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Medium 9781576751114

6 Shadow Sightings and Everyday Practice

Peppers, Cheryl Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

93

The range of what we think and do is limited by what we fail to notice. And because we fail to notice that we fail to notice there is little we can do to change until we notice how failing to notice shapes our thoughts and deeds.1

—R. D. LAING

There is much in everyday life, if we pause to notice, that points toward the shadow. While we’ve focused primarily on the hidden aspects of shadow, some are quite open and available for our viewing. Take, for example, the way we drive our cars on crowded, busy streets. Rattling off a slew of obscenities in a moment of frustration from behind the wheel is not only permissible, but might even be seen as an indicator of strength. Although one does hear of these kinds of outbursts occasionally in the work environment, they are not generally acceptable. If someone’s project is cut off by another project, the anger is usually played out more subtly, masked by a number of social conventions. But in the car, we let it rip. Other expressions of shadow acceptable in specific social circles include such things as fraternity hazing, the bachelor party, or excessive amounts of work being assigned to a younger associate.94

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Medium 9780253010759

5 Kaplan and Peoplehood: Judaism as a Civilization and Zionism

Mel Scult Indiana University Press ePub

FIVE

[Emil Fackenheim said that Kaplan represented] “the best side of the American pragmatic genius which refuses to subordinate realities to the requirements of philosophical or theological systems. The other is the indomitable love for amcha [the Jewish people] by an indomitable man.”

Sh’ma, 1972

Despite our focus on Mordecai Kaplan’s individualism and on Ralph Waldo Emerson’s influence, Kaplan was primarily a “man of the group.” From very early on, he was obsessed with finding a way to ensure the survival of the Jewish people. In his classic work Judaism as a Civilization, Kaplan declared that it was only within the group that the individual could find fulfillment: “Only though the interaction with his group can the individual achieve personality and self fulfillment or salvation.”1 The continued existence of the Jews was always his overriding concern. Indeed, he once thought of calling his new approach Zionist Judaism. Nothing was more important to him than the fate of the Jewish people.

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Medium 9781786392527

15 Conclusion

Giacalone, F.; Griffin, K. CABI PDF

15 Conclusion

1

Kevin Griffin1* and Fiorella Giacalone2

Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin; 2Department of Political Science,

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

As stated in the introductory chapter, this book is primarily derived from the proceedings of a meeting of Francophone anthropologists, the XXVIII

Colloque Eurethno du Conseil d’Europe, on the theme of pilgrimage in Europe, which was held in Perugia and Assisi in 2014. As such, the publication of these papers in English brings to the

Anglo-centric academic community many unique and fresh contributions from primarily French and Italian authors in relation to religious tourism and pilgrimage, thereby bridging a range of academic disciplines, cultures, languages and perspectives, and thus, providing a unique and eclectic multicultural treat. This short chapter brings together some concluding observations on the individual chapters and their overall contributions to the aims of this volume.

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Medium 9780253204677

Chapter 5: The Dangerous Spirits of Japan

Felicitas D. Goodman Indiana University Press ePub

From the benevolent spirits experienced in possession by Spiritualists, Umbandists, and Pentecostals, we now pass on to another class of spirit beings, namely, the dangerous ones. Powerful, but neither absolutely good nor absolutely evil, they represent humanity’s horticulturalist heritage (see chap. 2). They can and most of the time do act in a friendly manner, and thus on the face of it there seems to be little to distinguish them from the kindly entities we have come to know. But if crossed, they may become threatening, and it is this potential for mischief, this perceived underlying threat, that marks them as qualitatively different. They may even start out causing harm, but then turn around and come to be helpful friends. To us Westerners, whose thinking is schooled by a pervasive good/bad categorization, it is sometimes disconcerting how in a particular story a spirit who to our way of perceiving the world is clearly up to no good can still be classed as benevolent. The ancient exu spirits of Umbanda retain some of this peculiar scintillation, but they are mainly known to anthropologists from their study of surviving small horticulturalist societies, for instance in South America. Of the large modern industrial societies, Japan is the only one where they still play an important role, appearing in many of the modern sects called in the literature the New Religions.

