163 Chapters
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Medium 9780253012111

7. From the Camp to the Road: Representing the Evacuations from Auschwitz, January 1945

Indiana University Press ePub

Simone Gigliotti, Marc J. Masurovsky, and Erik B. Steiner

THEY DID NOT TELL US WHERE WE WERE GOINGTHEY just said to go–we saw thousands upon thousands of people–there were all these factories that surrounded Auschwitz and all these prisoners joined the march.”1 This commotion, according to Fela Finkelstein, was made all the more menacing by the guards’ threat that “anyone who does not walk, we will shoot, anyone who is weak, we will shoot.”2 From January 17 to 22, 1945, Finkelstein was among an estimated 56,000 Jewish and non-Jewish men, women, and children who were evacuated from forty camps in the Auschwitz camp complex. The conditions of the evacuation journeys, the health of the former camp prisoners, and guards’ abusive treatment of them blatantly contradicted the ostensible intention of their preservation and use as forced labor. Most evacuated prisoners walked between fifty and sixty kilometers to interim locations where they awaited rail transport to take them to concentration camps in the German Reich. The slow pace of the columns, moving at an average of no more than three kilometers per hour, made them more vulnerable to violence and Soviet military attacks. The relocation of Auschwitz prisoners had become urgent because January 12 marked the beginning of the Soviet Army’s Vistula-Oder Offensive, eight days ahead of schedule. After the fall of Kielce, Soviet troops entered the abandoned city of Warsaw on January 17. The liberation of Krakow occurred on January 19, following its encirclement by the Fifty-Ninth and Sixtieth Armies under Marshal Konev. Łódź fell on the same day. On January 20, Soviet forces entered Upper Silesia. Auschwitz’s evidence of life (the warehouses full of stolen goods, clothes, artifacts, immovable prisoners) and death (the crematoria and gas chambers) had to be erased. Time was running out.

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Medium 9781574411522

11 Visits and Calls

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter eleven

visits and calls

T

here are prisons in some states that allow conjugal visits between inmates and their spouses. There are prisons where visitors are encouraged to have picnics with their loved ones, who are allowed to bring in food, and the prisons provide barbecue facilities. Visits in those states are almost unsupervised, with inmates and their families left alone until they abuse the privilege. Texas is not one of those states. In Texas, it is assumed that all inmates will, if given the opportunity, smuggle in contraband or will otherwise abuse the visiting process. In order to prevent this, Texas limits the contact between visitors and convicts severely.

Visits in Texas prisons fall into two categories: general and special. General visits are further divided into two categories: contact and non-contact, or regular visits. Every convict in Texas prison is allowed some type of visit, unless he is in a locked-down status or in punitive segregation.

While an inmate is at Diagnostic, he is advised to designate ten people he would like to have on his visiting list. Each is subject to approval by

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Medium 9781574411546

10 There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

go to work because there was a snake under the hood of her car, curled up right next to her engine. She had no idea what to do.

We told the woman to put a line of flour or baby powder around her car so that we could keep track of the snake. If he was to leave without anyone seeing, the woman would still think he was in her car. By placing a line of powder around the car, we would be able to tell if the snake had slithered off at any point because he would leave a track.

The next step was to try and get the snake to leave her car. Snakes generally crawl up under the hood of cars because they like the warmth from the engine. Snakes are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperatures are the same as their surroundings. The warmer the environment, the more active they are. Underneath a hood is also a quiet, dark hiding place. Often, the midday sun is too hot for a snake. They like to keep warm, but they don’t like to bake in the sun during the hottest time of the day. Engines can be ideal resting places.

