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1. “Our Nation’s Authentic Traditions”: Law Reform and Controversies over the Common Good, 1999–2006

Dorothea E. Schulz Indiana University Press ePub

IN MARCH 2000 Malian national radio announced in daily news broadcasts that a family law reform proposal, prepared by legal specialists and representatives of civil society, was to be publicly discussed so as to ensure popular participation and support. The projected reform of the codification of family law (Code du Mariage et de la Tutelle [CMT]), the broadcasts explained, was part of PRODEJ (Promotion de la Démocratie et de la Justice au Mali), a project financed by a consortium of Western donors to improve the effectiveness and credibility of the judiciary, and to mend inconsistencies within the Malian legal code “in accordance with international standards.”1 The anticipated law reform generated vehement protest among Muslim religious authorities and activists who publicly condemned the government’s endorsement of the Beijing platform as an attack on women’s “traditional role and dignity” that ultimately threatened to undermine Mali’s authentic culture, one “rooted for centuries in the values of Islam.”2 Yet the main targets of these Muslim leaders’ wrath, and their main political adversaries, were women’s rights activists who, in broadcasts aired on local and national radio and tacitly supported by the Family and Women’s Ministry, dismissed their protest as an attempt by “conservative religious forces” to pave the way for reactionary influences from the Arabic-speaking world by mixing religion and politics. Clearly, behind obvious differences in ideological orientation, Muslim activists and their political opponents have several points in common. Speakers on each side acknowledge that the government’s decision to reform Mali’s legal and judicial system is the result of various international influences and support structures, on the one hand, and of local and national political processes, on the other. Agendas of Western donor organizations intersect and collide with the interests of sponsors from the Arabic-speaking world, but also with interest groups struggling to gain greater influence in the national political arena. Both parties also present women’s dignity, and their rights and duties, as essential to definitions of the common good and of membership in the political community.

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Chapter 6. The Horticulturists

Felicitas D. Goodman Indiana University Press ePub

The history of horticulturalist settlements varies greatly according to geographic location. Judging from the archeological record, it flourished only briefly in Central Europe, and disappeared from the scene well over five thousand years ago. Traces of it can still be found in fairy tales and legends, but the absence of a historical memory of this cultural form contributed to the tragedy of native populations that got in the way of European conquest: It was not agriculture, and therefore it was despised as ignorant and savage. Only around the Mediterranean did some of the central concepts of its religion, especially that of metamorphosis, survive into the time of classical antiquity, as we know from ancient Greece and Egypt. But the ability of humans to change shape and become animals or plants was no longer generally accepted and became the attribute of deities in Greece. Zeus changes into a bull or a swan in order to further his amorous pursuits and seduce beautiful girls. And in Egypt, where many deities appear in a combined human and animal form, the entire metamorphosis complex apparently became part of the esoteric knowledge of the priestly caste. Japanese Shinto, the “Way of the Spirits,” is the only example of a large, modern industrial society retaining a horticultural religion. Horticulturalism as a way of life survived into the present in New Guinea, in parts of Southeast Asia, in Africa, and among Amerindian societies in both North and South America.

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4 • Gyapagpa Temple’s Painting Style and Its Antecedents

Melissa R. Kerin Indiana University Press ePub

Based on the insights of the last two chapters it is clear that the Gyapagpa Temple’s sixteenth-century painting program was the result of a vital ’Bri gung (Drigung) resurgence that affected much of the western Himalayan region during the late medieval period. Given this temple’s significant role in piecing together the region’s religious history, a lingering question must be raised: How could this valuable historic document have gone underanalyzed for so long? The answer to this question is enmeshed within at least two interconnected issues regarding trends in South Asian, and specifically Tibetan, art historical scholarship. As for the first of these two issues, there has generally been a tendency to document, analyze, and publish Tibetan art from earlier rather than later periods. Much of Tibetan art history has focused on earlier material of the eleventh through fourteenth centuries.1 Indeed, this is the case with the late sixteenth-century paintings at the Gyapagpa Temple, which were overshadowed by neighboring eleventh- and twelfth-century painting programs, both in the compound and in surrounding villages, such as Tabo. Antiquity was not always the deciding factor, however. It would seem that issues of connoisseurship also came into play when scholars neglected Gyapagpa’s paintings. Likely, its now faded paintings with limited modeling and sometimes clumsily executed lines inspired scholars to look at other sites, with similarly dated murals, such as at the religious and political centers of Tabo, Tholing, and Tsaparang.

