1112 Chapters
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10 A Nineteenth-Century Life of St. Stefan of Perm (c. 1340–96)

HEATHER COLEMAN Indiana University Press ePub

Robert H. Greene

LIVES OF THE SAINTS (ZHITIIA SVIATYKH) WERE AMONG THE most popular reading material for Orthodox Russians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As part of its efforts to improve religious knowledge and catechize the laity, the Russian Orthodox Church promoted the popularization of saints’ lives in church newspapers, devotional pamphlets, and occasional publications, in the hope that men, women, and children could learn from the example of “God’s Beloved” and imitate the Christian virtues of faith, love, and good works that the saints embodied in life. Diocesan newspapers and Orthodox journals from the latter half of the nineteenth century encouraged priests to incorporate examples from saints’ lives into their sermons and to hold informal discussions (besedy) with their parishioners on the moral lessons that the faithful could glean from the lives of the holy dead. Literate parishioners were enjoined to borrow copies of saints’ lives from the church library and familiarize themselves in their free time with these texts. Although a saint’s written life was seldom lengthy, Orthodox publishing houses also issued condensed and easy-to-read versions of the lives, often with a helpful paragraph at the end summarizing the valuable lessons that believers might learn from the saint in question. In 1895, for example, the religious journal Kormchii [The Helmsman] ran a year-long series called “Lessons from the Lives of the Saints,” in which readers were given succinct and pointed instruction on such various moral and religious topics as the preservation of chastity, the importance of visiting the sick, the existence of miracles, how to live in Christian harmony with one’s spouse, how to avoid both gossip and flattery, and the significance of confession and communion for an Orthodox Christian.

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Medium 9780253332516

10 Art or Accident: Yoruba Body Artists and Their Deity Ogun

SANDRA T BARNES Indiana University Press ePub

Henry John Drewal

Yorubá who live and work with iron (irin, ògún) are also worshippers of Ògún, the god of iron. Iron is Ògún. Ògún lives in his followers and they in him, a reciprocal relationship which can be documented in the lives of Ògún devotees. In considering the attributes of Ògún, iron users, and iron itself, and then in focusing upon body artists, this essay explores the way art, tools, and techniques express the presence and impact of Ògún in Yorùbá life and thought.

A cluster of traits portrays the essence or life force (àq) of Ògún. Among these are physical force, hotness, quickness, directness, sensuality, firmness, and tenacity. For some he is known as Ògún onígboiyà, uOgun the brave one” (Ògúnole 1973). Òguń’s mode of operation implies no moral connotations; it is neither bad nor good, negative nor positive. It is not how he operates, but what he does, and when, that determines whether people consider him harmful or beneficial. On one hand, Òguń’s quickness or impatience can result in hasty, careless, irrational behavior causing wanton destruction. This dangerous side of Ògún evokes images of hot violence, vengeance, blind rage, and indiscriminate destruction for, more than anything, Ògún is associated with bloodshed; he is “the one who is steeped in blood,” a-m-kúkú l’j (Oluponn 1975). One widespread tale recounts his arrival in a town where the inhabitants offended him by what he considered to be an inhospitable reception. In a blind rage, Ògún began to destroy everything. Not until the appropriate offerings (dog, snail, oil, and soothing leaves) were made and his praises sung did he come to his senses and realize that he was killing his own people.2 Thus, when he is ignored, angered, or affronted, Ògún destroys indiscriminately. Yet, appropriate rituals can avert destruction and calm him by turning his à to beneficent ends.

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Medium 9780253009661

10 Communal Conflict and Death in Northern Ireland, 1969 to 2001

Ian N. Gregory Indiana University Press ePub


The conflict in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles started in the late 1960s and largely ended following the Good Friday or Belfast Agreement of 1998, although a decade later violence continued to occur, albeit at a much reduced level. The violence led to over 3,500 deaths. This could be argued to be a small figure, far outweighed in importance by other causes of death such as cancer and heart disease. Even as a percentage of the population it may seem small, coming to only 0.23 percent of Northern Ireland’s population. If this seems like a small figure, however, its numerical significance can be shown by calculating what this would mean if it were applied to British or U.S. populations. A similar death rate in Britain would lead to approximately 130,000 deaths, which equates to the loss of a town like Brighton or Peterborough. In the United States, with its larger population, the equivalent would be approximately 500,000 deaths, comparable to total U.S. military deaths in World War II. From this perspective, it is clear that conflict and violence have led to significant numbers of deaths in Northern Ireland. Moreover, as we will demonstrate, conflict-related killings were geographically concentrated in certain places, including parts of Belfast, some sections of mid-Ulster, and rural areas near the border such as south Armagh. This meant that the direct traumatic impact of the conflict was disproportionately felt by a relatively few communities.

