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Medium 9781442267626

The Benefits of a Photograph and Image Collecting Database for Research and Archival Purposes, Illustrated by an Example from Canadian Archaeology

Collections Altamira Press ePub

Alwynne B. Beaudoin and Jennifer Petrik

Quaternary Environments, Royal Alberta Museum, 12845-102nd Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, TSN OM6. Email: Alwynne.Beaudoin@gov.ab.ca

AbstractThe practice of using photography, whether in digital, slide, or print form, is a fundamental method of documenting and preserving finds and information in archaeology and most other museum-related disciplines. Images play an important role in the communication and preservation of information and can be regarded as archival collections in their own right. However, in many situations it is difficult to store and search efficiently through this vital resource. With the advent of desktop databases and interconnectivity, images can be readily organized into a searchable database. This approach becomes especially useful when dealing with the huge numbers of photographs accumulated through large projects. The EPIC database is a good example of the solution to this problem. EPIC was created to deal with images generated through one research centre of a large archaeological project (SCAPE: Study of Cultural Adaptations in the Canadian Prairie Ecozone). Built around off-the-shelf software, EPIC allows users to view a small thumbnail of an image with associated information, and has been designed to facilitate multiple search pathways. It also has the ability to link to related Museum databases. EPIC has proved beneficial not only to the SCAPE research community, but also to others who have used the information generated through the project.

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Medium 9781576336052

"T" Words: ACT College Prep Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475817232

Performance Skill Development of the Aspiring Principal Integrated into Principal Preparation

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: The preparation of school administrators, particularly school principals, has become a topic of discussion by many groups. Common to all discussions is the question “What knowledge and skills should aspiring administrators have and how should they be prepared?” Bennis (1989) indicated “how we translate this knowledge into action—is both complex and deep, as well as chronically elusive” (p. 30).

The purpose of this article is to describe how an educational administration program model blends a knowledge base of educational administration and the performance skills needed for effective practice. The discussion focuses on the performance skill development of the aspiring administrator using the conceptual framework of the program model. It also offers performance-based illustrations and initial program evaluation.

During the past decade, the preparation of school administrators, particularly school principals, has been a topic of discussion. Lipham (1981) stated “Preservice programs should be upgraded. Currently, candidates for the principalship are largely self-selected, meagerly supported, inadequately prepared and haphazardly placed” (p. 19). Rallis and Highsmith (1986) claimed that most administrators are trained as managers. They are not prepared as leaders to meet the needs of schools. The Vermont Educational Leadership Task Force (1988) concluded that preservice training programs provide little relevance to what the participants encounter in initial administrative positions. The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) reported “The coming of systems approaches, failure of the theory based movement, accountability pressures, and the introduction of new technologies into a labor-intensive field (along with some sound curriculum development) have rekindled new interest in performance-based approaches” (p. 1). The National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA, 1989) recommended development of a common core of knowledge and skills, grounded in the problems of practice. In spite of calls for reform, pre service programs have not changed significantly. Common to the discussions is the question “What knowledge and skill should aspiring administrators have and how should they be prepared?”

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Medium 9781475819335

Listening to the Voiceless: Student Voices and Democracy

Teacher Education and Practice R&L Education ePub


ABSTRACT: Even though the United States professes to be a democratic nation, one group of citizens is left out of the educational decision-making process. Whereas researchers, politicians, school administrators, attorneys, and political contributors are involved in critical decision making, curiously, student voices are not solicited. As such, the purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to examine the issue of student voice within the context of the standards-driven pedagogy and curriculum in Texas, important because the Texas model has influenced the federal standards and accountability mandates. The second is to describe how changes in pedagogy and curriculum, attention to multicultural and power issues, and research into children’s perceptions of effective teaching techniques can nurture a democratic educational system in Texas and elsewhere, even within the constraints of the high-stakes standards and accountability model.

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Medium 9781475816549

Developing Transnational Higher Education: Comparing the Approaches of Hong Kong and Singapore

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

David Chan

Pak Tee Ng

ABSTRACT: This article examines the approaches that Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted in trying to develop themselves as regional hubs of higher education through their developments of transnational higher education. Hong Kong and Singapore compete for this market share of global higher education because it can be a lucrative business. Adapting a model from the business management literature, this article compares the approaches that Hong Kong and Singapore adopt in developing their transnational higher education sectors. Through its analysis, it argues that despite similarities in their visions, the business approach, culture, process, and resource commitments of the two economies are quite different. More important, such differences reflect the different philosophy and style of governance of the two governments.

