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CHAPTER SIX: Postscript: from past impact to present influence

Bruce Hauptmann Karnac Books ePub

Christopher Reeves

In chapters 2 and 5 I have kept mainly to an historical approach because I believe that the contributions of Bowlby and Winnicott in the fields of child care and child mental health have to be viewed in the context of their times and the social issues that they were confronting. To do otherwise is to risk misrepresenting, even trivializing, their work. However, in a book devoted to a demonstration of the abiding importance of these two key figures of twentieth-century British psychoanalysis, it would be remiss of me not also to consider what relevance their views might hold for contemporary childcare theory. So, we need to ask the question: are their ideas and recommendations of the 1940s and 1950s of merely historical interest, or do they have continuing relevance today?

One way of attempting to answer this question would be to draw a direct comparison between what they themselves consistently advocated and what currently obtains in British childcare legislation and practice. I have mostly resisted the temptation of speculating overmuch on what Bowlby and Winnicott themselves might have made of changes in childcare legislation in the decades subsequent to their deaths, although at various points I have alluded to changes that could be seen as a reversal of developments of which they clearly approved. In this connection I particularly pointed out how the post Seebohm Social Services Acts of 1971 and 1972 that ushered in the conglomerate Department of Health and Social Services that we still inherit, and introduced the era of the generic social worker, dismantled a crucial piece of the 1948 Children Act. This dismantling Winnicott would doubtless have resisted as forcibly as his widow did, since it undermined a key principle enshrined in the earlier Act: namely, that a child’s social welfare and mental health needs should comprise a distinct and separate concern of state-funded social welfare. The same could perhaps be said of the gradual demise of another aspect of child welfare provision that began in roughly the same period: the progressive closure of cottage homes and family group homes as alternatives to foster care. This also, I suspect, would have been opposed by Winnicott—though not by Bowlby—as being unrealistic and doctrinaire.

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Medium 9781442255128

The Second Canary: Thoughts on Theological Education

Joseph Mangina Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Second Canary: Thoughts on Theological Education

George Sumner

The story seems a familiar one. The dean of a theological school tries to recruit students to come for a residential, three-year master of divinity (MDiv) degree, as has been normative for future clergy in mainline denominations in North America. However, he is rebuffed by the potential students, who don’t want to leave homes and jobs and who would prefer to opt for online courses. Nor do their dioceses, presbyteries, etc. insist they attend. For his part, the dean muses about the viability of the school’s mandate. But the story (a true one) is actually not so familiar, since the dean in question oversees not an impoverished school but one that is rich as Croesus, offering impressive scholarship packages. Students should be flocking to such a place. When his fellow theological administrators at less fortunate institutions read the story, they understand its import. That dean’s lament is the canary in the proverbial coal mine, proof that, regardless of resources, all schools are in a new era in which the erstwhile residential seminaries must “change or die.”

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7 A Portrait of Ogun as Reflected in Ijala Chants

Sandra T Barnes Indiana University Press ePub

Adeboye Baballa

Ìjálá are Yoruba poetic chants used in entertaining and saluting Ògún. As those who are familiar with the Ògún tradition very well know, the oríkì Ògún (verbal salutes to Ògún) within ìjálá reveal, little by little, the nature of the deity. One of the most striking revelations of the ìjálá is the contradictions found in them. This paper addresses these contradictions and argues that Ògún symbolizes a universal contradiction: humans are strong and, at the same time, they are frail. The constant oppositions in the texts of ìjálá artists are therefore a necessary and explainable part of this poetic tradition.

The contradictions, and in some cases the variations, found in Ògún traditions as they are rendered by ìjálá chanters are of three kinds. First, the figure of Ògún displays opposing personality traits (e.g., he is fiery and cool) or symbolic traits (e.g., he represents death and healing). Second, the literary construction of the chants opposes metaphors and images thereby reinforcing, through structure, contradictions that occur in content and meaning. Third, the devotees of Ògún place him in a bewildering variety of contradictory mythical traditions. Ògún founds many towns, conquers many people, and pursues several occupations. The wide variation in traditions raises questions as to the authenticity or correctness of any of them. But this problem is resolved in the ìjálá verbal salutes to Ògún. As one ìjálá artist declares: “Ògún méje l’Ògún-ún mi” (The Òg ùn that I know are seven in number). Thus, many forms are attributed to the god Ògún. But what is important is the total picture that the many contradictions and variations eventually create. It is the sum of the parts that provides insight into what Ògún actually represents to the Yoruba.

