1663 Chapters
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Medium 9781780643540

7: Late-blooming Cultivar Development

Rafel Socias i Company; Gradziel, T.M. CABI PDF


Late-blooming Cultivar Development

Federico Dicenta1,*, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez2, Ignasi Batlle3 and

Pedro Martínez-Gómez1


Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CEBAS-CSIC,

Murcia, Spain; 2Department of Plant and Environmental Services,

Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Institut de Recerca i

Teconologia Agroalimentàries, Mas de Bover, Spain

7.1  The Importance of Flowering

Time in Wild and Cultivated Almonds

7.1.1  Flowering time of wild almonds

Flowering is one of the determinant processes in the adaptation of plants to the environment, most likely because of the impact of this trait on the survival of the species. During the time flowers are open, which is typically ephemeral, an interaction between the flowering plant and other plants and, in many cases, insects, oc­ curs. The sole aim is successful pollination and seed formation. This process involves numer­ ous factors and is the first step in ensuring the survival and expansion of the species in each environment.

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Medium 9781780641478

5: DNA barcoding for identification of plant pathogens

Boonham, N.; Tomlinson, J.; Mumford, R. CABI PDF


DNA barcoding f or identification of plant p


Jennifer Hodgetts*

Fera, Sand Hutton, York, UK

5.1  Introduction

Taxonomy, the classification of organisms, is a profoundly important scientific discipline.

Without it, plant pathogen identification or, indeed, precise identification of any organism, would not be possible. Since the advent and uptake of DNA sequencing from the

1980s onwards, analysis of an organism’s DNA sequence has become a new tool added to the traditional taxonomic process.

The term DNA ‘barcodes’ was first used in the scientific literature in the 1990s (Arnot et al., 1993); however, the technique as it is now known came to the forefront with the work of Canadian scientist Dr Paul D.N. Hebert, who is often considered the ‘father of

DNA barcoding’. In 2003, Hebert and co-workers published a seminal paper ‘Biological identifications through DNA barcodes’ in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, which proposed the use of DNA barcoding for species identification

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Medium 9780253021021

16 Elusive Ornithischian Tracks in the Famous Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) “Chicken Yard” Tracksite of Northern Germany: Quantitative Differentiation between Small Tridactyl Trackmakers

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

16.1. Sketch of track 1/3 showing locations of the measured distances taken for quantitative analyses. Abbreviations: LII, length along second digit; LIII, length along third digit, the same as total track length; LIV, length along fourth digit; B, total track width; LIIoM, length of second digit without metatarsal; LIIIoM, length of third digit without metatarsal; LIVoM, length of fourth digit without metatarsal; BbII, width at proximal third or base of second digit; BbIII, width at proximal third or base of third digit; BbIV, width at proximal third or base of fourth digit; BmII, width at mid length of second digit; BmIII, width at mid length of third digit; BmIV, width at mid length of fourth digit; II–III°, divarication angle between digits II and III; III–IV°, divarication angle between digits III and IV; II–IV°, divarication angle between digits II and IV.

Elusive Ornithischian Tracks in the Famous Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) “Chicken Yard” Tracksite of Northern Germany: Quantitative Differentiation between Small Tridactyl Trackmakers

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Medium 9781780644639

1 Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies at Farm-level: A Retrospection

Singh, N.P. CABI PDF


Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies at

Farm-level: A Retrospection

N.P. Singh,* K. Byjesh and C. Bantilan

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India


This chapter introduces current and future climatic implication on national, regional and sub-regional agro-socioeconomy. It focuses on the growing recognition of the climate change studies that are being considered inevitable.

Authors argue that better understanding and assessment of adaptation and/or coping strategies at farm-level are prerequisite in the long-term development planning of the country or the region towards climate resiliency. The arguments were put forward to emphasize the vital link between agriculture, rural livelihoods and climate in the semi-arid tropics for the majority of the population in Asia and Africa. This chapter confines itself to various discourses on the past and present efforts on assessing impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. It also discusses the global efforts on improving resilience against climatic risks in agricultural sector and also poor smallholder farmers of the semi-arid tropics. The chapter briefly reviews the current state of knowledge related to farmers’ strategies and determinants of decision in the choice of adaptation at farm-level. The chapter further discusses the organization of the book and also identifies potential uses of the book and the audience for whom this information is valuable.

