2165 Chapters
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Medium 9780253356758

8 East Kirkton and the Roots of the Modern Family Tree

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

8.1. (Color Plate 15) The East Kirkton Quarry site once clearance was complete and a section had been excavated through the sequence, with the author standing at the level of unit 82, where most of the best tetrapod specimens have come from. Photograph by R.N.G.C.

Background to the East Kirkton Locality

A small former mining town called Bathgate, about 20 miles from Edinburgh, Scotland, has recently been made famous in the paleontological world for being the location of a window through which to view an extraordinary episode in evolutionary history. At the edge of a housing estate lies a quarry where in the 19th century a rock called the East Kirkton Limestone was dug out. It had some curious qualities that made it attractive as a building stone and hard wearing for making the local farm walls.

It is composed of thinly alternating bands of dark carbonaceous limestone, pale silica, and hardened gray volcanic ash called tuff, and often the bands are speckled with small white nodules or twisted and distorted into intriguing curls and waves. In the 1830s, fossil collectors also found some unusual specimens, which are now recognized as the carapaces of eurypterids or sea scorpions, as well as many plant remains. The quarry was closed in about 1844, and though geologists visited occasionally afterward, it was eventually forgotten and became grown over.

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Medium 9781576337356

Electrons: CLEP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781786394644

8 Technological Pragmatism: Navigating the Ethical Tensions Created by Agricultural Biotechnology

James, H.S., Jr. CABI PDF


Technological Pragmatism:

Navigating the Ethical Tensions

Created by Agricultural


Dane Scott*

Mansfield Center, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA


Many critics of genetically engineered (GE) crops and livestock often label them ‘techno-fixes’. ‘Technological fix’ criticisms brand innovations as superficial solutions that do not get at the root of problems but rather create new ones. The rotten roots of problems, which technological fixes fail to address, are identified as social and political in nature. The typical use of a ‘technological fix’ criticism against GE crops is illustrated in

Greenpeace International’s campaign against

Golden Rice. Golden Rice is a biofortified strain of GE rice designed to address vitamin-A deficiency (VAD), which is widespread among poor populations who get most of their calories from rice. Greenpeace.org’s special report on Golden Rice states: ‘GE

“Golden” rice does not address the primary causes of VAD, which are poverty and lack of access to a healthy and varied diet. Thousands of children die or go blind each year because of Vitamin A deficiency diseases

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Medium 9780253356024


Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Table F-1 Checklist of the Fish of indiana, by Order and Family

Notes: Range is indicated as statewide (IN), north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), central (CT), or various combinations. General abundance is listed roughly as abundant (A), common (C), occasional (O), or rare (R). State designations are state endangered (SE), special concern (SC), or extirpated (EX). I indicates introduced or exotic species.

a Esox masquinongy from the Great Lakes is extirpated, but another Ohio River form of questionable status exists.

b It is questionable whether Percina uranidea ever existed in Indiana. It is likely that samples were confused between Indiana and Arkansas specimens or that the species is P. vigil.

Table F-2. Fish Occurring in Indiana in Lake Michigan and in the Headwaters, Wadeable/Large Rivers, and Great Rivers of the Great Lakes Drainage, by Order and Family

Note: Fish are categorized as occurring naturally (N), as non-indigenous (NI), or as introduced (I).

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Medium 9781780643663

11 Irrigated Crop Production in the Syr Darya Basin: Climate Change Rehearsal in the 1990s

Hoanh, C.T.; Smakhtin, V.; Johnston, R. CABI PDF


Irrigated Crop Production in the

Syr Darya Basin: Climate Change

Rehearsal in the 1990s

Oxana Savoskul1* and Elena Shevnina2



Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka;

Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland


Future inflow to the irrigation scheme of the Syr Darya Basin is modelled under two climate scenarios, based on outputs of International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) core models run under IPCC-SRES A2 emission scenario.