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5. The University of COPS

Mary Beth Rogers The University of Chicago Press ePub


The University of COPS

San Antonio, 1986

The doors to the old elementary school on the grounds of the Immaculate Heart of Mary parish on the West Side of San Antonio are locked. Only the small red, white, and blue lapel button taped over a doorbell gives me any assurance that I am where I want to be: at the office of the neighborhood organization COPS. A hand-lettered sign lets me know I must ring the bell to gain entrance. The parish and the West Side neighborhood are so poor and devastated by urban renewal that they can no longer support the school. So the 70-year-old building is locked, boarded up, and used only for periodic sessions of an adult literacy class—and for the COPS headquarters, located on the second floor and accessible to the West Side leaders who run the organization. After my first visit, I understood the necessity of the locked doors. There are hazards in the old building and in the neighborhood. One day I lost my footing and fell on a chipped cement stairway that had no railings. Another time, a mentally retarded man exposed himself to me in the parking lot.

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Medium 9780253013866

1. On the Materiality of Black Atlantic Rituals

Edited by Akinwumi Ogundiran and Paula S Indiana University Press ePub

Akinwumi Ogundiran and Paula Saunders

Ritual has been at the core of Black Atlantic studies since the pioneering works by W. E. B. Du Bois ([1903] 1982), Melville Herskovits ([1941] 1990), Fernando Ortiz (1906), Jean Price-Mars ([1928] 1983), and Arthur Ramos (1934, 1939), among others, appeared in the first half of the twentieth century. The term “Black Atlantic,” coined by Robert Farris Thompson (1983), was not in vogue at that time to characterize the overlapping, racialized, and cultural geography populated by peoples of African descent on both sides of the Atlantic. The broad concerns of the pioneering scholars, however, were not far removed from those of many of their recent successors, who have made this term the centerpiece of their conceptual project: to account for the cultural formation of Africana peoples in the modern world. Stimulated by those foundational studies, a number of publications in different disciplines have appeared in the past fifteen years, focusing on Black Atlantic religion in order to explore questions of identity, sociopolitical negotiations, and the historical processes of African cultural formation in the Atlantic world (see, e.g., Brandon 1997; Heywood 2002; Matory 2005; Murphy and Sanford 2001; Olupona and Rey 2009; Thompson 1993; Tishken et al. 2009). Of course, there is even a far larger corpus of studies that is geographically circumscribed in particular regions or nation-states of the Black Atlantic world. Many of these studies deal with issues of the impacts of Atlantic modernities on Africana religious traditions, belief systems, and their role in social and political spheres (see, e.g., Baum 1999; Palmié 2002; Raboteau 2004; Rucker 2007; Shaw 2002).

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Medium 9780253007889

7 Egyptian Colonialism and the Mahdī in the Sudan

Roman Loimeier Indiana University Press PDF


Egyptian Colonialism and the Mahdī in the Sudan

Historical Themes and Patterns

After the collapse of the Funj empire in the early nineteenth century, the lands on the two Niles became one of the few regions in Africa not colonized by a European colonial power but by an Arabo-African empire, Egypt. As in pharaonic times, Egypt sought to secure its southern marches, to control the Nile valley, and to gain access to the natural resources of the Sudan. Egyptian power politics were linked with a program of modernization in Egypt as well as in the new Egyptian provinces in the Sudan. While the Egyptian colonial conquest of the Sudan succeeded, Egyptian efforts to modernize the Sudan remained superficial and created unrest and instability. The new administration, often based on a bureaucracy staffed by Copts, turned social structures upside down, and marginalized established authorities while pampering new social and religious movements, especially among the Sufi orders and religious scholars. The extension of the Egyptian administration into the southern and western marches of the