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Medium 9781523093984

2. Characteristics of Servant Leaders

Blanchard, Ken; Broadwell, Renee Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

LARRY C. SPEARS

In the late 1960s, I had the privilege of spending the weekend with Robert K. Greenleaf shortly after he retired from AT&T and began writing about servant leadership. I was on the faculty of Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, at the time. Several years later I got to know Larry Spears, who, during his time as director of the Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, became the premier student of Greenleaf’s writings. When you read Larry’s essay about the ten characteristics of a servant leader, you will see why his participation in this book was a must. —KB

THE WORDS SERVANT and leader are usually thought of as being opposites. In deliberately bringing those words together in a meaningful way in 1970, Robert K. Greenleaf, a retired AT&T executive, gave birth to the paradoxical term servant leadership. In doing so, he launched a quiet revolution in the way in which we view and practice leadership. In the decades since then, many of today’s most effective managers and top thought leaders are writing and speaking about servant leadership, as exemplified in this book.

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Medium 9781538113998

Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

Michael Allen

“The spirits divide in manifold ways, and the division reaches even to the description of Protestantism’s iconic founding incident.” These words of Professor Bruce Marshall not only help us realize the challenge as we assess the events of October 1517, but, more broadly, as we consider the persona and witness of Martin Luther. Some take Luther’s significance to be political, and Marshall alludes to the significance of his support by “the Elector of Saxony Frederick the Wise” for turning him from a mere reformer to a founder of German Protestantism. Others highlight the ways in which Luther confronted the economic exploitation of German peasants for the aristocrats and the foreign powers of Rome, to which Marshall also nods in his comments on the popular awareness of the ways in which indulgences could fleece the least of these. While treating the political and the economic aspects of reform as bearing significance, however, Marshall reminds us of the abiding theological character of his witness and the specifically pastoral shape of his reforms.

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Medium 9781607322160

2 The 1918–1919 Influenza Epidemic: A Cultural Response

McPherson, Robert S. University Press of Colorado ePub

A Cultural Response

Divination, as discussed in the previous chapter, forewarns and forearms the Navajo for what lies ahead. Unfortunately, the 1918 Influenza Epidemic may have been foretold, but nothing in Navajo teaching and practice could stop this totally unfamiliar disease. No ceremonially prescribed cure existed. Not since the creation of the earth had the People faced such devastating consequences. Even First Man, who is credited with emplacing both sicknesses and their cures, could not have foreseen the effect this illness would have on the People. Today, it is still difficult to determine just how wide-ranging its impact was.

What follows is a comparative study of how three different cultures—Anglo, Navajo, and Ute-Paiute—dealt with a sickness no one could control. Best practices seemed to favor the Anglos’ modern medicine, with its germ theory of disease, but even then there were no guarantees; over a half million people in the United States permanently succumbed to its effects. For the Navajo, who stressed a religious approach, it appeared that the holy people were equally befuddled. Death lay all about. Not until the illness had run its course would the Diné and the holy beings return to their earlier ceremonial practices that had proven effective in the past.

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Medium 9780253014191

5. Gift and Sacrifice

Christina M. Gschwandtner Indiana University Press ePub

Marion is maybe most well-known as a philosopher of the gift. Already in a widely read article, titled “Sketch of a Phenomenological Concept of the Gift,” he attempted to illuminate the topic of the gift.1 His major phenomenological work, Being Given, explores phenomenology as fundamentally about “givenness” and includes an entire section titled “The Gift” (part 2). He engaged in extensive debates with Jacques Derrida on the gift and economy, especially in the highly publicized debate of the 1997 conference “Religion and Postmodernism I: God, the Gift, and Postmodernism.”2 In the English-speaking world, this debate (somewhat unfortunately) dominated the early secondary literature on Marion.3 Only slowly have other aspects of his work also been recognized. Yet in his 2010 books Certitudes négatives and Le croire pour le voir, Marion returns to the topic of the gift, indicating that this question continues to be important for his thought.4 The gift is central to Certitudes négatives, occupying two of the five chapters. In these chapters, as in Being Given, the gift figures as a significant phenomenological figure within the exposition of larger phenomenological claims. The theme of the gift also appears repeatedly in the more theological work, Le croire pour le voir, including one essay entirely devoted to the gift, with the title “La reconnaissance du Don” (“The Recognition of the Gift”). Finally, a 2011 English collection, edited and translated by Stephen Lewis, brings together four pieces on the gift under the title The Reason of the Gift.5 Three of the pieces in that book, which exists only in English, are now part of Marion’s 2012 Figures de Phénoménologie, while the final piece is an earlier version of one of the chapters in Certitudes négatives.