Under the GFDL99-R30-based scenario, the mean annual flow (MAF) is likely to increase by 10–20%. Under

HadCM3-based scenario, MAF is supposed to decrease by 10–20%. Simulating water allocation in the basin in

2070–2099 shows that 14–21% of water demands in the agriculture sector in a normal hydrological year and

28–51% in a dry year are likely to be unmet. The challenges expected from future climate change can be paralleled to those resulting from the political change due to the collapse of the USSR, which left 18% (normal year) and 46%

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Medium 9780253006073

1 The Division of Labor: The Factory

Martin H. Krieger Indiana University Press ePub

Nature as a Factory; Handles and Stories. What Everyday Walls Must Do; Walls for a Factory; Walls as Providential. Particles, Objects, and Workers; What Particles Must Be Like; Intuitions of Walls and Particles. What Fields Must Be Like.

THE ARGUMENT IS: THE WORKINGS OF NATURE ARE ANALOGIZED to a factory with its division of labor. But here the laborers are of three sorts: walls, particles, and fields. Walls are in effect the possibility of shielding and separation; particles are the possibility of sources and localization; and fields allow for conservation laws and path dependence. Different kinds of degrees of freedom are associated with each type of laborer, and the laborers naturally restrict each other’s degrees of freedom – if the Factory of Nature is to be as productive as it is. Corresponding to the efficiency of the division of labor in a factory or an economy is the comparative richness, elegance, economy, and wide applicability of a physical mechanism or theory or model. Technically, Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism are one realization of this political economy of a transcendental aesthetic, to honor both Adam Smith and Immanuel Kant in one phrase.1 (We discuss other mechanisms of production in subsequent chapters, for example ones in which exchange and the extent of the market are crucial features.) My claim is that physicists take Nature in this sense of manufacture; of course that sense being interpreted in terms of empirical “peculiarities,” as Smith employs the term.

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Medium 9781780643137

5: Trade in Some Key Animal Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Some Key Animal

Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur


5.1  Introduction

The primary purpose of keeping agricultural animals has been for the production of meat. However, two key commodities, milk and wool, were highly instrumental in the development of the farming of animals because they did not require the animal to be destroyed. Both were involved in the original domestication of sheep and cattle and have remained of major significance to this day. A third commodity, fur, developed because of the need for people to keep warm, and the use of animal skins for this purpose dates back to before domestication, when hunters in cooler climes had no alternatives to keep warm other than the use of animal skins. In contrast to milk and wool, which can be obtained without animal slaughter, the terminal consequences of obtaining an animal’s skin and, nowadays, limited need to use fur to keep warm because of the many alternatives available, has given users of fur the image of decadence and cruelty as a result of the trapping and farming methods used.

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Medium 9781780645216

19: Functional Enzymes for Animal Feed Applications

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Functional Enzymes for Animal Feed


Hesham A. El-Enshasy,1,2* Nor Zalina B. Othman,1 Elsayed A. Elsayed,3, 4

Mohamed R. Sarmidi,1 Mohammad A. Wadaan3 and Ramlan Aziz1


Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

­(UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2City of Scientific Research and Technology

Application, Alexandria,Egypt; 3Zoology Department, King Saud University,

­Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Natural and Microbial Products Department,

National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt


The great demand for animal feed additives is directly proportional to the increased world human population.

Such increase in demand has inspired scientists to look for alternatives to traditional feed additives in order to cope with the increased requirements in animal feeds which ultimately enter the human food chain. Antibiotics have been used traditionally as animal feed additives for their various beneficial effects. However, their application has been recently banned after discovering several potential side effects, which will ultimately enter the human food chain, resulting in many health problems. In addition to probiotics and prebiotics, functional enzymes are considered to be one of the major sources for non-traditional feed additives, and they have been intensively investigated in the last two decades. This chapter highlights the application of different functional enzymes as animal feed additives. Moreover, the different groups of phytases and xylanases will be discussed in detail for their role as feed additives, including their characterization as well as their microbial production and application.

