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Medium 9780253002303

1 Paleontology and Science: What Is Science?

Fariña, Richard A. ePub


South America, the southern half of the pole-to-pole landmass named, according to the usual attribution, after the Italian merchant and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci—or, as convincingly argued by Lloyd and Mitchinson (2008), after the wealthy Bristol merchant Richard Ameryk, a main investor in Giovanni Caboto’s second transatlantic voyage—remains a territory full of interest, intrigue, and biological treasures. Artificially severed from the northern half by the Panama Canal, it extends from the tropics, where the marvelous Amazonian rain forest offers its biological diversity and chemical riches of trapped carbon, to the elevations and endless steppes of Patagonia, its tapered south that points at and nearly touches frozen Antarctica. From west to east, the assortment of landscapes includes the soaring Andes, followed in places by the Altiplano that so aroused past greed for silver and gold, and then descends into the low-lying eastern plains, where the fossils discussed in this book have mainly been found.

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Medium 9781780647845

13 Traditional/Commercial Uses and Future Dynamics



Traditional/Commercial Uses and Future Dynamics

M. Asif Hanif1*, Smitha Padmanabhan2, Mostafa Waly2 and Ahmed Al-Maskari3


Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan;


Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and

Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Oman; 3Department of

Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences,

Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Oman


Citrus aurantifolia (lime) belongs to the Rutaceae family (orange family) and is a genus of flowering plants. This tree is extensively cultivated in subtropical and tropical areas because of its edible fruits (FAO, 2009). The tree rarely reaches more than 5 m in height and 7.5 m in width; if not pruned it becomes shrub-like. Citrus is probably the most extensively planted fruit for direct human use in the world (Bakare et al., 2012).

The lime fruit and its juice are key ingredients in many drinks, confections, pickles and sauces.

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Medium 9780253355089

4. The Diet of Sauropod Dinosaurs: Implications of Carbon Isotope Analysis on Teeth, Bones, and Plants

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


Sauropods were megaherbivores that fed predominantly on nonangiosperm vegetation such as gymnosperms, sphenophytes, and pteridophytes. In this chapter, the potential of carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis in skeletal apatite for inferring the diet and niche partitioning of sauropods was tested. The carbon isotope composition of food plants is transferred with a metabolic offset to higher trophic levels along the food chain, which suggests that differences in isotopic composition of sauropod food plants can be used to infer sauropod feeding behavior. For this purpose, the δ13C values of sauropod bones and teeth, primarily from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, USA, and the Tendaguru Beds, Tanzania, East Africa, were analyzed, as were the leaves of extant and fossil potential sauropod food plants such as Araucaria, cycads, ferns, horsetails, and ginkgo. The metabolic carbon isotope fractionation between diet and enamel apatite estimated for sauropods is 16‰. By means of this fractionation, a diet based only on terrestria C3 plants can be reconstructed for sauropods. Therefore, sauropods did not ingest significant amounts of plants with high, C4 plant-like δ13C values such as marine algae or C4 plants. However, plants that used crassulacean acid metabolism for biosynthesis and possibly freshwater aquatic plants may have contributed to the diet of sauropods. A more detailed discrimination of exactly which type of food plants was consumed by sauropods based on apatite δ13C values alone is difficult because taxon-specific differences between C3 plants are small and not well constrained. Mean enamel δ13C values of sympatric sauropods differ by approximately 3‰, which may indicate a certain niche partitioning. Differences in mean δ13C values for the living representatives of potential sauropod food plants suggest that a differentiation between low-browsing taxa feeding on ferns or horsetails with lower δ13C values and high-browsing taxa feeding on conifers with higher δ13C values might be possible.

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Medium 9780253011824

5 On Top of the World: The Middle Cambrian Begins

John Foster Indiana University Press ePub

5.1. Stratigraphic section of the formations in the Chief, Highland, and Delamar ranges in eastern Nevada correlated with comparable sections in several other areas discussed in the text. Tie point for connecting each section is the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary.

