1752 Chapters
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Medium 9780253354730

Part Three Caste, Class, and Community

Diane P Mines Indiana University Press ePub

All humans today participate in and perpetuate forms of social differentiation and inequality. Such social distinctions exist even within families and certainly within gender relations, as previous chapters illustrate. In this section the chapters focus explicitly on some of the predominant forms of social differentiation that impact everyday life in South Asia. These include caste, class, and religion, especially as religious differences relate to power relations and politics. In the lives of ordinary people, these three forms of social distinction sometimes overlap and interpenetrate in complex ways, as Ritty Lukose’s chapter in this section demonstrates.

Caste means more than one thing, and it means different things to different people in South Asia. Further, its meaning has changed over time, and varies from place to place. Here we wish to outline in broad strokes some of the many perspectives through which scholars have approached the study of caste, in order to provide some context for understanding this complex mode of social differentiation.

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Medium 9780890515372

23. Aren't Millions of Years Required for Geological Processes?

Ken Ham Master Books ePub


Aren’t Millions of Years Required for Geological Processes?

Dr. John Whitmore

Geology became established as a science in the middle to late 1700s. While some early geologists viewed the fossil-bearing rock layers as products of the Genesis flood, one of the common ways in which most early geologists interpreted the earth was to look at present rates and processes and assume these rates and processes had acted over millions of years to produce the rocks they saw. For example, they might observe a river carrying sand to the ocean. They could measure how fast the sand was accumulating in the ocean and then apply these rates to a sandstone, roughly calculating how long it took sandstone to form.

Similar ideas could be applied to rates of erosion to determine how long it might take a canyon to form or a mountain range to be leveled. This type of thinking became known as uniformitarianism (the present is the key to the past) and was promoted by early geologists like James Hutton and Charles Lyell.

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Medium 9780929398136

2. We Are Willing to Sacrifice

Mary Beth Rogers University of North Texas Press PDF


We Are Willing to Sacrifice

La Meza, 1988

Five hundred miles south of Dallas is La Meza, Texas. A desolate little stop on a back road, La Meza is a Rio Grande

Valley colonia, a neighborhood of 65 Hispanic families, perhaps

400 people in all. It is just outside of Mercedes, which has a population of 12,000 in the county of Hidalgo at the southern tip of Texas where the Rio Grande flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Here, the world seems to dwindle. Even the low, wide horizon, the orange groves, and the patchwork fields of onions, cabbage, or carrots cannot stop the feeling that you are in a land that shrinks its people, forcing them inward, isolating them from their nearest neighbors, from the rest of America, and perhaps even from themselves.

La Meza is directly across the road from the Sunrise Hill

Park, a public park with picnic tables, playground equipment, and a sweeping sprinkler system to keep the grass a bright winter green. But unlike the park, La Meza's people, mostly migrant farmworkers, have no green grass. They have no water. Or sewers. Or paved streets. To drink, they must take a water jug to the Sunset Drive-In Grocery where the paved road by the park begins. At the grocery store, they pay the owner 25 cents to use an ordinary outdoor spigot to fill their water jugs.

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Medium 9781442229181

Enlightenment and Ecumenism: Dom Beda Mayr, O.S.B. (1742–1794)

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Enlightenment and Ecumenism: Dom Beda Mayr, O.S.B. (1742–1794)

Ulrich L. Lehner

The contribution of monasticism to Christian theology’s framework in almost all periods is undisputed. However, the eighteenth century as a period of monastic theology is still—unjustly—overlooked. That was precisely the time when monks, mostly Benedictines, challenged the traditional ways of theologizing and, along with a number of dedicated individuals, initiated what came to be called the Catholic Enlightenment.1 This movement worked not only for a renewal of ecclesiastical practice and thought, but also for a peaceful dialogue between the Christian churches and even toward an ecumenical theology. One of the most intriguing figures of this enlightened theology is the Swabian Benedictine Beda Mayr (1742–1794)—the forgotten “grandfather” of ecumenical theology.

1. Benedictine Enlightenment

There is no clear, monocausal explanation of why the Benedictines became the champions of the Catholic Enlightenment. However, a number of factors contributed to this phenomenon.

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Medium 9781574414363

3. We Need Power to Protect What We Value

Mary Beth Rogers The University of Chicago Press ePub


We Need Power to Protect What We Value

Austin, 1988

Charles “Lefty” Morris and I spot Ernie Cortes walking ahead of us into the Texas French Bread Bakery and Deli. We are going to meet him for a late lunch. Morris is a successful attorney and former president of the Texas Trial Lawyers Association who has recently grown disenchanted with the gritty little skirmishes of political combat and has been seeking ideas about how to change the structure of the war itself. He had heard about Cortes and wanted to know more about him.

