the Amsterdam, the Gelderland, the Zeelandt, the Utrecht and the Vrieslandt headed for Mauritius, then known as Ilha do Cerne, whilst the others sailed to Île Sainte-Marie off the coast of Madagascar. Van Warwijck became commander of his small fleet, and Jacob van Heemskerk vice-commander. Having sighted land at around one o'clock in the afternoon on September 17, the Dutch approached; they were uncertain as to whether it was the Ilha do Cerne or Rodrigues.

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Medium 9781780644554

4: Writing an Emergency Plan

Wapling, A. CABI PDF


Writing an Emergency Plan

A. Wapling

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response,

NHS England (South), UK

Key Questions 

Why do we need an emergency plan?

Why can’t we just use existing processes during an emergency?

What process should be adopted to write a good plan?

How will we know if the plan is effective and fit for purpose?

4.1  Why Do We Need Plans?

Surely in an emergency we just do more of what we normally do? We simply apply the usual organizational processes to manage an incident, don’t we?

By their nature, emergencies are not very frequent, often occur without warning or notice, and can be extreme. Therefore, our response to emergencies needs to have been considered outside the normal operation of the organization because the response to these emergencies will be unfamiliar to most and require arrangements that are over and above what the organization traditionally delivers.

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Medium 9781780643663

7 Adaptation Strategies to Address the Climate Change Impacts in Three Major River Basins in India

Hoanh, C.T.; Smakhtin, V.; Johnston, R. CABI PDF


Adaptation Strategies to Address the Climate Change Impacts in

Three Major River Basins in India

Krishna Reddy Kakumanu,1 Kuppannan

Palanisami,1* Pramod Kumar Aggarwal,1

Coimbatore Ramarao Ranganathan2 and Udaya

Sekhar Nagothu3


Water Management Institute, Hyderabad, India;

Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India; 3Norwegian

Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research-Biforsk, Ås,




The agriculture sector is highly vulnerable to climate change in many parts of the world. There is an increasing concern among farmers, researchers and policy makers about the potential impacts of climate change on food security and livelihoods. Researchers are using several climate change models to make an assessment of the impacts and identify adaptation strategies. The present chapter reviews the current state of understanding of the climate change impacts on irrigation water in South Asia and specifically on the crop yield and relevant adaptation measures in three major river basins (Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery) in India. Optimization model was used to evaluate the different adaptation practices and their potential to maximize rice production and income, and minimize water use for the mid- and end-century climate-change scenarios. Adaptation practices such as systems of rice intensification, machine transplantation, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and direct seeding could reduce the water and labour use by 10–15% and stabilize rice production in the long term. The study suggests the need for technology upscaling, which should be backed up with well-planned capacity-building programmes for the farmers.

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Medium 9780253356024

1. Land Use and Human Impacts on Habitats

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

In 1800, the land we call Indiana was just being settled by immigrants, and many Native Americans still occupied much of the territory. Indiana would become a state a few years later, in 1816. At that time, David Thomas (1819) in Travels through the Western Country in the Summer of 1816 provided an interesting look at the habitat. A dam and mill were being built in 1816 by Major Abraham Markle on Otter Creek, in what is now Vigo County. Thomas stated that everything to the north of the dam was Indian country. The mill burned in the 1930s, but the dam still exists (it has been repaired a few times). The dam is about a half-mile east of North Terre Haute, and is just above a major rock outcrop. It is situated in such a way that the water flowing over the dam provides a deep pool just below the dam and keeps the rock bare, providing bare rock habitat with some stones. Downstream are areas of progressively smaller rock fragments, then gravel, and finally the silt and sand bottom which forms most of Vigo County. The construction of this dam almost 200 years ago created a habitat which continues to have by far the greatest biodiversity of any stream in Vigo County (108 species of fish taken there to date), and one that could be unrivaled in the state. Indiana in 1800 consisted of 3 main habitats: forest (some 20.4 million acres) comprised 90% of the state; prairie (approximately 2 million acres) made up 10% of the state; and approximately 5.6 million acres of wetlands (25% of the state) were embedded within the forest and prairie.

