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10 - Myth vs. Reality: Muslim American Philanthropy since 9/11

Thomas J Davis Indiana University Press ePub

Muslim American Philanthropy since 9/11

Shariq A. Siddiqui

THERE ARE DEFINING moments in our lives. I remember my parents describing the moment they first heard that John F. Kennedy was assassinated and when my professors talked about the moment Martin Luther King, Jr., or Robert Kennedy was killed. I was amazed by their memory and used to be thankful that such an event had not occurred in my generation's lifetime. That changed on September 11, 2001.

As I watched the horrific images on television, praying that the perpetrators were not Muslims, I knew that this moment was significant, but I did not realize that it would be a defining moment for Muslim Americans. The lives of Muslim Americans were changed in profound ways on that day. Many have argued that the events that followed due to the tragedy of 9/11 have had a negative effect on Muslim Americans and especially their philanthropic activity. In order to understand the impact on Muslim American philanthropy after September11, 2001, it is important first to understand Islamic philanthropy, learn about Muslim American history, and explore who Muslim Americans are before looking into their philanthropic activities.

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Medium 9781855754768

CHAPTER ONE. The cultural context: contemporary psychoanalysis and postmodern spirituality

Raul Moncayo Karnac Books ePub

It is well known that since the eighteenth century, the most optimistic proponents of the Enlightenment and the scientific paradigm had predicted the demise of spirituality and religion. This has proven to be only partially true. Statistical studies (Wuthnow, 1992) have shown that the scientific mindset has succeeded in establishing itself as an alternative paradigm in the thinking of most people. However, people also tend to mix scientific and spiritual views in varying proportions. Thus, science has succeeded; but on the other hand, the empirical evidence points largely to the survival of spirituality in the post-secular era.

Thus, spirituality has become a growing focus of interest in contemporary Western culture. After a couple of centuries that witnessed the rapid growth of science and modernity, it is now plausible to assume that postmodern-world people are interested in legitimising and re appropriating the truths embedded in traditional cross-cultural ways and practices. Sociological studies (Roof et al., 1995) have reported an unmistakable trend in the baby-boom generation that describes how in Europe and the United States disenchantment with traditional Western religion has led to a search for spiritual alternatives such as Westernised versions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Moreover, it is interesting to note that, with the exception of fundamentalists, most people appear to be retaining the values of a modern secular society as well.

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Medium 9780253021069

3 The Third Party: Transcendental Ethics and Realistic Politics

Michael L. Morgan Indiana University Press ePub

Suppose we take the human condition primarily to involve the self or subject, on the one hand, and the world, on the other. The philosophical project of articulating the structure of human experience would be the characterization of all the ways in which self and world are related and interrelated. If so, then there are surely going to be relations that account for the way the self is related to nonhuman constituents of the world—from sense perception, observation and analysis, belief, and knowledge to desire, various modes of appetite and aversion, and so forth. And there will also be a host of relations such as the physical ones (e.g., the subject is far from the object, near the object, to the left or right of it) and social and economic ones (e.g., the subject is the owner of the object, is the occupant of the object, is using the object, has just paid for the object). With regard to human beings in the world, too, there will be a complex set of relations and relationships—momentary or briefly continuing relations, such as the subject’s being angry with another subject, and ongoing relationships, such as the subject’s being the father or mother of the other subject or the teacher of the subject. Let us take Levinas to be aware of all of this and to include it within the broad domain of human experience, which he would take Heidegger to have called the being of Dasein, and we might call the domain of ordinary, everyday human existence. Levinas’s distinctive claim is that an account of all of these aspects or dimensions of human relatedness to the world is by and large what we think of as our existence as natural beings, but it is incomplete and inadequate to characterize the totality of human experience. Something significant is here omitted, and it is what broadly we might call, after Wilfrid Sellars, the “space of reasons” or what we might refer to as the dimension of evaluative normativity, especially moral normativity. In Otherwise Than Being, with special reference to language, Levinas calls the former aspects of our natural existence “the Said,” and he calls the dimension or aspect that brings with it or introduces into human existence this evaluative normativity and especially moral normativity “the Saying.” The latter, of course, is the descendant of the face-to-face of Levinas’s earlier writings, and it is what he has called the relation with “transcendence” and “enigma” and the relation with the infinite, the face, and so much else.1

