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Medium 9780253020840

13. Arroyo Chasicó, Argentina

Darin A. Croft Indiana University Press ePub

Basic Information

Location Central Argentina, about 350 miles (550 km) southwest of Buenos Aires.

Geology Sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones of the Arroyo Chasicó Formation.

Geologic Age Late Miocene, about 9.5–9 million years (based on radiometric dating and paleomagnetic correlation).

Mammal Age Chasicoan.

Mammals Identified 45 species (appendix 13).

MOST PALEONTOLOGICAL SITES DISCUSSED SO FAR IN THIS BOOK are located in or near the Andes or in the far south of Argentina. This is because bones can be preserved as fossils only if they are buried by sediments, and more sediments accumulated in these areas than in other parts of the continent from the Paleocene to the Miocene epoch. This situation began to change during the late Miocene. As the Andes increased in elevation, more sediments began to accumulate in central and northwestern Argentina than in the south, and many of these sediments preserved remains of ancient animals. Arroyo Chasicó is the oldest of these sites in central Argentina and provides the most complete picture of a roughly 9-million-year-old South American mammal community presently known.

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Medium 9781607320661

CHAPTER FOUR: LITTLE AMERICA V Science Flagship on the Ice Shelf

Dian Olson Belanger University Press of Colorado ePub

All you can see is big white and that’s it.
That was Little America.

—YNC Richard Lucier, 19551

The Navy’s simultaneous task in Operation Deep Freeze I was to establish and make ready the IGY’s headquarters science station on the edge of the vast Ross Ice Shelf. This was Little America V, already named to honor the legacy of America’s polar hero Richard E. Byrd. Before the scientists arrived, key tasks were to map a safe route deep into the interior for Byrd Station and to prepare the massive tractor trains (called heavy swings) that would haul in every pipe and plank to build the station with in Deep Freeze II.

The day after Christmas 1955 the ships of Task Force 43 split, and the Glacier, Greenville Victory, and Arneb turned east along the titanic ice barrier to locate a site for the new Little America. They reached Byrd’s Bay of Whales on 28 December, finding it nearly gone, as the Atka had reported the previous year. There was no suitable approach onto the ice shelf. Byrd made a nostalgic pilgrimage by helicopter to the site of two of his former bases, now buried one atop the other near the cliff edge and marked only by the chair-high tops of once-seventy-foot radio towers. Clearly, this historic location would not do for the IGY.2

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Medium 9781780643786

2 Species Distribution Modelling in Predicting Response to Climate Change

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF

2

Species Distribution Modelling in

Predicting Response to Climate

Change

Matthew P. Hill1,2* and Linda J. Thomson1

1Department

of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Parkville,

Australia; 2Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation

Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South

Africa

Abstract

Species distribution modelling comprises a range of widely used tools for predicting potential changes in insect pest species distributions with climate change. We review the current literature to see the effectiveness of different approaches, particularly in comparing predictions based on current distribution data (correlative or ‘environmental niche models’) and those based on life-history traits and determination of thermal limits (mechanistic models). We review new developments in implementing processes such as dispersal and biotic interactions within species distribution models and how these could be used to develop management strategies incorporating natural enemies into climate change predictions. We propose that species distribution models should be linked with key trait data where possible to inform better of response to climate change.

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Medium 9781780644202

43: On the Road to Potato Processing in African Tropical Highlands

Low, J. CABI PDF

43 

On the Road to Potato Processing in African Tropical Highlands

A.J. Haverkort,1* G. Woldegiorgis,2 M.J. van Koesveld,3

S. Ntizo,4 R. Wustman3 and X. Zhang5

1

Plant Research International (PRI), Wageningen University and

Research Centre, The Netherlands; 2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural

Research (EIAR), Addis ­Ababba, Ethiopia; 3Applied Plant Research (PPO),

Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; 4Rwanda

Agriculture Board (RAB), Kigali, Rwanda; 5Institute of Agricultural Economics

(LEI), Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

Abstract

Potato processing at the industrial level is relatively insignificant in the tropical highlands of Africa in

Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. No large international companies are present in this area whereas they have successfully established themselves in North Africa (Egypt) and South Africa. The reason for the presence of large French fries (chips) and crisps factories in northern and southern Africa is the availability of growers who have relatively large areas of irrigated land assuring a year-round flow of raw material with the required specification and consistency for the finished product. The objectives of recently carried out investigations in Rwanda and Ethiopia funded by The Netherlands government were to investigate the challenges and opportunities for the establishment of (private) industrial processing facilities. Such factories and installations would create added value through employment in the whole supply chain from breeding new varieties, creating a supply chain of seed and ware (raw material) potatoes, postharvest handling, processing and trade. The study in Rwanda and Ethiopia consisted of the following elements: (i) a quick scan of potato production related to the potential supply of raw material to the industry; (ii) an inventory of current processing at household and restaurant level such as boiling, mashing, and the preparation of French fries and crisps; and (iii) an inventory of processed potato products such as frozen French fries, crisps and mashed potato powder and packed fresh tubers in markets and supermarkets. An estimate was then made of the current and future market for these products. The type of small- and medium-sized equipment needed and their costs was assessed. Historical meteorological data and a crop growth model that calculated attainable yields and water use in the two countries were used for yield gap analyses. From this and from farm surveys the costs and competitiveness of the raw material were derived and from it conclusions regarding the costs of locally produced versus imported finished products. We concluded that the farm-gate potato price, which is related to the cost of production, is quite competitive – in Ethiopia it is about half that of northern

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Medium 9789380386638

Chp-3

Dr. Syed Mohammed Ahmad ; Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapt er

Chapter

3

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, LIVING

ORGANISMS AND THE GROUPS OF

MICROSCOPIC ORGANISMS

INTRODUCTION

Since earliest times man has been trying to solve the mysteries of nature to satisfy his curiosity.

Why does iron rust ? What happens to coal when it burns? How does a mighty tree grow out of a tiny seed? Why to certain things float on water while others sink ? How do living things differ from non-living objects? His method of finding answers to all such questions has followed a set pattern; careful observation of the phenomenon; derivation of inferences from the observations; and experimentation for the verification of inferences. The knowledge thus gained is empirical; it merely describes facts. The foundations of science were laid by classifying and correlating various facts. Science may be defined as knowledge classified, correlated, and generalized into a system. In short, it is the systematized knowledge. A mere collection of facts is no more science than a pile of bricks in a house.

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Medium 9781610910484

DATA TABLE 2 - Freshwater Withdrawal by Country and Sector

Peter H. Gleick Island Press ePub

The use of water varies greatly from country to country and from region to region. Data on water use by regions and by different economic sectors are among the most sought after in the water resources area. Ironically, these data are often the least reliable and most inconsistent of all water-resources information. This table includes the data available on total freshwater withdrawals by country in cubic kilometers per year and cubic meters per person per year, using national population estimates from approximately the year of withdrawal. The table also gives the breakdown of that water use by the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors, in both percentage of total water use and cubic meters per person per year.

Data for a number of countries has been updated in the following table since the previous version of The Worlds Water. UN FAO AQUASTAT recently conducted an irrigation survey in Middle Eastern countries, with which data in this table was updated. Additionally, data for some countries was updated from country-specific sources. The data sources are explicitly identified.