The term transnational education refers to education programs and services in which learners are located in a country different from the one where the awarding institution is based. According to Knight (2006b), it is “the movement of people, knowledge, programs, providers and curriculum across national or regional jurisdictional borders” (p. 18). This mode of education is gaining importance, and it is becoming increasingly popular in the higher education sector. Why is that so? The advent of transnational education is a phenomenon that is part and parcel of the globalization of trade in goods and services (McBurnie & Ziguras, 2001), and its emergence is fueled by the inclusion of higher education as an industry under the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (Knight, 2002). Although a number of reasons may be provided for the internationalization of higher education, including social, political, and academic ones (Knight, 2004), the fundamental reason is mainly economic, and it all boils down to “the competitive rush for international students and their money” (De Vita & Case, 2003, p. 384). Matthews expresses a similar view and argues that such education is driven by national economic objectives with “the dollar signs stamped on the foreheads of full fee-paying overseas students” (2002, p. 377).

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Medium 9781576336410

"N" Words: GED Essential Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 8 – Recreation

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub



TDCJ considers anything an inmate does out of his cell to be recreation, unless it is chow or part of his officially assigned duties. The official terms for recreation are either “programmatic activities,” which includes all officially sanctioned group meetings, and “non-programmatic activities,” which is essentially everything else.

Inmates spend most of their time at work, in their cells or socializing in the dayrooms or on the yard. Dayrooms are communal living areas. On most units, they open at 8 A.M. and close at 10:30 P.M. on weekdays and at 1 A.M. on weekends and holidays. They are open all day and are usually noisy and full of inmates. Most dayrooms have from four to ten tables, which seat four; from one bench to four, which seat from five to ten inmates; and have one or two televisions. Depending on the warden’s preferences, programs offered on television will range from the basic four networks to ESPN, USA, and various movie channels.

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Medium 9781442267619

Smithsonian Institution—Museum and Institutional Archive Programs

Collections Altamira Press ePub

Alan L. Bain

Archivist, Director, Technical Services Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Email: baina@si.edu

Abstract"The Smithsonian Institution Archives is responsible for the Smithsonian’s records of enduring value. Though the Institution was aware of the need to keep certain records permanently (dating back to 1852) and an archivist was first assigned the task of maintaining records and special collections in 1891, the first modern archives program did not begin until 1967. From its very beginning the Smithsonian collected persona papers and special collections and this trend has been continued by the Smithsonian Archives.

The Smithsonian Institution is a diverse and complex mixture of museums, research centers, educational programs, administrative and other support units. At the end of 2005 its major components consisted of thirteen museums located on the National Mall, other locations around the Washington metropolitan region and New York City; a zoological park; eight research centers located in such diverse locations as Cambridge, Massachusetts; Tucson, Arizona; and the Panama Canal Zone; and ten education and outreach offices and programs.

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Medium 9780874216868


Mary E. Barkworth Utah State University Press ePub

The Ehrhartoideae encompasses three tribes, one of which, the Oryzeae, is native to the Manual region; the Ehrharteae is represented by introduced species. The third tribe, Phyllorachideae C.E. Hubb., is native to Africa and Madagascar. There are approximately 120 species in the Ehrhartoideae. They grow in forests, open hillsides, and aquatic habitats.

Molecular data provide strong support for the close relationship of the Oryzeae and Ehrharteae. Morphologically, they are characterized by spikelets that have a distal unisexual or bisexual floret with up to two proximal sterile florets and, frequently, six stamens in the staminate or bisexual florets.

1. Spikelets with 2 sterile florets below the functional floret, both well-developed, at least the upper sterile floret as long as or longer than the functional floret; glumes from ½ as long as the spikelets to exceeding the florets; culms not aerenchymatous; plants of dry to damp habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ehrharteae

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Medium 9781475823844

Notes From the Editor

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


A review of current literature and national conferences reveals that school public relations and communication are receiving increasing levels of interest from researchers and practitioners. In large measure, the added attention is attributable to what we have learned over the past 2 decades in trying to improve schools. For example, we have discovered that inclusiveness and collaboration enhance the probability of meaningful change. Unless relevant publics are involved in building a vision and in developing a plan to reach it, resistance to new ideas is usually substantial. Public relations and communication are integral to working with various stakeholders because critical tasks associated with school reform are communication-intensive activities; they require educators, especially administrators, to exchange information openly, candidly, and continuously.