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Medium 9780253009524

10. “Crazy for the Goddess”: A Consuming Relationship

Joyce Burkhalter Flueckiger Indiana University Press ePub



Veshalamma and Pujaramma articulate some of the benefits of entering a ritual relationship with the goddess; in their narratives, it would seem that these benefits outweigh the troubles they may experience because of this relationship. However, as the narrative fragments of the personal narratives of the female devotee of Gangamma in this chapter will suggest, there may be times when an intimate relationship with Gangamma may, in fact, be “too much to bear.”

Gangamma is a restless goddess who traditionally moves too much to accept a permanent dwelling and thus is perhaps not present enough, in one place for long enough, to establish a devotional relationship with most worshippers who interact with her. However, in her Tirupati temples, Gangamma is more stable than she is on village boundaries. Here, when female householders have particular needs, throughout the year they make vows to light a specific number of oil lamps (dipam) for a specific number of Tuesdays and/or Fridays at her temple or to cook pongal for her in her temple courtyards, asking her to fulfill their desires. The relationships between these women and the goddess are primarily ritual/material transactions: Gangamma needs food and other services, and her worshippers need something from her (a husband, fertility, health of or employment for their children). Few householders maintain her at home; her ugra nature requires a level of nearly full-time service very few women have time, energy, or even inclination to give.

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Medium 9780253357144

10. Creation and the Conceptual Order

Hugh J. McCann Indiana University Press ePub


In Chapters 8 and 9 we have seen two significant reasons for claiming that God is the creator not only of concrete entities and events that make up our world—things like trees, tornados, sunsets, and persons—but also of the natures of those things. First, such a claim is demanded if we are to hold that God truly creates the world, rather than simply manufacturing it from a plan that is not of his own making or is produced via some rote exercise on his part. Second, although there are good reasons for treating the injunctions of morality as commands that emanate from God, fending off charges of arbitrariness requires that those commands supervene on the nature of rational agents, and the relationships and circumstances in which they find themselves. If this is so then God can be the author of morality only if he is also the author of our nature, and the nature of all that surrounds us. But there is a third and much more important reason for holding such a view: if it is true, then not just the realm of the concrete but also that of the abstract owes whatever being it has to the creative activity of God. This furnishes a provenance for abstracta, whose origin is otherwise liable to have no accounting, and at the same time places God in a transcendent position even with respect to logical and mathematical reality—exactly what we should expect of an absolutely perfect being who is the foundation of all that is. In these final chapters, then, I wish to defend as fully as possible the claim that God is indeed the author of the natures of things—that is, what are usually called universals—along with the rest of what Alvin Plantinga has called the Platonic horde, the entire panoply of entities that compose conceptual reality. It is best to address this issue in two stages. The present chapter will focus on God's relationship to abstracta exemplified in the products of creation, and the implications of claiming they owe their being to him. Chapter 11 will take up the relationship between God and those properties exemplified in his own nature, about which special problems arise.

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Medium 9780253001771

10. “Dear Friend and Sister”

Sarah Diane Sasson Indiana University Press ePub


“Dear Friend and Sister”

The years following the demise of the Seidl Society were difficult for Laura Holloway-Langford. Not only had she lost her position at the center of Brooklyn social and cultural life, but in the late 1890s her husband suffered financial setbacks. In January 1901, her sister, Anne Catherine Terry, died, and in summer 1902, after a long period of declining health, Edward Langford passed away. During this time of loss and uncertainty, she renewed her friendship with the Shakers at Mount Lebanon, New York. The Shakers welcomed her attention, finding that “Friend Laura” could assist in their dealings with “the world.” In particular, they enlisted her to write newspaper articles publicizing their mission and contradicting negative reports about the Society.1

