163 Chapters
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Medium 9781574411638

Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

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Medium 9781574414325

Appendix H – TDCJ Officials/Unit Profiles

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

APPENDIX H

Administrative Offices and Unit Profiles

Administrative Offices:

Offender Grievances

901 Normal Park, Suit 101A

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 293-4065

Risk Management (Safety)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 437-2500

Pest Control

One Circle Drive

Sugarland, TX 77478

(281) 490-1152

Chaplaincy

2503 Lake Rd., Suite 19

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-5050

Health Services

3009 Highway 30 West

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-3570

Inner Change (Religious Program)

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-2183

Preventive Medicine (HIV/Hepatitis C)

3009 Highway 30 West

Huntsville, TX 77340

(936) 437-3570

Internal Affairs

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

(936) 294-6716

Offender Mail System

P.O. Box 99

Huntsville, TX 77342

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Medium 9781574411638

Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 14: District Attorney/County Attorney Investigators

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 14

District Attorney/County Attorney Investigators

Introduction

Across the state of Texas, there are varieties of specialized investigator positions held by licensed peace officers. Many positions are so specialized that only one or two persons in the state hold them. Some special positions appear to hold authorization by statute and yet are not used anywhere. Death Investigators appear to fit this description. Texas state law authorizes their employment by coroners or medical examiners, but it appears very few if any exist.

The best example of a specialized investigator position may be within District Attorney and County Attorney Offices. This is certainly the investigative area with the most licensed peace officers.

History and Development

Each county in the state of Texas having a County or District Attorney had to acquire authorization to create such an office from the governor. Authorization appears to have depended on the population growth and the growth in crime in each county. Once the office existed, authorization to hire additional personnel such as investigators followed the normal growth path of other government agencies. Need did not always translate into authorization, and many offices still find themselves understaffed.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 15: Conclusion

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 15

Conclusion

If readers have learned nothing else from this book, they should now know a lot more about the massive variety of law enforcement positions available in the state of Texas. Texas may in fact have more variety in law enforcement than any other state. Positions like investigators with the Texas Racing Commission demonstrate this variety. Only six such agencies exist in the United States and Texas has one.

Within all this variety of law enforcement, there still exists a multitude of similarities between these positions. Just being a peace officer in the state of Texas requires standard training. All Texas peace officers thus have a similar training background.

The similarities continue from the basic training level. Officers must continually achieve training to keep updated in the field. Some subjects, like Multiculturalism, are required of all officers. Additionally, many of the positions have specific authorization to perform the same duties. Constables, for example, may conduct routine traffic stops in the same way as city police officers.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 10 – Mail

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TEN

mail

Inmates in TDCJ are allowed to receive mail from anyone in the world, without any restrictions on amounts of First Class personal mail. The key word here is “personal.” As long as there are no enclosures in mail to an inmate—no stamps, cash, pressed flowers, gold chains, etc.—the inmate will be given that letter. The actual, written content of the letter may be cause for denial, but I’ll get to that in a minute.

The liberty allowed Texas inmates with their personal mail is not extended to packages. It is easier to say what inmates can receive than to list what they cannot.

Inmates can receive two types of packages:

1) Books or magazines, which must come from the publisher or bookstore. This means that you must order them from the publisher and have the publisher mail them directly to the inmate; or you must buy them at the bookstore yourself, give the bookstore the inmate’s name, number, and address, and have the bookstore mail the books and magazines directly to the inmate. Do not try to mail books directly to the inmates. TDCJ mailrooms have a list of approved bookstores—if a package of books has a made-up address and label, it will not appear on the approved list and will be rejected and returned.

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Medium 9781574411522

22 What to do in Emergencies

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-two

what to do in emergencies

T

his topic was the birthing idea for this book. In January of 1993, my brother fell ill and my family was not only unsure how to contact me— they did not know the procedure to follow so that I might attend his funeral after he died. This hurt my family and myself deeply, that I could not be there to receive and give comfort. The Texas prison system places many conditions on this type of furlough, but it is allowed. But in such a situation, time is of the essence. If you want to get your relative out in time to see his dying mother, or to attend a memorial service for his daughter, then you must follow TDCJ guidelines, especially the guidelines that specify the people authorized to contact TDCJ with the details of a situation.

