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Medium 9781576337745

Atoms: SAT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781576336373

Magnetism: GED Physics

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780642895

12 Shaping Sustainable Intensive Production Systems: Improved Crops and Cropping Systems in the Developing World

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors CAB International PDF


Shaping Sustainable Intensive

Production Systems: Improved

Crops and Cropping Systems in the Developing World

Clare Stirling,1 Jon Hellin,2 Jill Cairns,3 Elan

Silverblatt-Buser,2 Tadele Tefera,4 Henry Ngugi,2

Sika Gbegbelegbe,4 Kindie Tesfaye,5 Uran

Chung,2 Kai Sonder,2 Rachael A. Cox,2 Nele

Verhulst,2 Bram Govaerts,2 Phillip Alderman2 and

Matthew Reynolds2


Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

(CIMMYT), Wales, UK; 2International Maize and Wheat

Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico, DF, Mexico;

3International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

(CIMMYT), Harare, Zimbabwe; 4International Maize and Wheat

Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Nairobi, Kenya; 5International

Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Addis

Ababa, Ethiopia

12.1 Introduction

Population growth will reach nearly 9 billion by 2050. Crop production will need to increase by approximately 100% from 2005 to 2050 levels (Tilman et al., 2011) because of this growth in population, as well as global changes in diet and the increasing use of bioenergy (Godfray et al., 2010). Maize and wheat are critical for global food security and poverty reduction. Maize and wheat, together with rice, provide at least 30% of food calories to about 4.5  billion people in

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Medium 9781576753903

8 Key Enablers—Politics, Incentives, and Rigorous Performance Standards

Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF



External Political Strategies

It should be emphasized that the Rocky Flats project started in a deficit condition. That is, little support for the project existed at any level—especially at the federal level, among regulators and members of Congress—and resistance to the project and skepticism that progress could be achieved was widespread.

In the grand scheme of DOE, Rocky Flats had never been a favored site. It had never been a site that got a lot of money. That was because it was a steelworkers’ site, not a lab. It was blue collar, not Ph.D. The site had never gotten the kind of money some of the other sites had. We went to Washington, D.C., to create a positive presence in the minds of the Hill staff for Rocky Flats.

Contributor 5—Manager, Kaiser-Hill

In light of the rising concern and the possibility of major resistance at the federal and state levels, an external political strategy was required. Effectively managing the power dynamics among various external entities proved to be crucial to the success of the project. Creating a positive political strategy turned out to be a major challenge.

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Medium 9780874217070


Steven K. Madsen Utah State University Press ePub

Dr. John S. Newberry apparently made the following condensed record from the expedition diary he kept in the field. The original unabridged version is now lost to history, and only a microfilm copy of his condensed work can be found. Newberry inadvertently inserted into the abridged diary a number of quotation marks, which indicate that he was quoting himself. He penned much of his diary in telegraphic style and often wrote in incomplete sentences. But he included more elaborately crafted excerpts from his original diary in Macomb’s published report.

The entries from Newberry’s abridged diary, when added to the experiences recorded by Charles H. Dimmock and John N. Macomb, confirm the historical account of the survey. And they add minor details to give us a more complete picture of the expedition. Positions of dates and spacing of entries has been made consistent.

From the National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Recd at 78 Winder’s Building on 11th July 1861. JNM

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Medium 9781786390325

17 Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF



Phytoremediation and the Key Role of PGPR

Elisabetta Franchi1* and Gianniantonio Petruzzelli2

Eni S.p.A, Renewable Energy & Environmental R&D, S. Donato Milanese, Italy;


Institute of Ecosystem Study, National Council of Research, Pisa, Italy

17.1 Phytoremediation

The original concept of phytoremediation is derived from studies on plants which can uptake and tolerate extremely high levels of heavy metals. These plants were defined hyperaccumulators (Brooks et al., 1977) and these studies originated from an article

(Minguzzi and Vergnano, 1948), describing the ability of Alyssum bertolonii to accumulate very high amounts of nickel. Brooks

(1998) underlined the seminal importance of this article for the development of phytoremediation: ‘a small perennial shrub in

Tuscany, Italy, was destined to lead the way to a whole range of new technologies and discoveries’. Nowadays, phytoremediation identifies a series of plant-based technologies that can be applied to a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants for remediating polluted soil, water and sediments, by exploiting the multiple properties of plants, which can be used in different specific processes.