WE HAVE MOVED UP THROUGH EARLY CAMBRIAN TIME ACROSS MORE than two-dozen million years. Our next stop is the Lower–Middle Cambrian boundary. Driving north from Las Vegas on Highway 93 we travel up several of the basins of the Basin and Range Province and after about three hours, just over half-way to Great Basin National Park, we come to the town of Pioche, Nevada. This small collection of houses and old hotels, shops, winding streets, a “boot hill,” and an opera house is perched on a hillside dotted above town with numerous old silver mines. Named after investor François Pioche from San Francisco, the town of Pioche sprang up between 1864 and 1868 as workers flooded the area in search of the precious metal that built the state of Nevada. The silver rush here peaked in 1872, a time when the town’s population was about ten times what it is now and when mercenaries were hired to guard mine entrances, such was the wildness of the rush. Not that that kept things under control in town all the time, either; Pioche saw its share of shootouts – just like Tombstone, Dodge City, or Deadwood. Legend has it that the Pioche cemetery had seen nearly six dozen burials before the town had even been in existence long enough for any resident to die of natural causes.

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Medium 9780253352736

1 Time Travel

Dale A. Russell Indiana University Press ePub

Fig 1.1. A group of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on Ellesmere Island, province of Nunavut, arctic Canada, inhabits a simple biotic environment that is seasonally subjected to frigid temperatures. The megaherbivores tower above the stunted herbaceous vegetation on which they feed. For further discussion, see p. 18 and compare with fig. 1.2 on p. 20.

If the dimension of time is difficult to comprehend, introducing the history of life with the ordering of time may seem excessively burdensome. Yet time is intimately embedded in the nature of matter, with vastly differing manifestations on quantum and cosmic scales. The evolution of scientific thought has long been analytic in nature and tends to be increasingly focused on ever more minute scales. However, attention is also being directed toward broad syntheses of physical–biological theory, addressing even the possible influence of complex structures existing today on simpler structures in the remote past through quantum effects (chapter 15; Davies 2007). If one cannot fully comprehend the development of scientific thought, one can at least admire the courage and nobility of spirit that animate it.

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Medium 9781780645216

26: Useful Microorganisms for Environmental Sustainability: Application of Heavy Metal Tolerant Consortia for Surface Water Decontamination in Natural and Artificial Wetlands

Gupta, V.K. CABI PDF


Useful Microorganisms for

Environmental Sustainability: Application of Heavy Metal Tolerant Consortia for

Surface Water Decontamination in Natural and Artificial Wetlands

Leonel E. Amábilis-Sosa,1 Irina Salgado-Bernal,2 Christina D.

Siebe,3 Gabriela E. Moeller-Chávez,4,5 Rolando S. García-Gómez1 and María-del-Carmen Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúa1*


Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico; 2Facultad de Biología, Universidad de la Habana, Cuba;


Instituto de Geología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,

Mexico; 4Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; 5Universidad Politécnica del Estado de Morelos, Mexico


Accelerated population growth and the concomitant industrial development increase the flow of pollutants to the environment and reduce the availability of natural resources. Recent research has focused on the implementation of systems that act as the natural counterparts, particularly the use of microorganisms as tools to enhance the recovery of degraded ecosystems. This approach is sustainable since it is a low-cost option and substitutes the use of chemical agents, electrical energy and other inputs associated with traditional clean-up strategies devised in most industrialized countries. This contribution is part of a larger project that aims to solve the problem of municipal wastewaters polluted with dissolved metals in toxic concentrations (an issue of concern in most countries with emerging economies) by applying microorganisms that are adapted to this type of environment. The microorganisms were isolated, characterized and identified prior to being inoculated into laboratory-scale systems simulating artificial or constructed wetlands. The metal-tolerant strains forming a consortium were able to remove, from synthetic wastewater with an initial concentration of organic matter equivalent to 500 mg COD

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Medium 9781780645599

16: Parsley

Ambrose, D.C.P. CABI PDF



Ghazi Daradkeh1,2 and Musthafa Mohamed Essa1*

Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman; 2Hamad Medical

Corporation, Doha, Qatar


16.1  Botany

16.1.1  Introduction

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a herb belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family (Fig. 16.1). It is native to the Mediterranean region where it is found in the wild form. It is mostly grown outdoors and is seasonally harvested (Navazio, 2012). Parsley is a leafy vegetable, rich in many biologically active compounds, and its name (Petroselinum) is derived from the Greek for ‘rock celery’; it can be distinguished from other leafy green herbs by its unique aroma. In sunny areas with suitable environmental conditions – in a humid soil with a pH of 5.3–7.3 – parsley may grow up to 60–120 cm tall (Navazio, 2012).

