163 Chapters
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Medium 9781574411638

Maury

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Maury

General Abbot attributes two designs of large caliber bolts to Maury.1 This probably refers to Matthew F. Maury, a Confederate naval officer involved in the design and construction of Confederate gunboats.2 However, the author has not found a definitive connection between him and the design of the projectiles, except for General Abbot’s description and similar descriptions of a Maury bolt in other period documents. The

Maury bolts were first ordered for production in 1863 and orders continued to be placed until 1864, so they must have seen some action, probably along the James River.3

Both designs documented by Abbot are for smoothbore cannons and do not have sabots. One has a smooth side surface. The other has bourrelets. They have the form of a rifled bolt, and were probably intended for use in smoothbores by navy forces at short range where rifling would not be critical to flight stability. Both designs have a sizable hole from the base through the nose of the bolt. Its purpose can only be to reduce the chamber pressure on the bolt to prevent the cannon from exploding.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 1 • Starting Points

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Basic Resources

•001 Crime in Texas. Austin: Uniform Crime Reporting Section, Crime Information Bureau, Crime Records Service, Texas Department of Public Safety

[annual, 1976–date].

[full report]

[summary report]

The State of Texas officially adopted the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR)

Program on January 1, 1976. The Texas Department of Public Safety has the responsibility for collecting, validating, and tabulating UCR data received from over 1,000 law enforcement agencies in the state. Each annual report is organized as follows:

Chapter 1: The UCR Program;

Chapter 2: Texas Crime Analysis (including the Texas Crime Clock);

Chapter 3: Index Crime Analysis (murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson);

Chapter 4: Selected Non-Index Crimes (DUI arrests, drug abuse arrests, drug seizures, and weapons arrests);

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Medium 9781574411522

11 Visits and Calls

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter eleven

visits and calls

T

here are prisons in some states that allow conjugal visits between inmates and their spouses. There are prisons where visitors are encouraged to have picnics with their loved ones, who are allowed to bring in food, and the prisons provide barbecue facilities. Visits in those states are almost unsupervised, with inmates and their families left alone until they abuse the privilege. Texas is not one of those states. In Texas, it is assumed that all inmates will, if given the opportunity, smuggle in contraband or will otherwise abuse the visiting process. In order to prevent this, Texas limits the contact between visitors and convicts severely.

Visits in Texas prisons fall into two categories: general and special. General visits are further divided into two categories: contact and non-contact, or regular visits. Every convict in Texas prison is allowed some type of visit, unless he is in a locked-down status or in punitive segregation.

While an inmate is at Diagnostic, he is advised to designate ten people he would like to have on his visiting list. Each is subject to approval by

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Medium 9781574411522

14 Craft Shop

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter fourteen

craft shop

T

here are perhaps only three ways an inmate may legally make money while he is in TDCJ. One is to write and then market his fiction, essays and poetry to free-world magazines. Another is to paint or draw and sell his artwork to interested buyers outside the walls. Both of these moneymaking ideas are subject to not just individual talent but to the mails, and to the hit-and-miss assistance of outside parties.

TDCJ offers one way for inmates who keep clear disciplinary records to make money while inside the walls, with all work and most sales being done by the inmates. It’s called the craft shop, or the “piddling” shop, and it is a privilege not to be dismissed lightly. The craft shop is just that: an area where inmates work on leather goods, jewelry, wood projects, paintings, fanciful stick creations—any of a number of personal expressions that can be done at a minimum of cost and then sold to officers or visitors or marketed to the free-world.

Inmates within the shops, called piddlers, usually begin as apprentices, or helpers, and work their way up the ladder as space in the craft shop allows. A determined, hard-working piddler who produces quality goods can make over $12,000 a year while still performing his assigned duties for the system. That may not sound like much money, but it does

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Medium 9781574411522

10 Mail

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter ten

mail

I

nmates in TDCJ are allowed to receive mail from anyone in the world, without any restrictions on amounts of First Class personal mail. The key word here is “personal.” As long as there are no enclosures in mail to an inmate—no stamps, cash, pressed flowers, gold chains, etc.—the inmate will be given that letter. The actual, written content of the letter may be cause for denial, but I’ll get to that in a minute.

The liberty allowed Texas inmates with their personal mail is not extended to packages. It is easier to say what inmates can receive than to list what they cannot.

Inmates can receive two types of packages:

1) Books or magazines, which must come from the publisher or bookstore. This means that you must order them from the publisher and have the publisher mail them directly to the inmate; or you must buy them at the bookstore yourself, give the bookstore the inmate’s name, number, and address, and have the bookstore mail the books and magazines directly to the inmate. Do not try to mail books directly to the inmates. TDCJ mailrooms have a list of approved bookstores—if a package of books has a

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 9 – Money

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER NINE

money

Let’s talk about what got many of us in prison: money.

