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2. Times of Hardship: Gender Relations in a Changing Urban Economy

Dorothea E. Schulz Indiana University Press ePub

God is justice but it is hard to see where on this world his justice is done.

—FATHER OF NINE CHILDREN, SAN, APRIL 2000

Women do not marry to be free of sorrow. Life is sorrow and we ask God to help us accept it. What God decided for us is our destiny. Our husbands are not what we wished for, they are our destiny. We have to … endure the suffering they cause. God will help us to try and change their minds from time to time. For God is truth and justice. He tests my endurance by making me suffer. But it is not my husband who should make me suffer.

—AMINATA, MID-FORTIES, SEVEN CHILDREN,

BAMAKO, AUGUST 1998

FOR MORE THAN a decade geleya (literally, “heaviness,” “difficulty”) has been a recurrent trope in the daily conversations of urban middle-class and lower-middle-class families. Geleya refers to the emotional and material dimensions of the daily struggle to make a living; it also reflects many people’s realization that “money affairs have become difficult” (wari ko gèlèyara), which burdens them with feelings of helplessness. To many urbanites, gèlèya tuma (times of hardship) also marks the onset of a particular era in Mali’s recent history: the devaluation of the CFA franc by 50 percent on January 12, 1994, a measure executed as part of a broader program of neoliberal economic reform.1 In the months that followed, most conversations I overheard reflected people’s preoccupation with the social and moral repercussions of what was called a shortage in money (wari dògòyara). Older men and women maintained that the loss of morality and order resulted because “nowadays money can no longer be found” (Bi bi de, wari te sòrò tugun), and they deplored the fact that “patriarchal authority has gone kaput” (Du fanga tinyèna) because of children’s “ingratitude” (wali nyuman donbaliya) and “lack of respect” (u tè mògòw bonya). Other adults identified marriage as the locus of family conflicts, maintaining that it “has become a matter of acquiring the nasòngo [literally, the price of the ingredients for the daily sauce].” Ultimately, many adults asserted, “it is the envy among women that creates endless strife within the family” (Furu kèra nasòngo ko dòròn; nga a kòrò yèrèyèrè, o de muso ka nata ye). Whereas this perception was shared widely by male youth, young women felt that their problem was not only a shortage of money but also of trustworthy, marriageable men. Dissonant as these accounts of present-day difficulties are, they reveal that people tend to mix reflections about the long-standing, socially corroding effects of money with the repercussions of recent economic liberalization. The comments reflect a widespread sense of crisis that goes beyond a materialist struggle for survival and cautions us to move beyond studies of the effects of Structural Adjustment Programs in urban Africa that assess hardship in the urban areas in purely material terms (see Salama 1998; see Lamarre and Miller 2000).

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3. Insistence and Hospitality: Mary and Martha in a Postmodern World

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub

 

Now as they went on their way,
he entered a certain village,
where a woman named Martha
welcomed
(hypedexato) him into her home.

                                         —LUKE 10:38

The name of God is the name of trouble. The insistence of God means that God calls for a response or, since God is not somebody who “does” things like call, it means that the calling takes place in the middle voice, in and under the name of God. God calls in the middle voice. The call is perfectly figured in an unexpected and insistent knocking on our door. A disturbing visitation in the night is an uncertainty in which all the sting of “perhaps” is perfectly concentrated, in which the dynamics of “perhaps” and a theology of insistence is both modeled and put in play. Hospitality means to say “come” in response to what is calling, and that may well be trouble. We might say that hospitality is an example of an event, but if so it is an exemplary one, a paradigm, maybe even a surname for any and every event, which can come at any moment, like a wayfarer in need of a cup of cold water unless, perhaps, he is a thief in the night. As an ancient virtue in the Bible, where the very life of the desert traveler depended upon being made welcome, hospitality cuts deeply into the fabric of the biblical name of God, where the invisible face of God is inscribed on the face of the stranger, as if God were looking for shelter. Well beyond its status as a particular virtue, hospitality is a figure of the event, a figure of the chiasm of insistence and existence, of call and response.