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix H Administrative Offices and Unit Profiles

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix H

Administrative Offices and Unit Profiles

Administrative Offices:

Offender Grievances

901 Normal Park, Suit 101A

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 293-4065

Offender Mail System

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-6908

Risk Management (Safety)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 437-2500

Institutional Division (Ad/seg, Disc.)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-2169

Pest Control

One Circle Drive

Sugarland, TX 77478

(281) 490-1152

Sex Offender Treatment Program

P.O. Box 38

Huntsville, TX 77344

(936) 295-6331 ext. 241

Chaplaincy

2503 Lake Rd., Suite 19

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-5050

Laundry & Food Services

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 437-5150

Health Services

3009 Highway 30 West

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-3570

Substance Abuse Treatment

1600 Financial Plaza, Suite 370

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-2850

Inner Change (Religious Program)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-2183

Classification & Records (good time, status)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-6231

Preventive Medicine (HIV/Hepatitis C)

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Medium 9781574411546

3 Growing the Deer-Resistant Garden

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Three

Her joy over seeing healthy green shoots protrude through the rich mulch in her garden would turn to horror soon after they had broken through the ground’s surface. Before they even had time to roll out leaves or blossom flowers, these shoots would turn into nothing more than gnawed-off stems.

My mother thought the culprits must be snails. It was an odd conclusion to come to, because she didn’t think there was a problem with snails in Colorado. Sure enough, one early morning as dawn crept across the sky, she found out that her theory was wrong. The culprit that morning was standing in her garden, not creeping along leaving a trail of slime. He was a young buck taking a fancy to petunias.

The young buck came as a bit of a surprise. He was something we didn’t expect to see in our neighborhood full of sidewalks, paved roads, and elementary schools. But our development was built in miles of foothills full of scrub oak, pine trees, and grassy clearings— areas once roamed by herds and herds of mule deer.

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Medium 9781574411638

Cochran

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Cochran

J. Webster Cochran was a longtime inventor of weapons and projectiles.1 He designed

2 and was granted patents on projectiles and fuzes from the 1850s through at least 1863.

His only success in terms of government purchases appears to be the family of Cochran projectiles and fuzes purchased and used very early in the war by the Union Navy. These were produced in navy calibers only, except for a 3.8-inch bolt that is in the West Point collection. The navy calibers documented for Cochrans were 3.4-inch, 5.1-inch and 6inch. There are no known surviving specimens in the 5.1-inch caliber.

Cochran designed a convex brass ring sabot that screwed on to the projectile. The sabot contained a grease ring and had numerous small holes around it. As the sabot squeezed into the rifling upon firing, grease was squeezed out to lubricate the barrel.

Fired specimens appear to have taken the rifling well and retained their sabots. It is not clear why Cochran failed to get follow-on contracts with the navy, but the complicated design probably made the Cochran shells too costly.

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix I Resource List

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix I

Resource List

Following is a list of some organizations that offer services and assistance to prisoners and their families. Many of them offer other resource lists, generally in an area related to what services they extend. By asking them for resource lists, you can build a network of organizations suited to your particular needs.

Texas Inmate Families Association

(TIFA)

P.O. Box 181253

Austin, TX 78718-1253

(512) 695-3031 www.tifa.org

Advocacy group that provides support and resources for families of Texas prisoners. This organization works directly with prisoners’ family members, not prisoners. Has chapters throughout Texas and lobbies for change in the legislature, and often meets with top prison officials.

Info, Inc.

Inmate Families Organization, Inc.

P.O. Box 788

Manchaca, TX 78652 www.flash.net/infoinc

Advocacy group similar to TIFA, although newer.

Texas Citizens United for Rehabilitation of Errants (CURE)

P.O. Box 12623

Austin, TX 78711

Offshoot of national organization dedicated to organizing prisoners, their families and others for education and advocacy in criminal justice issues. Publishes quarterly newsletter, free to inmates.

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Medium 9781574411638

Archer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Archer

Credit for the design of the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes is being changed in this book. Cdr. John Brooke’s papers and Charles Dews’ authoritative book on the Tredegar Foundry clearly indicate that credit for the design of both the Archer projectiles and the Archer safety fuzes should go to Dr. Robert Archer. The confusion that arose in earlier books about whom to credit is the result of three Dr. Archers being associated with Confederate cannon manufacturing: Dr. Junius Archer of Bellona Foundry, near Richmond; Dr. Edward Archer, a superintendent at the Tredegar Foundry; and Dr.