Some Shakers in the North Family dared to hope that Holloway-Langford might join their ranks as a sister, but she remained an outsider. She agreed with them that a new spiritual age was commencing, but she disagreed on how to bring it about. For the Shakers, celibacy, not philanthropy, was the essential requirement of the spiritual life. It entailed separation from the world so that members could pursue lives of perfection. Holloway-Langford, in contrast, thought that rather than limiting their role to examples of personal purity, Shakers should welcome into their communities all those who needed physical as well as religious renewal. When she purchased a farm that had been the home of the Upper Canaan Shakers, Holloway-Langford expected that her physical proximity to Mount Lebanon would be mirrored in a spiritual kinship. Rather than bringing her closer to the Shakers, however, the purchase led to misunderstandings over the property and to estrangement from them. Despite these conflicts, Holloway-Langford popularized the Shakers among the seekers of alternative religion, promoting an image of them as feminists and social reformers. At the same time, she spread ideas from Theosophy and Eastern religious traditions to the Shakers. Never an original thinker, Holloway-Langford mediated among disparate religious traditions, recombining them in ways that became characteristic of an emerging American spirituality.

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Medium 9780253329653

10. Defenseless

Edited by Daniel HowardSnyder Indiana University Press ePub


Evidential arguments from evil against the existence of God often take the following form:

1. If God exists, there is no gratuitous evil, that is, evil which God would have no morally sufficient reason to allow.

2. But there is gratuitous evil.

3. So God does not exist.

They are evidential because of the nature of the arguments given for the second premise. Those arguments are probabilistic or epistemic in nature, starting from the fact that even after careful reflection we see no morally sufficient reason for God to allow certain kinds, instances, amounts, or patterns of suffering or from that suffering itself. And they move from those starting points to the conclusion that there is gratuitous evil either by induction or by abduction, that is, by an inference to the best explanation. We can capture these four kinds of evidential arguments from evil by means of the following matrix:

William Rowe has given a version of the evidential argument from evil that is in category (1). He argues that because the goods we know of provide no morally sufficient reason for allowing certain instances of suffering, we have good reason to believe that no goods provide such reason and hence good reason to believe that allowing the suffering is not morally justified. Critics have responded that our knowledge that the goods we know of do not justify allowing the suffering gives us reason to believe that no goods do only if we have good reason to believe that the sample of goods we know of is a representative sample, and we have no good reason to believe it is.2 An argument that has been given to show we have no reason to believe the sample is representative is that “goods beyond our ken have no chance of belonging to Rowe’s sample [of goods which could justify allowing the suffering]; so the sample is not random.”3

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Medium 9781786394996

10 Dreaming of Al-Quds (Jerusalem): Pilgrimage and Visioning

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF


Dreaming of Al-Quds (Jerusalem):

Pilgrimage and Visioning

Ian S. McIntosh*

Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indiana, USA

A visioning process pursued by students at Gaza University in a virtual classroom from 2012 to 2014 recognized the potential of pilgrimage to deliver positive outcomes in three critical areas, namely: (i) healing; (ii) marketplace development; and (iii) building a culture of peace. Gaza students were inspired by their shared vision for the future. In 2050 the now forbidden pilgrimage to Al-Quds (Jerusalem) was attracting over 3 million pilgrims from across the Muslim world. This pilgrimage, one of the largest in Islam, was now the cornerstone of a vibrant and sustainable tourist industry in the Gaza Strip, a bridge to interfaith cooperation, and a catalyst for peace in the region. Gaza, in this vision of the future, had itself undergone an astonishing transformation. Its seaport and airport were now among the busiest in the Mediterranean and the gateway for pilgrims and tourists alike. By drawing upon student reflections on the visioning process, and case studies of other pilgrimages – both peacerelated and ‘forbidden’ – this chapter highlights the relationship between this wished-for journey of pilgrims to the sacred centre in Al-Quds and the journey of the Gaza Strip itself from its current state of crisis to its liberation and prosperity.

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Medium 9780253010018

10. Facts, Fictions, and Faith: What is Really Real after All?

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub


Thus to request the idol-breakers to smash the many mediators of science, in order to reach the real world out there, better and faster, would be a call for barbarism, not for enlightenment. Do we really have to spend another century alternating violently between constructivism and realism, between artificiality and authenticity? Science deserves better than naive worship and naive contempt. Its regime of invisibility is as uplifting as that of religion and art. The subtlety of its traces requires a form of care and attention, a form of spirituality.