Parsley is sensitive to water stress, especially if it is planted in the summer and at the end of spring, and to increase production and improve quality, a permanent source of water should be provided. Both growth stage and parsley type determine the susceptibility of the plants to water stress (Petropoulos et al.,

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Medium 9781780643786

8 Climate Change Effects on Agricultural Insect Pests in Europe

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF


Climate Change Effects on

Agricultural Insect Pests in Europe

Leena Lindström* and Philipp Lehmann

Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions Research,

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of

Jyväskylä, Finland


8.1 Introduction

In this chapter, we will discuss observations of climate change effects on agricultural pests in Europe, the possible mechanisms behind these observed effects and finally delve into more detail through some relatively wellstudied model species (the Colorado potato beetle and the rape beetle). Direct effects of climate change on agricultural pests in

Europe are difficult to dissect from all the human-induced changes that have taken place in parallel with an increased mean annual temperature. During the past decade, agriculture has become more professionalized in terms of land use, crop cultivation techniques and pest management strategies.

We review the effect of climate change on agricultural pests by comparing the speed of range expansion of pest species to non-pest species. It seems that the poleward range shift has been faster for pest than non-pest species. We attribute this partly to the globalization of agriculture as human-assisted movement has broken many natural dispersal barriers. Since the biology of many pest species is relatively poorly studied, direct conclusions on how climate change has affected the biological processes of pests are challenging to make.

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Medium 9781576337127

Ecology: AP Biology

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780643731

4: Monitoring the Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Genes for Selection of Chickpea Hybrids Tolerant to Drought Stress

Chakraborty, U., Editor CAB International PDF


Monitoring the Activation of Jasmonate

Biosynthesis Genes for Selection of Chickpea

Hybrids Tolerant to Drought Stress

Palmiro Poltronieri,* Marco Taurino, Stefania Bonsegna,

Stefania De Domenico and Angelo Santino

CNR-ISPA, Institute of Sciences of Food Productions, Lecce, Italy


It is apparent that climate change will have great impact on the abiotic as well as biotic stresses to which crops will be exposed. The major effects of climate change will be heat and water deficit together with physical damage due to intense rainfall and perhaps associated wind. Since hormonal homoeostasis controlling plant–pathogen interactions is tightly regulated, the influence of abiotic factors may cause dramatic changes in basal plant defences. Dissection of molecular mechanisms which control plant response to different environmental stresses is extremely important for developing crops with improved tolerance.

Complex signalling pathways have evolved in plants to cope with different biotic stresses. Complex interactions among these pathways permit a tight control between development and stress response. Among the different defence mechanisms used by plants, oxylipin metabolism is one of the most important. Oxylipin family consists of fatty acid hydroperoxides, hydroxy-, keto- and oxo-fatty acids, volatiles, aldehydes, divinyl ethers and the plant hormone jasmonic acid. Many of these bioactive compounds participate in various physiological processes, defence mechanisms, adaptation to stresses and communication with other organisms. This review aims to provide new insights on the role of the oxylipins-mediated resistance to multiple stresses in legumes. Our previous results pointed to the involvement of jasmonates in the early signalling of water stress in chickpea and their role in the tolerance mechanism of the drought-tolerant variety. Furthermore, the hormonal response to wounding and salt stress of Medicago truncatula roots was also monitored in different tissues (roots, stem and leaves) at different time points from stress onset.

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Medium 9781576337356

Phase Changes: CLEP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780642635

17: Amino Acid Export in Plants

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF


Amino Acid Export in Plants

M.B. Price and S. Okumoto*

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

17 .1  Abstract

Amino acids are the main form of nitrogen transported in the plant body, and the transport of amino acids across cellular and sub-cellular membranes is considered essential for nitrogen economy in plants. In particular, the long-distance transport of amino acids through the phloem and xylem, and the transfer of amino acids between the phloem and xylem during nitrogen cycling, requires both cellular importers and exporters. Even though some of the amino acid carrier proteins were identified more than 15 years ago, the physiological roles of many amino acid transporters are still unclear. There is even less known about the proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of amino acids. Recently, however, there have been reports of amino acid carrier proteins that can mediate both export and import, and might play roles in nitrogen cycling and other physiological processes. In this chapter, we will summarize what is known about plant amino acid exporters and their physiological roles.

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Medium 9780253008831

11 Preliminary Report on Salamanders (Lissamphibia; Caudata) from the Late Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian-Late Campanian) of Southern Utah, U.S.A.