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Medium 9781603448147

12. February—Bald Eagles on the Mississippi River

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

12. February

Bald Eagles on the Mississippi River

Are we seriously recommending wildlife watching in Minnesota in the dead of winter? Well, “you betcha.” True, Minnesota in February is cold and, for much of the state, seemingly lifeless. But an exception is the unfrozen reaches of the Upper Mississippi River where thousands of bald eagles congregate, attracted by the hundreds of thousands of ducks, geese, and other waterfowl. And much of this fantastic wildlife viewing is close to the millions of people of the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area. The National Park Service manages much of this amazing wildlife-watching area in partnership with numerous other agencies and organizations. The story of the bald eagle, and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, is a fitting conclusion to our twelve-month story of wildlife watching in national parks.

What’s Remarkable about Bald Eagles?

The story of the bald eagle is a microcosm of the country’s wildlife history. Our Founding Fathers were impressed by the power and majesty of the bird, so much so they made the bald eagle our national symbol (contrary to popular lore, there is no strong evidence that Ben Franklin seriously preferred the turkey as a national symbol). Yet despite this admiration, some perceived the bald eagle as standing in the way of progress, so we waged war on the bird by shooting, trapping, poisoning, and persecuting it. Inevitably, the eagle soon disappeared from large parts of the country.

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Medium 9781786396211

5 Protocol for Developing Mutant Generations for Mutant Selection

Nur, F.; Forster, B.P.; Osei, S.A. CABI PDF

Protocol for Developing Mutant

Generations for Mutant Selection



A practical step-by-step protocol is presented for mutation induction and mutation detection in oil palm. Germinated seed is chosen as the target material for mutation induction, as this provides the quickest development of mutant populations (as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4 of this manual). The protocol adopts gamma irradiation as this is a proven effective mutagen for mutation breeding. Genotyping is deployed in the M1 to select for mutants in target genes. These selections, plus a random selection of M1 plants, are then advanced from nursery to field conditions to produce mature palms, which may be self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. The M2 generation is subject to phenotypic screening at all stages in plant development, from seed, germination, seedling, juvenile to adult palms. A list of target genes and traits for mutation is given.

As discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual, there are two practical targets for mutation induction in oil palm: pollen and seed. The seed option is the more favoured, as it takes less time and involves only one pollination/seed production stage, thus saving time and labour. A step-by-step guide is provided in generating the M1 and M2 populations for mutant detection.

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Medium 9780253008190

1. Quicksand!

Donald R. Prothero Indiana University Press ePub

Figure 1.1. The American Museum Mongolian expedition, with its Dodge cars and hundreds of camels, near the Flaming Cliffs of Mongolia. (From Andrews, 1932, Plate LV.)

In 1922, the American Museum of Natural History in New York City sponsored one of the most ambitious scientific expeditions ever attempted. Led by the legendary explorer Roy Chapman Andrews (1884–1960), the expedition traveled to China and Mongolia with a huge caravan of seventy-five camels (each carrying 180 kg or 400 pounds of gasoline and other supplies), three Dodge touring cars and two Fulton trucks, and a large party of scientists, guides, and helpers (Fig. 1.1). The party included not only Andrews, but also paleontologist Walter Granger (1872–1941), a veteran of many fossil-hunting expeditions in the U.S. and elsewhere, who had prior experience hunting fossils in China. There were also two geologists (Charles P. Berkey and Frederick K. Morris) and many other assistants to drive the trucks and cars and camels, cook the food and set up the camp, and act as guides and interpreters.

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Medium 9781845939625

12. Other Hormonal Signals during Ripening

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF


Other Hormonal Signals during


Christopher Davies* and Christine Böttcher

CSIRO Plant Industry, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia

12.1 Introduction

Ask any plant biologist which hormone is involved in fruit ripening and the answer will almost inevitably be ‘ethylene’. The role of ethylene during fruit development has been much discussed, and the case for it being pivotal in climacteric ripening is well established (see Grierson, Chapter 10, and Kumar and Sharma, Chapter 11, this volume). This simple molecule has dominated the research effort into the control of fruit ripening. This is partly because of its rather obvious effects on the ripening of some fruit and partly because it coordinates the ripening of many commercially important fruits that can also serve as model species for study, such as tomato. However, ethylene is far from being the only hormonal influence on fruit ripening. There is increasing interest in other hormones that deserve our attention with regard to the control of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.