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3 Communicating Capability

Mark A. Tietjen Indiana University Press ePub

3 Communicating Capability

IN CHAPTER 1 I considered Roger Poole’s claim that either one reads Kierkegaard with attentiveness to the indirect communication or one reads him earnestly, “on religious grounds,” as edifying. Kierkegaard seems to anticipate this approach to his work: “In pseudonymous books published by me the earnestness is more vigorous, particularly in those passages in which the presentation will appear to most people as nothing but jest. This, as far as I know, has not previously been understood at all” (JP, 1:301 [#656]). Later in the entry Kierkegaard gives content to the earnestness found in the pseudonymous writings: “Especially in the communication of ethical truth and partially in the communication of ethical-religious truth, the indirect method is the most rigorous form” (JP, 1:302 [#656]). Based on these and similar passages, there is good reason to be apprehensive about Poole’s phrasing of the issue: indirect communication as opposed to the serious, the religious, the edifying. Poole’s false dilemma rests on an undialectical understanding of Kierkegaard’s indirect communication and, in particular, the relationship among the pseudonyms and between Kierkegaard himself and the pseudonyms.

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Medium 9781442261150

Kilby versus Balthasar: A Cultural Divide?

Joseph Mangina Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kilby versus Balthasar: A Cultural Divide?

Étienne Vetö

Reading Karen Kilby’s Balthasar: A (Very) Critical Introduction is a must. It is one of the clearest and most instructive introductions to Balthasar. The two chapters on the “central images” of his theology are uniquely illuminating in the realm of balthasariana.1 Its criticism is exemplary as it leads us to think outside the box and helps us understand the nagging feeling we’ve all had reading Balthasar and sensing something wasn’t quite on track, without being able to pinpoint exactly what. At the same time she always tries to offer counterarguments to defend Balthasar—though these acts of mercy, because in the end they do not save him, effectively buttress the criticism. I agree with too many of the shortcomings Kilby points out—Balthasar’s difficulty in determining the Holy Spirit’s place, the way he tends to “distort” what he reads and the great epistemological promises he does not live up to, his exaggerated insistence on suffering and pain, for instance—to name them all.

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9 The Paradoxes of Post-Soviet Jewry

Zvi Gitelman Indiana University Press ePub

 

 

 

One of the many paradoxes of the post-Soviet period is that governmental anti-Semitism has disappeared, but grassroots anti-Semitism has become much more visible and vocal. Glasnost permitted suppressed anti-Semitic feelings to surface, sometimes in unexpected quarters. “Judophobia has become popular among some intellectuals. This unprecedented ‘respectability’ of anti-Semitism is especially alarming [and] prompts Jews to emigrate. The fear of pogroms turns into a panic.”1 Indeed, rumors of pogroms began to circulate in the summer of 1988 in connection with the celebration of the millennium of Christianity among the Slavs. As one threat put it, “What happened in Poland in 1968 [a mass purge of Jews] and in Sumgait in 1988 [violence between Armenians and Azerbaijanis] will happen to you.”2 Many Jews feared that the loosening of the political and social reins would allow the “darker elements” to attack Jews and wreak social havoc. In a much discussed article, the distinguished Lithuanian Jewish writer Grigori Kanovich, now living in Israel, described Jews all over the USSR as pondering whether “to leave or to stay.” The real question, he wrote, was whether Jews could stay in the USSR “when leaden pogrom clouds are hanging over our heads. . . . when the lightning of intolerance and hostility is flashing ominously near and far, when there is an atmosphere of suspicion and mistrust all around us? . . . We still have no long-term guarantees of an equal and secure existence.”3 Kanovich was among two hundred members of the Congress of People’s Deputies who signed a petition asking Gorbachev to publicly condemn anti-Semitism, a petition that was ignored.

