1700 Slices
Medium 9780253009920

9 - Philanthropic Decisions of American Jews: The Influence of Religious Identity on Charitable Choices

Thomas J Davis Indiana University Press ePub

The Influence of Religious Identity on Charitable Choices

Arnold Dashefsky and Bernard Lazerwitz

A tourist to a foreign country entered the premier concert hall in the capital for a tour and inquired of the guide, “Is this hall named after the famous prize-winning author?” “No,” replied the tour guide, “it is named after a local person.” “So,” inquired the tourist of the guide, “what great work did your local author write?” To which, the tour guide replied, “A check!” Gifts of charity are generally viewed as generous, selfless acts, but Marcel Mauss and other social scientists noted that there is a payoff of some sort to the giver, although it may be viewed by some as in this world (i.e., social recognition or psychic gratification) or by others as in the next world (i.e., eternal salvation or a heavenly abode).1

Despite these rewards, a specter is haunting American society and the European community. It is the specter of devolution—the devolution of the responsibility for the poor, the ill, and the infirm from the government to the citizenry. This essay examines the conditions under which charity may fill the gap. Charity and philanthropy are conceptualized as part of the literature on gift exchange in society. Such gifts have reached extraordinarily high levels in recent years in the United States: $260 billion in 2004, representing 2.1 percent of GDP, with about three-quarters of that sum (or $199 billion) coming from individuals.2 The largest beneficiaries of those charitable gifts in 2004 were religious congregations and denominations, which received $93 billion or 36 percent of total contributions. That religion should receive the largest share of such contributions is not surprising since charity is a central tenet in the major religious traditions.

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Medium 9781442252189

One Body, One Spirit, One Hope: Theological Resources for Those Who Struggle to Hope

Joseph Mangina Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

One Body, One Spirit, One Hope: Theological Resources for Those Who Struggle to Hope

Barbara K. Sain

In a recent essay Margaret Adam describes how emphasis on certain ideas about hope in theological discussions can result in the neglect of other valuable ideas about hope from the Christian tradition.1 For example, focus on the revelatory character of human suffering can diminish the importance of a God who transcends suffering, and determination to fight injustice in this world can overshadow longing for eternal life beyond this world. The oppositions Adam describes reveal a characteristic of the larger discussion of Christian hope. The current conversation about hope is actually multiple conversations, with different presuppositions and focal points, that have surprisingly little engagement with each other. In addition to writers who focus on the classical topics of eschatology, such as the afterlife and the end of time, there are theologians who emphasize the social and historical character of hope, others who maintain the traditional understanding of hope as a theological virtue, and pastoral theologians who draw on psychology. To some extent the variety of approaches reflects the richness of the Christian experience of hope. However, the lack of engagement among different schools of thought results in disjunctures and omissions in the conversation. Some situations for which hope is important are not well addressed in the literature.

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Medium 9781780647388

CH 5 Islam- Contemporary Perspectives

Leppakari, M. CABI PDF


Islam – Contemporary


Razaq Raj1* and Irfan Raja2

Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 2University of Huddersfield,

Huddersfield, UK



In today’s secular world the relationship between tourists and their beliefs plays a major part in influencing individuals when visiting religious sites. The patterns of visitation within individuals depend on the strength of religious beliefs. In current literature limited research is available that explores the understanding and motivation of visitation patterns of religious tourists. In the Muslim world from Australia to the USA, the mosque in its many forms is the fundamental pilgrimage destination to visit five times a day. The word mosque is a translation of the Arabic word masjid – meaning the Muslim gathering place for prayer. Mosque simply means ‘place of worship’. In reality the five daily prayers set in Islamic practice can take place anywhere, but Muslims are required to gather together at the mosque for the five daily prayers if they are free and able to attend. In the media, the importance of this Muslim concept of mosque visitation for religious worship is being underestimated and undermined.

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Medium 9781931018234

Chapter IV - Mary as the New Eve

Leon J Jr Suprenant Emmaus Road Publishing ePub

Drawing a connection between the similar language used in
the books of Genesis and Revelation, Professor Tim Gray shows that Mary is the
woman prophesied in the proto-evanglium (first Gospel) whose offspring would
crush the head of the serpent. In this sense, Mary is the “New Eve” and her
obedience to God’s will repairs the damage done by Eve’s disobedience in Eden.
Mary’s obedience brings her to the forefront of God’s family and makes her the
mother of the Body of Christ.

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Medium 9781442229273

Love and Knowledge of God in the Human Life of Christ

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Love and Knowledge of God in the Human Life of Christ

Jeremy Wilkins

And on the Sabbath he began to teach in the synagogue; and many who heard him were astonished, saying, “Where did this man get all this? What is the wisdom given to him?”1

It is also called mystical theology—that is, the secret or hidden wisdom of God, where, without the sound of words, or the intervention of any bodily or spiritual sense, as it were in silence and in repose, in the darkness of sense and nature, God teaches the soul—and the soul knows not how—in a most secret and hidden way.2

Ever since the question came into focus in the ninth century, the virtually unanimous consensus of theologians affirmed that Christ, even in his earthly life, enjoyed immediate knowledge of God. That consensus lasted nearly up to the present day. Now, however, a new consensus seems to have emerged. The new consensus holds that the old position is implausible, mythological, perhaps even implicitly heretical; immediate knowledge of God is incompatible with human functioning and development, and to affirm such knowledge in Christ is to remove him from history, to make him an abstraction.

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