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Medium 9781475817232

The Twin Engines of School Reform for the 1990s: The School Sites and National Coalitions

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

JOHN L. KEEDY1

ABSTRACT: The school sites and national coalitions are projected as major players in this decade’s restructuring efforts to help transform our society from a goods to a knowledge-work economy. As school sites are provided both autonomy and accountability for school improvement and as the need for student self-directed learning becomes more imperative, principal-teacher and teacher-student relationships will be transformed. Due to political, economic, and school-related pressures, principals and teachers will become collegial problem-solvers as school sites function largely as self-administrated units. As information technology makes knowledge more accessible and less controllable through textbooks, teachers and students will form classroom learning communities. The United States is entering a nationalizing of education era as national coalitions become major players on the school reform stage. These coalitions will provide student assessment systems and new workplace designs for schooling. Within this national framework, school-site personnel will craft personalized learning environments. After 100 years of standard design, schools will become different. Implications are then made for principal training and for the principal associations.

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Medium 9781576336496

"W" Words: GMAT Advanced Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475819304

Moving Teacher Education Forward: A Model for a New Pedagogy

R&L Education ePub

CHRISTY FOLSOM

ABSTRACT: Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 dismisses the role of pedagogy in teacher education, teacher educators see the need for a deeper pedagogy that includes the teaching of thinking and socioemotional processes, which are missing in traditional teacher preparation programs. This article outlines criticisms of teacher education found in the No Child Left Behind Act and in the document Meeting the Highly Qualified Teachers Challenge (U.S. Department of Education), as well as criticisms made by teacher educators and researchers. It presents a new pedagogical model—TIEL (Teaching for Intellectual and Emotional Learning)—that strengthens the preparation of teachers and outlines four principles that a new pedagogy must address. These principles include connections from teacher preparation coursework to preK–12 classrooms and across national, state, and local program guidelines; communication about thinking and socio-emotional processes; integration and balance in curriculum design; and valuing the experience of both the learner and the teacher. Applications of the TIEL framework to teacher education and K–12 education are included.

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Medium 9781576336434

Word Roots: M-O: GED Word Roots

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475816402

Changing Perspectives on the No Child Left Behind Act

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Bude Su

Education reform, as a change process in daily teaching and learning activity, has never been easy (Cuban, 1986; Fullan, 2001; Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer, 1997). The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), a recent nationwide education reform initiative, demonstrates again that change is never easy and not always successful. As a matter of fact, “many innovations in education are either total or partial failures” (Van den Akker, 1994, p. 1491). Why is education reform so difficult to implement successfully? What are we doing wrong? Is there a way to facilitate education reform so that it can be implemented successfully? There are no quick and easy answers to these difficult questions. In this article, using NCLB as an example, change-related theories and principles will be applied to addressing these questions in order to provide insight into facilitating education reform in the future.

The intent of the NCLB initiative, which was first announced in January 2001 and signed into law on January 8, 2002, was to improve elementary and secondary school performance and to ensure every child in America has the opportunity to get an equal education. The four core components of the act are increasing accountability for results, more flexibility for states and communities, greater choices for parents, and promotion of proven education methods (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). Numerous measures in the act are designed to drive student achievement and accountability of schools, including annual testing of students in various grade levels, school-level academic progress evaluation, district- and state-level report cards, high teacher qualifications, and so forth (Rebora, 2004). If a student is left behind three years in a row, he or she should be offered “supplemental education services, including private tutoring” (Rebora, 2004). Schools will be labeled as succeeding or failing based on student average test scores. The act also says that if a school fails to meet the criteria two years in a row, parents can transfer their kids to other public schools. Since its implementation, the act has received mixed responses from education professionals and the general public(Archer, 2003; National Education Association [NEA], 2004; Farkas, Johnson, & Duffett, 2003). Are these responses surprising? In the next section, I consider these responses in the context of change-related literature.