Cortes has just come from a doctor’s appointment, where he was warned one more time to shed a few pounds. Only about 5 feet 7 inches tall, Cortes’ genetic tendency to be overweight worries his wife Oralia, but his obvious comfort with his teddy-bear body belies worry and lends a surprisingly sensual air to him. It is hard not to be drawn to his dark eyes, which compete with a bushy, graying mustache to dominate his face. Physically, he is almost oblivious of himself. His attire is conservative, but he is as mindful of his clothes as a 3-year-old. During the day, his shirttail might work its way out of his trousers, his tie might be witness to his meals, or the unnoticed string of a price tag might dangle from his sleeve. No matter—to him or to anyone else. Cortes clearly does not dress to be the center of attention. In fact, throughout his career, he has tried to deflect the spotlight from himself to the people who hold his organizations together. With each of his successes, however, that has been harder to do.

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Medium 9780929398136

8. The Black Hand Over San Antonio

Mary Beth Rogers University of North Texas Press PDF


The Black Hand

Over San Antonio

San Antonio, 1966

It is two weeks before the May Democratic Primary election.

University of Texas graduate student Ernesto Cortes has recruited his aunts and neighbors to join him and other college students to stuff envelopes and go door-to-door for a MexicanAmerican attorney, John Alaniz, who is trying to get elected to the Bexar County Commissioners' Court, the official local government arm of the state of Texas. In San Antonio, the political heat is at the boiling point, particularly for those candidates like

Alaniz who are backed by the emerging progressive coalition of

Hispanics, blacks, teachers, unions, and limousine liberals who have won a few offices in the past but have never come close to seizing real power-a voting majority on any public body in the city or county. Now, with more than 100,000 of Bexar County's

235,000 registered voters living in the coalition's strongest voting precincts, the coalition is threatening to capture the majority vote on the five-member county commission and take over the local Democratic party organization. If Alaniz could win, he would join on the commission Albert Pena, who represents the

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Medium 9780856832727

Chapter 6 - Particularizations of the Primal Right

Robert Andelson Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

Now that we have deduced the primal right from the theological premises apart from which it has no ultimate foundation, our arguments will, for the most part, cease to be directly theological. For in spelling out the implications of reciprocal freedom for particular areas of human conduct, we need be guided only by the evidence of social data and the rules of logical consistency. Our definitive social norm has been established by reference to divine authority. But to seek to ground proximate norms immediately upon religious insights rather than upon the rational considerations involved in the functional particularization of reciprocal freedom, would be to circumvent an order of priority which reflects, as I have tried to show, Gods will. Similarly, although the function of a church building is ordained by a religious sanction, it would be a poor ecclesiastical architect who, instead of rationally articulating this function, based his design upon the dimensions of Solomons temple or upon modules of the sacred number seven under the misapprehension that an overall religious function dictates some overtly religious criterion for each detail. Because of analogous misapprehensions many attempts to deal with social issues from a Christian standpoint have turned out to be futile, where not actually pernicious, exercises in piosity.

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Medium 9781442229334

Half a Lifetime with Luther in Theology and Living

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Half a Lifetime with Luther in Theology and Living

Jared Wicks, SJ

Martin Luther has been for me, during more than forty years, a source of engaging theological insights. These left their mark on my teaching in Chicago and Rome from 1967 to 2004, and they percolate through my essays and reviews to this day. More personally, notions I find in Luther enhance my preaching, especially in Lent, and give me points of spiritual nourishment that combine in unexpected ways with my own formation in the school of St. Ignatius Loyola.

This story of a Jesuit’s theological and personal “affair” with Luther will unfold in three steps, beginning with what I gained during concentrated study of Luther’s early works in Münster in the mid-1960s, when my mentor was Erwin Iserloh. A second phase began with new perceptions during postdoctoral work in Mainz in 1969 with Joseph Lortz. Part of this new beginning was exchanges with other Luther scholars, especially Oswald Bayer in Tübingen and Kurt Victor Selge in Heidelberg. What I grasped then, on Luther’s conception of fides sacramenti, has resonated through many years of telling both Lutherans and Catholics about Luther’s understanding of the gospel word in its sacramental actuality and its pastoral impact. Around 1980 a third engagement began, as I turned to the realized form of the Reformation in Lutheran territorial churches that took their stand on the Augsburg Confession. This led naturally to study of Luther’s pastoral pamphlets and especially his catechesis of the creed, with his emphatic teaching on the church’s constitutive practices of both receiving and handing on Christ’s gifts through the Spirit. This major dimension of Luther’s legacy is now highlighted in Part 2 of the Lutheran-Catholic study document, The Apostolicity of the Church (2006).