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Medium 9780890515792

28. Do Evolutionists Believe Darwin's Ideas about Evolution?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub

28

Do Evolutionists Believe Darwin’s Ideas about Evolution?

Roger Patterson and Dr. Terry Mortenson

Charles Darwin first published his ideas on evolution over 150 years ago. In those 150 years we have come to understand the complexity of life, and many new scientific fields have shed light on the question of the validity of Darwin’s evolutionary hypothesis. Few people have actually read the works of Darwin, and if they did they might be shocked to read some of Darwin’s ideas. In this chapter we will take a look at what Darwin and other early evolutionists believed and how those ideas have changed over time.

Darwin was wrong on many points, and there would be few who would disagree with this claim. But if Darwin was wrong on some points, does that mean that the entire hypothesis of evolution is proven wrong?

What Is Evolution?

Like many words, evolution has many different uses depending on its context. The general concept of the word is "change over time." In that sense, one might say that a butterfly evolves from an egg to a caterpillar to a winged butterfly and a child evolves into an adult. There is no disputing that individual organisms change over time. However, using the word in this way is quite misleading for the origins debate. Darwin’s hypothesis involves a very different concept.

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Medium 9780253347695

II. Conception

Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi Indiana University Press ePub

Throughout history and across cultures, various patriarchal preconceptions have strongly influenced beliefs about the childbearing cycle. Hence, many women experience tension between culturally accepted “knowledge” and our own bodily experiences. Some find that traditional “wisdom” overpowers body language, resulting in its silencing. Others, more independent perhaps, can listen to their own experiences. Thus, understandings of the various stages of childbearing typically run a gamut. Some reflect authentic gynecocentric experiences; others, patriarchally imposed interpretations. Conception, the first of the many stages of childbearing, is no exception.

Today we view conception primarily through a biological lens that teaches us that at birth a woman’s ovaries contain their full quota of potential eggs, some half million or so. Fertilization requires an egg’s male counterpart, a sperm, to swim up as the egg slides down during ovulation. Only if they meet and the sperm attaches to and is accepted by the wall of the egg does conception occur. From this pattern emerges a host of images: the persistent, active male principle opposes and supersedes its passive female counterpart; the chance meeting, out of millions of sperm, of this sperm with that egg becomes in countless love stories the chance meeting of this lover with that; the fusing of sperm and egg becomes the fusing of a kind of androgyne, and so on.

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Medium 9780253013866

6. Rituals of Iron in the Black Atlantic World

Edited by Akinwumi Ogundiran and Paula S Indiana University Press ePub

Candice Goucher

For the African blacksmith and iron-smelter, technology was not distinct from ritual practice. Handling and hammering hot iron was not only dangerous but also afforded ironworkers access to economic and political power through their critical control of the supply of weapons and tools that ensured the continuity of life itself. Ritual in this context also became the voice of collective memory. Making iron was far more than abstract chemical or physical processes. No furnace was built nor smithy constructed without seeking and acknowledging the assistance of ancestors and spirits through specific ritual acts. Sometimes the ancestral references were as concrete as they were direct. Iron smelting required control over the natural elements of clay, ores, fuels, temperature, and airflow, as well as the metaphysical forces of unseen realms. The ritual embodiment of technological practice not only facilitated African technology transfer to the Americas; it also shaped the meaning and memory of iron in the Black Atlantic.

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Medium 9780253018021

4. God as Being and Trinity: Pentecostal-Tillichian Interrogations

Edited by Nimi Wariboko and Amos Yong Indiana University Press ePub

For Pentecostals accustomed to warm experiences of the Holy Spirit and a personal relationship with Jesus Christ, Tillich’s description of God is not particularly fetching. According to Tillich, God is “being-itself” (ST 1:235). Expanding on this idea he says, “God as being itself is the ground of the ontological structure of being without being subject to the structure himself” (ST 1:239). In other words, God is the structure and power that determines all being. Thinking of God as the power or source of things that have being is straightforward, but what about God as the structure of being? The structure of being is central to Tillich’s view of God and leads directly to Tillich’s trinitarian theology.