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Medium 9780253006455

20 The Evolution of Sex Determination

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

In 1871, Charles Darwin published his long awaited Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex.1 Darwin considered sexual evolution as a lesser form of natural selection and he gave it the term sexual selection. This distinction made sense because natural selection operated on all aspects of survival, while sexual selection acted mostly on the differences between the two sexes. Adult male humans are taller, heavier, more muscular, and their body fat and muscles are distributed differently from females. Females have wider hips than shoulders; males have the reverse. The secondary sexual differences in breast enlargement and facial hair may play a role in sexual attractiveness. They may also alter the relation of infants to their parents, making the mother-child bond more important for survival. In many animals, this sexual dimorphism between males and females is even more pronounced. The peacock is elaborate in color, size, and distribution compared to the peahen. Male deer have large antlers that they use for display as well as for combat with other males in their rivalry for access to females. Female deer lack those antlers. Darwin felt that sexual reproduction gives an advantage to a species by fostering what was later called “hybrid vigor”—relatively specialized breeds of animals are less likely to survive in the wild than mongrels or hybrids of those strains that are closer to their ancestral wild type.

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Medium 9781603442909

Gas Hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

Deborah R. Hutchinson, Carolyn D. Ruppel, Harry H. Roberts, Robert S. Carney, and Michael A. Smith

Interest in the Gulf of Mexico has been greatly accelerated in the past decade, and there is much evidence that this interest will continue, which should result in the eventual solution of many of the present riddles of the Gulf of Mexico. When S. A. Lynch wrote these words half a century ago (Lynch 1954, p. 83), gas hydrates were not anticipated as one of the riddles of the Gulf of Mexico. The occurrence of gas hydrates in the Gulf was first predicted in 1979, when key indicators in seismic data suggested their presence (Shipley et al. 1979a). Samples of these elusive materials were not discovered in the Gulf until about 1983 when hydrate was recovered in cores and dredges in the Green Canyon area (Brooks et al. 1984; Kennicutt et al. 1985). Since these first discoveries in the Gulf, studies have expanded rapidly; now the Gulf is one of the best-studied natural laboratories for understanding seafloor gas hydrate mounds and marine gas hydrate occurrence within a leaky world-class petroleum system.

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Medium 9781845939076

8 Biology of Mikania micrantha H.B.K.: a Review

CAB International PDF


Biology of Mikania micrantha

H.B.K.: a Review

R.S. Tripathi1, M.L. Khan2 and A.S. Yadav3


Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,

India; 2Department of Forestry, North-Eastern Regional Research

Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Nirjuli,

Arunachal Pradesh, India; 3Department of Botany, R.R.

Autonomous College, Alwar, Rajasthan, India


Invasion of alien plant species is one of the most serious global problems. Alien plant species invade and adversely affect both natural and semi-natural ecosystems

(Higgins et al., 1996; Mgidia et al., 2007).

Mikania micrantha is one of the 100 worst alien species (Lowe et al., 2001), is among the ten worst exotic species in South-east and South Asia, and one of the 16 exotic species in China (Zhang, L.Y. et al., 2004). It is commonly known as mile-a-minute weed

(Waterhouse, 1994), is an extremely fastgrowing, perennial vine and is regarded as one of the world’s most notorious invaders

(Holm et al., 1977; Cronk and Fuller, 1995).