Alan L Titus Indiana University Press ePub

James D. Gardner, Jeffrey G. Eaton, and Richard L. Cifelli

Here we Report on Salamander Fossils (Vertebrae and jaws) and taxa identified from 19 microvertebrate localities of late Cenomanian–late Campanian age (an interval of about 25 million years) from the Dakota, Straight Cliffs, Iron Springs, Wahweap, and Kaiparowits formations in southwestern Utah, U.S.A. All three salamander families known from better-sampled upper Campanian–terminal Maastrichtian units elsewhere in the North American Western Interior are present in the Utah sequence: Scapherpetontidae and Batrachosauroididae occur throughout the late Cenomanian–late Campanian interval, whereas Sirenidae are limited to the Santonian–late Campanian. The scapherpetontid record consists of Scapherpeton (?Coniacian–late Campanian), Lisserpeton (late Campanian), and indeterminate older occurrences, including Lisserpeton-like vertebrae from the ?Coniacian and late Cenomanian, Piceoerpeton-like vertebrae from the ?Coniacian, and vertebrae of a probable new genus from the late Cenomanian. Batrachosauroidids are represented by Opisthotriton (Santonian–late Campanian), Prodesmodon (late Campanian), and a pair of indeterminate genera, one each from the late Turonian and late Cenomanian; the last occurrence is the oldest unequivocal record for batrachosauroidids in North America. The presence in pre-Santonian localities of scapherpetontid and batrachosauroidid specimens that cannot be assigned to known later Cretaceous and Paleogene genera indicates that both families were already present and diversifying by the early Late Cretaceous. The sirenid record is founded on Santonian–late Campanian atlantes of Habrosaurus; the Santonian occurrences are the oldest North American records for both the family and the genus. A previously unrecognized salamander of uncertain familial affinities (but showing some similarities to sirenids) is documented by distinctive trunk vertebrae and an atlantal centrum from the late Turonian–early or middle Campanian. Other enigmatic vertebrae likely pertaining to additional salamander taxa are reported from the late Cenomanian, late Turonian, and ?Coniacian. Most of the sampled localities contain multiple salamander genera and families; these diversities compare favorably with better sampled latest Cretaceous salamander assemblages elsewhere in the Western Interior, even though the compositions of those assemblages differ.

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Medium 9781780641645

12 Invasive Species of China and Th eir Responses to Climate Change

Ziska, L.H., Editor CAB International PDF


Invasive Species of China and their Responses to Climate


Bo Li, Shujuan Wei, Hui Li, Qiang Yang and Meng


Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of Yangtze River Estuary,

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, The Institute of Biodiversity Science,

Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China


projects on global change could begin to address critical research needs in this area.

China is a rapidly developing country with the largest share of the world’s population.

The extent of human activity, combined with diverse climates and landscapes, may allow for greater risk of biological invasions.

To date, at least 529 invasive species have been identified, including 270 species of higher plants, 198 species of animals and 61 species of microbes, resulting in an estimated annual economic loss of US$18.9 billion.

Evidence to date suggests that different components of climate change (i.e. temperature, altered precipitation, extreme weather events and rising CO2 concentration) have already influenced the biology of invasive species in China. The influence of climate change may increase the negative economic or environmental consequences of some invasives; however, others may become disadvantaged. Although we are still at the earliest stages of understanding the consequences of climate change on invasive species biology, China is one of the countries that may be affected most dramatically by invasive species. Overall, understanding the interactions between climate change and invasive species biology is an important scientific challenge, but one in which

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Medium 9781603442909

Part 6

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

Records of Climate Variability

R. Z. Poore, S. Verardo, J. Caplan, K. Pavich, and T. Quinn

Planktic foraminifers are commonly used as proxies in paleoceanographic studies. Information on assemblages and variations in the abundance of individual taxa is used to estimate surface-water temperature, identify the influence of currents and water masses, and infer structure in the upper part of the water column (thermocline depth) (e.g., Imbrie and Kipp 1971; Brunner 1979; Ravelo et al. 1990). In addition, measurement of the isotopic and trace-element composition of foraminifer tests is being used to obtain quantitative estimates of temperature and salinity in past oceans (e.g., Elderfield and Ganssen 2000). This report presents census data for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 3 cores recovered from the Gulf of Mexico. The census data are being used to determine climate and environmental changes in the Gulf of Mexico and surrounding region for the last 10,000 years (10 ka) (e.g., Poore et al. 2004; Poore et al. 2005).

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