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18: Innovation and Intellectual Property Issues in the ‘Decade of Vaccines’: A Brazilian Perspective

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

18

Innovation and Intellectual

Property Issues in the ‘Decade of

Vaccines’: A Brazilian Perspective

Cristina Possas,1,3* Adelaide Antunes,2,4 Flavia M.L.

Mendes,2 Reinaldo M. Martins1 and Akira Homma1

1

Bio-Manguinhos, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro; 2School of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; 3Evandro Chagas

National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro; 4National Institute of Industrial Property, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

18.1  Introduction

Human and veterinary vaccines are recognized as the most powerful preventive, low-risk and costeffective interventions, with an extensive impact on global health and livestock production. This chapter examines vaccine innovation and intellectual property rights (IPR) issues in biotechnology, from the Brazilian perspective. It discusses how vaccine innovation policies and intellectual property (IP) regimes can affect countries in particular ways, according to their different stages of development.

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Medium 9780253021021

6 A Numerical Scale for Quantifying the Quality of Preservation of Vertebrate Tracks

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

6.1. Photos of the emu tracks used to define Farlow’s (unpubl.) preservation scale. (A) Grade 1; (B) grade 2; (C) grade 3; (D) grade 4.

A Numerical Scale for Quantifying the Quality of Preservation of Vertebrate Tracks

6

Matteo Belvedere and James O. Farlow

FROM ITS BEGINNING, VERTEBRATE ICHNOLOGY HAS described fossilized footprints in a qualitative, descriptive way. At the same time, considerable effort has gone into illustrating footprint morphology. In recent years, new technologies (e.g., laser-scanning and close-range photogrammetry) and methods (e.g., geometric morphometrics) have allowed more objective, quantitative approaches to vertebrate ichnology. However, quantitative shape analyses need to be based on data of high quality, and comparisons are best made between tracks comparable in quality of preservation. Thus, determining which footprints constitute the most reliable sample for quantitative analyses is fundamental for the progress of ichnology.

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Medium 9781607321408

FERNS AND FERN ALLIES

Ronald C. Wittmann University Press of Colorado ePub

1a.   Plants floating on the water, about 1 cm long, with minute, sessile, 2-lobed leaves arranged on 2 sides of the stems, giving a braided appearance. Salviniaceae, WATERFERN FAMILY

1b.   Plants not as above ................................................... (2)

2a.   Stems jointed, hollow, green (except the fertile stems of Equisetum arvense, which are yellowish brown), the nodes circled by sheaths. Equisetaceae, HORSETAIL FAMILY

2b.   Stems not jointed, seldom green; sheaths absent ........................... (3)

3a.   Aquatic, inhabiting lakeshores or actually submerged in ponds and lakes ....... (4)

3b.   Terrestrial, growing on soil or rocks ..................................... (5)

4a.   Leaves grass-like, their bases swollen, each bearing a pair of sporangia, the whole forming an onion-like bulb; plants submerged in shallow water of mountain lakes and ponds for the greater part of the growing season. Isoëtaceae, QUILLWORT FAMILY

4b.   Leaves with distinct petioles and blades, the blades 4-parted, resembling a four-leaf clover; spores borne at the base of the plant in round, nut-like “sporocarps”; borders of ponds and sandy streamsides at lower altitudes. Marsileaceae, PEPPERWORT FAMILY

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Medium 9780253011824

8 Taking Off: The Late Cambrian

John Foster Indiana University Press ePub

8.1. Outcrops of the Upper Cambrian Weeks Formation in the House Range of Utah. (A) Quarry slope in North Canyon covered with silty limestone slabs. (B) Close-up of rock slabs and layering.

WE HAVE MOVED FORWARD THROUGH TIME NOW TO THE LATE Cambrian, the last 11 million years of the Cambrian period. Rocks of Late Cambrian age occur throughout much of North America, in part because by this time the ocean had risen high enough to flood even the low-lying parts of central Laurentia. No longer were the edges of the continent beachfront property; now there were shallow marine deposits and the life that lived in and around them as far inland as what would one day become Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

Once again, after all this travel, we now find ourselves back in the House Range of Utah. We had visited here in our exploration of the late Middle Cambrian and the Wheeler and Marjum formations, but now we are back to see what rocks and fossils we can find from the very beginning of the Late Cambrian way out west, much farther offshore from the rocks of similar age in the Rockies and Black Hills. The rock unit we are interested in here lies just above the Marjum and is known as the Weeks Formation (fig. 7.1). It is exposed over the ridge from some Marjum Formation sites in a place called North Canyon (fig. 8.1a), where you can split open gigantic slabs of limestone with many brachiopods and a few trilobites on them.

