1964 Chapters
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Medium 9781576336045

ACT Exam Essential Vocabulary: "J" Words

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 2 • Crime, Criminals, and Juvenile Delinquency

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Acquaintance Rape

011 Negrusz, Adam, Matthew Juhascik, and R. E. Gaensslen. Estimate of the

Incidence of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault in the U.S. [Final Report]. Chicago: Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2005. NCJ 212000

Presents the results of toxicological analyses performed at four regional clinical facilities on subjects who alleged that they were victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Two definitions of DFSA were used—one only included presumed surreptitious drugging, while the second included subjects whose voluntary drug use may been a contributing factor in the assault. The estimated prevalence of DFSA was then assessed. Demographic profiles, questionnaire responses, and laboratory results are reported for 144 subjects, including thirty-one at the Texas site (Scott & White Memorial Hospital, Temple).

Alcohol-Related Crimes

012 Annual Report of Nonfinancial Data for Fiscal Year [year]. Austin: Texas

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Medium 9781475817102

Inter-University Networking: Collaborating to Improve the Clinical Preparation for School Administrators

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub



ABSTRACT: The improvement of clinical preparation programs requires universities to collaborate with each other, the practitioners in the field, and the business community in the establishment of a networking system. This inter-university networking enables research institutions and regional state institutions to work together jointly while maintaining their individual identities and purposes. The practitioners are involved in this endeavor by their contributions to and participation in the programs designed to help them improve as effective leaders in their schools. The business community is involved by using their expertise in the areas of management, public relations, leadership, and finance. The authors advance the Louisiana LEAD program as an example of how inter-university networking improves the clinical preparation of school administrators.

The history of preparation programs for school administrators is one of individual institutions/universities outlining a set of courses which taken in an orderly sequence presumably provide an individual with the knowledge and skills to perform effectively as a school administrator. The content of the courses at the individual institutions are usually developed by each institution’s faculty without contributions from or coordination with other institutions which have similar programs. Equally lacking is any involvement from practicing school administrators in the development of course or program content. In essence, each institution does its own thing. This premise is true intrastate as well as interstate. Even when a state by law or state regulatory board policy mandates courses or competencies, there is no significant between institutions in developing programs to meet the preparation needs of the school administrator.

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Medium 9781576336045

ACT Exam Essential Vocabulary: "R" Words

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475817539

Femine Faces of Leadership: Beyond Structural-Functionalism?

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: Leadership continues to be a central focus for research in educational administration. Until recently, many studies about leadership have been based largely on the experiences of white males and interpreted based on the structural-functionalist perspective. In this paper the writer explores the phenomenon of leadership through the eyes and experiences of six women leaders who are school principals. The findings are from a recently completed phenomenological study of six women principals’ lived experiences with leadership.

Leadership has always been a central focus for research in educational administration. Until recently, much of what has been studied and taught about leadership has been based largely on the experiences of white males (Shakeshaft, 1989; Glazer, 1991; Blackmore, 1989; Capper, 1993), and interpreted from structural-functionalist perspectives (Burrell and Morgan, 1979; Watkins, 1989). Shakeshaft (1989) and Gosetti and Rusch (1995) both make cases for studying leadership through women’s eyes and experiences, and through more than one perspective or lens. Gosetti and Rusch contend that “Multiple lenses help us focus in more than one way on how we view a concept like leadership and increase our chances of bringing embedded notions into view” (p. 14). Considering leadership from more than one perspective provides a realistic picture of the various views held by individuals working within the schools. Shakeshaft (1989) contends that studying leadership from the perspective of women and their experiences is an initial step in an attempt to bring about a transformation of leadership theory. Glazer (1991) supports Shakeshaft’s contention, stating that “Changing the lens in how we study the professions is the first step in their transformation” (p. 338). She views such changes as the first step in moving women’s experiences beyond classrooms and into principals’ other administrative positions.

