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Medium 9780253355089

13. Plateosaurus in 3D: How CAD Models and Kinetic–Dynamic Modeling Bring an Extinct Animal to Life

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub

HEINRICH MALLISON

Cad (computer-aided design) software combined with biomechanical considerations can be used to create extremely accurate skeletal reconstructions of dinosaurs and other extinct vertebrates. CAE (computer-aided engineering) methods that are based on such accurate models give insight into the way dinosaurs moved and behaved, and they greatly ease the task of calculating physical properties (such as position of the center of mass) compared to traditional methods. On the basis of a high-resolution 3D model of Plateosaurus, I show that this animal was an agile obligate biped with strong grasping hands. The assessment of possible postures and ranges of motions of the 3D model was done with a CAD program, while the total mass, mass distribution, and the position of the center of mass of the model were assessed with CAE software.

Biomechanics deals with the function and structure of biological systems. This chapter will address certain aspects within this broad field of study, focusing on the mechanics of posture and motion of animals. The prosauropod dinosaur Plateosaurus will be used as a detailed example of how two different modern computer technologies can aid research on extinct animals. CAD (computer-aided design) programs can be applied to the study of large assemblies of objects, for example, bones in a skeletal mount of a dinosaur, without the bother of actually having to lift and support the many, and often heavy, elements. Digital bones, in contrast, have no weight and cannot break, and are easily combined into a virtual skeleton in a CAD program. A virtual skeleton of Plateosaurus is used to assess the posture and range of motion of this animal. Additional information on posture and on locomotion capabilities is derived from CAE (computer-aided engineering) modeling, using a CAD model of the living animal based on the virtual skeleton. The CAE modeling can be used to determine the position of the center of mass (COM) and its shift when the animal moves, as well as joint torques and many other important physical parameters. This approach to biomechanical modeling was termed kinetic–dynamic modeling by Mallison (2007) because it derives information on the kinetics—the movements of the modeled animal—from the dynamics—the forces that cause this movement—and vice versa.

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Medium 9781603445887

7. Emergency Management and the Public

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Bill Wheeler

Over the past 100 years, the speed of communication has increased dramatically, playing a vital role in disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Today, electronic communication is critical to everyday life and the average person is accustomed to having every form of information at their fingertips. In contrast, during the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 critical warnings were communicated via telegraph, a great asset despite the time it took for a message from the National Weather Service (NWS) in Washington to arrive in Galveston. Today, storm communications have advanced to the point where NOAA Hurricane Hunter flights in active storms transmit data that is received and reviewed by the public in real time. With the speed and turnover of different message delivery systems today, the challenge for emergency management in the coming years will be mastering those systems and formatting the messages so that they can be delivered to communities before it is too late.

Robust communication between public officials, emergency managers, and the community is critical for the successful defense and recovery of the Gulf Coast region in the event of a severe storm (fig. 7.1). This communication, tied with public education efforts, gives individuals and communities the tools necessary to plan ahead. To enhance community understanding of the risks of an approaching hurricane, these tools are communicated to the public by the media through public service announcements. In addition, it is necessary for elected officials to routinely discuss disaster plans and information in the media, increasing assurance, guidance, and public response during a disaster event (fig. 7.2). Communication between emergency management personnel and the community is the first line of defense in preparing for a disastrous event and is important for post-event recovery as well.

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Medium 9780253002358

7 Going South

Rudolf A. Raff Indiana University Press ePub

Near the end of my undergraduate life, I set about blissfully applying to graduate schools, including Duke. There was lurking a possible slight hitch to entering this dream world; I had a commitment to serve two years of active duty in the U.S. Navy after commissioning as an ensign (the naval term for what the army calls a second lieutenant). However, the navy seemed to have had an excess of young officers entering at the time and readily allowed anyone qualified to have eighteen months in the inactive reserves to get a master’s degree before going on active duty. The master’s degree limit seemed like a constraint, but I hadn’t met Bill Byrne yet. Bill was a biochemistry professor at Duke who served as the departmental graduate program director. He was undaunted by both the department’s and the navy’s rules and worked out an acceptance for me to take a master’s degree, which the navy approved. He then produced a second letter to convince the navy that as Duke didn’t really like to give a master’s in biochemistry, it would be far better to let me stay on for a Ph.D. In a miracle of bureaucratic accommodation, they approved that too.