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7. Trajectories of Job 19:25–27: The Example of Survival

Brennan W. Breed Indiana University Press ePub

To articulate the past historically does not mean to recognize it “the way it really was” (Ranke). It means to seize hold of a memory as it flashes up at a moment of danger…. The danger affects both the content of the tradition and its receivers…. In every era the attempt must be made anew to wrest tradition away from a conformism that is about to overpower it. The Messiah comes not only as the Redeemer, he comes as the subduer of the Antichrist. Only that historian will have the gift of fanning the spark of hope in the past who is firmly convinced that even the dead will not be safe from the enemy if he wins. And this enemy has not ceased to be victorious.

—Walter Benjamin

In this final chapter, I offer a glimpse of Job 19:25–27’s problematic structure, manifest in its reception history. I have chosen to focus on the semantic node of survival simply by virtue of its breadth of receptions, but I also offer a brief sketch of presence and justice. While I briefly touch on transmutations and nonsemantic effects as they occur in the history of this text’s processual development, the greater part of these fascinating stories receive short shrift. I have selected to discuss receptions that demonstrate various capacities expressed by the text within various contexts.

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Medium 9780890515792

26. Why Is Mount St. Helens Important to the Origins Controversy?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub


Why Is Mount St. Helens Important to the Origins Controversy?

Dr. Steven A. Austin

On May 18, 1980, a catastrophic geologic event occurred that not only shocked the world because of its explosive power, but challenged the foundation of evolutionary theory. That event was the eruption of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington. The eruption of Mount St. Helens is regarded by many as the most significant geologic event of the 20th century, excelling all others in its extraordinary documentation and scientific study. Undeniable facts confront us. Although not the most powerful explosion of the last century, Mount St. Helens provided a significant learning experience within a natural laboratory for the understanding of catastrophic geologic processes.

On May 18, and also during later eruptions, certain critical energy thresholds were exceeded by potent geologic processes. These were able to accomplish significant changes in short order to the landscape (figure 1), providing us a rare, user-friendly opportunity to observe and understand the effects of catastrophic geologic processes.

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Medium 9781577311218

Chapter 17: The Unitarian Universalist Church

New World Library ePub

The Rev. David A. Johnson

Pastor, First Parish in Brookline, Massachusetts

The Unitarian Universalist Association is the modern institutional embodiment of two separate denominations that grew out of movements and faith traditions which extend back to the Christian Reformation era (14–16th centuries C.E.) and well beyond. Universalist convictions are found as early as the church father Origen, who declared that all creation would ultimately be drawn back to its divine source and that nothing and no one would be ultimately and forever excluded.

In its conviction that God is ultimately and absolutely One, Unitarian thought has been a recurring heresy within the established church since the 1st century of the Christian era.

The Roumanian-Transylvanian Unitarian Church, now more than four centuries old, stems originally from the sceptical and evangelical ratio-nalist movements within the Roman Catholic Church and the openness engendered in the Reformation era. Its faith and struggle, and that of Socinianism in Poland and the Low Countries, became a fertile seeding ground for the beginnings of British Unitarian thought and structure. American Unitarianism has its own primary roots in the liberal Christian movement within New England’s old Puritan establishment; a formal break with that tradition produced the American Unitarian Association in 1825.