For TDCJ officials, this is an issue loaded with problems. Most state officials are sincerely sorry when tragedy befalls the family members of convicts and they do not want to seem heartless. However, security is a priority, and the system cannot allow just anyone to call and say, “John

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Medium 9781574411638

Armstrong

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Armstrong

Sir William G. Armstrong designed a family of rifles and projectiles in the 1850s that were highly prized by the British government. In fact the British government controlled the company that produced the rifles and projectiles—Elswick Ordnance Company—and would not allow any to be sold to foreign countries until they completed their rearmament program in 1861–1862.1 The British government withdrew from the company in 1862, and Confederates began to buy Armstrong rifles and projectiles.2 In 1864, the Confederates acquired several large caliber Armstrong rifles and projectiles. Included in these shipments were two 8-inch Armstrong rifles, which were mounted at Fort Caswell and Fort Fisher.

Each rifle weighed nearly eight tons.3 Tests done in England indicated these rifles would pierce the armor of the Monitor-type gunboats.4

With the Armstrong rifles came an impressive array of advanced projectiles, including shell, segmented shrapnel, armor-piercing bolts, and armor-piercing shells. The Armstrong projectiles used a shunt rifling system with brass lugs mounted in a spiral shape along the length of the projectile body.

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Medium 9781574414325

Appendix G – Parole Officials/Offices

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

APPENDIX G

Parole Officials

There are two distinct entities that concern themselves with parole in Texas—the Parole Division of the TDCJ and the Board of Pardons and Paroles. The first agency actually oversees inmates who have been released. Ex-cons report to them, and it is their staffers who visit homes and ensure that the provisions of parole (set by the Board) are actually met. The second is an independent agency whose primary role is the discretionary release of inmates from prison, along with revocation of released prisoners.

You may reach the Parole Division at:

TDCJ-ID Parole Division

8610 Shoal Creek Blvd.

P.O. Box 13401, Capitol Station

Austin, TX 78711

(512) 406-5200

FAX (512) 406-5858

The members of the Board of Pardons and Paroles are appointed by the governor to six-year terms, which are staggered so all do not expire at the same time. You may write or call the Board members, or the chairman, at the following addresses:

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Medium 9781603446938

1. Introduction

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

Standing near the former president of the United States was a tall, handsome African dressed in a blaze of traditional Maasai red. Barely 20 years old, the young man was the son of a chief and in time would become a chief in his African homeland. But he was not with the former president because of politics or tribal status. He was a student whose education was being funded at a leading university in South Africa by members of the audience. He was among the “motivational elements” assembled at this international nonprofit organization’s premier fundraising event where more than 15,000 members had assembled for four days of fun and fundraising.

At one of the event’s several formal dinners, to be followed by a major auction, members heard the young African speak of his dedication to the cause of wildlife conservation. They listened intently as he told of his commitment to take what he had learned from members of the organization during his visit and go back to his country to use his new knowledge as a leader. The members were enthusiastic and renewed their commitment to fund education of young Africans at African universities.