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Medium 9781574411836

Ten Mistakes that God Has Made

Robert Flynn University of North Texas Press PDF

Ten Mistakes that

God Has Made j

Haskell Gatewood, an evangelist of the Southern Baptist persuasion came to Chillicothe for a revival. After a tour of the churches, school, water tower, and cemetery—the cemetery had the most people in it—he pitched his tent, ready to save folks from sin, sickness, disease, doubt, and Democrats.

Brother Haskell put his tent where downtown used to be, before the general store migrated to Electra, and gathered a crowd by declaring a week of preaching on “Ten Mistakes That

God Has Made.” A sermon on one of God’s mistakes each night of the week and two sermons on the Alpha and Omega Sundays. A large crowd showed up for the meeting, many of the people bringing their own lists of God’s mistakes.

Brother Haskell said the first mistake God made was giving himself too many names. “God” was easy to remember, easy to pronounce, and easy to spell. When God went beyond that, He made a major mistake. Was it Yahweh or Jehovah? No one seemed to know. Those other names, Immanuel, Incarnation,

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Medium 9781442279346

AQUINAS AND SUPERSESSIONISM ONE MORE TIME: A RESPONSE TO MATTHEW A. TAPIE’S AQUINAS ON ISRAEL AND THE CHURCH

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

AQUINAS AND SUPERSESSIONISM ONE MORE TIME: A RESPONSE TO MATTHEW A. TAPIE’S AQUINAS ON ISRAEL AND THE CHURCH

Matthew Levering

In his Aquinas on Israel and the Church: The Question of Supersessionism in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas, Matthew Tapie examines my work first in a section on pages 30–38, then in an excursus on pages 41–47, and finally in a section on 158–163.1 Indeed, his book functions in large part as a critique of my writings on the topic of Thomas Aquinas and supersessionism. Among other things, he suggests that I “only . . . pay lip service to the call for the renunciation of harsh Christian supersessionism.”2 Given the significance of the topic, it seems appropriate for me to engage his criticisms, especially since this engagement provides a chance to clarify, rectify, and extend my long-standing interest in Aquinas and supersessionism. In addition to underscoring my firm “renunciation of harsh Christian supersessionism,” the present essay argues for the importance of Aquinas’s commentary on Gal. 5:3 for understanding the full contours of Aquinas’s theology of the Jewish people. Although in the body of the essay I focus upon Tapie’s concerns, and therefore do not discuss Messianic Judaism (which was in the foreground of my earlier engagements with Aquinas and supersessionism), I clarify and further develop my position on Messianic Judaism in the footnotes of the essay. Thanks in significant part to the efforts of Mark S. Kinzer, with whom I have been in dialogue for a number of years and who kindly read and criticized a draft of the present essay, Messianic Judaism has become an increasingly important topic in recent years within the Catholic Church.3

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Medium 9781442261150

Love as a Virtue

Joseph Mangina Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Love as a Virtue

Gilbert Meilaender

Christians are accustomed, rightly, to regard love as a virtue. Doing so brings with it certain puzzles about the place of love in the Christian life. Attending to a few of them will remind us just how deeply intertwined for Christians are the virtues of love and hope.

“Augustine says the Lord loves each of us as an only child, and that has to be true. ‘He will wipe the tears from all faces.’ It takes nothing from the loveliness of the verse to say that is exactly what will be required.”1 Thus—in Marilynne Robinson’s Gilead—writes the Rev. John Ames, an aging Congregationalist minister, to the young son whom he knows he will soon leave behind. These sentences from father to son capture an important truth about love as a Christian virtue: When our love is perfected, we will love with a fullness God gives. But it will be a long and tearful journey to such perfection.