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Medium 9780253355058

9 GIS, e-Science, and the Humanities Grid

David J Bodenhamer Indiana University Press ePub

PAUL S. ELL

The development of electronic resources for use by scholars in the humanities has proliferated at a dramatic pace over the last twenty years. Although scholars might feel that few resources are available to them, this is likely not to be the case. Much effort, and funding has been devoted specifically to create e-resources, ranging from highly specialized and subject-specific material to, and of more import to most scholars, what might be termed strategic or key resources. These latter resources might be considered strategic because of their spatial spread (i.e., they provide information for a spatially large area), their spatial granularity (providing information at a detailed spatial level), their chronological depth (data available over long time-periods), or their contextual nature. They are consulted and used by relatively large numbers of scholars, forming, if not a core foundation for their research, at least a backdrop. Such e-resources vary in their nature and include national censuses, socio-economic surveys, the work of mapping agencies, thematic collections of monographs, manuscripts, and journals, and so on.

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Medium 9788131807002

CH15-1

Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

15

FOOD AND BEVERAGE

BIOTECHNOLOGY

ood industry is the largest industry in the world and food biotechnology includes improvement in taste, consistency, colour, nutrition, safety and preservation of the food. Developments in food preservation methods have made many of the seasonal foods to be available all the year round. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, meats, etc. require some degree of processing, and the relatively bulky raw agricultural food products are transformed into stable, convenient and palatable foods and beverages.

Fermented foods (e.g., bread, cheese, yoghurt, sauerkraut, soy sauce, tempeh, etc.) and beverages (beer, wine, brandy, whisky, tea, coffee, cocoa, etc.) result from the action of microorganisms or enzymes on a wide range of edible agricultural products with desirable biochemical changes.

Fermented foods were developed before recorded history and are usually more nutritious, more digestible, with improved flavour and toxicologically and microbiologically safer. Almost 90% of revenue from biotechnology comes from the fermentation products. Some of the fermentation products are:

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Medium 9781576337745

Oxidation-Reduction: SAT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780253002358

3 An Age of Dinosaurs

Rudolf A. Raff Indiana University Press ePub

We left Canada for Pittsburgh, a mysterious city in Pennsylvania, during the fall of 1949. I know this move was an enormous break in the lives of my parents, hopeful for my father, wrenching for my mother. The trip was just a big adventure into the unknown for me, a train journey to the faraway exotic South. Rail service was efficient and comfortable in those days, with sleepers, dining cars, and authoritative conductors wearing neat blue uniforms. There were lots of windows to gaze out from. The trip was long, and not understanding just how near the equator we were headed, I watched for hours in hopes of seeing exotic creatures by trackside as we crossed into tropical Pennsylvania. Despite my hopes, I was to be disappointed by the scarcity of coiled rattlesnakes and waving palms – but not by Pittsburgh. How could it fail to satisfy? I had never seen a city before. We lived for a couple of months in the Webster Hall Hotel just across the street from Mellon Institute, where my father’s research lab was then located. At night the horizons were lit a lurid orange by the blast furnaces. The glow of the furnaces would fade out to extinction in Pittsburgh by the 1980s, and the steel industry would follow. Best of all, our first temporary home was also just two blocks from the Carnegie Museum with its wonderful gallery of dinosaurs. My first visit to that vast, gloomy exhibit hall was unforgettable. I was eight and had never been in such a cavern. The hall contained towering chocolate-colored skeletons, monsters like nothing living today, standing silent, mouths armed with impressive teeth, leg bones the size of trees. Like most children, I was enraptured by dinosaurs. Naturally, I knew none of the scientific drama and wonderful megalomania that lay behind those skeletons. The dinosaurs themselves were enough for my eight-year old sensibilities.