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Medium 9781475816174

Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

MARIA DE LOS ANGELES GUIDO

Research Associate, Department of Educational Leadership and Secondary Education, Fayetteville State University, P.O. Box 14077, Fayetteville, NC 28301

Market-oriented thinking has produced an international, across-the-board, privatization boom. As an approach to educational reform, the market model is particularly appealing to ailing developing economies concerned with increasing domestic and international economic competitiveness. While advocates of the market model claim that market-driven reforms will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of school systems, they worry that such reforms will reduce State involvement in favor of individual consumer choice policies shaped by the “invisible hand” of aggregate demand (Jacobson and Berne, 1993). This paradox is particularly problematic for Costa Rica where the national education reform agenda conflicts, on the one hand, with the push to enlist in the transformative drive towards the educational policy and school management market efficiency model led by the United States and the United Kingdom (Bali, 1990; Clark and Astuto, 1986; Harman, Beare, and Berkeley, 1991; Wirt and Harman, 1986, Beare and Boyd, 1993) and, on the other hand, with the push to adhere to structural adjustment macroeconomic policy prescriptions requiring substantial reductions in public employment and public expenditure driven by international aid organizations such as the and the World Bank (Folwer, Boyd, and Plank, 1993). Since the educational system often accounts for the largest shares of both, governments pursuing adjustment policies are forced to adopt reforms that will reduce the costs and increase the efficiency of their schools while they are, simultaneously, pressed to effect policy preferences guided by research assessments of what has worked in the developed world. As a result, governments like Costa Rica are at a quandary between adopting strategies aimed at reducing public expenditure on education and adopting research prescriptions that mirror the target education investment strategies of major developed countries.

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Medium 9781442267794

INTRODUCTION FROM THE GUEST EDITORS Translation, Intervention, and Innovation in Curatorial Practice

AltaMira Press ePub

Museum and Curatorial Studies, History of Consciousness, University of California—Santa Cruz

What is the task of the curator? What histories have shaped this professional role, and which theoretical frameworks might offer us new insights into what it entails? How can we learn from curatorial methods both in and out of museums, or reimagine them to enable new forms of exhibition and relationality?

Etymologically, curating is a practice steeped in “keeping,” “guarding,” and “caring for”—though how these meanings have been interpreted and translated into action has changed dramatically over time. As Lianne McTavish explains in this volume, curating in the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was once associated with custodial work and other forms of manual labor. In the early- and mid-twentieth century, it became a profession that required highly specialized knowledge and skills, often legitimized by a PhD, to guide how collections would be interpreted by the public, and to introduce that public to institutionally legitimized forms of connoisseurship. Yet, in demonstrations of the pliability of curatorial methods and definitions, several artists and activists throughout the twentieth century appropriated the role of the curator to wager critiques of Western cultural institutions and commoditization. Such artists in the 1960s and 1970s included Graciela Carnevale, Hans Haacke, Ida Biard, Colectivo Acciónes de Arte (Collective of Art Actions), and Andy Warhol—to name only a few. Around this same period, oppositional minority institutions such as El Museo del Barrio and the U’mista Cultural Centre were established by activist curators and cultural agents in response to dis-identification, exclusion, and misappropriation in museums, reactivating yet again the open-ended connotations of “curating” to challenge its conventional expressions.

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Medium 9781475816501

Lessons From the Past: Three Modest Suggestions Toward School Reform for Poor Students

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Matthew D. Davis

At the end of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina laid bare a wide swath of the U.S. Gulf Coast. The devastation left in the wake of this natural disaster and the all-too-slow governmental response to it shocked the nation. Perhaps most disturbing to many Americans was the recognition that a group of Americans, with numbers that never fully registered in the national psyche, lived in heartbreaking and soul-depleting poverty. Resentment erupted when in the midst of these emotions, many Americans found the only referent available to them for the visible nature of poor victims was the label Third World. For an all-too-brief moment, the moving pictures from urban Louisiana and rural Mississippi humbled the nation’s citizens living elsewhere (e.g., Dyson, 2006).

Hidden even deeper in the media aftermath of Katrina were the stories of the particularly harsh fury that the hurricane had visited upon the region’s children. The refusal by many Americans to recognize the stark abjection of all-too-real American poverty continues to be overwhelmed by their shared elision of the experiences of poor children, particularly African Americans. Indeed, in the modern rush toward the “one best system” of education (Tyack, 1974), the schooling of poor children and youth remain principally outside the collective American eyesight. Recent attempts at the illumination of their stories by David C. Berliner (2005) and Jonathan Kozol (2005) may keep alive for some of the better-off Americans the shame at the nation’s near-total exclusion of these students from the reality of contemporary public school reform efforts (see also Anyon, 1997). Most Americans, like most politicians and educators, may also need suggestions toward meaningful action so that their awakened recognition persists long enough to foster real educational reforms to affect the lives of these all-but-forgotten pupils in our midst. To aid in that important effort, this article draws on the history of African American school reform on which to base three modest suggestions to reform the schooling experienced by poor children.