First, TDCJ inmates are not paid. No matter how hard we work, for how many years, we do not receive a penny. Various groups have tried to convince Texas lawmakers to pay inmates a tiny daily stipend. Texas is one of only two or three states that does not pay its inmates. But it takes a courageous legislator to tell his constituents, “Yes, I know these guys robbed and raped and sold drugs and carjacked—I still think we need to pay them.”

The legislator might be risking political suicide before he could explain the benefits of making sure that by paying inmates, you could ensure that many don’t come back. That would make paying inmates cost efficient, on both monetary terms and humanitarian grounds, because many of us would then not commit the murders and robberies that leave so many innocent victims in our wake. But those benefits are lost in the hazy, blood-red world created by prosecutors bent on convictions now in exchange for misery later.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 18 – Lockdowns

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

lockdowns

Rarely does TDCJ label anything so accurately. A lockdown is just that—every inmate in the locked-down wing, block, dorm, or unit is confined to his cell or cubicle, with no movement, no work, no recreation, no school, no visit, and with sometimes only cold sack lunches to eat for weeks on end. Lockdowns may last from hours to months and are imposed by wardens for different reasons. Although the ranking officer on duty has the authority to order a lockdown, anything lasting more than a few hours and affecting more than a few inmates will be ordered by a warden, and it must be justified to the regional and system directors.

Some wardens order lockdowns every six months or so to search the unit for tobacco, drugs, or weapons. These lockdowns are usually in the middle of the week, last only twenty-four to seventy-two hours, and do not disrupt visiting schedules. Many inmates welcome these lockdowns, as they offer three-day vacations from work. However, if a unit is plagued by continual violence, or if a riot is believed imminent, officials will order a lockdown that may last from a seventy-two-hour cooling off period to months. These longer lockdowns usually are on close-custody wings, where more violent inmates are concentrated.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 21 – Parole and Good-time

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE

parole, good time, and discharge

Now, to what you’ve all been waiting for: the frustrating rules governing an inmate’s release from prison. First—parole is not a right; it is not guaranteed to any inmate. Parole is a privilege. It is granted by the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, which consists of eighteen men and women who were appointed to their seats due to their avowed interest in law and order. Second—parole will be awarded when the members of the board decide, and their decision is subjective. It is also influenced by the political winds of the day, and by pressures brought to bear by overcrowded prisons and available money to build new ones. So, if a convict tells you he is “up for parole,” don’t rush out to buy him clothes. All he is saying is that he is now eligible and that the board will shortly review his case and consider him for parole.

Before I go into details, let me stress those two points. Parole is not guaranteed, and there is no way to predict what the board will do in any given case. A man serving a twenty-year sentence for robbery may become eligible for parole after two and one-half years and be granted parole. Then again, he could be denied, reviewed every year thereafter and denied each time until he has done his entire twenty years, and it would all be perfectly legal, although rare.

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Medium 9781574411638

Cochran

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Cochran

J. Webster Cochran was a longtime inventor of weapons and projectiles.1 He designed

2 and was granted patents on projectiles and fuzes from the 1850s through at least 1863.

His only success in terms of government purchases appears to be the family of Cochran projectiles and fuzes purchased and used very early in the war by the Union Navy. These were produced in navy calibers only, except for a 3.8-inch bolt that is in the West Point collection. The navy calibers documented for Cochrans were 3.4-inch, 5.1-inch and 6inch. There are no known surviving specimens in the 5.1-inch caliber.

Cochran designed a convex brass ring sabot that screwed on to the projectile. The sabot contained a grease ring and had numerous small holes around it. As the sabot squeezed into the rifling upon firing, grease was squeezed out to lubricate the barrel.

Fired specimens appear to have taken the rifling well and retained their sabots. It is not clear why Cochran failed to get follow-on contracts with the navy, but the complicated design probably made the Cochran shells too costly.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 9: Fire Marshal

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 9

Fire Marshal

Introduction

Fire can leave significant damage in its wake, including property damage, environmental devastation, and even death. There are many causes of fires including accidents, weather-related causes like lightning, faulty wiring, etc. When a fire is set deliberately or occurs due to negligence, police treat it as a crime of arson. Arson is the second leading cause of death in residential fires and is responsible for 500 deaths every year nationwide. Property damage from arson is estimated to cost $900 million each year.1

Arson has always been a crime, but in 1978 it was elevated to the status of Index Crime. In 1982 Congress passed the Anti-Arson Act, which made the crime of arson a permanent part of the Uniform Crime Reports Part I offenses.2 Basically, this piece of legislation reaffirmed that arson is worthy of being an Index Crime.