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Medium 9781786390837

16 Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogeny

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF


Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogeny

Sergei A. Subbotin1,2 and Andrea M. Skantar3

Plant Pest Diagnostic Center, California Department of Food and Agriculture,

California, USA; 2Center of Parasitology of A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and

Evolution, Moscow, Russia; 3USDA, ARS, Beltsville, Maryland, USA


16.1 Introduction


16.2  Nuclear Ribosomal RNA Genes


16.3  Nuclear Protein-coding Genes


16.4  Mitochondrial DNA Genome Organization


16.5  Origin and Phylogeny of Heteroderidae


16.6  Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Punctoderinae


16.7  Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Globodera 410

16.8  Co-evolution of Cyst Nematodes with their Host Plants


16.9  Conclusions and Future Prospects


16.10 References


16.1 Introduction

For many years evolutionary relationships among species and genera of cyst nematodes were estimated by classical comparison of morphological characters. Since the 1990s molecular information, such as nucleotide, amino acid sequences and restriction fragment length

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Medium 9781786390837

12 Interactions with Other Pathogens

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF


Interactions with Other Pathogens

Horacio D. Lopez-Nicora and Terry L. Niblack

Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

12.1 Introduction

12.2  Defining Interactions

12.3 �Methodologies for Investigation of Interactions between

Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.4  Biological and Statistical Evidence of Interactions

12.5  Mechanisms of Interactions

12.6  Interactions between Cyst Nematodes and Other Organisms

12.7  Conclusions and Future Prospects

12.8 References

12.1 Introduction

Interactions between nematodes and other organisms are one component of the vast ecological network of biotic and abiotic interactions with plants. Quantifying the effect of each component alone is not easy and multiple components (‘determinants’) present larger challenges

(Wallace, 1978, 1989). Complex interactions between plant-parasitic nematodes and other pathogenic organisms generate uncertainties in our abilities to predict host damage. The lack of comprehension of the mechanisms of these interactions and under- or overestimation of damage and economic thresholds impede the development and implementation of management strategies.

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Medium 9780253000996

5 - Anatomical Evidences

Jolyon C. Parish Indiana University Press ePub


Of the known specimens, there was a stuffed dodo in the collection of Rudolf II (the Prague dodo), a foot mentioned by Clusius as being in the collection of Pauwius (which may, or may not be the same as the foot formerly in the Royal Society collection), a head in the Gottorf collection, a stuffed bird in Tradescant's collection, and additional specimens in the Anatomy School, Oxford. There were the remains of at least five dodos in England during the latter half of the seventeenth century (three at the Anatomy School in Oxford, the Tradescant dodo, and the Royal Society [Hubert's] dodo foot).

It should be noted that all “stuffed” dodos in modern museum collections are reconstructions, composed of feathers from other birds (often swan or goose) and usually modeled with reference to the existing remains and contemporary illustrations. No genuine taxidermied whole dodo exists, the only remains are those detailed below. Lambrecht erroneously stated that there are “some mummies and skins” in various museums (1921, 86). This was probably a confusion concerning the Oxford and BM remains and the reconstructed dodo models.

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Medium 9781780644639

9 Sociological Signifi cance: Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change Among Communities

Singh, N.P. CABI PDF


Sociological Significance:

Enhancing Resilience to Climate

Change Among Communities

N.P. Singh,* C. Bantilan, W. Jayatilaka and R.


International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India


Interesting sociological dimensions of enhancing resilience to climate change among communities were observed for formulating viable policy interventions. This chapter applied a comprehensive approach appealing to principles, methodologies, tools, validation and evaluation techniques for understanding the social dimensions of responses and adaptation to climate change. The analyses were undertaken at the individual and systems level with particular attention to the role of networks. The case studies from India revealed deeper sociological insights on i) farmers’ perceptions of climate change or variability; ii) binding constraints to adaptation and vulnerability; and iii) coping mechanisms to enhance their adaptive capacity. Three case studies of the villages of Dokur, Kanzara and Shirapur in the semi-arid regions of India, complemented by comparable observations from three additional villages from the longitudinal Village Level Studies panel data (ICRISAT 2014), highlighted significant findings. The first is that farmers perceive climate variability rather than climate change. Second, the critical constraints are not just the lack of access to financial resources, but that human and social capital as well as institutional and governance challenges are equally binding. Lastly, collective action and institutional arrangements effectively mediate the adaptive capacity and resilience of communities to climate change.