The Journal of School Public Relations is dedicated to publishing research and effective-practice articles that pertain to public relations, communication, community relations, community education, and conflict resolution. Ideally, it is a catalyst for additional inquiry that will broaden the knowledge base in educational administration.

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Medium 9781475816563

The Use of Organizational Language of Turkish School Principals Toward Teachers as a Means of Motivation and Control

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

M. Bahaddin Acat

Seyfettin Demiral

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to obtain perceptions of teachers employed in state and private schools in Eskisehir, Turkey, about the language use of principals toward teachers as a means of motivation and control. The data for the study were collected from 170 teachers working in 13 schools. To analyze the data, frequency and percentage analysis techniques were used, as were q square and t test. The study results suggest that the school principals were attentive, conscious, and sensitive with their language use toward teachers and that the controlling and demotivating functions of language were used more in elementary schools. Regarding private schools, such language was generally used as a motivator.

When we look at the relationships that we have with those around us in various environments, we realize that we are in a position to either influence others or be influenced by them. Influencing others or being influenced by them—that is, social interaction—seems to alter people’s attitudes toward one another. Social influence can be defined as the change that is brought about in people’s beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and feelings by others around them. A person who causes this social influence can be called an influencing agent, and the person who is affected by him or her can be called an influenced agent, or target. The ability and potential that people use to influence one another is called social power, which appears in the interrelationships among people and groups, in someone’s making others accept or perceive his or her power, and, finally, in someone’s making others act as he or she wants. Control is an integral part of organization (Tannenbaum, 1962). Because the term organization evokes controlling and being controlled, a member of an organization has to try to adapt to the organization to which she or he belongs. In other words, an organization requires its members to comply with the rules, and only in this way is it possible for the organization to attain its targets (Sungurlu, 1997). Organizations are composed of cycles of relationships based on interactions. If such a cycle is broken at any point, then the organization in question does not have control (Tannenbaum, 1962). When forming new relationships, people are sometimes in the position of affecting others and sometimes in the position of being affected. This interaction depends on social power and the position into which this power places them. In this context, power is defined as the capacity or ability to achieve targets despite the resistance of others, whereas control is to act with the purpose of achieving a target (Tompkins & Cheney, 1982). Thus, organizational power can be defined as the ability or capacity to control what others have to contribute to achieve a certain target.

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Medium 9781576336977

"G" Words: SSAT-ISEE Essential Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475817119

Know Thyself: A Prerequisite for Educational Leaders

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub




ABSTRACT: Several recent reports point to the need to create more responsive leadership preparation programs to better prepare school leaders for the 21st century. This manuscript describes a beginning learning experience within the new administrator preparation program at the University of Northern Colorado. The new component is called “Understanding Self”; it is designed to assist future leaders in gaining a greater awareness of their values and beliefs as they relate to leadership. The importance of intrapersonal development and reflective practice, as well as specific activities used in the learning experience, is addressed.

Leadership theory and the study of leaders has undergone a tremendous evolution during the last several decades. In the early 20th century, researchers focused almost solely on personal traits of leaders (Hoy and Miskel, 1987). With the Ohio State and Michigan leadership studies conducted in the 1950s, research on leadership moved beyond the trait approach toward a “one best style” approach. Two decades later the emphasis centered on contingency or situational leadership theories. Contingency theories postulated that there were various leadership styles or behaviors that worked effectively depending upon a given situation (Hersey and Blanchard, 1978).

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Medium 9781576336427

"R" Words: GED College Prep Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475823851

Strategic Relationship Management in School Public Relations

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: Research supports the need for schools to operate as professional learning communities fueled by a supportive accurate understanding of collaborative relationships among school stakeholders. These relationships are necessary to build trust and foster discourse focused on improved teaching and learning practices and increased student achievement. This article posits the strategic relationship management process as a theoretical framework for the development, nurturing, and sustaining of meaningful relationships in learning organizations. Strategic relationship management process encompasses the development of a relationship portfolio strategy, partnering engagement process, and evidence-based ongoing assessments to quantify program outcomes and, ultimately, accelerate and sustain school organizational change toward learning communities.

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