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Medium 9781780642895

5 Diversity in Organic and Agroecological Farming Systems for Mitigation of Climate Change Impact, with Examples from Latin America

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors CAB International PDF

5

Diversity in Organic and

Agroecological Farming Systems for Mitigation of Climate Change

Impact, with Examples from Latin

America

Walter A.H. Rossing,1 Pablo Modernel1,2 and Pablo A.

Tittonell1

1Farming

Systems Ecology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands; 2Facultad Agronomía, Universidad de la República,

Montevideo, Uruguay

5.1 Introduction

As the largest global land use, agriculture both contributes to, and is affected by, climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(IPCC, 2007), global warming causing climate change is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Among these, agriculture is the major source of CH4 and N2O, and a lesser source of CO2. The emissions directly emitted by agriculture have been estimated in the fourth IPCC Assessment Report as together constituting 10–12% (5.1–6.1 Gt) of total annual emissions in CO2 equivalents.

A recent overview of indirect emissions resulting from land clearing for agricultural use estimated these to contribute another

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Medium 9788131807002

CH11-2

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

REGULATION

OF

G ENE EXPRESSION

183

Thereafter, they reconstituted all the possible types of chromatins by recombining the various chromatin components in different combinations. The type of mRNA produced from these artificially reconstituted chromatin depended upon the non-histones and not upton the DNA and histones. Thus, irrespective of the DNAs and histones, the reconstituted chromatins that contained the thymus type of non-histones gave rise to the thymus-type of mRNAs, whereas those containing bone marrow type non-histones gave bone marrow type of mRNAs (Fig. 11.11 see Appendix).

3. Regulation at the Transcriptional Level. For regulation of gene expression at the mRNA synthesis level in eukaryotes, Britten and Davidson (1969) proposed a ‘Genebattery model’ or ‘Britten-Davidson model’, which is based on the presence of a large proportion of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes. (Those DNA sequences that are found in single copy are known as unique sequences, whereas the DNA sequences that are repeated many times or found in multiple copies are called repetitive or redundant

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Medium 9781780646138

24: Use of Spontaneous Sexually Produced New Landraces of a Vegetatively Propagated Crop of the Andes (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) to Enhance In Situ Conservation

Maxted, N. CABI PDF

24 

Use of Spontaneous Sexually

Produced New Landraces of a Vegetatively

Propagated Crop of the Andes (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) to Enhance In Situ

Conservation

M. Bonnave,1* T. Bleeckx,1 F. Terrazas2 and P. Bertin1

Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain,

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2Fundación PROINPA (Promoción e Investigación de Productos Andinos), Cochabamba, Bolivia

1

24.1  Introduction

Many cultivated species are propagated vegetatively. The main advantage of vegetative propagation for farmers is that it allows agronomically valuable genotypes, which generally display ­hybrid vigour due to their heterozygosity, to be fixed and propagated easily. In cases of strict vegetative propagation, the only sources of variation inside a lineage are mutations, which can be accumulated over generations and fixed easily by farmers. Strictly vegetatively propagated crops are very sensitive to genetic erosion due to genetic drift and selection. In selecting the propagules for the next crop generation, farmers choose not to propagate all lineages at the same rate, and in the long term, some genotypes are inevitably lost. However, numerous vegetatively propagated crops still have a functional sexual reproduction system. Allogamous sexual reproduction permits the recombination of parental genotypes into new genotypes, thereby enhancing the diversity available to farmers. Recombination allows the combination of many favourable mutations in the

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Medium 9781780644554

7: Command, Control and Communication

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

7 

Command, Control and Communication

A. Rowe1 and P. Thorpe2

Retired Metropolitan Police Operational Commander, London, UK; and

Service Senior Emergency Planning Manager for the London Ambulance

Service NHS Trust, London, UK

2

Executive Director of the British Columbia Ambulance Service, Canada; previously Head of Olympic Planning for the London Ambulance Service NHS

Trust, London, UK

1

Key Questions 

• What does ‘command, control and communication’ (C3) mean when considering an emergency or major incident?