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Medium 9781475819335

Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives on Critical Pedagogy for Urban Teaching: Yet Another Brick in the Wall?

R&L Education ePub


ABSTRACT: This article reports findings from a qualitative study of the complexities of introducing preservice teachers to critical pedagogies for urban teaching. The study documents students’ reactions to a set of seminar and reflective writing experiences around depictions of urban teachers in popular culture—in particular, Pink Floyd’s song “Another Brick in the Wall, Part II.” Findings utilize data excerpts to support conclusions that it is difficult for pre-service teachers to (a) critically analyze teaching in urban schools, (b) see beyond the personal/psychological effects of urban teachers’ behaviors and attitudes, (c) critically reflect on their own attitudes and behaviors in relation to urban teaching, and (d) recognize and deal with the paradoxes associated with offering the appearance of equal opportunity where none exists.

The purpose of this article is to present findings from a study of pre-service teachers’ perspectives on teaching in urban multicultural settings. The article focuses on exploring the complexities of introducing pre-service urban teachers—even those committed to social justice (perhaps, especially)—to transformative epistemologies and critical pedagogies. From a larger study of prospective urban teachers’ understandings of urban schools and communities, selected data are presented to represent the teachers’ different understandings, reactions, and responses to being confronted with a critical deconstruction of the illusion of equal opportunity and their place as urban teachers in the perpetuation of “small futures” (de Lone, 1979) for the children whom they are preparing to teach.

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Medium 9781475824384

Detect, Practice, and Repair: The Effects of a Classwide Intervention on Elementary Students’ Math-Fact Fluency

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Brian C. Poncy
Christopher H. Skinner
Tish O’Mara

ABSTRACT: An AB design was used to investigate the effect of detect, practice, and repair—a multicomponent classwide mathematics intervention—on subtraction fluency with a group of 14 low-achieving students over a 6-week period. Each student’s median correct digits (CD) per 2-minute score was calculated pre- and postintervention. During baseline, the group averaged 21.7 CD per 2 minutes. Following the intervention, they averaged 41.0 CD per 2 minutes. District norms showed an average weekly growth rate of 0.5 CD per week (3.0 CD over 6 weeks) on 2-minute single-skill mathematics probes using curriculum-based measurement procedures. During the intervention, the students’ average growth rate was 3.2 CD per week. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in growth rates over the district norm. Discussion focuses on developing procedures that educators can use on a classwide basis to prevent and remedy basic math-fact skill deficits.

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Medium 9781475817225

An Investigation of School Superintendents’ Views of School Funding Problems and School Finance Reform in Tennessee

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: Current or potential legal challenges have forced many states to scrutinize and reform their existing school finance structures. Many states are experiencing similar school finance problems; therefore, in an effort to provide information that may be beneficial to other states and superintendents, school funding, tax reform, and education reform in Tennessee are examined. It was the purpose of this study to request information from superintendents concerning the extent and impact of budget cuts for 1991–1992, solicit their opinions on tax reform, ask their impression of the small school system lawsuit (Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter, 1988), and assess the effect of proposed Basic Education Program (BEP) requirements on special education programs in their local school district.

A crisis situation in the funding of public schools is evident throughout the United States. Augenblick, Fulton and Pipho (1991) recount that many state policy makers are disturbed that, recently, plaintiffs in Montana, Kentucky, Texas and New Jersey have been successful in their school finance litigation. Tennessee policy makers are equally concerned that school funding in Tennessee is at a critical stage. In Tennessee’s first round of school finance litigation, Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter (1988), a Chancery Court decision in favor of small school districts ruled that the current system of school funding is not uniform, and is therefore in violation of the “equal protection” provisions in the Tennessee constitution. The judge assigned responsibility to the state legislature to reform school finance before June 30, 1992. However, the case is now under appeal to Tennessee’s Supreme Court and due for trial.

