Results for: “Science”
|Robert Bruce Thompson||O'Reilly Media|
Dark Adapt Your Notebook Computer
H A C K
Dark Adapt Your Notebook Computer
Use your notebook while observing without damaging your night vision.
A notebook computer is an invaluable observing aid, but notebook displays produce enough light to destroy your night vision, not to mention that of everyone else in the vicinity [Hack #5]. Fortunately, it’s easy to modify your notebook to be suitable for observing sessions without making any permanent changes that would make it unsuitable for daytime use. Here are the changes we recommend.
Dim the display
All notebook computers make some provision for adjusting the brightness of the display. The first step in dark adapting your notebook is to use these controls to set the notebook to the lowest possible screen brightness. Unfortunately, notebook computers are not designed with astronomers in mind, so the lowest available screen brightness is usually still much too bright.
Some notebooks, including the Compaq Armada E500 we use, allow you to change screen brightness by moving a physical slider or by using some combination of function keys. These models allow you to dim the screen whether you’re running Windows or Linux. Other notebooks require a Windows-only software utility to change screen brightness, so you may be out of luck if you’re running Linux. If your notebook is in the latter category and you’re runningSee All Chapters
|Ace Academics||Ace Academics||ePub|
|Nicole Klein||Indiana University Press||ePub|
In the appendix, published body mass data for a variety of basal sauropodomorphs and sauropods have been compiled. Note the differing results for some taxa, mainly depending on the method used for body mass reconstruction. The different methods used (as described by the authors cited) are coded in the table as follows: 0, method not given; 1, von Bertalanffy equation; 2, 3D mathematical slicing; 3, polynomial technique and volume figures; 4, log transformed (base 10) database consisting of model-based body estimates and measurements of bone dimensions; 5, bone measuring, midshaft femora, and/or humeri circumference; 6, ontogenetic growth curves of dinosaur species, estimated from data on the scaling of maximum growth rates for reptiles and mammals; 7, scale model, water displacement, and volume of living animals scaled up from the model; 8, weighing scale models in air and water, recalculation using a slightly lower overall density (950 kg/m3); 9, 3D stereophotogrammetry, laser scanning of mounted skeletons; 10, estimating cubic meters; 11, considering pneumaticity, reduced neck and tail volume; 12, laser stereophotogrammetry, laser scanning, and 3D reconstruction methods; 13, plasticine scale models, following a skeletal restoration; 14, estimated by personal opinion; 15, ‘‘gathered data’’; 16, modern skeletal reconstructions, numerical estimates of centers of mass.See All Chapters
|Daniel S. Licht||Texas A&M University Press||ePub|
Elk of Buffalo River
In terms of photographic appeal there may be no animal in North America more sought after and more impressive than the North American elk in autumn. The adult males, known as bulls, carry their massive antlers proudly and regally. They use the enormous antlers to thrash small trees and to send clods of earth flying, all in an effort to demonstrate their fitness. Then they tilt the antlers back, extend their head forward, and emit a loud buglelike call that carries for miles, as their breath turns to vapor in the crisp autumn air. And when two evenly matched bulls meet, an epic battle may ensue. For the photographer and wildlife observer it gets no better than elk in the fall. When most people think of elk they think of the Rocky Mountains, but surprisingly, there are many national parks outside of the Rocky Mountains where elk can be viewed. One of the better places to see these majestic animals in their fall glory is at Buffalo National River in the Ozarks of north-central Arkansas.See All Chapters
|Rudolf A. Raff||Indiana University Press||ePub|
My mother, Therese Dufresne, was the daughter of a well-liked local physician, Albert Dufresne, who practiced from 1930 onward in Shawinigan and the surrounding countryside. His house calls could mean anything, including grueling trips into the backcountry by horse-drawn sled or canoe. By the time he retired, my grandfather had delivered or treated most of the living citizens of the town. He once estimated that he had delivered eight thousand Shawinigan babies. In 1966 he was made a Commandeur de l’Ordre de Saint-Gregoire-le-Grand, a papal award for his charitable acts to his many patients unable to pay in hard times. A street in Shawinigan now bears his name.