The virtue of love has commonly been thought to be central in the Christian life, and Christian thinkers have sometimes even characterized it as the form of all the virtues. Thus, Jesus summarizes the law in terms of the twofold command to love God and the neighbor.2 Likewise, St. Augustine, says that “rightly ordered love” is “a brief and true definition of virtue.”3 Despite this centrality, there is no single conception of love that has been shared by Christian thinkers.4

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Medium 9781574414363

10. When People Act on the Gospel Values

Mary Beth Rogers The University of Chicago Press ePub

10

When People Act on the Gospel Values

Chicago, 1971

When Ernie Cortes came to the Industrial Areas Foundation Training Institute in 1971, Saul Alinsky was conspicuous by his absence. Edward Chambers was fully in charge, struggling to build a program to attract and train professional organizers. When Alinsky died of a heart attack in 1972, it was Chambers who had to scramble to raise money to keep the training institute alive. Alinsky’s speaking fees had supplemented foundation grants to underwrite the program, and now without Alinsky, it was going to be difficult for the IAF to survive financially.

“The first five years I had to sell my soul to raise money. Foundations wouldn’t fund us and I had to figure out a way to make it self-sufficient,” Chambers recalls.

Everything was in a state of flux within the IAF—the money, the ties with local organizations, the concept of organizing, and the development of training programs for organizers and volunteer leaders. Then Ernie Cortes came along and dropped into the brewing stew his interest in theological concerns.

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Medium 9780253342485

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course summer Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course Summer
Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

The bibliographical main title of volume 60 is taken from a school binder in which Heidegger had bound his 1918–19 studies of the phenomenology of religion. On the second page is found the original title: “Phenomenology of Religious Consciousness.” Later the word “consciousness” is crossed out by Heidegger and replaced with the word “life.” This earlier title is also found in his letter of May 1, 1919, to Elisabeth Blochmann: “My own work is very concentrated, basic and concrete: basic problems of the phenomenolog[ical] method, becoming free from the last shackles of acquired positions—constant new progress toward the real origins, preparations for the phenomenology of religious consciousness—firmly geared up for intensive, high-quality academic effectiveness, constant learning in the company of Husserl” (Martin Heidegger–Elisabeth Blochmann, Letters 1918–1969, edited by Joachim W. Storck, Marbach on the Neckar, 1989, p. 16). That Heidegger speaks of “preparations” in respect to his studies of the phenomenology of religion probably refers to the announcement of Heidegger's planned lecture course of Winter Semester 1919–1920, “The Philosophical Foundations of Medieval Mysticism.” But beyond that it seems to indicate in general a longer-standing project, for, next to the basic problems, the phenomenology of religion is the only concrete problem that Heidegger seems to “approach” at this time.

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Medium 9780253008053

1. Alone with God: Wiesel's Writings on the Bible

Steven T Katz Indiana University Press ePub

WIESEL'S WRITINGS ON THE BIBLE

JOEL ROSENBERG

BETWEEN 1976 AND 2004, Elie Wiesel published four books devoted partly or wholly to biblical retellings: Messengers of God in 1976, Five Biblical Portraits in 1981, Sages and Dreamers in 1991, and Wise Men and Their Tales in 2004.1 While, properly speaking, impossible to view in isolation from his other output of this period, this material in fact forms a meaningful chapter in the history of Jewish biblical interpretation, in addition to being writing that touches the soul. Around the time the last book was published, Wiesel, along with Harvard-based biblical scholar Frank Moore Cross Jr., participated in a joint interview for Biblical Archaeology Review conducted by its editor, Hershel Shanks.2 Cross was the quintessence of the historical-critical scholar, immersed in ancient Near Eastern epigraphy and Northwest Semitic pagan poetry, committed to archaeological research and scientific historical method. Here counterposed to him, as it were, was the Jewish storyteller, still bearing within himself the yeshiva bokher: the perspective of the Eastern European Jewish village—suspicious of “biblical criticism,” steeped in the rabbinic worldview, and cherishing the naive vision of childhood. (Wiesel's upbringing and education were in fact more complex than this profile implies, but I'll let this conception prevail for now.) “I'm interested,” said Wiesel in the interview, “in [the Bible's] layers of meaning, but my relation to it is much more an emotional one. It's been my passion almost from my youth. I want to go back to the child I used to be, and to read with the same naiveté.”3 Cross, for his part, spoke of the rabbinic realm, what he called “late Judaism,” as a place where “you can't even swing a cat without hitting three demons and two spirits.” (In this respect, I should add, he found it similar in outlook to the New Testament.)4