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Medium 9781442229037

DOCTORES ECCLESIAE

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

R. R. Reno

Among the great figures of Christian antiquity, Origen of Alexandria combines the most intense focus on the details of scripture with the most comprehensive breadth of interpretive ambition. To read Origen’s exegesis is like standing beneath a waterfall. Philological judgments, geographical clarifications, symbolic patterns, text-critical asides, doctrinal formulations, and allegorical schemes cascade upon the reader. At the same time, his approach consistently pushes toward a unified reading of scripture. In the opening sentence of Origen’s ambitious metaphysical treatise, On First Principles, he tells us that his great speculative project has “no other source but the very words and teaching of Christ,” words and teaching that are already present “in Moses and the prophets.”1 Scriptural detail is married to an interpretive synthesis that reaches all the way to reflections on spirit and matter, time and eternity, the purpose of evil, the salvation of the devil, and the consummation of all things.

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Medium 9781937155360

Introduction

Alan Shreck Emmaus Road Publishing ePub

In the two-thousand-year history of the papacy, proclaiming and teaching the Gospel of Jesus Christ has always been central to the popes’ mission and ministry. As St. Peter concluded the Church’s first sermon on the day of Pentecost: “Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified” (Acts 2:36).

This proclamation echoes through centuries at the heart of Christian and papal teaching. Popes are also the Church’s chief shepherds; and while the responsibilities of governing the Church and addressing challenges from the world preoccupied many popes, others recognized their primary responsibility to proclaim and teach the Gospel. In recent times, I observe almost a new kind of papacy that emphasizes leading the Church through teaching, exemplified by popes such as Leo XIII (pope 1878–1903). I would go so far as to characterize the popes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (and now into the twenty-first century) as “teaching popes.” While they certainly carry out their priestly and pastoral duties faithfully, they lead the Church mainly by their example and teaching. Since the Second Vatican Council, the “style” of that teaching has changed somewhat, moving away from a Magisterium concerned primarily with warnings and condemnations of false teachings to a teaching style that seeks to instruct positively about the Catholic faith and the positive implications and applications of the Gospel in today’s world. Pope John XXIII recommended and followed this approach, as he expressed it his opening speech to the bishops at the Second Vatican Council, a council that he initiated. He declared:

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Medium 9780929398136

9. Tactics Is the Art of Taking

Mary Beth Rogers University of North Texas Press PDF

80 / Tactics Is the Art of Taking

But TWO members are in a hurry, and when they realize they have given away their leverage to get the city to focus on the neighborhoods, they decide they have to do something drastic to get the mayor's attention.

O'Hare Airport-the world's busiest airport and Chicago's pride-becomes their target. Thousands of travelers pass through its gates each day, and most of them stop long enough to use the bathroom facilities. TWO decides to occupy the lavatories-a sure way to bring airport operations to a halt! All demonstrators have to do is drop a dime, enter the restroom stall, and push the lock on the door. It would take only a few people, armed with books and newspapers, staying there all day to disrupt the airport and create chaos. There might even be fist fights in the long lines when travelers realize they are about to miss their connections and have no place to relieve themselves. Angry passengers would no doubt shout at airport employees. Children would be screaming, "But I've got to go!"

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Medium 9780890517888

24. What about Beneficial Mutations?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

Chapter 24

What about Beneficial Mutations?

Dr. Georgia Purdom

Many claim that beneficial mutations provide examples of evolution in action. These mutations supposedly result in the formation of major innovations and rare and complex traits1 that over time have resulted in the evolution of all living things from a common ancestor. However, analyses of these mutations show they only result in variations in pre-existing traits, traits that organisms already possess, and cannot result in the origin of novel traits necessary for molecules-to-man evolution.

All You Need Is Novelty!