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Medium 9781607321408


Ronald C. Wittmann University Press of Colorado ePub

1a.   Plants floating on the water, about 1 cm long, with minute, sessile, 2-lobed leaves arranged on 2 sides of the stems, giving a braided appearance. Salviniaceae, WATERFERN FAMILY

1b.   Plants not as above ................................................... (2)

2a.   Stems jointed, hollow, green (except the fertile stems of Equisetum arvense, which are yellowish brown), the nodes circled by sheaths. Equisetaceae, HORSETAIL FAMILY

2b.   Stems not jointed, seldom green; sheaths absent ........................... (3)

3a.   Aquatic, inhabiting lakeshores or actually submerged in ponds and lakes ....... (4)

3b.   Terrestrial, growing on soil or rocks ..................................... (5)

4a.   Leaves grass-like, their bases swollen, each bearing a pair of sporangia, the whole forming an onion-like bulb; plants submerged in shallow water of mountain lakes and ponds for the greater part of the growing season. Isoëtaceae, QUILLWORT FAMILY

4b.   Leaves with distinct petioles and blades, the blades 4-parted, resembling a four-leaf clover; spores borne at the base of the plant in round, nut-like “sporocarps”; borders of ponds and sandy streamsides at lower altitudes. Marsileaceae, PEPPERWORT FAMILY

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Medium 9781780648378

19: Postharvest Biology and Handling for Fresh Markets

Quero-Garcia, J.; Iezzoni, A.; Pulawska, J. CABI PDF


Postharvest Biology and Handling for Fresh Markets

Juan Pablo Zoffoli,1* Peter Toivonen2 and Yan Wang3

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 2Summerland

Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada,

Summerland, British Columbia, Canada; 3Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University, Oregon, USA


19.1 Introduction

Sweet cherry is an edible drupe that can be classified according to the physical or pomological characteristics of the fruit. The Bigarreau and Duroni groups (Italy) include cultivars with firm flesh, while the Guigne

(France), Gean (England) and Tenerine groups

(Italy) include soft and tender flesh. Only

Bigarreau cherries are firm enough for commercial use, being better able to withstand the rigours of harvest, postharvest handling and long-distance transport. Fruit have either dark- or light-coloured flesh. Dark cherries are red to reddish-purple or mahogany in colour, whereas light cherries (so-called white) are yellow, usually with a pink to red partial blush on the yellow skin. Fruit vary in shape from round to oval to heart-shaped, and their pedicels vary in length from 2 to 8 cm

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Medium 9781603442909

Beaches, Barrier Islands, and Inlets of the Florida Gulf Coast

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

Richard A. Davis

The Gulf Coast of Florida includes 4 geomorphically distinct provinces. From south to north they are: (1) southwest Florida, which includes the tide-dominated Ten Thousand Islands and south to Cape Sable at Florida Bay, (2) the mixed-energy barrierinlet system of the central coast, (3) the tide-dominated Big Bend coast, and (4) the wave-dominated barrier coast of the panhandle (Fig. 6.1). This diverse coastal morphology has been variously impacted by hurricanes over geologic time and by human activity of a wide range of types and intensities during the past century.

Figure 6.1. Map of Florida showing the major coastal elements.

The discussion will consider our state of knowledge of how these coastal provinces and their contained elements have been behaving during the period of intense development pressures and rising sea level and also will consider how they will behave during the next several decades. Emphasis will be on the 2 barrier island systems because these are the ones that are impacted most severely by human intervention and that experience the most change.

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Medium 9781780645216

25: Fungi of the Genus Pleurotus: Importance and Applications

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Fungi of the Genus Pleurotus:

Importance and Applications

Maura Téllez-Téllez1 and Gerardo Díaz-Godínez2*

Mycology Laboratory, University Autonomous of the State of Morelos, Mexico; 2Laboratory of Biotechnology, University

Autonomous of Tlaxcala, Mexico



The systematic classification of the genus Pleurotus has been much debated due to changes in the names of the species, however, biochemical, chemical and molecular tools support the classification by morphological characteristics. The main species are Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr) Kummer, Pleurotus florida Eger, Pleurotus eryngii (DC.:Fr)