Going to visit Shawinigan during summer vacations was the highlight of my early life. Shamefully, it was not because I liked spending an entire vacation in my grandparents’ rather formal house. I was too energetic for that. What I cherished most was any time I could spend out in the woods at a lake. My Uncle Gérard Dufresne’s family had a remote cottage on Lac des Îlles, where on one visit I was impressed to see the hole where an enterprising bear had clawed its way through a soil-filled double-log wall into the icehouse. What a frisson to realize that wooden doors would be as paper to hungry bears (not that they bothered cottages with people around). Most of my cottage experience though was at Lac Souris (Mouse Lake – had they run out of better names?). Here the vast Quebec forest lapped the edge of civilization. On the far side of the lake, inaccessible from the end of the rutted lake road, my uncle Guy Ricard (the husband of my mother’s sister Margot) and my grandfather had built a summer cottage. To get to the cottage from the road head, we would uncover my grandfather’s old motorboat, drag it over the wet sand into the shallows, load up supplies and gas, and push off with battered oars to get into water deep enough to lower the outboard. Then, with some boat rocking, repeated pulls of the starter cable finally got the balky engine going. We’d head off at two miles per hour in a cloud of fragrant blue smoke. If there were just the two of us, I’d be allowed to run the engine and steer with my grandfather’s nervous guidance. Once steady, I could throttle up enough to leave a discernable wake across the usually glassy surface. I have a photograph of one of those days – me a skinny ten year old wearing an oversized old raincoat of my grandfather’s belted around my waist, he with his inevitable cigar in his mouth.See All Chapters
|Robert Bruce Thompson||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
Youll need the following items to complete this lab session. (The standard kit for this book, available from www.thehomescientist.com, includes the items listed in the first group.)
Bottle, polypropylene, 125 mL
Centrifuge tubes, 15 mL
Test tube rack
Balance (or measuring spoons)
Bottle, 500 mL soda (clean and empty)
Broth, chicken (or bouillon cube)
Measuring cup, 500 mL (microwave-safe)
Pressure cooker (optional; see text)
Sodium chloride (table salt)
Spray disinfectant (Lysol or similar)
Sprayer bottle filled with water
Sucrose (table sugar)
All living things require a suitable life support environment if they are to grow and flourish. Just as people need air, water, food, and protection from temperature extremes, bacteria and other microorganisms grow only in environments that supply their essential requirements.
The process of encouraging growth of particular organisms by providing conditions optimal for those organisms is called culturing. For example, growing plants and livestock is called agriculture. Fish farming is pisciculture, a form of aquaculture. In each case, human activity is directed at modifying the environment to suit the needs of the organism.See All Chapters
|Nicole Klein||Indiana University Press||ePub|
EVA MARIA GRIEBELER AND JAN WERNER
Because sauropod dinosaurs are extinct, it might seem impossible to fully reconstruct their life cycles. Nevertheless, information on reproduction, reproductive behavior, growth in body size, and sexual maturity can be indirectly derived from the fossil record. In addition, we can also use living, phylogenetically related taxa as models for these extinct animals in order to support and expand our knowledge on sauropod life cycles. Predictions from life history theory on the relationship between reproductive traits and body size as well as the analyses of life cycle characteristics of extant reptiles, birds, and mammals are also appropriate. In the present chapter, we utilize this complex approach for the reconstruction of sauropod life cycles. We summarize the information on eggs, clutches, nests, hatching, adolescence, and growth in body size that has been derived from the fossil record. In addition, we try to fill the gaps in our knowledge concerning the reproductive behavior, the total reproductive output of animals, and the mortality during the life cycle using information from extant phylogenetic brackets or predictions of life history theory. Finally, we discuss hypotheses explaining gigantism of sauropods based on their life cycles.See All Chapters
Trade in Wildlife and Exotic
Wildlife animals have been traded for millennia, probably even before the
domestication of animal species for the production of food and clothing. Yet despite the development of a small number of domesticated species to provide for most of our needs, we have continued to harvest and trade in wildlife and exotic species. Exotic species are those that are not indigenous to the region, which usually precludes the domestic livestock species. These are kept by zoos, for the entertainment of the public and increasingly for conservation and for scientific purposes. Their use for entertainment in circuses is diminishing as public recognition of associated cruel practices in training and transport between venues has increased, creating public pressure for legislative control. They are also kept by a growing number of members of the public for display and a variety of other reasons that will be outlined later. Wildlife animals are harvested for food as well and may be traded with other regions because their exotic and novel nature encourages people to try eating them. The biggest harvest of wild animals, indeed the biggest of any food animals, is that of fish from the oceans. However, many other animals are harvested from the oceans and our scant knowledge of populations in the past has led to many manmade catastrophes, with populations decimated because of high demand for the products and mechanized harvesting of ever increasing efficiency.See All Chapters
|K.V.S.G. Murali Krishna||Laxmi Publications|
238 Air Pollution
AIR POLLUTION MONITORING
The objective of monitoring and management of air pollution is to protect man and his property.