• What is a ‘concept of operations’?

• What command structures are recommended and commonly used?

• How are decisions and operations coordinated to resolve emergencies or major incidents?

• What is the role of control room staff when dealing with an emergency?

7.1  Introduction

Command, control and communication (C3) for leadership and management are as important in the field of health as in any other organization that has to manage a response, whether generated externally or internally.

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Medium 9781780645599

17: Patchouli

Ambrose, D.C.P. CABI PDF

17 

Patchouli

H.G. Ramya*

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

17.1  Botany

17.1.1  Introduction

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) is a small bushy perennial herb (see Fig. 17.1), which has odorous leaves and has been acclaimed as a valuable aromatic plant. The oil obtained from patchouli is a chief constituent in several perfumes as it imparts a rich scent. Raw patchouli oil itself can be used as an alternative for exotic perfumes. The oil also has good properties for use in perfuming soaps

(Vijaykumar, 2004).

The herb is mainly grown for its essential oil, which can be obtained from the leaves, and also, in very small quantities, from the tender part of its stem. The oil is extracted from dried leaves of patchouli by the steam distillation technique. About 2.5–3.5% of high-quality oil with significant economic value can be obtained from shade dried patchouli leaves.

Popular cultivated patchouli varieties include cv ‘Java’ and ‘Singapore’ (named after their country of origin), from which distinctive quality oil of specified chemical composition and odorific value can be obtained. In contrast, the oils from cv ‘Johore’

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Medium 9780253000804

1: The Arctic Setting

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

The Arctic Coastal Plain circa Seventy Million Years Ago

The Arctic coastal plain is crisscrossed by a host of meandering rivers that drain the northern slope of the rugged ancestral Brooks Range to the south. The rivers are pregnant with organic-rich sediment and rush headlong to the northern sea, being fed by melting snowfields and the common cloudbursts that sweep in from the Western Interior Seaway to the north and east. Large herds or aggregates of duck-billed dinosaurs move along river banks feeding on dense “gardens” of mud-loving horsetail rushes that have sprung forth from their subterranean rhizomes into the reawakening sunlight.1 Monodominant patches of drought-resistant ferns are interspersed with clumps of herbaceous angiosperms and grasses on small ridges and levee slopes.2 Stacks and tangles of lichen and moss-encrusted logs and branches form along the edges of sloughs and oxbow lakes. Large logs of deciduous conifers, such as Parataxodium from forests deep in the interior, have mixed with smaller ones that had spent their lives closer to where they now lie.

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Medium 9789380386607

ch-16

Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF

STRUCTURE OF E UKARYOTIC GENE ,

E UKARYOTIC T RANSCRIPTION,

T RANSLATION AND

G ENE E XPRESSION,

T RANSCRIPTION FACTORS

16

INTRODUCTION TO EUKARYOTIC GENES

Eukaryotes

The living cells are differentiated into two kinds viz prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are advanced and are basically those cells which have genetic material i.e., DNA enclosed by membrane to form a nucleus.

Structure of Eukaryotic Genes

Gene is a unit of hereditary material, located on a chromosome that by itself or with other genes, determines a characteristic in an organism. These are simply defined as smallest hereditary unit, capable either for recombination or of mutation or of controlling a specific function. In the classical sense, each gene corresponds to that part of DNA molecule, which, if active in a cell, codes for one functional polypeptide chain. Benzer coined the term cistron for this unit of hereditary function. In the light of Benzer’s assertion, a gene may be defined as “distinct chromosomal region responsible for a single cellular function and consisting of a linear array of potentially mutable units between which recombination can occur.”

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Medium 9781786390325

7 Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens with Beneficial Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

7 

Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens with Beneficial Root-Colonizing Pseudomonas

Dmitri V. Mavrodi,1 Mingming Yang,2* Olga V. Mavrodi1 and Shanshan Wen2

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg,

Mississippi, USA; 2Department of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,

Shaanxi, China

1

7.1 Introduction

Soilborne plant pathogens are a significant constraint to crop production worldwide.