Quel, Pleurotus sajor-caju Fr.:Fr., Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K.Mill (P. abalonus Han, Chen & Cheng), Pleurotus cornucopiae (Paulet) Rolland, Pleurotus djamor (Rumph. ex Fr.) and Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. In general, there is great interest in the study and production of these fungi since the nutritional value of their fruiting bodies (in particular for the protein content, including essential amino acids, fibre, vitamins and minerals) is widely documented. Furthermore, these fungi could be considered as a nutraceutical food since it has been reported that they contain biomolecules which help in certain diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) and hypercholesterolemia, and which have anti-hypertension and antitumour activity. Molecules of major importance are statins, lectins, antioxidant compounds, glucans and enzymes. The latter are of industrial importance: (i) the hydrolases of Pleurotus can be used in several industries, including the food sector; and (ii) the phenoloxidases have been extensively studied as they could be used in the bioremediation processes to degrade xenobiotic compounds such as derivatives of paper processing, wastewater treatment and pesticides. The genus Pleurotus is of great importance as a food and as a source of many bioactive compounds.

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Medium 9780253021021

1 Experimental and Comparative Ichnology

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

1.1. The morphological changes in a tridactyl track exposed to different degrees of erosion. The example is a plaster cast of an emu track emplaced in soft mud and afterward sectioned horizontally to simulate erosion of a track with the sedimentary infill still in place. (A) Section cut just below the tracking surface. (B) Section cut 14 mm below the tracking surface. (C) Section cut 25 mm below the tracking surface. (D) Section cut 38 mm below the tracking surface. Notice how the overall dimensions of the track become smaller with depth and that the individual parts of the track become separated with depth, until only the most deeply impressed parts are present, in this case, the distal part of the impression of the middle digit and the pad covering the metatarsal joint. Figure based on experimental data from Milàn and Bromley (2006).

Experimental and Comparative Ichnology


Jesper Milàn and Peter L. Falkingham

ONE OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS FACED IN PALEOICHNOLogy is the delicate relationship between the organism and the sediments it leaves its tracks and traces in. Since the first scientific report of comparisons between fossil and modern tracks, researchers have turned to making experiments and comparing tracks and trackways of modern animals in order to interpret fossil tracks and traces. The easiest experimental approach is simply to make living analogues to the fossil animals walk through soft sediment and directly study the tracks they produce. Modern, more sophisticated experimental procedures include laboratory-controlled settings with sediments of different properties and model feet and indenters impressed into the sediment to various degrees. When cement or plaster is used as a tracking medium in laboratory settings, it is possible to cut vertical sections through the tracks after hardening and to study the formation and morphology of undertracks along the subjacent horizons below the foot. Complementing physical experimentation is computer simulation, in which both substrate- and indenter-specific variables can be precisely, independently, and systematically controlled. Resultant virtual tracks can be visualized completely in three dimensions, together with a time component. Experimental ichnology is an important tool for people working with tracks because the experimental settings are able to provide important data about the variations in track morphologies that can occur as a result of erosion, gait, undertrack formation, ontogeny, and individual behavior of the track maker.

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Medium 9781576336618

Atoms: MCAT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781607320661

CHAPTER SIX: SOUTH POLE Dropped From the Sky

Dian Olson Belanger University Press of Colorado ePub

Lower and lower goes the sun at the South Pole, day by day.
The last ski plane will soon land. When it leaves, taking with it
our last letters home . . . we shall be isolated and alone at the
bottom of the world, tucked in for the six-month night. So, we’ll
see you in the morning.

—Paul A. Siple1

All of the U.S. IGY stations came forth on a barren landscape, but nowhere was the frigid void more profound than at the South Pole. About 850 miles south of the staging area at McMurdo, at an elevation of nearly two miles, with towering, glaciated mountains en route, South Pole Station could realistically be established only by air in the time available. But the heavy Air Force cargo planes could only land on wheels, which ruled out coming down on the snow of the polar plateau. Airdrops, even of tractors, offered the only hope. Only personnel and delicate equipment would, with luck, be landed on skis by the Navy’s smaller aircraft. In a concentrated feat of retrieving materiel raining from the sky interlaced with the exhausting, clumsy steps of building in extreme cold, the Seabees pounded the little settlement into existence. Then the ice runway at McMurdo gave out.

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