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Medium 9780253356819

7 “A Gypsy Community”

Carspecken, Lucinda ePub

… Not a cradle, a magic Eden without clocks, and not a windowless grave, but a place I may go both in and out of.

W. H. Auden, 1965, from “Thanksgiving for a Habitat”

I was struck by the transience of Lothlorien’s community during my first year. A festival evening at the Thunder Shrine would feel strange to me if there was no one dancing or drumming whom I knew well. Memories of people I had seen in previous festivals and people I had hoped to see again were a part of the experience, along with the unknown and familiar people who were actually there. Absences became almost as much a part of the way I saw the land and the festivals as presences. But my sense of transience during this period was partly a result of the relatively brief time of my involvement. Vic’s more long-term perspective shows continuity among participants:

 

Some of these folks you might only see twice a year and you make really good friends, some people might come back every five years or whatever, but … people come back. (Vic, 2006)

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Medium 9780253015235

7 Persecution in Pakistan and Politicization of Ahmadi Identity

Adil Hussain Khan Indiana University Press ePub

7  Persecution in Pakistan and Politicization of Ahmadi Identity

The Politics of Partition

Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmud Ahmad, khalīfat al-masīh II, remained immersed in the Kashmir crisis throughout the 1930s, which led to a sustained rivalry with the Majlis-i Ahrar. By the 1940s, both organizations had diverted their attention to the Second World War, which enabled tensions to simmer in the background for the next few years. By the end of the war, the political priorities of community leaders had shifted once again towards gaining independence from Britain. This meant that there was a greater sense of urgency among organizational leaders to voice concerns about the prospects for self-governance currently under consideration. As the push for independence gained momentum in the public discourse, India’s community leaders went from entertaining proposals to finalizing schemes.1 Although the earliest proposals dated back well into the nineteenth century, by the mid-1940s only two models of governance dominated the debate. The first viable option was rooted in conceptions of Indian nationalism, while the second was rooted in religious separatism. India’s nationalists backed the creation of a single state, represented by a unified India, whereas religious separatists sought the creation of independent states based on religious affiliations. As plans for independence materialized, it became increasingly clear that India would be partitioned along religious grounds. Most separatists, however, still did not want religion to dominate public policy. On the contrary, religious affiliations were primarily intended to serve as a means of determining international boundaries. This made mixed-population states, such as Punjab, problematic for advocates of partition, due to the rich complexity of its religious heritage and the varied distribution of its religious demographic.2 As a result, quarreling about population distributions created confusion which postponed the demarcation of international borders until late in the process.

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Medium 9781442270626

Defending Biblical Literalism: Augustine on the Literal Sense

Joseph Mangina Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Defending Biblical Literalism: Augustine on the Literal Sense

David Graham

Theological exegesis is making a remarkable comeback. In the concrete life of the church, to be sure, this manner of reading never quite died out. Yet in the last half-century or so, an increasing number of Christian scholars from various traditions have grown impatient with critical hermeneutics. In order to transcend the effective consignment of the biblical text to secular history, they have sought a rediscovery of the felicitous interplay of Scripture and divine reality. But this rediscovery need not entail a simple reversion to a precritical mind-set, which, as it is usually conceded, lacks a reliable safeguard against the untamed Origenists among us. Instead it ventures to incorporate some of the values implicit in modern reading habits. This intention has taken shape, for instance, in the renewal of critically informed figural reading—that is, spiritual interpretation that remains based upon and accountable to the literal sense of the text. Conceived thus, theological exegesis has the potential not only to furnish Christian formation; it also promises, so it seems, to maintain some of the intellectual credibility of the church amidst the academy.