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Medium 9780253006431

Part 2. Eighteenth-Century Conversations

Alanna E. Cooper Indiana University Press ePub

Much is at stake in writing the past of the Bukharan Jews, for their story—ostensibly about a small, marginal diaspora group—actually encapsulates the dynamics of Jewish history and Jewish People in the broadest sense. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the tale of an eighteenth-century Sephardi emissary from Ottoman Palestine, and his encounter with Central Asia’s Bukharan Jews.

At the end of the eighteenth century, a young man by the name of Yosef Maman is said to have set out from his home in Safed. He headed eastward as an emissary of the Holy Land, driven by a desire to educate Jews living in the far reaches of the diaspora. Over many generations of isolation from important centers of Jewish learning, explains historian Avraham Ya‘ari, these communities had lost their sense of connection to the Holy Land and to the Jewish People, and had strayed from the dictates of Judaism. The hardy, charismatic Maman, who was not much older than twenty, was determined to reunite them.

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Medium 9780253206909

4. Orientation in Time

David Chidester Indiana University Press ePub

The trajectory traced by the Peoples Temple through time was supported and made meaningful by specific strategies of temporal orientation within its worldview. In temporal orientation, individual consciousness is sychronized with shared perceptions of time within a community. The experience of time, as suggested by the sociologists of religion Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss, may be regarded as an “active tension by which consciousness realizes the harmony of independent durations and different rhythms,” through the cultural media of myths of beginning, myths of the end, historical records, genealogies, sacred calendars, and the patterned rhythms of ritual, work, leisure, and the transitions of the human life cycle.1 There is no universal time scale. Each society, each community, and each group within a society may generate distinctive measuring devices—myths, collective memories, unique histories, shared anticipations, communal calendars, and rhythms of interpersonal relations—that support a unique sense of orientation in time.2 The Peoples Temple cultivated particular temporal orientations toward the beginning and the end of the world, the role of the Temple in the chronicle of human history, and the investment of the body in the rhythms of living, working, and dying for a cause, which can be separated, for purposes of analysis, as orientations in cosmic time, historical time, and body time. These three interlocking aspects of a general orientation in time were essential in the formation of the worldview of the Peoples Temple.

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Medium 9780253347640

5. The Human Condition

Malcolm Bull Indiana University Press ePub

THE BOOK Questions on Doctrine published the answers that church leaders gave to the Baptist Walter Martin and the Presbyterian Donald Barnhouse, who posed questions on Adventist beliefs between 1955 and 1956. In an interim report of the discussions that appeared in 1956, Martin considered four doctrines that Adventists were presumed to hold:

1. The atonement of Christ was not completed on the cross.

2. Salvation is the result of grace plus the works of the law.

3. The Lord Jesus Christ was a created being, not from all eternity.

4. Christ partook of man’s sinful fallen nature at the incarnation.1

He concluded that “to charge the majority of Adventists today with holding these heretical views is unfair, inaccurate, and decidedly unchristian!2 On the question of the eternity of Christ, Martin’s assessment was probably accurate. Although there was some resistance to Trinitarianism in the 1940s, and a minor anti-Trinitarian revival in the 1990s, most Adventists did not return to the Arianism of their forebears. But on the other three topics, Martin’s judgment was premature. From the publication of Questions on Doctrine in 1957 to the end of the century, the atonement, the incarnation, and the nature of salvation were the subject of constant debate within the Adventist church.