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Medium 9781780647845

12 Harvesting and Post-harvest Management

Khan, M.M.; Al-Yahyai, R.; Al-Said, F. CABI PDF


Harvesting and Post-harvest


Ahmad Sattar Khan1* and Zora Singh2

Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab,

Pakistan; 2Curtin Horticulture Research Laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin

University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia


The majority of lime fruit produced in the world are consumed as fresh. Preservation of the natural quality of lime fruit after harvest either for local or international markets is a prerequisite to maintain consumer confidence to buy limes. The literature on the harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus is fairly vast and has been reviewed in the past by various scientists, but information on post-harvest handling of limes is very scant. Similar to other horticultural fresh produce (Mahajan et al., 2014), the major challenge in post-harvest handling of limes is how to reduce post-harvest losses. Harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus fruit are important operations, which subsequently determine the storage and shelf life as well as the quality of lime fruit. Like other non-climacteric citrus fruits, limes are harvested at attainment of full maturity leading to maximum acceptability to consumers. Appropriate harvest maturity and method of harvest ensure good post-harvest handling with higher economic returns. Various post-harvest treatments are applied to limes in order to delay senescence and reduce mechanical injuries, physiological disorders and decay.

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Medium 9781576753903

5 Key Enablers—Vision, Innovation, and Symbolic Leadership

Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF



A Clear, Shared Vision of the Future

The Rocky Flats project began with the reputation of a negative, depressing, doomed-to-failure project. Negative energy, criticism, and cynicism surrounded almost all activities and discussions related to the closure or cleanup. State government as well as DOE officials described Rocky Flats as being anything but a plum assignment.

It was clear that I was going to be the environmental person for the state of Colorado for Senator Allard when he assumed office. They assigned me Rocky Flats with kind of a chuckle because it was seen as a negative project. I wasn’t altogether thrilled with the assignment. I thought it was going to be a lot of drudgery and a failure, and I didn’t see the benefit for Senator Allard at the time. Shortly after meeting with Congressman Skaggs’s office, it became clear that there was an opportunity here. There were some very fine people at the Department of Energy and Kaiser-Hill, the contractor. There were some fine people in the community that were committed to turning this from a negative into a positive. People at the

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Medium 9781780647845

10 Plant Protection: Lime Diseases and Insect Pests

Khan, M.M.; Al-Yahyai, R.; Al-Said, F. CABI PDF


Plant Protection: Lime Diseases and Insect Pests

A.M. Al-Sadi1*, Renan B. Queiroz2, Philip Donkersley3,

A. Nasehi1 and Simon L. Elliot3


Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine

Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Oman; 2Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural, Linhares,

Espírito Santo, Brazil; 3Department of Entomology, Universidade

Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Acid lime is affected by several diseases and pests, resulting in variable losses, which range from negligible effects on leaves, roots, stems or fruits to reduction in growth and yield or complete decline. The distribution of acid lime pests and diseases and their severity are affected by several factors, including conduciveness of the environmental conditions, aggressiveness of pathogen strains, type of insect pests, and resistance of limes and rootstocks. Phytoplasmainduced witches’ broom disease of lime is a serious disease, especially in the Middle East. Citrus canker, Huanglongbing disease and several fungal and viral diseases are common in different parts of the world. Leafhoppers, psyllids and leaf miners are among the most damaging pests of limes.

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Medium 9781780646534

17: Patentability of Human Embryo Stem Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Case WARF in the United States of America and Europe

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Patentability of Human Embryo

Stem Cells: A Comparative

Analysis of Case WARF in the

United States of America and


Jiang Li*

Kenneth Wang School of Law, Soochow University, Su Zhou, China

17.1  Introduction

Human embryonic stem cells are potentially of great therapeutic value in a number of areas including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and transplantation therapy (Thomson, 1998). The patentability of human embryonic stem cells has raised worldwide controversy and dispute in the last two decades, especially in the USA and Europe.

Following the basic principle of ‘anything under the sun that is made by man can be patented’,1 US patents on human embryonic stem cells have been granted. The US Patent and Trademark Office

(USPTO) granted a broad patent on primate embryonic stem cells (ESC) in December 1998 and a second patent on human embryonic stem cells

(HESC) in March 2001 (Loring and Campbell,

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