For a simple, single-celled ancestor to evolve into a human over billions of years, novel traits must be gained. New anatomical structures like brains, arms, and legs and new functions like cardiovascular and muscle activities must be acquired. Regardless of whether this is proposed to occur through beneficial mutations that result in the addition of new DNA, changes in existing DNA, or through other mechanisms, there must be a way to add novel traits. However, all observed mechanisms, including beneficial mutations, do just the opposite they cause the loss of or slight variation in pre-existing traits.2 Beneficial mutations and other mechanisms cannot account for the origin of novel traits of the type necessary for molecules-to-man evolution. In a paper entitled A Golden Age for Evolutionary Genetics? Genomic Studies of Adaptation in Natural Populations, the authors (who are evolutionists) agree that the lack of mechanisms to add novel traits is a problem: Most studies of recent evolution involve the loss of traits, and we still understand little of the genetic changes needed in the origin of novel traits.3

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Medium 9781574412222

1 “Planting the Institutions of Freedom”

Juan Francisco Martinez University of North Texas Press PDF

“Planting the Institutions of Freedom”

7

Protestant Views on the Mexican-American War

The war with Mexico occurred during a time of growing tension in the United States. Slavery was dividing the country;

Westward migration was moving the center of power from East to West; settlement of the Oregon Territory and the annexation of Texas heightened the possibility of war with Great Britain.

All of these events were occurring in the midst of a broader debate about the identity of the United States.2 Each of these issues colored people’s attitudes toward the Mexican-American

War and, for many, seemed to overshadow it in importance. For many Protestants the relationship of the war to these other issues was as important as the actual hostilities.

Opposition to the Mexican-American War

The strongest Protestant statements opposing the war with

Mexico appear in denominational periodicals and published sermons. These critical and often scathing denunciations reflect a wide range of concerns about the conflict. Nonetheless, few denominations issued official pronouncements against the war.

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Medium 9780253347695

V. Pregnancy: A Natural Initiation Process

Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi Indiana University Press ePub

Pregnancy often forces a woman to confront and evaluate herself. In most premodern cultures, menarche serves a similar function, marking a young woman’s readiness for marriage and reproduction. But in contemporary Western cultures, not only has onset of menstruation typically moved back until it begins at age eleven, instead of between fifteen and seventeen, but young women marry later as well. Consequently, while menarche still separates childhood from adolescence, a far more significant life passage is marked for many contemporary women by pregnancy. Changes merely potential in menarche become actualized at this time. Furthermore, pregnancy, especially a first one, severely tests a woman’s identity. Consequently, it functions naturally much like a socially constructed initiation rite. As religionist Mircea Eliade says, “Initiation is equivalent to a basic change in existential condition; the novice emerges from his [sic] ordeal endowed with a totally different being from that which he possessed before his initiation; he has become another.”1 Similarly, it is a rare woman who does not experience some fundamental alteration of her core being during pregnancy.

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3 Reaching for Utopia: Building Socialism and a New Jewish Culture

Zvi Gitelman Indiana University Press ePub

Subtly and without fanfare the Evsektsii and the party as a whole began to adjust their ideology to undeniable realities. Defining the tasks of the Evsektsii in 1918, Semion Dimanshtein asserted that, “as internationalists, we do not set any special national tasks for ourselves. . . . We are not . . . fanatics of the Yiddish language. There is no ‘Holy Yiddish’ (Yidish-hakoydesh) for us. . .. It is entirely possible that in the near future the richer languages of the stronger and more developed peoples will push aside the Yiddish language.. . . We Communists will shed no tears over this, nor will we do anything to obstruct this development.”1

By the mid-1920s most Evsektsii activists were singing a different tune, one called by the Communist Party. The party was encouraging the “flowering of the nationality cultures” and even inventing national alphabets for the Asian peoples who, until that point, had no written languages. The party and the state were investing in schools, theaters, newspapers, and magazines in non-Russian languages, including Yiddish. They insisted that governmental and even party activities be carried on in the languages of the ethnic groups involved. Stalin sanctioned the new policy with his famous definition of proletarian culture as “socialist in content, national in form.” For the Jews this meant the promotion of Yiddish and new cultural and economic progress. Evsektsii activists who envisioned a secular, socialist Yiddish future eagerly welcomed the chance to translate their dreams into reality. Now they had the backing of the party line and they hastened to take advantage of the funds, personnel, buildings, and other resources put at their disposal.