There are no adequate seed treatments against many soilborne diseases, no resistant cultivars, and current trends towards reduced tillage and longer crop rotations favour the disease. Soilborne diseases reduce the quantity and quality of marketable yields, and their control adds considerably to the cost of production. Economic losses due to soilborne diseases in the United States alone are estimated at >$4 billion per year (Lumsden et al., 1995). It has been estimated that from

2001 to 2003 an average of 7–15% of crop loss occurred on the main world crops due to soilborne fungi and oomycetes (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fusarium

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Medium 9781780644202

10: New Elite Potato Clones with Heat Tolerance, Late Blight and Virus Resistance to Address Climate Change

Low, J. CABI PDF

10 

New Elite Potato Clones with

Heat Tolerance, Late Blight and Virus Resistance to Address

Climate Change

M. Gastelo,* L. Diaz, J.A. Landeo and M. Bonierbale

International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru

Abstract

Potato production in developing countries is expanding to warmer environments as farmers search for income opportunities and food security. Meanwhile, climate change is already affecting weather

­patterns in traditional potato-growing areas, where unpredictable rains and pressure from pests and disease are increasing farmers’ risk. Since 2004, the International Potato Center (CIP) has sought to develop new, more heat-tolerant generations of its tropical highland-adapted late-blight resistant population. Late-blight resistant parents were crossed with early maturing and virus resistant progenitors, and selection practised under warm temperatures, water deficit and mid-latitude conditions.

During the 2005–2006 summer season (January–March) 20,000 genotypes were exposed to heat in a screenhouse at CIP’s experimental station in San Ramon, a warm rain forest environment at 800 m above sea level (masl) and latitude 11° 08¢ S. Selected clones were assessed in the field in the same location, where average night and day temperatures during tuberization were 21°C and 27°C, respectively; the resulting heat tolerant clones were exposed to high, endemic late blight pressure in Oxapampa

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Medium 9781845939625

18. Functional Genomics for the Study of Fruit Ripening and Quality: Towards an Integrative Approach

P Nath CAB International PDF

18

Functional Genomics for the Study of

Fruit Ripening and Quality: Towards an

Integrative Approach

Federico Martinelli1,2 and Abhaya Dandekar3*

1Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, University of Palermo,

Palermo, Italy; 2Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Scienza e Tecnologia,

Palermo, Italy; 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of

CaliforniaDavis, CA, USA

18.1 Introduction

Fruit development is controlled by genetically programmed processes influenced by environmental factors. Different ‘omics’ approaches (deep sequencing, microarray analysis, suppression subtractive hybridization) have identified and characterized genes involved in this process in several fruit species. The mass of knowledge concerning transcriptional regulatory networks affecting important physiological and developmental processes has expanded in the last two decades.

Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing uses microarray technology and realtime PCR to generate comprehensive data for functional genomics studies. Following the pioneering work of Aharoni and coworkers (2000) on strawberry, microarrays have been used in many different fruit species. In tomato, large-scale EST sequencing projects have clarified molecular mechanisms of fruit ripening and identified important transcription factors

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Medium 9781909287020

Cell biology and beyond: Applications of cell biology.

Becerra, Dr José Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

2. APPLIED CELL BIOLOGY

Cell biology and beyond: Applications of cell biology

Leonor Santos-Ruiz

Networking Research Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, (CIBER-BBN). BIONAND-UMA. Department of Cell Biology, Genetics and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells. As every single living being is composed of, at least, one cell, cell biology somehow entwines all biological sciences. Starting as a descriptive science, cell biology has greatly evolved in the last two centuries, benefiting from other disciplines such as molecular biology or genetics, and from technological developments. Today, cell biology is broad and diverse as ever, and it is difficult to establish its boundaries with other scientific disciplines. Every problem that requires the use of cells for its experimental settings is a cell biology problem. Every experiment that requires the knowledge of cell behaviour and physiology for the interpretation of its results is a cell biology experiment. Thus, cell biology has become “a blend of advanced cytology, molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, computation and engineering” 1.

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