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Medium 9781780648378

7: Rain-Induced Cracking of Sweet Cherries

Quero-Garcia, J.; Iezzoni, A.; Pulawska, J. CABI PDF

7 

Rain-Induced Cracking of Sweet Cherries

Moritz Knoche* and Andreas Winkler

Institute for Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz-University

Hannover, Hannover, Germany

7.1 Introduction

Rain-induced cracking is probably the most serious limitation to sweet cherry production in almost all regions where this high-value crop is grown. Cracking occurs during or after rainfall and usually shortly before harvest.

Cracking may result in complete crop failure.

As a general rule, if the canopy contains above about 25% cracked fruit, the harvest becomes uneconomic (Looney, 1985). This is due to the high labour cost associated with eliminating the cracked fruit, both during picking (in the orchard) and also during subsequent grading (in the packhouse). Furthermore, after rainfall, even the uncracked fruit has much decreased storage quality, despite its macroscopically intact surface.

This is because surface wetness also causes the formation of numerous microscopic cracks or microcracks in the cuticle, which bypass its barrier function and result in any, or several, of the following: increased incidence of fruit rot (Børve et al., 2000), increased water uptake during rainfall (Knoche and

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Medium 9781780643540

8: Pollen–Style (In)compatibility: Development of Autogamous Cultivars

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF

8 

Pollen–Style (In)compatibility:

Development of Autogamous Cultivars

Rafel Socias i Company*

Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón,

Zaragoza, Spain

8.1  Almond Self-incompatibility

inside almond orchards at blooming time, even without recognizing the real effect of the bees.

Almond, with very few exceptions, is a self-­ Campbell (1915) observed that isolated trees had incompatible species (Socias i Company, 1990), poor or no production, although he incorrectly thus requiring cross-pollination for commercial attributed it to the floral morphology preventing production (see Chapter 1). Traditional almond self-pollination. growing primarily utilized open-pollinated seedGradually, commercial orchards were establings, not only found in orchards, but also as lished using grafting to perpetuate desirable single trees at the borders of fields and roads clones, and problems of poor crop yields not only

(Grasselly, 1972; Rikhter, 1972). Occasional bit- became more frequent but also were more noter or non-productive almonds were noticed and ticeable. This system started in California in the used as rootstocks for grafting using scions of pro- latter part of the 19th century, where the first ductive trees, since almond grafting was a

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Chapter 22 Family Agaricaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

22

Family Agaricaceae

MUSHROOMS

Introduction

Mushrooms are a very important world crop that fit the definition of a vegetable given in Chapter 1.

However, unlike the other vegetables we have discussed thus far, the mushroom is not a plant but a fungus (Carluccio, 2003). So mushroom-production practices are unique compared to the traditional vegetables discussed in previous chapters.

Mycology

Mushrooms are heterotrophic organisms, which means they must find and absorb food from their environment. This is contrast to most other vegetables, which are autotrophic plants that can fix carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere via photosynthesis. Mushrooms must acquire carbon from sources other than gaseous atmospheric CO2, so organic matter (rather than soil) is required as substrate for mushrooms to acquire their nutrients and support mycelial growth (Chang and Hayes,

1978; Del Conte et al., 2008). The types of organic matter needed vary widely with the kinds of mushrooms grown (Carluccio, 2003).

Types of Cultivated Mushrooms

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Medium 9780253008831

26 Paleontological Overview and Taphonomy of the Middle Campanian Wahweap Formation in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Donald D. DeBlieux, James I. Kirkland, Terry A. Gates, Jeffrey G. Eaton, Michael A. Getty, Scott D. Sampson, Mark A. Loewen, and Martha C. Hayden

The Wahweap Formation Preserves the most Diverse middle Campanian terrestrial fauna in North America, based largely on information gained by the study of microvertebrate fossils collected by wet screen washing. These studies have documented a minimum of five freshwater shark species, three freshwater ray species, eight bony fish species, 11 amphibian species, 10 turtle species, four lizard taxa, five crocodilian taxa, 15 dinosaur taxa, and 33 mammal species. However, many of the turtles, crocodilians, and dinosaurs require more complete skeletal material for specific identification.

Teams from the Utah Geological Survey, University of Utah Museum of Natural History, and the Grand Staircase–Escalante National Monument have been conducting a paleontological inventory of the Wahweap Formation in the Kaiparowits Basin. In addition to providing data on the distribution of paleontological resources, this study has identified and recovered specimens that are adding to our knowledge of terrestrial faunas for the poorly known middle Campanian. Both trionychid and baenid turtle shells have been recovered and are presently under study. Cranial remains of a new species of long-horned centrosaurine ceratopsian have been described and are providing significant information about the evolution of the ceratopsid dinosaurs. A number of associated hadrosaurid skeletons have been identified in the field and several bonebeds have been excavated. A partial hadrosaurine hadrosaur skull has been identified as a new species congeneric with a taxon from Montana. An isolated hadrosaur maxilla is the only lambeosaurine material known from the Wahweap Formation and likely represents a new species. An isolated, but distinctive skull roof of a juvenile pachycephalosaur has been collected. Additionally, carnivorous dinosaur dental remains and ankylosaur scutes have been identified at a number of sites, but nothing diagnostic has yet been found.