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Medium 9780253003096

2. Overland on Foot, Aloft:

Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

An Anatomy of the Social Structure

A European traveler to Madagascar in the early nineteenth century, say 1825, would encounter a mosaic of rolling grassland and humid rain forest outside the limits of the eastern port of Toamasina. The traveler would likely head westward to pay his respects to King Radama I and his court in Antananarivo, the seat of the Merina Empire on the central high plateau. The trek from the coast to the capital was over 200 miles long, and the traveler, possessing heavy trunks of clothing and food provisions, faced an uphill and uncomfortable journey through a rain forest that, for all of its botanical and zoological wonders, could be lethal. Malaria had felled many. It was said that King Radama's military strategy relied on “General Hazo” and “General Tazo” (Generals “Forest” and “Fever”) to shelter the Merina kingdom from foreign invaders (Gallieni 1908:149; Campbell 2005:245).

Madagascar's east coast had heavily trafficked ports because of the relatively calm waters of its harbors. Toamasina in particular was reputed to offer the best anchorage of the island (Lloyd 1850:59). The east coast was thick with precious timbers, minerals, and fruits, and it possessed a well-trafficked footpath between Toamasina and the highland capital, Antananarivo. Automobiles would not appear on the island until 1900, four years after France's annexation of Madagascar and two years after Governor-General Gallieni actually purchased the cars from abroad—two Panhard-Levassors (Gruss 1902:194). In 1900, a celebrated “road to the east” from Antananarivo was opened (Gallieni 1908:170). The Tananarive-Côte-Est (TCE) railway would not be completed until 1913, built with the exertions of Malagasy laborers who were drafted by the French state during a huge public works campaign (Gallieni 1908:226; Porter 1940).

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Medium 9781780646138

13: The Distributions and Ex Situ Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives: A Global Approach

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF


The Distributions and Ex Situ

Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives:

A Global Approach

N.P. Castañeda-Álvarez,1,2* C.K. Khoury,1,3 C.C. Sosa,1 H.A. Achicanoy,1

V. Bernau,1 H. Vincent,2 A. Jarvis,1,4 P.C. Struik3 and N. Maxted2


International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia;


School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Centre for

Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands;


CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security

(CCAFS), Cali, Colombia

13.1  Introduction

In the coming decades, we will need to produce more food for a growing population, with less arable land, irrigation water and phosphorus available, while at the same time reducing the negative impacts of agriculture to the environment

(Rosegrant and Cai, 2001; Godfray et al., 2010).

This situation is worsened by the reduction of crop yields as a consequence of increasing temperatures and frequency of droughts, and of extreme weather events due to climate change (Porter et al.,

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Medium 9781786391360

5 Vineyard Establishment

Glen L. Creasy and Leroy L. Creasy CAB International PDF


Vineyard Establishment

Where to place your vineyard and how to bring it into production are critical questions in the process of developing a viable and quality grape production system. It is therefore important not to be hasty at this stage, as a mistake then will stay with the vineyard for the long term. Growing grapes is a high-cost venture so, to minimize risk, as much information as possible should be gathered at every opportunity. In this chapter, the process of putting in a vineyard is followed from first thoughts to making sure that the vines get off to a healthy start, ready to produce as much high-quality crop as possible for the life of the vineyard.


Probably the most important decision that is made for a vineyard is where it is situated. The site influences many factors that affect how the grapes will grow, how easy they will be to manage and what kinds of grape products can be successfully produced from it. It is easy to see, then, why this decision should be thoroughly researched and well considered before choosing the spot: an inferior site results in an inferior vineyard producing inferior grapes.

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