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Medium 9781576336816

"H" Words: Praxis I Advanced Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781576336069

"Z" Words: ACT Advanced Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781442229037

COMMENTARY

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Michael Root

Pro Ecclesia and the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology, which sponsors the journal, have reached a transition point. Carl Braaten and Robert Jenson, who founded the Center and the journal over twelve years ago, have decided to hand on the task to others. I am honored to join with Reinhard Hütter, the new editor of Pro Ecclesia, and James Buckley, the new associate director of the Center, to carry on the work that Carl and Jens did so much to further. But what precisely is the work we are called to carry on?

Pro Ecclesia is “a journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology,” sponsored by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology. Every once in a while, and especially at times of transition, the question then should be asked: what is this “Catholic and Evangelical Theology” that defines the journal and the Center?

The phrase “evangelical catholic” has roots reaching back into nineteenth-century Lutheranism. The confessional revival of that time took various forms; many of them sought to reconnect the evangelical core of the Reformation to the catholic context needed to make Christian and ecclesial sense of that core. The claim was made that the twin forces of pietism and the Enlightenment had severed the Reformation from its catholic roots in both theology and ecclesial life. That tradition of catholic confessionalism was represented in the mid-twentieth century by such men as Peter Brunner and Edmund Schlink and was carried into our time by George Lindbeck, Wolfhart Pannenberg, and, of course, Carl Braaten and Robert Jenson.

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Medium 9781475816457

Girls’ Education in the United States and Ghana

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Elizabeth K. Davenport, Lenford Sutton, and Clement Kwadzo Agezo

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan (2000) delivered a speech at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, stating that, of the 110 million children in the world who should be in school but are not, two-thirds are girls. The lack of equality is contrary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, in which governments committed to the right to a free education to everyone at the elementary level. For the worldwide female population, the denial of the right to a free education is a double blow. In their daily lives, girls are often denied the equal rights of men and women as proclaimed in the UN Charter, which means, for most of the world’s women, a life of poverty. Annan stated that no development strategy is better than one that involves women as central players. According to the secretary-general, the immediate benefits include nutrition, health, family savings and investment, the community, and the nation. Educating girls is a social policy that has a long-term investment because it yields high returns.

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Medium 9781576336557

"X" Words: GRE Advanced Vocabulary

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475823967

Notes From the Editor

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

THEODORE J. KOWALSKI

The recent tragedy at the high school in Chardon, Ohio, reminds us that schools, like other public buildings, are not immune to violence. The first article in this issue, authored by professors Gina G. Barker and Mollie E. Yoder, analyzes communication that occurred on the campus of Virginia Tech on April 16, 2007. Their work provides insights regarding the extent to which the university's staff communicated effectively with the media, the victim's families, and the general public.

The next article is about the River Trails School District, in suburban Chicago. Written by the superintendent, Dane A. Delli, and the assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction, Matt Silverman, it describes the district's literacy and technology fair, an event that involved several hundred teachers, administrators, students, parents, and other community stakeholders. The authors detail how the event was planned and carried out, and they explain why the fair was beneficial to the district and community.

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Medium 9781475823936

School Public Relations: Personnel Roles and Responsibilities

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

M. SCOTT NORTON

ABSTRACT: This article emphasizes the paramount importance of the human resources function in the school system—specifically, in the implementation of an effective school public relations program and in the quality of leadership given by the administrators and the professional and classified staffs. The article submits that school administrators at every level, teaching staff, and support personnel all serve strategic roles in fostering positive school–community relationships. Although the school superintendent assumes a primary leadership role for planning, implementing, and evaluating the effectiveness of a district’s public relations program, the school district’s public relations director, human resources director, school principal, classroom teacher, and other certified and classified personnel have significant roles in a successful school public relations program. Each personnel role is discussed, including its important tasks and responsibilities, in relation to promoting an effective public relations program. An effective school public relations program depends on each school staff member’s understanding and carrying out his or her responsibilities relative to the improvement of the school district’s image.

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