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Medium 9781780646534

17: Patentability of Human Embryo Stem Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Case WARF in the United States of America and Europe

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

17

Patentability of Human Embryo

Stem Cells: A Comparative

Analysis of Case WARF in the

United States of America and

Europe

Jiang Li*

Kenneth Wang School of Law, Soochow University, Su Zhou, China

17.1  Introduction

Human embryonic stem cells are potentially of great therapeutic value in a number of areas including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and transplantation therapy (Thomson, 1998). The patentability of human embryonic stem cells has raised worldwide controversy and dispute in the last two decades, especially in the USA and Europe.

Following the basic principle of ‘anything under the sun that is made by man can be patented’,1 US patents on human embryonic stem cells have been granted. The US Patent and Trademark Office

(USPTO) granted a broad patent on primate embryonic stem cells (ESC) in December 1998 and a second patent on human embryonic stem cells

(HESC) in March 2001 (Loring and Campbell,

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Medium 9781780645599

21: Spinach

Ambrose, D.C.P.; Manickavasagan, A.; Naik, R. CABI PDF

21 

Spinach

Periyasamy Suganya1* and A. Sangamithra2

Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for

Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Kongu Engineering College,

Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India

1

21.1  Botany

21.1.1  Introduction

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), an annual plant, was originally placed in the family

Chenopodiaceae, but this family was combined with the family Amaranthaceae in 2003, within the order Caryophyllales. The plant has a significant role as herb, although it is often consumed as a leafy vegetable. The leaves and stems are tender and delicate (Fig. 21.1), and can be eaten either fresh or cooked, or processed into different forms (Rubatzky et al., 1997). Spinach is abundant in core nutrients and many phytochemicals. It is an excellent source of vitamins A, C and K, and of minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and iron. It is also high in oxalates (Kawazu et al., 2003), which have been reported to affect iron metabolism and kidney health (see Section 21.2.2). Spinach contains an ample amount of fibre and is low in calories. Carotenoids, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein, and phenolic compounds are the most important phytochemicals present in spinach. It is thought that cancer, heart disease and problems related to ageing can be prevented by these phyto-

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Medium 9781780646534

4: Checks and Balances in Biotechnology-Related Patents: In Agreement to the Indian Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

4

Checks and Balances in

Biotechnology-Related Patents:

In Agreement to the Indian Patents

(Amendment) Act, 2005

Om Prakash1* and Poonam C. Singh2

1

Maharana Pratap Govt P.G. College, Hardoi, Uttar Pradesh; 2CSIR-National

Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

4.1  Introduction

A new idea or information may be kept confidential indefinitely; however, it is equally unmanageable to keep the same idea a secret while reaping its benefits.

The intellectual property (IP) protections provide confidentiality, management and provide commercial opportunities to a new idea with a cost for a defined period. India has a vibrant culture, unique lifestyle, lots of traditional knowledge and a dynamic economy, which provides unique knowledge and innovations leading to IP (Birtchnell, 2013). This national asset needs to be protected and commercialized after a qualified evaluation for the benefit of both inventor and people. In India the competent authority is ‘The Indian Patent Office’ (IPO), which carries out the evaluation following the provisions of ‘The Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005’ (IPAA2005).1 Though the fundamentals of patent laws are the same all over the world, procedural differences exist, which make them stringent or liberal. However, patent evaluation is more of a techno-legal evaluation than an exact scientific evaluation.

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Medium 9781780645254

16 Conclusions

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

16

Conclusions

Steve W. Adkins,1* Asad Shabbir2 and

Kunjithapatham Dhileepan3

1The

University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia; of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation the University of Sydney, Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia;

3Biosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture and

Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

2University

16.1  Introduction

it is a plant for which they should find a use and not manage.