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Medium 9781574413083

Subject Index

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

-AAccess to legal information, 350

Accident investigation, 511

Acquaintance rape, 011

Adult felony system, 183

Adult Protective Services, 443

Aggravated assault, 001–003, 020, 072–075, 097

Agricultural crime, 019, 095

AIDS, 003, 264, 266–267A, 269, 271, 544–545, 549

Aircraft, 096, 136–137

Alcohol abuse, 003, 073, 542–543, 546–553, 556–563

Alcohol detoxification, 228, 566–571

Alcohol–related crimes, 001–003, 012–012A, 097, 465–488, 584

Alcoholism treatment programs, 566–571

Aliens, 003, 067–071, 184–184A, 225A–227, 279, 310, 572

American Indians, 057, 192, 223, 283, 306–307, 418, 566, 607, 609, 617

Annual Parole Survey, 302

Annual Probation Survey, 321

Annual Survey of Government Employment, 155, 158, 188–189, 233–234,

566, 588

Annual Survey of Government Finances, 158, 189, 234, 237, 565–566,

587–588

Annual Survey of Jails, 279–280, 283

Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances, 565, 587

Antisemistism, 047

Appellate courts, 186–187, 191, 220, 225, 409–412

Appropriations, 573–586

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix G Parole Officials

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix G

Parole Officials

There are two distinct entities that concern themselves with parole in

Texas—the Parole Division of the TDCJ and the Board of Pardons and

Paroles. The first agency actually oversees inmates who have been released. Ex-cons report to them, and it is their staffers who visit homes and ensure that the provisions of parole (set by the Board) are actually met. The second is an independent agency whose primary role is the discretionary release of inmates from prison, along with revocation of released prisoners.

You may reach the Parole Division at:

TDCJ-ID Parole Division

8610 Shoal Creek Blvd.

P.O. Box 13401, Capitol Station

Austin, TX 78711

(512) 406-5200

FAX (512) 406-5858

The members of the Board of Pardons and Paroles are appointed by the governor to six-year terms, which are staggered so all do not expire at the same time. You may write or call the Board members, or the chairman, at the following addresses:

Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles

209 W. 14th Street, Suite 500

Austin, TX 78701

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 10 • Substance Abuse and Treatment

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Drug-related Fatalities

•535 “Deaths: Final Data for [year].” National Vital Statistics Reports. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [annual,

1997–date].

One report is published annually under this title (authors and cover dates vary). It presents state-level data for number of deaths, death rates, and ageadjusted death rates for major causes of death utilizing the International Classification of Diseases—Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Major causes of death listed include alcohol-induced causes and drug-induced causes.

Research Note: This series supersedes Monthly Vital Statistics Reports (MVSR).

•536 Drug Abuse Warning Network, [year]: Area Profiles of Drug-Related

Mortality [DAWN Series]. Rockville, Md.: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services [2003–date].

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Medium 9781603446938

3. The Secret to Successful Event Fundraising in Good Times and Bad

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

The economy cycles from good to bad and so does fundraising success for organizations that fail to discover the secret to successful event fundraising in good times and bad. One such organization helped pioneer effective auction-event fundraising techniques and, in so doing, built one of the largest nonprofit wildlife habitat conservation organizations in the nation. But when the economy faltered, their fundraising did, too. This organization failed to use more recession-proof techniques in auction-event fundraising discovered by other organizations with similar missions. Top-level staff responsible for event fundraising in this organization aggressively prevented anyone from bringing in ideas from outside their ranks. The only ideas for recovery had to be theirs and theirs alone.

Although their auctions always carried some “recession-proof” items, staff analyzing fundraising success just didn’t seem to understand the difference between fundraising in good times and bad. The organization’s auctions were loaded with items people didn’t really need, and probably didn’t want. These items produced decent revenue during good economic times, and even in the worst of times the items sold. I ascribe that to the dedication of the organization’s supporters and volunteers who, in their desire to shore up the organization, felt they had no option but to bid on items they really didn’t need or want. But there are only so many people willing to do that and for only so long, even in good economic times. So attendance, dollar spent per attendee, and revenue started a long downward slide that accelerated as the economy declined.

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Medium 9781574411522

13 General and Law Libraries

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter thirteen

general and law libraries

A

ll TDCJ units provide inmates access to both a general library and to a legal library. However, access to the general library is considered a privilege that can be revoked for disciplinary infractions. On the other hand, every inmate in TDCJ—whether in solitary confinement, in the lowest levels of administrative segregation, or in transit—will be able to either visit the legal, or law, library or have legal materials brought to him. The courts have held that TDCJ cannot deny any meaningful access to the courts, and the system, in my opinion, has done a decent job of fulfilling that mandate.

While access to the legal libraries is pretty uniform throughout the system, there is a wide gap between what access is allowed by the different units to their general libraries. The libraries are attached to the unit educational departments and are usually supervised by librarians with free-world training and staffed by TDCJ officers with a few convict clerks to perform the checking in and out of books, updating card catalogues, etc. Access to the library itself is dictated by security. As security on the different units is dictated by the attitude of the wardens and higher-ranking officers, one unit may be more accommodating of inmates who desire to use the library, while others may consider it an unnecessary

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