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Medium 9780253011824

8 Taking Off: The Late Cambrian

John Foster Indiana University Press ePub

8.1. Outcrops of the Upper Cambrian Weeks Formation in the House Range of Utah. (A) Quarry slope in North Canyon covered with silty limestone slabs. (B) Close-up of rock slabs and layering.

WE HAVE MOVED FORWARD THROUGH TIME NOW TO THE LATE Cambrian, the last 11 million years of the Cambrian period. Rocks of Late Cambrian age occur throughout much of North America, in part because by this time the ocean had risen high enough to flood even the low-lying parts of central Laurentia. No longer were the edges of the continent beachfront property; now there were shallow marine deposits and the life that lived in and around them as far inland as what would one day become Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.

Once again, after all this travel, we now find ourselves back in the House Range of Utah. We had visited here in our exploration of the late Middle Cambrian and the Wheeler and Marjum formations, but now we are back to see what rocks and fossils we can find from the very beginning of the Late Cambrian way out west, much farther offshore from the rocks of similar age in the Rockies and Black Hills. The rock unit we are interested in here lies just above the Marjum and is known as the Weeks Formation (fig. 7.1). It is exposed over the ridge from some Marjum Formation sites in a place called North Canyon (fig. 8.1a), where you can split open gigantic slabs of limestone with many brachiopods and a few trilobites on them.

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Medium 9781603442909

Part 3

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

James G. Flocks, Nicholas F. Ferina, and Jack L. Kindinger

This paper provides a summary of previous studies and a synthesis of the surficial geology of the MississippiAlabama shelf, located between the modern Mississippi River Delta and the Florida carbonate platform. Presently, sedimentation processes on the shelf are a function of prevailing winds and currents; however, in the past, the shelf was the focus of numerous delta cycles. Major episodes of deposition and erosion on the shelf have been primarily in response to oscillations in sea level. As sea level fell during the last ice age, deltas moved across the shelf to the shelf edge, incising river valleys across the middle shelf and creating stacked delta sequences on the slope. The delta complexes regressed during the last sea-level rise, infilling valleys while also providing sediments for erosion. Shoals were formed throughout these processes and are found along the shelf and modern shoreline. Data collected from the shelf, incorporated into this summary, include bathymetric, geophysical, and sediment cores. The purpose of the report is to integrate past studies with archived data to provide a comprehensive overview of the geology and geomorphology of the shelf. In addition, areas of further study are identified in the summary as a bulleted list of future needs and goals.

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Medium 9781576336366

Organic Chemistry: GED Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780870819247

CHAPTER FIVE Midway Geyser Basin

T. Scott Bryan University Press of Colorado ePub

The Midway Geyser Basin (Map 5.1, Table 5.1) is a relatively small area. The hot springs are mostly confined to a narrow band of ground that parallels a 1-mile stretch of Firehole River. Additional springs extend up the Rabbit Creek drainage to the east, at the head of which are assortments of mud pots, small geysers, and one exceptionally large pool.

Topographically, the Midway Geyser Basin is part of the Lower Geyser Basin (Chapter 6), but it has always held separate status because it is separated from the Lower Basin by a forest of lodge-pole pines. First known as the Halfway Group and Hell’s Half-Acre, then as Egeria Springs, Midway contains only a few geysers of note. Possibly dozens of other hot springs are geysers, too, but they are small and little is known about them.

Despite its small size, Midway is the location of some of the largest single hot springs in the world. Grand Prismatic Spring is more than 270 feet across and 120 feet deep; possibly the only larger bona fide single hot spring anywhere is the lake in the Inferno Crater of New Zealand’s Waimangu Valley, but that is a distinctly volcanic feature. Excelsior Geyser discharges a steady stream of more than 4,000 gallons of water every minute. In fact, a large proportion of the springs at Midway are of extraordinary size.

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Medium 9781780646138

32: Community Biodiversity Management (CBM): A Participatory Methodology that Integrates Empowerment, Livelihoods and On-farm Management of Agrobiodiversity

Maxted, N. CABI PDF


Community Biodiversity Management

(CBM): A Participatory Methodology that

Integrates Empowerment, Livelihoods and

On-farm Management of Agrobiodiversity

A. Subedi*

Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands

32.1  Introduction

In the past two decades, a number of initiatives in various parts of the (developing) world focused on generating evidence of the successful implementation of in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm and translating the conservation practices that fit in the context of the livelihoods of small-scale, and often poor, farmers (Jarvis et al., 2011). Over the years, it became clear that the dynamic nature of the management and utilization of plant genetic resources (PGRs) by farmers needed to support dynamic processes and team up with farming communities that had their own ideas and priorities in relation to agricultural development and the use of their genetic resources (de Boef et al., 2012a).