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Medium 9780253014191

6. Prayer and Sainthood

Christina M. Gschwandtner Indiana University Press ePub

Prayer is a fairly prominent topic in Marion’s writings, although it is not a concern addressed much by the secondary literature on his work.1 Already the early distinction between idol and icon in God without Being is to a large extent about prayer or worship, about the human approach to the divine that can be expressed in idolatrous adoration or authentic prayer before an icon. The former is idolatrous for Marion because it becomes an invisible mirror that returns entirely upon the self, while the other is authentic because it is emptied of self and exposed to the divine gaze. This account is deepened and focused more fully on prayer in The Crossing of the Visible, where the final chapter examines explicitly what it means to pray before an icon. Somewhat surprisingly, the final chapter of In Excess, which really should examine the possibility of a phenomenon of revelation if it consistently followed the outline of the five kinds of saturated phenomena (event, idol, flesh, icon, revelation) as presented in Being Given and the first chapter of In Excess, instead examines the kind of language appropriate for the divine. This language turns out to be prayer or praise. In some sense, then, this simply continues the earlier distinction between an idolatrous and an iconic way to approach the divine. Yet, formulated as a response to Derrida on negative theology, it is a much more conscious articulation of the linguistic element in prayer.2

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Medium 9780890517888

6. Was Charles Darwin a Christian?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

Chapter 6

Was Charles Darwin a Christian?

Dr. Tommy Mitchell

Much has been written about the religious views of Charles Darwin. What exactly did he believe, and when? Did he reject Christianity? Was he out to destroy Christianity, as some in the Church have come to believe?

While it is true that Darwins ideas have caused great harm to the Church and have led many people to openly question the authority of the Bible, what did the man himself actually believe? Did he ever become a Christian?


Charles Darwin was born in 1809. He was part of a well-to-do family in England.

His grandfather, Erasmus, was a prominent physician, poet, and somewhat of an activist. He could best be described as a progressive or free thinker. Dr. Erasmus had a naturalistic view of origins and even promoted basic evolutionary ideas. His religious stand was as a deist, and he rejected the idea that the Bible was supernaturally inspired.

Charles never met his grandfather, who died before Charles was born. He did, however, become familiar with his grandfathers beliefs and ideas through reading his writings.

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11 - After the Liberation of Rome

Zuccotti, Susan ePub

I SPENT THE NIGHT AT THE FIGLIUOLI,” PADRE BENEDETTO wrote in his notebook about the night of June 3–4, 1944. He could not stay at his monastery, because he was still in hiding. “An uproar until midnight. The Allies enter Rome.” Settimio Sorani, writing later, was equally terse about the momentous liberation of the Eternal City. “Finally, on Sunday June 4 (13 Sivan 5704) the first Allied troops entered Rome,” he noted, “followed after a brief interval by the chajalim [the Jewish soldiers of the Palestinian Brigade].”1 Neither man recorded his personal emotions on that day, but they must have been overwhelmed with joy and relief. For them, if not yet for Italians in the north, the war was over and their protégés were safe.

Sorani was more eloquent when describing the first public service at the central synagogue following the liberation. “On Thursday, 8 June,” he remembered,

there was a ceremony at the Temple that was packed with people overjoyed to find each other again but dismayed by the absence of so many of our brethren. After the religious service, celebrated by Rabbi David Panzieri, I spoke of the Tevà. I became very emotional, I don't remember what I said; I remember only that many eyes were wet with tears. I was followed by Padre Benedetto, who began by saying that he regretted that he did not belong to the People of Israel for whom he had such a liking and whom he had tried to help with all his strength.2

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Timeless Time & Spaceless Space

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF

There was no way they were letting me go without charging me with something. I saw that they were having a hard time thinking up a charge, so I assured them that I was leaving the area soon and wouldn’t be returning for a court date. That seemed to relax them a bit..............

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27. What Is the Best Argument for the Existence of God?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub


What Is the Best Argument for the Existence of God?

Dr. Jason Lisle

There are a number of common arguments for the existence of God. But most of these arguments are not as effective as many Christians would like to think. Let’s consider a hypothetical conversation between a Christian and an atheist.

Christian: "Everything with a beginning requires a cause. The universe has a beginning and therefore requires a cause. That cause is God."

Atheist: "Even if it were true that everything with a beginning requires a cause, how do you know that the cause of the universe is God? Why not a big bang? Maybe this universe sprang from another universe, as some physicists now believe."

Christian: "The living creatures of this world clearly exhibit design. Therefore, they must have a designer. And that designer is God."