Other crimes may also fit within the definition of fire-related. These include insurance fraud and crimes where a fire is set to cover up another crime. The most common reason for arson is in fact financial difficulties.3 Homicide and burglaries are also crimes that frequently relate to fires.4

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 4: Constables

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 4

Constables

Introduction

Constables are one of the many undervalued and understudied positions in American law enforcement. The position exists in various forms across the United States and in several countries. In England, for example, the constable is a position akin to the metropolitan patrol officer in America. Constables in the United States tend to be more specialized in their role and duties.1

As originally conceived, the position of constable was not about law enforcement, but rather it was a servant position in the King’s household. The constable oversaw the stables and kennels, and any other matter relating to the sport of hunting.2 The constable also sat in judgment over many issues such as land ownership, inheritance, chivalry, honor, etc.3

The position evolved over time through military responsibilities4 and tax collection duties5 into domestic peace keeping.6 The constable is now an important part of the law enforcement tradition around the world.

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix C Law Library Holdings

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix C

Law Library Holdings

Following is a partial listing of the books and manuals that all TDCJ law libraries must offer to remain in compliance with court-ordered stipulations concerning access to courts. Many transfer units and smaller units have mini-law libraries, and they offer less, but most attempt to make up the difference via loan programs with other TDCJ law libraries.

1. Federal Reporter 2d.

2. Federal Reporter 3d w/advance sheets

3. Federal Supplement w/advance sheets

4. Supreme Court Reporter w/interim bound volumes and advance sheets

5. United States Supreme Court Digest

6. South Western Reporter 2d, Texas w/advance sheets

7. Texas Subsequent History Table

8. United States Codes Annotated—Title 18: 19 volumes w/pocket parts; Title 28: 13 volumes w/pocket parts; Title 42: 5 volumes w/ pocket parts

9. Vernon’s Texas Statutes and Codes Annotated: 108 volumes w/ pocket parts

10. Vernon’s Texas Rules Annotated: 9 volumes w/pocket parts

11. Texas Evidence and Courtroom Handbook

12. Wright’s Federal Practice and Procedure, Criminal

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Medium 9781574411522

15 Substance Abuse

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter fifteen

substance abuse

T

his will be a short chapter. The inescapable truth is that there exists no meaningful substance abuse treatment program for the great majority of Texas convicts. Regrettably, this seems to be the direct result of public opinion. In 1990, newly elected Governor Ann Richards promised a new era in the way Texas would approach its exploding prison population. Recognizing that much of crime in Texas was committed by men and women either under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or stealing to amass the money to buy drugs or alcohol, Richards proposed setting aside tens of thousands of prison beds to house substance abusers.

There would be entire units devoted to rehabilitating addicts—therapeutic communities where perimeter security would be enhanced by convict serenity; where counselors would attempt the radical notion of fighting crime by preventing it, instilling hope and self-esteem into addicts who until then had known only the dreary treadmill of jail, dope, and crime.

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Medium 9781574411638

Broun

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Broun

Lt. Col. William L. Broun became commander of the Richmond Arsenal in June

1863. It appears that he soon began to work on the redesign of rifled bolts and shells with copper ring sabots to improve their performance (and to reduce the consumption of scarce copper). Shells attributed to Broun’s designs appear on 1864 battlefields.

These designs simplified the manufacturing process by eliminating the lower bourrelet on the shell body, replacing it with a copper sabot that was wider than the shell base diameter. He attempted to improve the sabot effectiveness with lugs that were cast about one-half inch into the shell to hold the sabot firmly to the body. There is some evidence that these changes produced better performance, and manufacturing was simplified.

Large-caliber Broun shells have been recovered from two areas. The 4.2-inch caliber

Brouns have been recovered from late war Richmond-Petersburg lines and from Mobile

Bay. The larger calibers, 6.4-inch and 7.0-inch, are known to have been recovered only from the Mobile Bay area.

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Medium 9780253012111

2. Mapping the SS Concentration Camps

Indiana University Press ePub

Anne Kelly Knowles, and Paul B. Jaskot, with Benjamin Perry Blackshear, Michael De Groot, and Alexander Yule

CONCENTRATION CAMPS ARE AMONG THE MOST familiar and haunting places of the Holocaust. Two perspectives have come to dominate our view of the camps. The most powerful and most meaningful for many people is the perspective of victims, which is expressed so movingly in published memoirs, such as Elie Wiesel’s Night and Primo Levi’s If This Is a Man,1 and in thousands of survivor interviews and oral histories. These testimonies naturally refer chiefly to the parts of concentrations camps where victims were allowed or forced to go: the train ramp where they were offloaded, the barracks, the roll-call plaza, the hospital, kitchen, latrines, and the places where inmates were punished or put to death. Reinforced by the stunning photographs taken by Allied forces as they liberated camps such as Bergen-Belsen and by scores of documentaries and feature films about victims’ experiences,2 the spaces where prisoners suffered have come to represent the camps in popular imagination, to the point of becoming visual tropes, along with iconic objects such as barbed wire and crowded wooden bunks.3

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