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Medium 9780253006639

6. The Gift of Being, Gift of World(s): Irigaray on Heidegger

Edited by Morny Joy Indiana University Press ePub

We can receive anything from love, for that is a way of receiving it from ourselves; but not from any one who assumes to bestow.


Recently in theoretical circles, the concept of the gift has been frequently thematized and taken up, especially in conversation with Marcel Mauss’s canonical text, The Gift, written in 1925. In this book, Mauss argues that the gift is a symbol of social and economic hierarchy, elaborating on the workings of power that underlie the gift and gift-giving. Alternatively, one can look to Ralph Waldo Emerson’s view that a true gift is unnecessary, excessive, and, if true, a gift only of the self. Emerson derides the idea that a gift is an exchange, saying that if this is so, then it is not a gift. I want to take up these two views of the gift to frame the thought of Luce Irigaray and Martin Heidegger. For both thinkers, the Maussian view of the economy of the gift is a metaphysical apparatus, and even tautological. Both would agree with the criticism that Mauss’s thought is western-centric, even if each applies the criticism within differing frameworks and for differing aims. If like Emerson one considers the gift to be an overflowing, one comes close to each of our thinkers’ visions—a framing for a way out of metaphysics. The very idea of the gift is for both thinkers a condition and an event, a propaedeutic and a futural saving. How the gift comes about is where the two diverge. Irigaray reveals and corrects Heidegger’s origin of the gift. She places his notion of the gift squarely within masculinist discourse, revealing it to be masquerading as a neutral, apolitical transcendental condition.1

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Medium 9780253006844

4 Diversity and Competition: Politics and Conflict in New Immigrant Communities

RICHARD CIMINO Indiana University Press ePub

Weishan Huang

Falun Gong (FLG) stepped onto the world stage with its sit-in demonstration in Beijing on April 25, 1999 – with more than 10,000 participants, the largest public protest in China since the Tiananmen Square incident in 1989. Since then, New York City has become the center of the group’s resistance efforts. Established by its charismatic leader, Master Li Hongzhi, Falun Gong is an interesting case study of a modern Buddhist-Taoist–qi-gong faith group with a highly mobilized group of followers.

This chapter seeks, first, to understand the changing ecology of Chinese immigrant communities in New York and to discuss the gentrification of Flushing, which is triggered by transnational capital. Second, the chapter introduces the practices of Falun Gong and focuses on the strategic campaigns of the movement in New York, particularly its parades in immigrant communities. The research has discovered that, to understand the politics of diversity within ethnic Chinese politics, we have to locate the immigrant community in a global milieu. The conflict between Falun Gong and China’s government has been translated onto the streets of New York City, a development that reveals the politics of immigrant communities as a reflection of domestic politics in their home countries.

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Medium 9781609942922

Money and Happiness What’s the Connection?

Metcalf, Franz Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

What’s the Connection?



What is the root of good and evil?


Physicality is the root of good and evil.


What is the root of physicality?


Desire is the root of physicality.


What is the root of desire?


The false self is the root of desire.


What is the root of the false self?


Ignorance is the root of the false self.


What is the root of ignorance?




What is the root of emptiness?


When something is empty, what root can it have?


So all things grow from an empty root.

—Vimalakirtinirdesha Sutra 7

THIS DIALOGUE BETWEEN two awakened beings brings out our real relationship with money. It evokes St. Paul’s statement in the Bible, that love of money is the root of all evil. But the Buddhist teaching goes deeper. Our desire for money goes beyond the nature of money, even beyond the nature of desire itself. It points to the nature of all things.

Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom, begins with a question asked all over the world: What is the root of all evil? The great householder bodhisattva, Vimalakirti, answers right away that not greed, not money, but focus on physicality is the root. In this, the Buddha teaches something slightly different from, but not incompatible with, what Jesus taught. Money, even loving it, is not intrinsically evil. Instead, evil comes from our delusion that the physical world is fundamental. Money responds to and perpetuates this delusion that the physical will satisfy us. In a way, money is the ultimate empty thing: something appearing huge but in fact entirely hollow. It acts to entrap us in pleasures that are themselves empty. We—both individuals and organizations—keep score with money. We measure success with money, so our earnings and our economies must always grow. Yet this never-ending quest can never be fulfilled.