The foundation of Tillich’s trinitarian theology begins with the trinitarian principles and not the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. The trinitarian principles express the dynamic and dialectical nature of being. God, as being-itself, is a dialectical structure and process. In this respect, Tillich refers to God as living. Tillich clarifies that “if we call God the ‘living God’ . . . we assert that he is the eternal process in which separation is posited and is overcome by reunion” (ST 1:242). The polarities in this dialectical process are ‘power’ and ‘meaning,’ which are the basic ontological elements. Power is the raw and unrestricted freedom to be. Meaning provides the form and structure for power. Tillich uses the category of ‘spirit’ to unite these two polarities. Spirit is the actualization of power and meaning. God is spirit, and thus also the living God, because the poles of power and meaning are fully actualized in God. The three-step structure or dialectical movement within the nature of being is what Tillich calls the trinitarian principles (ST 1:250–251).

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Medium 9780971435223

Visionary Goofballs

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF

He most honors my style who learns under it to destroy the teacher........

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Medium 9781442252189

Reading Forward: The Old Testament and Retrospective Stance

Mangina, Joseph Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Reading Forward: The Old Testament and Retrospective Stance

Don Collett

Recent years have witnessed the rise of an interpretive model that construes the Old Testament’s literal sense in “Christotelic” terms.1 While the term itself appears to be of recent vintage, the hermeneutical assumptions undergirding this approach to Israel’s Scriptures find expression in a variety of contexts in the history of biblical interpretation.2 The approach is arguably at least as old as the reception history of Paul’s letter to the Romans, in which we learn that “Christ is the end [telos] of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes.”3 Broadly speaking, two different ways of thinking of Christ in relation to the OT find their origins here, one of which interprets the Greek word telos in terms of the OT’s subject matter (res) or authorizing purpose, and another that glosses the word primarily in terms of an eschatological goal. Because these readings are not mutually exclusive, on one level Christotelic readings of the OT may be interpreted in traditional terms as the belief that the person and work of Jesus Christ is the goal, or telos, of the Old Testament. Christotelism would then be something akin to theological shorthand for the belief that the OT finds its fulfillment in the Incarnation, death, and Resurrection of Jesus who is the Christ, a noncontroversial claim for most Christian readers of the OT. In the hands of its more recent advocates, however, Christotelism is bound up with an eschatological reading of the OT that identifies the OT’s Christological sense with its NT fulfillment. On this approach, the OT’s literal sense does not bear witness to Christ on its own semantic level, apart from the NT, but awaits correlation with the NT’s own witness to Christ before it may be said to be Christian Scripture in more than a telic or eschatological sense.

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Medium 9780253015235

5 Religion and Politics after Partition: The Ahmadi Jihad for Kashmir

Adil Hussain Khan Indiana University Press ePub

5  Religion and Politics after Partition

The Ahmadi Jihad for Kashmir

Partition and Kashmir

With the presidency of the All-India Kashmir Committee behind him, Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmud Ahmad continued his campaign in Kashmir as head of Jama῾at-i Ahmadiyya. This involved a temporary transformation of his image to that of a less political khalīfa. Despite attempts to maintain his affiliation with the All-India Kashmir Committee, the relationship proved to be irreconcilable. Internal support from Jama῾at-i Ahmadiyya was nonetheless enough to provide Mahmud Ahmad with a sufficient platform to continue working towards Kashmir’s independence on his own. As this transition unfolded in subsequent years, Jama῾at-i Ahmadiyya began moving in a different direction from the All-India Kashmir Committee, while other changes beyond Mahmud Ahmad’s control continued to take place on the Kashmiri front. By 1939, Sheikh Abdullah had shifted the discourse away from sharp communal polemics that highlighted internal differences, towards an inclusive Kashmiri nationalist movement intended to unite the people of Kashmir. This may be illustrated by the name change of his All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference to the All Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, as noted by Mridu Rai. The new platform incorporated Hindus and Sikhs, in addition to Muslims, as victims of the Dogra government’s oppression of its people and marked a new approach to both Kashmiri politics and identity.1

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