Robert Archer, a partner of Joseph Anderson in the Tredegar Foundry.

Brooke identified Dr. Robert Archer as the designer of both projectiles and fuzes.1

Charles Dew indicated that Dr. Robert Archer was an inventor of some distinction, having designed rifle shot for Tredegar cannon and a safety device to prevent premature explosion of cannon shell.2

The Archer shells and bolts have a lead band sabot placed just behind the center of the shell body as it tapers towards the base. Used at the very beginning of the war at First

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Medium 9781574411638

Brooke

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Brooke

Cdr. John Mercer Brooke, CSN, is best known for his designs of rifled cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy. He also designed the torpedoes and armor for the CSS

Virginia and oversaw its manufacture by Tredegar Foundry.1 Brooke was so highly regarded by both sides that Union Adm. David Porter said he only regretted the loss of two officers to the Confederacy from the United States Navy: Brooke and Catesby Jones.2 Porter did not mean to be flattering with that comment. After the war he said that Brooke had done more harm to the North than any other man in the South.3

Like his early work in designing cannon, Brooke’s early projectile patterns were modified versions or outright copies of existing designs. For example, in working on projectiles for the CSS Virginia, Brooke asked for designs from the Gosport Navy Yard ordnance officer, then modified the Dahlgren pattern for a shell design. He wrote in his notes, “200 shells are being cast at the Tredegar—of my design—Dahlgren pattern serving as the basis.”4 A number of experiments were conducted using Brooke’s Dahlgren designs,

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Medium 9781574411522

5 Work

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter five

work

I

t comes as a shock to the mostly lazy, unskilled criminals who come into the Texas prison system that, unlike the federal system or most other state prisons, Texas inmates must work. And they do not get paid. Anything. (More on the financial situation in Chapter nine: Money.) Inside and outside, in snow and rain, day and night, whenever TDCJ needs something done, chances are that an inmate is assigned to do it.

Most inmates who are physically fit are first assigned to work in the fields, in what are called work squads, hoe squads, or sometimes just the

Line. The Line is not actually considered a job. It is a way of indoctrinating inmates—especially younger, first-time inmates—to the system, and it is punishment for inmates losing other jobs through disciplinary infractions. Sometimes, it is just punishment for angering the wrong officer.

On most units, the Line does field work. Inmates in the fields plant, weed, thin, and harvest fruits and vegetables. Texas prison crops range from watermelons, peanuts, eggplants, and beets to the more traditional vegetables and, of course, King Cotton.

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Medium 9781603446938

3. The Secret to Successful Event Fundraising in Good Times and Bad

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

The economy cycles from good to bad and so does fundraising success for organizations that fail to discover the secret to successful event fundraising in good times and bad. One such organization helped pioneer effective auction-event fundraising techniques and, in so doing, built one of the largest nonprofit wildlife habitat conservation organizations in the nation. But when the economy faltered, their fundraising did, too. This organization failed to use more recession-proof techniques in auction-event fundraising discovered by other organizations with similar missions. Top-level staff responsible for event fundraising in this organization aggressively prevented anyone from bringing in ideas from outside their ranks. The only ideas for recovery had to be theirs and theirs alone.

Although their auctions always carried some “recession-proof” items, staff analyzing fundraising success just didn’t seem to understand the difference between fundraising in good times and bad. The organization’s auctions were loaded with items people didn’t really need, and probably didn’t want. These items produced decent revenue during good economic times, and even in the worst of times the items sold. I ascribe that to the dedication of the organization’s supporters and volunteers who, in their desire to shore up the organization, felt they had no option but to bid on items they really didn’t need or want. But there are only so many people willing to do that and for only so long, even in good economic times. So attendance, dollar spent per attendee, and revenue started a long downward slide that accelerated as the economy declined.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 16 – Education