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Medium 9780253014696

13. Isadore Isou’s Messianism Awry

Edited by Michael L Morgan and Steven W Indiana University Press ePub

Cosana Eram

I would have very much liked to spend my life writing the history of those Messiahs, almost unknown to other peoples, but who assert and document our soul.

—Isidore Isou

In a late interview, Isidore Isou (1925–2007) mentioned that the influential surrealist writer André Breton once accused him of trying to be the Messiah and writing about himself in the third person like Salvador Dalí.1 Who was Isou? A Jewish-French author of Romanian origin, he initiated the avant-garde movement called Lettrism/Lettrisme and fashioned his image through his many books, films, plays, small print magazines, literary concepts, and public interventions.2 His work cuts across the subjects of economy, politics, music, aesthetic theory, and theater and has implications for religion, psychology, and sociology. Yet Isou has been singularly neglected although he is a cult figure in several film or poetry circles in Europe. Due to his prodigious activity and his influence upon the well-known visual theorist Guy Debord and the revolutionary artistic group Situationist International, his name is a necessary reference for post-1945 avant-garde; his work is still in need of a full-fledged critical study.

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Medium 9780253002167

4 - Discovering Imageless Truths: The Bahá'í Pilgrimage of Juliet Thompson, Artist

Edited by Leigh E Schmidt and Sally M Indiana University Press ePub


The Bahá'í Pilgrimage of Juliet Thompson, Artist


Though Juliet Thompson (1873–1957) lived in what one reporter of her time called one of the most “materialistic and sordid corners of the world,” New York City, she had spiritual dreams, intuitions, and awakenings. She had one of them when she was a young woman, probably in her late twenties, while recovering from diphtheria, an illness that almost killed her. “One evening, while I was lying in bed,” she remembered, “I heard the doctor say to mother from the next room, ‘Juliet is dying.’ When I went to sleep that night I did not expect to wake up again.” But as she slept her fortunes changed, for sometime in the night an unexpected visitor appeared in a dream, offering a healing benediction. “I had a dream and in it I saw a most wonderful-looking man. He said to me with complete assurance, ‘You will get well.’” She had no idea who this person was, but she did recover, and after her illness she told her brother that something about this experience had made her more thoughtful about spiritual things. She wondered—Were the miracles and wonders spoken of in the Bible true, and were they still happening today? Was the spirit of Christ still in the world, healing and guiding us? Somehow, it was hard to believe.1

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Medium 9780871781796


Various Brethren Press PDF

A DUNKERG U I D E TOForgivenessWe all fail and miss the markMatthew 18:15-22; 2 Corinthians 5:16-21Gladys Geiselman ArnoldTB rethren took very seriously the words of Matthew18:15-20, which suggest an orderly process for dealing with unsettled matters among members. Furthermore, they understood the words of1 Corinthians 11:27-28 to mean that all unseemly dissension be resolved before entering into the celebration of love feast and communion. The timely deacon visit was looked upon as the occasion through which such differences could be settled. Later on, congregations relied on the verses from 1Corinthians 11 to prompt self-examination in preparation for love feast and communion, and deacon visitation for such matters was discontinued.In the Lord’s Prayer, Jesus provides us an example of asking God for forgiveness and of acknowledging our need to forgive others. Recognizing that forgiveness is one component that sets Christianity apart from other world religions, we look to the steps we must follow to become forgiving persons.

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Medium 9780253010001

7: Aion, Chronos, Kairos

Ó Murchadha, Felix Indiana University Press ePub

THE CHRISTIAN WORLD, the world without worldly measure, is a world of inadequation, a world which in its openness to peace beyond agon and economy releases also a profound violence. Truth and justice appear in this world as that which the world cannot contain. This mode of incarnate appearance is being in the world as that into which existents come and out of which they go. This coming and going, this not having been and will not be, are events in the world, but are not reducible to the world. Temporal being is that being which comes into and out of existence: these are not simply external facts, but are the becoming temporal as such. Temporal being is that being which lives in relation to its coming into and going out of existence. This existent being is an anomaly, an anomaly which lies at the source of both philosophy and Christianity. At the heart of this anomaly is the insistence of a singular being to be in a manner which places it against the world. This being against the world finds different echoes—the tragic acceptance of Greek drama, the preparation for death of Greek philosophy, and the living in salvation of Christianity. Each of these modes of being against the world are modes of being temporal in relation to that which transcends finite existence.1

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