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Medium 9781475816389

Reforming a Teacher Education Program for PRC EFL Teachers in Singapore: Sociocultural Considerations and Curriculum Evolution

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Lawrence Jun Zhang

As early as 1987, Young (1987) pointed out the importance of the sociocultural context of language teaching and learning in the Chinese ESL/EFL classroom. He argued for innovation in both instructional methods and materials and warned that such “innovation should be carried out in full recognizance of the delicate balance of behaviors, expectations, and beliefs which make up the culture of the Chinese classroom” (p. 27). Such a call seems to have been answered and thus it has become increasingly important that language teachers pay attention to learner needs and strive for innovation in instruction to enhance learning efficacy (see e.g., Zhang & Skuja-Steele, 2003, for a survey of research into the People’s Republic of China English as a foreign language [PRC EFL] learners). Such teacher efforts include, though not exclusively, a shift of teacher roles in the classroom, as Oxford (1998, p. 1) rightly points out. Oxford posits that the focus on the learner necessitates a change in the role of the language teacher: from the fount of all wisdom and director of classroom activity to facilitator of learning and guide toward greater learner autonomy (see also Horwitz, 1995; Wenden, 1995). This position equally applies to a TEFL teacher-education program where trainee-teachers are given a chance to express their own views on the curriculum change.

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Medium 9781475817218

Programs for Single-Parent Children: Principals and Single Parents Disagree

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: This article summarizes a study of special school needs of single-parent children in the seventh and eighth grades and the effectiveness of school policies, programs, and practices in responding to those needs. Principals and single parents were interviewed and surveyed in one midwestern state to determine areas of needed program development. Principals felt that schools were more effective than parents in responding to the needs of these children for stability, social acceptance, parental involvement, and adult attention. While principals felt specific approaches were effective, parents wanted a comprehensive response to their children’s complex needs.

While principals are well aware that more children now come from single-parent families, they may be unsure of how the school may best serve these students. Research offers no clear-cut solutions. Many researchers report that the educational and economic deprivation of many single-parent homes affects children’s behavior in school and academic performance (Amundson, 1988; Brown, 1980; Clarke-Stewart, 1989; McLanahan, Garfinkel, and Ooms, 1987; Milne, Myers, Rosenthal and Ginsburg, 1986; Mueller and Cooper, 1986; Norton and Glick, 1986; Schlesinger, 1985; Wallerstein and Kelly, 1980). In a discussion of research on academic achievement of single-parent children, Hetherington, Camara, and Featherman (1983) concluded that very small differences existed between single-parent and two-parent children on IQ tests, standardized achievement tests, and grade point averages, particularly when socioeconomic status was taken into consideration.

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Medium 9781475819397

Social Studies Education and Preservice Teacher Preparation: Confronting the Participant–Subject Paradigm

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: Teachers’ recognition of the political and cultural implications of their pedagogical decisions is significant. Teachers need to recognize the role they play in the facilitation of democracy and the impact of their orientation toward cultural reproduction, social integration, and personal awareness. Political engagement rests on the assumption that teachers recognize and value their role as being inherently political. To determine if democratic engagement can be developed, a case study of preservice teachers was conducted. Democratic engagement begins by raising awareness of the issues relevant to the role of the teacher and the structure and function of the curriculum. Using the reflections and responses of preservice teachers participating in this case study provided useful data indicating the assumptions that many teachers take into their role as teachers in social studies classrooms.

Social studies education represents a primary mechanism for the development of a democratic civic culture and, according to political scientists, a key source for the transmission of political values and beliefs (Schlozman & Verba, 1995; Verba & Schlozman, 1993; Verba, Schlozman, & Brady, 1995). In recent years, the move toward emphasizing test scores as the primary outcome metric (Parkison, 2009b) has led to a de-emphasis of social studies within the elementary- and middle-level curriculum. It is a subject area that is not tested in many states, and it is one that frequently suffers in terms of resource allocation when compared to math and science education in terms of district dollars spent. The social and political consequences of poor social studies instruction should not be underestimated. In this context, the learning that occurs within social studies classes has become what Dewey (1916) would have classified as miseducative learning. Learning that is miseducative leads students to become sidetracked with meaningless rote memorization and decontextualized facts while losing sight of the deep learning that could and should be occurring. The loss of this deep and discipline-based learning has profound consequences for the civic engagement of future citizens.