Atheist: "The living creatures only appear to be designed. Natural selection can account for this apparent design. Poorly adapted organisms tend to die off, and do not pass on their genes."

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The Demon Tamer

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF
You all know what it’s like to have a critical voice in your head? Some person or thought or emotion that has taken up residence in your head and tends to be a bit on the obnoxious side?”

Everyone raises a hand and nods with grim familiarity.“Well, those are demons. Demon is a useful way to describe anything in our heads that we don’t want there and which seems to have a mind of its own; something that haunts us or has power over us, has its hooks into us; memories, people, addictions. They torment us in a variety of ways, but the main thing demons do is hold us back, restrict our progress.“

This is Brett’s final lesson for you, by the way........... See All Chapters
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40 October 14, 1943: The Uprising in Sobibor

Yitzhak Arad Indiana University Press ePub

October 14 was a clear, sunny autumn day. It began as any routine day—with the morning roll call and the prisoners dispersing to their workplaces. The atmosphere was tense, however. Many felt that something unusual was going on that day. A sharp eye would have noticed that some of the prisoners had put on their best clothes and boots. Those who were privy to the secret of the impending uprising removed money and valuables from their hiding places in the hope that this would increase their chances for survival once they were outside the camp. The Underground Committee even directed the members of the Underground to remove any valuables in the workshops or warehouses and distribute them among the trustworthy prisoners.1

Pechersky was at his command post in the carpentry workshop from the morning hours. Through the window he had a good view of the square in Camp I. With him was another prisoner of war, Semion Rosenfeld. The main group of about twenty Underground members, mainly prisoners of war, were working in the nearby barrack, under the command of Leitman, preparing wooden bunks. These prisoners had been selected by Pechersky, Leitman, and Yanek to carry out the liquidation of the SS men and the breakout from the camp. Among them were Boris Tsibulsky, Alexander Shubayev, and Arkady Vaispapir. Feldhendler, who was to command the action in Camp II, had taken up his position in the warehouse in that part of the camp from the morning hours. Communications between Pechersky and Feldhendler were handled by some young putzers who were able to move freely between Camps I and II. Yanek was in charge of coordinating the “invitations” of the SS men to the workshops in Camp I. According to the plan, this was scheduled between 16:00 and 16:30 hours.

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Memento Mori

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF

These were the questions I put to myself when I decided to come meet Brett’s group and say goodbye with them, and as soon as I asked the question, I knew the answer. Memento Mori: Remember you must die...........

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2. “Go Teach”: Methods of Change

Sonja Luehrmann Indiana University Press ePub

[M]aterial force must be overthrown by material force; but theory, too, becomes a material force when it takes hold of the masses.

—Karl Marx, “Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction”

The task of the methodician is to link theory with practice.

—A. V. Fomina, methodician at the Center for Folk Creativity, Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Marij El, April 2005

And so go, teach all peoples, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.

—Matthew 28:19 (Russian Synodal Bible translation)

Political decision makers in Moscow were anxious to have life on the Middle Volga conform to a vision of union-wide social solidarity, but they were not always interested in the intricacies of local religious life as reported by Commissioner Nabatov. In the academic world, the empirical sociologists of the 1960s and ’70s were also often criticized for burrowing too deeply into accidental facts instead of finding ready-made answers in Marxist-Leninist philosophy.1 Both Nabatov and the sociologists found a more responsive audience among a particular group of applied intellectuals: instructors whose task was to assimilate knowledge about religion for the purpose of promoting an atheist society. In 1950, Nabatov was invited to join first the Mari division of the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge, then its newly founded atheist section. Although the Council for Religious Cult Affairs prohibited its commissioners from openly engaging in atheist propaganda, he prepared the texts of several lectures on Mari religious life for the society and for the lecturers deployed by the regional party committee, materials which were then used by other activists.2 The sociologist Viktor Solov'ev, born in 1934 in a Mari village in a northeastern district, started his public career as a teacher and lecturer for the regional party committee. After obtaining his academic degrees, he served for a long time as the liaison between the party lecturers and the Knowledge Society. Both men thus combined political ambitions with an interest in understanding the social implications of religious traditions, and both found receptive partners among propagandists of atheism.

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