Having thus redescribed “objectivity” as a way to think about the world in which we live as if we were dead or never born, let us now take a careful look at the words that have sparked the current critique of continental philosophy—Meillassoux's critique of “correlation” and “fideism,” in that order. This criticism has been set in motion by the theological turn, or the return of religion, which is taken to be a regrettable consequence of continental anti-realism. I think there is something to this critique of fideism but it should be put to better purpose. It should be used to get beyond fideism and to come up with a more worthy idea of “faith,” which I characterize in terms of our desire beyond desire, constituting the heart of a heartless world—and the lesson we learn less from a heartfelt Mary than from a hearty Martha.1

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Medium 9780253347046

10. Forgiven Time: The Pharisee and the Tax Collector

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub

… as we send away our debtors.

(Matt. 6:12, my translation)

Two men went up to the temple to pray,
one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector.
The Pharisee, standing by himself, was praying thus,
“God, I thank you that I am not like other people:
thieves, rogues, adulterers, or even like this tax collector.
I fast twice a week; I give a tenth of all my income.”
But the tax collector, standing far off,
would not even look up to heaven,
but was beating his breast and saying,
“God, be merciful to me a sinner.” (Luke 18:10–13)

In the kingdom of God, we have been arguing, strange, incalculable, unaccountable, impossible things happen (which is also why we love it so). Among the most impossible of these, the most resistant to calculation, the most unaccountable, is forgiveness. Forgiveness, in many ways the most amazing grace (gift) in the kingdom, disturbs our sense of law and order, disrupts our sense of economic equilibrium, undermines our desire to “settle the score” or “get even,” blocks our instinct to see to it that the offenders are made to “pay for” what they did. Hence, it is the decentering centerpiece of a poetics of the impossible (if there is a center), the heart of the kingdom, the heart of a heartless world, and the principal un-principle of our sacred and eventful anarchy.

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Medium 9780253012531

10. “God Modes” and “God Moods”: What Does a Digital Game Need to Be Spiritually Effective? · Oliver Steffen

HEIDI CAMPBELL Indiana University Press ePub

Oliver Steffen

IM NOT SURE HOW MUCH RELIGION YOULL FIND IN THE PATH,” writes Michaël Samyn, director of the Belgian independent studio Tale of Tales, in response to an inquiry.1 After all, The Path “is a short horror game inspired by older versions of Little Red Riding Hood, set in modern day.”2 Six sisters, aged nine to nineteen, are sent on an errand to their sick and bedridden grandmother. Mother tells them to stay on the path that leads through a thick and dangerous forest. The woods, however, promise adventures that can hardly be resisted by the girls. In the forest, they find strange areas and objects related to their characters and life situation. Most important, they find their personal wolf – a traumatic encounter, after which grandmother’s house becomes a place of surreal nightmares that end with the death of each girl.

The Path, which won awards for innovative game design, shows little overt religious symbolism, apart from some Christian crosses at the graveyard and the girls’ reflections about death. However, a glance at the developer’s forum reveals that players relatively often tie their play experiences to religious themes.3 Therefore, the game might be an example, on one hand, of the suggestion of William Sims Bainbridge and Wilma Alice Bainbridge that it is “possible that certain categories of games satisfy some of the same psychological needs satisfied by religion,”4 and on the other hand, of game researcher and designer Ian Bogost’s approach that games may have a spiritually relevant persuasive effect through their procedural representations and interactions rather than through their contents.5 In this chapter, I suggest a ludologically influenced religious studies approach to digital games.6 I am interested in the basic structural elements of games that generate religiously or spiritually relevant experiences in players. As a start, I examine a number of scientific and journalistic publications that, in their discussion of digital games’ effects, not only refer to religious terms, metaphors, and themes, but also provide details about the characteristics of the corresponding ludological structure. I offer a list of criteria to compare the spiritual efficacy of digital games – an essential aspect of the implicit religious potential of games. I then show that this efficacy may be understood and compared in terms of flow, meditation, empowerment, disempowerment, and morality. This catalog becomes the basis for my analysis of The Path, which is followed by a discussion from a religious studies perspective.

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Medium 9780253204530

10. Going from Surface to Depth

Meir Sternberg Indiana University Press ePub

For the adequate comprehending of Claggart by a normal nature these hints are insufficient. To pass from a normal nature to him one must cross “the deadly space between.” And this is best done by indirection.

Herman Melville, Billy Budd

The art of prolepsis systematizes and facilitates the movement from the truth to the whole truth within the plot. Epithet prefigures drama. But does it extend the same service to the intelligibility of character proper? As well as leading from past to present to future and from cause to effect along the axis of time, does it lead, by a vertical interrelation, from surface to depth? Does the epithet make personality, artistically speaking at least, as it makes history?