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Medium 9781475817249

Empowered Leadership: Realizing the Good News

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub



ABSTRACT: As we began our study of four schools’ participation in a major School Improvement Program (Saskatchewan, Canada), we were particularly interested in examining the practice of leadership and the lessons that might be learned from both successful and less successful change initiatives concerning leadership for positive educational change. We analyzed our data from two perspectives: the technical, political, and cultural frames advanced by Corbett and Rossman (1989), and the disciplines of the learning organization identified by Senge (1990). Findings suggest that provincial guidelines discuss but do not define leadership and that leadership as practiced most frequently consists largely of disconnected decisions, behaviors, and actions. The dual analysis provides support for our contention that a view of leadership that emphasizes the development of shared vision and systems thinking, and which encourages constant learning, renewal, and increased empowerment for all participants might provide more consistent momentum and more positive results.

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Medium 9781576336816

"D" Words: Praxis I Advanced Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781052684110

Promoting Social Justice and Caring in Schools and Communities: The Unrealized Potential of the Cohort Model

R&L Education ePub


ABSTRACT: The problem of the efficacy of educational leadership as a promoter of just and caring change in schools and communities is explored in the context of educational leadership preparation practices. An exploration of this problem is based on the premise that despite the use of innovative instructional methods, in most cases current preparation programs merely reproduce the use of modernistic administrative practices and organizational structures. Here, the cohort model is identified as a means to promote just, caring, and relevant educational leadership. After a review of the benefits, drawbacks, and the nature of the use of cohorts in leadership preparation programs, a cohort structure is examined that will prepare educational leaders who are able to promote just and caring change in our postmodern communities.

As a professor in a doctoral educational leadership preparation program that utilizes a cohort model, I am concerned about the distinct possibility that our program has no significant impact beyond that of our students’ individual development as educational leaders. One way of comforting myself might be to adopt the viewpoint that our primary responsibility extends only as far as our students, and any beneficial change that occurs in school communities and in society at large is the responsibility of our students as educational leaders. However, that is not the position that drives this research—it is that the end state of promoting egalitarian change characterized by an ethic of caring in school communities and society at large must be the guiding principle in the organization of leadership preparation programs. I will argue that educational leadership programs utilizing cohort groups have the potential, if implemented appropriately, to serve this end. This position will be presented as a theoretical, conceptual, and ideological argument, rather than through an empirical study.

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Medium 9781442267657

Forming an Urban Public Art Collection: A Case Study of the Fairmount Park Art Association

AltaMira Press ePub

A Case Study of the Fairmount Park Art Association

Laura S. Griffith

Assistant Director, Fairmount Park Art Association, 1616 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5313, 19lgriffith@fpaa.org

Abstract      Chartered in 1872 as the nation’s first public art organization, the Fairmount Park Art Association can be used as a case study for how urban public art collections form and evolve over time. From acquisi tions, purchases and donations, to new commissions and involvement with monuments and memorials, the Art Association has helped build Philadelphia’s collection of cultural treasures. Programs such as Form and Function and New·Land·Marks have changed the approach to the commission process, resulting in artworks that are integrated with the site and connected to the community. Over the years the Art As sociation’s related public art activities have included planning projects, establishing an ongoing conservation maintenance program, advocacy, documentation, and interpretation. These efforts combined with those of other entities and individuals have established Philadelphia as a public art destination with the largest collection of outdoor sculpture in the United States—an attraction for tourists that contributes to the quality of life in the city.

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