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Medium 9780253012524

1. The Miltonesque Concept of the Original Text

Brennan W. Breed Indiana University Press ePub

Wyman’s overpopulated universe is in many ways unlovely. It offends the aesthetic sense of us who have a taste for desert landscapes, but this is not the worst of it. Wyman’s slum of possibles is a breeding ground for disorderly elements…. I feel we’d do better simply to clear Wyman’s slum and be done with it.

—W. V. O. Quine

You know, I like to walk in the slums. I can breathe when I walk through the slums.

—Jorge Luis Borges

According to many biblical scholars, biblical critics study original texts and contexts, while reception historians are responsible for studying later versions of texts and their meaning in later contexts.1 The reception historian looks beyond the original text, while the traditional biblical scholar looks at the original text itself. Thus, in order to begin a thorough study of the later texts and contexts that constitute the field of reception history, one must know what the original is, where it begins, and where it ends.2 Textual criticism is the field entrusted with discovering the original text of the Bible, so one might look to text critics to learn where, exactly, reception begins. However, the field of textual criticism has yet to give a definitive answer about what constitutes the original text, and in this chapter I argue that, ultimately, it never can. Yet textual criticism can offer the means to rethink the concept of reception history in a systematic manner.

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7 Persecution in Pakistan and Politicization of Ahmadi Identity

Adil Hussain Khan Indiana University Press ePub

7  Persecution in Pakistan and Politicization of Ahmadi Identity

The Politics of Partition

Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmud Ahmad, khalīfat al-masīh II, remained immersed in the Kashmir crisis throughout the 1930s, which led to a sustained rivalry with the Majlis-i Ahrar. By the 1940s, both organizations had diverted their attention to the Second World War, which enabled tensions to simmer in the background for the next few years. By the end of the war, the political priorities of community leaders had shifted once again towards gaining independence from Britain. This meant that there was a greater sense of urgency among organizational leaders to voice concerns about the prospects for self-governance currently under consideration. As the push for independence gained momentum in the public discourse, India’s community leaders went from entertaining proposals to finalizing schemes.1 Although the earliest proposals dated back well into the nineteenth century, by the mid-1940s only two models of governance dominated the debate. The first viable option was rooted in conceptions of Indian nationalism, while the second was rooted in religious separatism. India’s nationalists backed the creation of a single state, represented by a unified India, whereas religious separatists sought the creation of independent states based on religious affiliations. As plans for independence materialized, it became increasingly clear that India would be partitioned along religious grounds. Most separatists, however, still did not want religion to dominate public policy. On the contrary, religious affiliations were primarily intended to serve as a means of determining international boundaries. This made mixed-population states, such as Punjab, problematic for advocates of partition, due to the rich complexity of its religious heritage and the varied distribution of its religious demographic.2 As a result, quarreling about population distributions created confusion which postponed the demarcation of international borders until late in the process.

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Introduction: Evolving Tactics

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

Introduction

Evolving Tactics

Ken Ham

Over the past 30 years of my personal, intimate experience in the biblical creation ministry, I have observed "evolving" (in the sense of "changing") tactics used by prominent secularists to respond to arguments from creationist scholars and researchers. Based on my experience, I would divide the interactions of biblical creationists and outspoken secularists into four basic eras.

The Debate Era of the 1970s

When I first became aware of the U.S. creation movement in the 1970s (while I was a teacher in Australia), I learned that Duane Gish (Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley) of the Institute for Creation Research was actively debating evolutionary scientists from various academic institutions.

At that time, creationist arguments against evolution consisted of arguments against so-called ape-men, and arguments that the Cambrian Explosion and lack of transitional forms illustrated that Darwinian evolution did not happen.

Evolutionists argued back with supposed counters to these arguments. For instance, they claimed that Archaeopteryx was a transitional form between reptiles and birds (since refuted), that the "mammal-like reptiles" were transitional forms, and so on. However, in the long run, such "evidences" were just interpreted differently by both sides according to their starting points — creation or evolution!

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