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Medium 9781780646688




Nursery Production of Plants

Ioannis E. Tzanetakis1,* and Robert R. Martin2


of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA;


2USDA-ARS, Corvallis, Oregon,


Breeding, from the initial cross to the release of a named cultivar, involves a significant amount of time which, in some cases, may exceed a decade. During this period, seedlings, accessions, and advanced selections are propagated clonally and grown under diverse environmental conditions, quite often on

­different continents, to determine their suitability for commercial release. As with any other organism, plants, and blackberries in particular, are susceptible to viruses and other systemic pathogens that accumulate during the selection process. As noted later in this book (Chapter 13), viruses pose a major threat for producers because they can affect yield, fruit quality, and plant longevity.

For this reason, during the establishment of blackberries as a horticultural crop, there have always been coordinated efforts between breeders and virologists to eliminate targeted systemic pathogens from selections prior to commercial release (Converse, 1987).

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Medium 9780253003096

2. Overland on Foot, Aloft:

Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

An Anatomy of the Social Structure

A European traveler to Madagascar in the early nineteenth century, say 1825, would encounter a mosaic of rolling grassland and humid rain forest outside the limits of the eastern port of Toamasina. The traveler would likely head westward to pay his respects to King Radama I and his court in Antananarivo, the seat of the Merina Empire on the central high plateau. The trek from the coast to the capital was over 200 miles long, and the traveler, possessing heavy trunks of clothing and food provisions, faced an uphill and uncomfortable journey through a rain forest that, for all of its botanical and zoological wonders, could be lethal. Malaria had felled many. It was said that King Radama's military strategy relied on “General Hazo” and “General Tazo” (Generals “Forest” and “Fever”) to shelter the Merina kingdom from foreign invaders (Gallieni 1908:149; Campbell 2005:245).

Madagascar's east coast had heavily trafficked ports because of the relatively calm waters of its harbors. Toamasina in particular was reputed to offer the best anchorage of the island (Lloyd 1850:59). The east coast was thick with precious timbers, minerals, and fruits, and it possessed a well-trafficked footpath between Toamasina and the highland capital, Antananarivo. Automobiles would not appear on the island until 1900, four years after France's annexation of Madagascar and two years after Governor-General Gallieni actually purchased the cars from abroad—two Panhard-Levassors (Gruss 1902:194). In 1900, a celebrated “road to the east” from Antananarivo was opened (Gallieni 1908:170). The Tananarive-Côte-Est (TCE) railway would not be completed until 1913, built with the exertions of Malagasy laborers who were drafted by the French state during a huge public works campaign (Gallieni 1908:226; Porter 1940).

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Medium 9781780645216

18: Biotechnological Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Gupta, V.K. CABI PDF


Biotechnological Production of

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Ederson R. Abaide, Juliana Bastos, Valeria Dal Prá, Lisiane de Marsillac Terra, Raquel C. Kuhn and Marcio A. Mazutti*

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil


The market for omega-3 fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for biodiesel production is continuously increasing. The main source of omega-3 fatty acids is from the extraction of oil from cold-water fish that usually inhabit deep-water environments, whereas biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils. Microbial oil can be an interesting alternative for the production of PUFAs. This chapter reviews the production, extraction, chemical characterization and future trends on microbial oil production for applications in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. From the analysis of several studies available in the literature, it has been shown that the production of lipids by the biotechnological route can be an effective way to complement the production of fatty acids for biodiesel production or to substitute the traditional extraction of fish oil for production of PUFAs. However, more technologies should be developed to enable the industrial production of microbial lipids.

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Medium 9781780644998

15: Pest Management in Organic Vegetable Greenhouses

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Management in Organic Vegetable


Carmelo Peter Bonsignore* and Vincenzo Vacante

Mediterranean University, Salita Melissari, Italy


The ecological factors acting inside the greenhouse exert a variable influence on the bio-ecology of crops and on the animals

­associated with them. Usually, the development and the productivity of cultivated plants are positively stimulated, while the animal populations (pests and natural enemies) are influenced in various ways depending on the taxa and their evolutionary adaptations.

So, different pests find the inside of the green­ house a suitable environment in which to live and their populations can develop at high levels creating serious problems such that they need to be controlled, while that of their natural enemies, whether indigenous and/or released, may adopt different models, to the point that sometimes the

­development of populations of important beneficials is inconsistent. The phenomenon depends on various ecological factors

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