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

education

If there is only one thing you can do to assist your convict friend or relative in his struggle to prepare for freedom and remain out of prison, that one thing should be to encourage him to get an education. You may believe that his lack of spiritual values, or his addiction, led to his criminal actions, and you want him to attend AA/NA and get involved in religious programs. This is good because he needs to address those issues also. However, he can’t read the Bible if he can’t plain read. He can’t complete the written portion of the Substance Abuse Treatment Program if he can’t write. He won’t be able to hold down a job, or be involved in the life of his family or the larger society, if he doesn’t grasp the fundamental concepts that you take for granted—balancing a checkbook, following written directions, taking the state driver’s license test, or forming a simple budget. He will have no connection with his neighbor or society if he knows nothing of the basic milestones of our history or doesn’t understand the civic process.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 20 – Racism, Gangs and Violence

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWENTY

racism, riots, and gangs

A Time cover story in the early 1980’s declared the East Texas prison unit of Eastham “America’s Toughest Prison,” a distinction hotly disputed by other Texas prison units. The entire then-Texas Department of Corrections rocked after Judge William Wayne Justice ordered the building tender system dismantled as a result of Ruiz v. Estelle. Without its inmate goons to keep order, TDC was exposed as almost criminally understaffed.

Coupled with the mass resignings and reassignments of many old-time guards and wardens—who had flourished under Director W.J. Estelle’s term—the lack of supervision left a power vacuum that was soon exploited by burgeoning prison gangs. Flexing their muscles, the various gangs waged war for the right to control the prison drug trade and jumped at the opportunity to settle old scores. The murder rates rocketed as the media fueled the killing frenzy by publicly lamenting the records for violent deaths that TDCJ convicts were daily rewriting. Clemens, Ellis, I, Coffield, Ramsey I, Darrington—where a 1984 triple murder in a sunlit dayroom prompted TDC’s first system-wide lockdown as officials frantically tried to isolate gang members—all laid valid claims to the dubious title of America’s deadliest joint.

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Medium 9781574411638

Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

With the experimentation so widespread during the war, there are a number of types of projectiles that were one-of-a-kind experimental or single battlefield recoveries. These include Abbot, Dimick, Emery, French lugged projectiles, Gorgas, Rodman, a number of finned shot and shells, and two unidentified Confederate projectiles. Each is described briefly below.

Abbot

The Abbot design has been attributed to a single type of rifled bolt in several calibers, for which S. C. Abbot (not Gen. Henry Abbot) was awarded a patent in 1861 (#31099). A bolt in the 5.82-inch caliber is included in this book. Another in a 3.67-inch caliber is shown in Ripley and Dickey and George. Both bolts appear to have used air pressure from the rifle’s firing to expand the sabot (made of some unknown material) through vents in the shell base.

About the only relationship between the actual bolts and the patent drawings is the faceted nose. The key element in the patent application was to use air pressure from the cannon’s firing to multiply the force of the bursting charge. This design feature is completely missing from the actual projectiles attributed to Abbot. The actual bolts used air pressure only to force a midshell sabot into the rifling. The actual bolt design is much more like Dr. John Read’s patent #18707 awarded in 1857, which relied on air pressure through vents in the shell to expand the sabot. No battlefield recoveries are known of the

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Medium 9781574411522

19 Drugs

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter nineteen

drugs

I

n March of 1995, TDCJ outlawed the use of tobacco products on all of its units, by both guards and inmates. Trumpeted as a cost-saving measure, the move probably did save the system millions of dollars. Building interiors no longer needed the constant repainting due to layers of smoke scum. The damage done by incidental, and sometimes intentional, fires was eliminated. Convicts suffering from asthma, emphysema, and other lung ailments could literally breathe easier, and convicts’ health improved overall, dropping the system’s medical cost.

One totally unintended consequence of the new tobacco policy was a sharp decline in drug trafficking, as the convicts who sold drugs—and the guards who smuggled them—realized the enormous profits and relatively low risks of now trafficking tobacco. While drugs are still available—especially on the units where older convicts retain their lifelong addiction to heroin—the businessmen who maintained the large operations now deal tobacco, not cocaine or marijuana.

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