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Medium 9780253014474

Conclusion: The Fall of the Temple of Health

Brian C. Wilson Indiana University Press ePub


The Fall of the Temple of Health

As the Race Betterment Foundation faded from view in the 1960s, the Battle Creek Sanitarium was also heading toward a similar fate. Kellogg’s sanitarium had remained in a thriving condition throughout most of the 1920s, but by then the doctor was spending much of his time in Florida and the active management of the Battle Creek Sanitarium had passed to a board of directors under the leadership of Dr. Charles Stewart.1 In view of the continued popularity of the Battle Creek Sanitarium and its potential for growth, Dr. Stewart and the board embarked on a major expansion of the sanitarium’s main building, adding the massive twin Italianate towers that still form a distinctive landmark on the Battle Creek skyline. Significantly, however, Dr. Kellogg opposed the expansion, concerned that it signaled the shift of the sanitarium toward pure commercialism and away from the spiritual and humanitarian mission of the institution upon which he had always insisted. Although in many ways a business success, Kellogg consistently denounced the corrupting influence of commercialism throughout his career, both because he felt it compromised his credentials as a physician and because he refused to compromise his principles and sense of mission simply to make a profit.2 Dr. Kellogg, of course, was always happy to make money and lived well, but he spent the bulk of his profits on the sanitarium and other projects all in an effort to promote biologic living and, later, race betterment.3 Even at the height of the Roaring Twenties, Dr. Kellogg was still unwilling to subordinate his sacred mission to simple money getting. In this he was completely out of step with the utilitarian spirit of the rest of the nation.

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Medium 9780253347046

3. The Beautiful Risk of Creation: On Genesis ad literam (Almost)

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub

Twenty-six attempts preceded the present genesis,
all of which were destined to fail.
The world of man has arisen out of the chaotic heart
of the preceding debris; he too is exposed
to the risk of failure, and the return to nothing.
‘Let us hope it works’ (Halway Sheyaamod)
exclaimed God as he created the world,
and this hope, which has accompanied the subsequent history
of the world and mankind, has emphasized
right from the outset that this history is
branded with the mark of radical uncertainty. (Talmud)1

With the mention of the majestic words of Elohim presiding over creation in the opening verse of Genesis, I raise a touchy subject. For truth to tell, while all this talk about a sacred anarchy or the “weak force of God” may have an appeal to a select few party radicals, it is not a proposal likely to win mainstream votes in a general election. So I cannot proceed without first dealing with a problem that threatens to inundate me before my campaign is barely started. For one of the most powerful images in Western literature, one of the most archical ideas in the cultures of the great monotheisms, one of the most memorable verses in world literature for anyone who can read, or who can look up at the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, undoubtedly the greatest show of sheer force in the history of everything, the most hierarchical, patriarchal exercise of pure omnipotence ever thought up, in comparison with which everything else, biblical miracles included, is small potatoes indeed, is surely the majestic opening verses of Genesis: “In the beginning (en arche), God created heaven and earth.”

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Medium 9780253008053

13. The Trauma of History in the Gates of the Forest

Edited by Steven T Katz and Alan Rosen Indiana University Press ePub



Names…still hovering, like memories…and they will return to haunt their dreams.

The Gates of the Forest

IN THE OPENING SCENE of Elie Wiesel's stunning novel The Gates of the Forest, a boy, in hiding from the Nazis, fortuitously meets another Jew, “like himself, fleeing from fate,” seeking refuge in the forests of Transylvania.1 Left in the sanctuary of the forest by his father, the seventeen-year-old Gregor finds himself sequestered in a profound isolation, all the more searing because of the sure knowledge that his family has perished. Terribly alone, hunted by the Hungarian police, who, with attack dogs, seek his precarious refuge in one of the many caves in the forest, Gregor finds himself living “outside time,” isolated not only from the compassionate embrace of others, but from the benevolent intercession of a world beyond him.2 Cloistered in the cave, Gregor is conditionally safe, but the interior of the cave also functions metaphorically as a temporary, projected defense of his traumatized subjectivity. In his isolated, contained location, hidden precariously from those who hunt him, Gregor is both a victim of history and “bypassed by history,” unnoticed by the world beyond the ravages of Nazi terror and destruction, a devastation unleashed within the ruins of Europe and within the geopolitical instability that motivates war and its depredations.3