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Medium 9781442229150

ISAIAH: INTERPRETED BY EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MEDIEVAL COMMENTATORS, TRANSLATED AND EDITED BY ROBERT LOUIS WILKEN

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Claire Mathews McGinnis

This volume, as part of The Church’s Bible, is not simply a compilation of early Christian interpretations.1 Nor is it primarily a sustained reading of Isaiah. It is, rather, an attempt to evoke the intersection of the two, namely: the book of Isaiah as it was heard by early Christian readers, and as the prophet’s words became their own words, in prayer and praise to the Triune God. Readers who wish to be schooled in early Christian interpretation of Isaiah will find in this volume a thorough collection, representative of the variety and breadth of patristic readings, chosen for their spiritual, exegetical, and theological significance, conveniently arranged according to the chapters of Isaiah.

The volume’s introductions, which include discussion of the multiple (and I’m sure, painful) compromises its editors were required to make, reveal just what a complex collection this is. While a surface reading will certainly provide the novice with a window to the varied world of early Christian interpretation of Isaiah, this is not how the work functions best. The necessary brevity of the chapter introductions, the variety of the selections, and their ordering within a chapter demand of the reader careful attention and even clarity of purpose in order for the volume to yield its rich results.

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Medium 9781609942922

Choosing Mindful Work Creating Right Livelihood

Franz Metcalf Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Creating Right Livelihood

 

Since there is nothing to attain, the bodhisattva lives by the perfection of wisdom with no hindrance in the mind; no hindrance and therefore no fear.

—The Heart Sutra

WHAT ARE THE advantages of mindful work? The Buddha would simply say they’re the advantages of awakening, because mindful work brings awakening to the workplace. This is true because, fundamentally, awakening is the state of being fully aware—fully mindful, having your mind full—of reality. The first person to see the Buddha after he was awakened asked, “What are you?” The Buddha answered, “I am awake.” Enlightenment is being awake to the reality of reality.

So the question becomes, “Reality—what’s that, and why would I want to awaken to it?” And the answer is, “Reality is the interconnectedness of all things, and you want to awaken to this because it frees you from your limitations.”

Awakening/enlightenment, full mindfulness of reality, is the core of Buddhism, and there is no reason why it cannot be the core of work as well. Mindful work wakes up the workplace and the world. The “perfection of wisdom” that the Heart Sutra describes is a Buddhist spiritual practice, but what does that mean? Work practice can be spiritual practice. And Buddhist spiritual practice comes down to mindfulness. So these spheres of life are not separate. And this non-separateness is not about attaining anything; it’s about being there, at work or at home, without hindrance and without fear.

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Medium 9780890515372

4. How Old Is the Earth?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

4

How Old Is the Earth?

Bodie Hodge

The question of the age of the earth has produced heated discussions on Internet debate boards, TV, radio, in classrooms, and in many churches, Christian colleges, and seminaries. The primary sides are

The difference is immense! Let’s give a little history of where these two basic calculations came from and which worldview is more reasonable.

Where Did a Young-earth Worldview Come From?

Simply put, it came from the Bible. Of course, the Bible doesn’t say explicitly anywhere, "The earth is 6,000 years old." Good thing it doesn’t; otherwise it would be out of date the following year. But we wouldn’t expect an all-knowing God to make that kind of a mistake.

God gave us something better. In essence, He gave us a "birth certificate." For example, using a personal birth certificate, a person can calculate how old he is at any point. It is similar with the earth. Genesis 1 says that the earth was created on the first day of creation (Genesis 1:15). From there, we can begin to calculate the age of the earth.

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