The Bible’s economy certainly raises this possibility, for the epithet is multifunctional anyway. Apart from its two constant roles, the portraitistic and the proleptic, it may fulfill a variety of others. We have already seen the epithet pressed into ideological service by the non sequitur between feature and fortune that implies supernatural resolution. We have also seen it yield the pleasures of wordplay above the call of other duties. In the interests of cohesion, moreover, the puns of the Ehud tale assume the shape of a network and a line of development.

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Medium 9780253021069

10 Levinas’s Notorious Interview

Michael L. Morgan Indiana University Press ePub

There may be no more controversial comments associated with Emmanuel Levinas than his remarks during a radio interview, broadcast on Radio Communauté on September 28, 1982, in the wake of the massacres in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in Lebanon near Beirut. The interview was conducted by Shlomo Malka, and the interviewees were Levinas and Alain Finkielkraut. A transcript was published in Les Nouveaux Cahiers, but its notoriety, certainly for English-speaking audiences, was accelerated by the publication of an English translation, included by Seán Hand in his The Levinas Reader, published by Basil Blackwell in 1989.1 Introducing the transcript, Hand explains the circumstances that led the Israeli Defense Forces to occupy West Beirut in mid-September of 1982 and the events that followed:

While the move into West Beirut was supposedly made in order to protect the Muslims from the revenge of the Phalangists [after the September 14 bombing in party headquarters in East Beirut that killed twenty six, including Lebanon’s recently elected president, Bashir Gemayel, a Maronite,], the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) actually introduced Phalangists into the Palestinian camps with the mission of clearing out suspected fedayeem, or Arab infiltrators, who carried out hit-and-run raids inside Israel. The Christian soldiers massacred several hundred people in Sabra and Chatila camps over a period of nearly two days with no intervention on the part of the IDF. At first [prime minister Menachem] Begin refused to set up a judicial inquiry, commenting in the New York Times on 26 September that “Goyim kill goyim, and they immediately come to hang the Jews.”2

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Medium 9780253356734

10. Luke 7:47

Kierkegaard, Søren Indiana University Press ePub

[ 10 ]

Lord Jesus Christ, in order properly to be able to pray to you about everything, we pray to you about one thing: help us so that we may love you much, increase the love, inflame it, purify it. Oh, and this prayer you will hear, you who indeed surely are not—cruelly—love in such a way that you are only the object, indifferent to whether anyone loves you or not; you who indeed are not—in anger—love in such a way that you are only judgment, jealous of who loves you and who does not. Oh no, you are not like that; then you would only instill fear and anxiety, then it would be terrifying “to come to you,”1 frightful “to abide in you,” 2 and then you would not even be the perfect love that casts out fear.3 No, mercifully, or lovingly, or in love, you are indeed love in such a way that you yourself love forth the love that loves you, encouraging it to love you much.

My listener, you know whom the discourse is about, that it is about that woman whose name is: the woman who was a sinner.4 “When she learned that Christ was sitting at dinner in a Pharisee’s house, she fetched an alabaster jar of ointment, and she stood behind him at his feet, weeping, and began to wet his feet with tears and dried them with her hair, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with ointment.”5

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Medium 9780253014696

10. Messianic Religious Zionism and the Reintroduction of Sacrifice: The Case of the Temple Institute

Edited by Michael L Morgan and Steven W Indiana University Press ePub

Motti Inbari

This chapter discusses the establishment and the activities of the Temple Institute in Jerusalem. This institution is the product of a messianic crisis that developed in Israel after the Six-Day War (1967), in which Israel captured territories described in the Hebrew Bible as the core of the ancient Land of Israel. While the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the subsequent territorial expansion opened the door to an outburst of messianic speculations, the following stage involved disappointment and the possibility of prophetic failure.

The Temple Institute is an educational institution located in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem that runs various Jewish religious enterprises, including a college preparatory school, a museum, a publishing house, a yeshiva for young adults, a yeshiva for youth, and a project that seeks to produce and re-create the objects used in the Temple. The Institute was established in 1984 by Israel Ariel, and over the past three decades its activities have become an influential force. The Institute is recognized as an official institution by the Israel Ministry of Education, which sends thousands of students from state-religious schools to its programs; soldiers in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) often visit the Institute in organized groups; dozens of young religious women volunteer in its programs; and the Israeli Chief Rabbinate has even organized at the Institute religious conferences about the Temple. Thousands of Christian evangelists also visit the Institute each year.

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