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Medium 9780253009661

10 Communal Conflict and Death in Northern Ireland, 1969 to 2001

Ian N. Gregory Indiana University Press ePub


The conflict in Northern Ireland known as the Troubles started in the late 1960s and largely ended following the Good Friday or Belfast Agreement of 1998, although a decade later violence continued to occur, albeit at a much reduced level. The violence led to over 3,500 deaths. This could be argued to be a small figure, far outweighed in importance by other causes of death such as cancer and heart disease. Even as a percentage of the population it may seem small, coming to only 0.23 percent of Northern Ireland’s population. If this seems like a small figure, however, its numerical significance can be shown by calculating what this would mean if it were applied to British or U.S. populations. A similar death rate in Britain would lead to approximately 130,000 deaths, which equates to the loss of a town like Brighton or Peterborough. In the United States, with its larger population, the equivalent would be approximately 500,000 deaths, comparable to total U.S. military deaths in World War II. From this perspective, it is clear that conflict and violence have led to significant numbers of deaths in Northern Ireland. Moreover, as we will demonstrate, conflict-related killings were geographically concentrated in certain places, including parts of Belfast, some sections of mid-Ulster, and rural areas near the border such as south Armagh. This meant that the direct traumatic impact of the conflict was disproportionately felt by a relatively few communities.

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Medium 9780253356338

Conclusion: Crossing the Frontiers between the Monotheistic Religions, an Anthropological Approach

DIONIGI ALBERA Indiana University Press ePub


Translated by David Macey

The phenomena examined in this book are at odds with the very widespread view that religious identities in the Mediterranean area are divided by the fault line of the clash between “the West” and “Islam.” Relations between these two blocs appear to be heading in the direction of complete incompatibility, or even some form of war. The only bulwark against this massive and inevitable mutual repulsion—and it is weak and often no more than a pretense—is supposedly the desire to promote a semblance of entente through rhetorical statements and declarations of good intent on the part of political and religious leaders, or through learned debates between scholars—the classic example being the Islamic-Christian dialogue (which now seems to be running out of steam).

It would of course be absurd to deny that the history of the monotheisms in the Mediterranean has been influenced by powerfully exclusivist tendencies or that those tendencies are still very much at work. It is, however, also possible to observe the effect of the overcrowding that results from the presence within the same space of the three monotheisms and their countlıess followers. This context gives us an opportunity to examine how ordinary behaviors can deviate from institutionalized religions. If we look at the religious in terms of lived experience and in terms of everyday practices, we find that traditions and forms of worship sometimes overlap as the “guardians of the temples” look on, sometimes benevolently and sometimes vindictively. The studies collected here take a different look at the religious behaviors of Mediterranean populations and reveal one of the most interesting (and least known) phenomena to be observed in the region: the permeability of the frontiers that divide its religious communities.

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Medium 9780253356734

10. Luke 7:47

Kierkegaard, Søren Indiana University Press ePub

[ 10 ]

Lord Jesus Christ, in order properly to be able to pray to you about everything, we pray to you about one thing: help us so that we may love you much, increase the love, inflame it, purify it. Oh, and this prayer you will hear, you who indeed surely are not—cruelly—love in such a way that you are only the object, indifferent to whether anyone loves you or not; you who indeed are not—in anger—love in such a way that you are only judgment, jealous of who loves you and who does not. Oh no, you are not like that; then you would only instill fear and anxiety, then it would be terrifying “to come to you,”1 frightful “to abide in you,” 2 and then you would not even be the perfect love that casts out fear.3 No, mercifully, or lovingly, or in love, you are indeed love in such a way that you yourself love forth the love that loves you, encouraging it to love you much.

My listener, you know whom the discourse is about, that it is about that woman whose name is: the woman who was a sinner.4 “When she learned that Christ was sitting at dinner in a Pharisee’s house, she fetched an alabaster jar of ointment, and she stood behind him at his feet, weeping, and began to wet his feet with tears and dried them with her hair, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with ointment.”5

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