Continuous monitoring of ambient air quality and stack-gas emissions is necessary to develop background concentrations of different pollutants in an area, to evaluate the performance of the air pollution control measures adopted and finally to check whether the concentrations of pollutants are within the prescribed limits or not. Monitoring meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, temperature and environmental lapse rate, humidity and precipitation, alongwith the concentrations of pollutants both in stack and in ambient air would help in the successful management of air pollution control problems and in arriving at new air pollution standards. Air pollution can be reduced by a great extent even before setting up an industry by locating it at a suitable site and by conducting a thorough Environmental Impact Assessment. After commissioning the industry, the pollutants can be minimised by following a good environmental management plan. As air pollution control is often a costly affair with no direct beneficial returns, many industries show little interest in air pollution control management. A thorough monitoring of the air pollutants and a strict implementation of the legislations only can control air pollution and bring air quality to the required standards.See All Chapters
|Hernández, Fidel||Texas A&M University Press||ePub|
Figure 10.1 Sex and age ratio data are relatively easy to collect from harvested bobwhites. This information can be used to gain insight on bobwhite survival and productivity. (Photograph provided by Dale Rollins)
THE SEX AND AGE of bobwhites in the harvest provides information that may be used to index or induce additional attributes of populations such as production, survival, and distribution of hatches during the breeding season. As was the case with population counts, this information may be useful in evaluation of management efforts or habitat types. For example, estimates of average annual survival may be used to evaluate quail responses between a pasture with a grazing system and one with continuous grazing. Hatching distributions may be used to evaluate if supplemental feeding in a pasture influences the length of the hatching season differently than in a pasture with no feeding. Age ratios may be used to compare the productivity of bobwhite populations among habitat types or properties.See All Chapters
|Michael J Ryan||Indiana University Press||ePub|
Martha C. Aguillón-Martínez
Coordinactión de Paleontología, Secretaría de Educación y Cultura, Museo del Desierto, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Virtual Surfaces, Inc., Mt. Prospect, IL 60056 USA.
Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1345
Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
P.O. Box 119, Whitehall, MT 59759 USA.
Department of Geology and Geophysics, and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, P.O. Box 755780, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.
Donald B. Brinkman
Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, P.O. Box 7500, Drumheller, AB T0J 0Y0 Canada.
Ralph E. Chapman
Eryops Consulting, 295 Bryce Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544 USA.
Brenda J. Chinnery-Allgeier
School of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, A6500, Austin, TX 78712 USA.
Philip J. Currie
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9 Canada.See All Chapters
|Jennifer A. Clack||Indiana University Press||ePub|
6.1. Illustrated cladogram with Eusthenopteron, Panderichthys, Tiktaalik, Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, and Dendrerpeton.
Reading the Evidence: Eusthenopteron—Panderichthys—Tiktaalik—Ventastega—Acanthostega
Chapter 2 looked at opposite ends of a spectrum. At one end was the structure of a fish such as Eusthenopteron, and at the other end was that of a tetrapod such as Dendrerpeton, an early tetrapod belonging to the group known as temnospondyls (see Chapters 8 and 9). The problem embodied in the phrase “the fish–tetrapod transition” is how evolution proceeded from one to the other. One of the ways to study this is to look at intermediate forms, but what makes a suitable intermediate form? In the past, a temnospondyl such as Eryops would have been featured in the role of primitive tetrapod, and Ichthyostega would have been seen as an intermediate between Eusthenopteron and Eryops. Recent analyses, however, have suggested that Ichthyostega has some highly specialized features that may make it unsuitable as a representative Devonian tetrapod; it is now also clear that Eryops is a highly specialized and unrepresentative temnospondyl. Although Eusthenopteron is not as close a relative of tetrapods as used to be considered, it still provides good information about basal tetrapodomorph structure.See All Chapters
|Ace Academics||Ace Academics||ePub|
|Robert Bruce Thompson||Maker Media, Inc||ePub|
Youll need the following items to complete this lab session. (The FK01 Forensic Science Kit for this book, available from http://www.thehomescientist.com, includes the items listed in the first group.)
Graduated cylinder, 10 mL
Salicylate standard solution
Desk lamp or other light source
Soft drink bottle or other collection vessel
Water, distilled or deionized
Specimens: urine (see text)
This lab session requires a urine specimen obtained from someone who has recently taken aspirin or another salicylate drug. Consumption of aspirin and other salicylate drugs by young people is associated with an increased incidence of Reyes Syndrome, a potentially fatal disease. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Surgeon General, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Food and Drug Administration recommend that aspirin and other products that contain salicylates not be administered to anyone aged 18 years or younger. Accordingly, if you are not at least 19 years of age, we recommend that you obtain the urine specimen from an adult who has recently used aspirin or another salicylate product such as a methyl salicylate muscle rub cream.See All Chapters
DURING THE SPAN OF GEOLOGICAL TIME THAT SABERTOOTHS OF ONE kind or another have inhabited the earth, our planet has undergone dramatic changes. Continents have collided and then drifted away from each other; temperatures have oscillated wildly, from periods of scorching heat to chilling ice ages; sea levels have risen and fallen, changing the shape of coasts and alternately flooding and revealing thousands of square kilometers of land; and vegetation has changed, from otherworldly Paleozoic forests consisting of giant ferns and primitive conifers to Cenozoic communities made up of essentially modern plant types, but with distributions that fluctuated dramatically with climatic oscillations. The evolution of sabertooths has been tightly linked to these changes in their environments and to the evolution of other animal species, including their competitors and prey. Everything we know about their history has been gathered from a treasure trove of information encrypted in layer on layer of sedimentary rocks: the fossil record.See All Chapters