Throughout this book we have analysed

We are currently going through a period of significant global environmental change, the the available information on the biology and so-­called Anthropocene. The interconnected ecology of the weed, both in its native and concerns of climate change, habitat and bio- introduced ranges. We have examined the diversity loss, and the anthropological influ- modes of spread and the weed’s impact on ences steering these changes, are familiar to agricultural production, the environment most. However, one major mediator of envi- and human health, and its potential uses. ronmental change, invasive species, lingers We have looked at the various forms of manunseen in most considerations of this global agement adopted in different parts of the environmental change. Invasive species are world and their effectiveness. The following being dispersed around the globe at an ever-­ discussion reiterates the main findings preincreasing rate, largely unobstructed and sented and we conceptualize why this plant with their movement expedited by human has become such a ‘superior weed’, worthy of ranking in the top-­five weeds worldwide, activities.

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12 Climate Change and Urban Human Health

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

12

Climate Change and Urban

Human Health

Martha Macedo de Lima Barata

Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

12.1  Introduction

Current climate extremes and projections for future climate changes have resulted in growing attention being given to the health effects of these events on the urban population (Barata et al., 2016). Considering health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-­being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’ (WHO, 1948), indeed, almost all the effects of climate change have a direct or indirect impact on health (Barata et al., 2016).

The urban population is growing at a fast rate. In 1960, it accounted for 34% of the total global population, which in 2014 grew to 54% and it is estimated that by 2017 the majority of people will be living in urban areas (WHO, 2015). This fast urbanization is threatening environmental quality in cities.

There is an expanding field of research exploring how the way in which cities are planned and managed can influence the health of its residents (Rydin, 2012). Additionally, long-­term projections and models show that climate change may aggravate the health of city dwellers (Barata et al., 2016).

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3 Spread

Adkins, S.; Shabbir, A.; Dhileepan, K. CABI PDF

3

Spread

Asad Shabbir,1* Andrew McConnachie2 and

Steve W. Adkins3

1University

of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; current affiliation Plant

Breeding Institute, the University of Sydney, Narrabri, New South

Wales, Australia; 2Department of Primary Industries, Biosecurity and Food Safety, Orange, New South Wales, Australia; 3The

University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia

3.1  Origin and Native Distribution

Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus

L.) is an annual herb of Neotropical origin that has developed a pantropical distribution (Evans, 1997). The weed is thought to  be native to the tropical and sub­ tropical Americas, possibly around the Gulf

of Mexico, including the southern USA and  the Caribbean islands, or possibly in northern Argentina and southern Brazil

­

(Dale, 1981). Parthenium weed is a highly invasive species and is now found in 92 countries around the globe, of which only 44 are possibly in its native range (Fig. 3.1;

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Medium 9781780644998

3: Natural Enemies and Pest Control

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF

3 

Natural Enemies and Pest Control

Vincenzo Vacante* and Carmelo Peter Bonsignore

Mediterranean University, Salita Melissari, Italy

Introduction

A number of invertebrates, mainly nematodes, mites and insects, directly or indirectly affect the human economy. According to ecological conditions and their evolutionary adaptations, some of these may damage human health and that of domestic and wild animals while others offend our sense of aesthetics or cause severe economic damage to cultivated plants. There is a wide spectrum of different types of damage caused and these have been variously studied. Phytophagous species living on cultivated plants and/or their products are commonly referred to as pests; the damage they cause induces a deleterious effect on the physiology of the host plant and/or on the quality and quantity of their products, and the resulting loss can be defined as the amount of negative economic impact measured in terms of utility or production of the plant species attacked. The relationship between pests and cultivated plants can be approached from various viewpoints, for example taxonomic, morphological, bio-ecological and economic.

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Chapter 11 Family Solanaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

11

Family Solanaceae

POTATO

Origin and History

The potato is an ancient crop. Potatoes were used as food at least 8,000 years ago according to carbon dating of starch grains found in archaeological excavations in the Andean regions of Peru and

Bolivia (Brown, 1993). The potato was unknown to the outside world until the Spanish explorer and conqueror Gonzalo Jiminez de Quesada (1499–

1579) and his men took it to Spain. The Spanish thought the potato was a kind of truffle and called them “tartuffo”. However, potatoes soon became a standard supply item on the Spanish ships because sailors who ate them did not suffer from scurvy

(Brown, 1993).

Both wild and cultivated potato plants survive well in soil because of their high moisture content and starch and other nutrient reserves, which enable repeated regeneration of shoots. Unharvested tubers remain dormant in the soil but sprout under favorable conditions, enabling continued survival without replanting. The Inca’s ability to preserve harvested potato tubers as chuño, a product made by the mashing and naturally drying tubers during repeated freezing and thawing cycles at high-elevations, increased their versatility as a food crop.

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