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Medium 9780253021021

7 Evaluating the Dinosaur Track Record: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Regional and Global Distribution, Scientific Importance, Preservation, and Management of Tracksites

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

7.1. The Dinosaur Track Road in Teruel (Spain) footprint sites.

Evaluating the Dinosaur Track Record: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Regional and Global Distribution, Scientific Importance, Preservation, and Management of Tracksites

7

Luis Alcalá, Martin G. Lockley, Alberto Cobos, Luis Mampel, and Rafael Royo-Torres

MANY PAPERS ON FOSSIL TRACKS, FROM MANY REGIONS of the world have been published in the last two decades, and this rapid increase in documentation has itself generated the idea of a dinosaur “footprint renaissance” marked by a landslide of new discoveries and documentation. Many of these papers mention the significance of these sites in terms of selected variables such as size of site, number of tracks, new or unknown ichnotaxa, new stratigraphic or geographic occurrence, trackmaker behavioral implications, and so forth. However, the significance of fossil tracksites is often not comprehensively discussed or evaluated in such a way as to address all relevant criteria and facilitate comparison with other sites. In this chapter we describe an approach for evaluating tracksites.

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Medium 9781576337356

Elements: CLEP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9789380856827

Ch_5_F

Dr. Sanjay K. Sharma Laxmi Publications PDF

5

WASTE

AND

WASTEWATER

MANAGEMENT

5.1

WATER TREATMENT

Wastewater treatment is a process, wherein the contaminants are removed from wastewater as well as household sewage, to produce waste stream or solid waste suitable for discharge or reuse. Wastewater treatment methods are categorized into three sub-divisions, physical, chemical and biological.

Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.

Process Flow Diagram for a typical large-scale treatment plant

Raw wastewater

Screening chamber

Primary setting Tank

Grit chamber

Aeration

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Medium 9780253006073

3 Freedom and Necessity: Family and Kinship

Martin H. Krieger Indiana University Press ePub

Recapitulation and Prospect; Kinship, Exchange, and Plenitude; Systematics in the Field; The Problem of “Quite Rarely”; Markets and Fetishes; Taking the Rules Seriously; Structure and System.

THE ARGUMENT IS: THERE IS A REMARKABLE ANALOGY BETWEEN kinship systems, particle physics, chemistry, and market economies. All may be accounted for by stories of fair exchange: of women, elementary particles, electrons, and currency and goods, respectively. Actual social systems and Nature are taken as the consequence of the necessary occurrence of all exchanges that are not forbidden (“plenitude”) and also the fact that names or labels on objects fully characterize them, both in their interaction with other objects and in their classification into groups of like objects (“fetishism” and “nondegeneracy”). Once we take on the world as a system of exchange, it seems we are also committed not only to plenitude and nondegeneracy, but also to rules of exchange that balance or conserve the flows of exchanged objects, the set of exchanges being the glue which ties the system together – at least if we are physicists. Here, the degrees of freedom are those nondegenerate fetishized labels (particle properties, for example) interpreted by the rules of forbiddenness, rules which reflect the orderlinesses or symmetries of the system. And the conservation of flow (say in balancing goods and money, or charge, or energy that is exchanged) also implies that we treat the exchanged materials as fully commensurable with each other.

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Medium 9781576753903

A

Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

Index

ABC Nightline, 19

Abraham, Spencer, 83, 192

Absence of deviance, 7–8

Abundance approach, 8–9, 211,

237; adoption of, to transformational change, 220–21; causal relationship between high performance and, 36–37; to change, 6–10, 27–30, 41,

43–44, 222–23, 226–27; heliotropic effect of, 30–41; impact of, 36–41; interventions to foster, 37; to performance,

206; positive deviance and,

17–44

Abundance factors, 221

Abundance gaps, 8, 29–30, 220; focus on, 226–27; as predictor of change, 220

Abundance leadership principles,

10; conventional leadership principles versus, 11, 225–44

Abundance to change approach in airline industry, 40–41

Abundance vision, 104

Accountability: association of strict,

with stable funding, 155–56; in attaining results, 234; by contract recipient, 233; engagement of multiple employees in,

151, 152–54; external political leaders in, 194–95

Ackland, Len, 253–54

Acquisitions, 220

Adaptability, 233

Adhocracy or Create quadrant,

101–30, 131, 159–60; attributes of, 93–94; innovation and creativity and, 117–24; meaningful work and, 125–28; principles related to, 228–31; shared vision of future and,

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