13674 Chapters
Medium 9781912573066

Part II: The Chrysalis Years

Glouberman, Dina Aeon Books ePub

PART II

THE CHRYSALIS YEARS

Madness is easy, almost, compared to having to tolerate sanity. Anyway, it is easier to remember, describe fondly, even enjoy in retrospect.

I'm reminded of a seminar with Ronny Laing where he was asked why he had only written about families with a schizophrenic child. Didn't he realise he needed some kind of control group? He confided that he had fully intended to write a follow-up book to Sanity, Madness and the Family: Families of Schizophrenics8 which would be about “normal” or “sane” families who didn't have a schizophrenic child. However, he found the experience of being with “normal” families so excruciating, he just couldn't do it.

It was like that.

The five years of a kind of barren sanity were bookended by my recovery from madness in December 1971, and the birth of our children and of our centres on the Greek island of Skyros, in the years beginning January 1977.

Perhaps this sounds odd to say, but I considered both the period of madness and the period of birthing babies and centres to be intensely creative times. I was really alive, no matter how painful it was. The years in between were to my mind vast spaces of going nowhere. There was nothing romantic about it all. I simply felt diminished.

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Medium 9781782202035

Part II - Donor Conception: An Exploration of Some of the Issues Facing Individuals and Couples

Karnac Books ePub
Medium 9781855759589

CHAPTER EIGHT: Killing the angel in the house: creativity, femininity, and aggression

Karnac Books ePub

Rozsika Parker

The author brings to bear an art historical perspective on the psychoanalytic understanding of creativity as an object relationship, proposing that the creative endeavour is determined by a wider, more complex network of internal and external object relationships than is usually assumed. The workings of tradition, language, contemporary practices, methods, and materials are explored. Creative block is considered in the context of the determining relationships, with particular reference to the role of aggression. The position of the latter within psychoanalytic theories of creativity is surveyed and it is proposed that aggression has a pivotal place not primarily in instituting sublimation, reparation or reaction formation but simply because the processes of creativity demand it. Virginia Woolf’s image of Killing the angel in the house is analysed and used to track the implications of gender, focusing on the concept of the muse. It is pointed out that traditionally, the fear, guilt, and anxiety associated with aggressive creativity has been mediated by the muse, which is compared to the internal good object. Drawing on art history, artists’ statements, and clinical material, the author illustrates the disparate means by which the presence ofmusecan be internalized to infuse the relationships that constitute creativity.

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Medium 9780946439157

Chapter 3: THE TURNING POINT: FROM PSYCHOBIOLOGY TO OBJECT-RELATIONS

Guntrip, Harry Karnac Books ePub

HARRY STACK SULLIVAN
AND MELANIE KLEIN

Chapter 2 traced the struggle throughout Freud's work between the physicalistic type of scientific thought in which he had been trained and the need for a new type of psycho-dynamic thinking that he was destined to create. The first, or process theory, approach was enshrined in his instinct theory, which still persists even now in much of psychoanalytic terminology and writing: although his original quantitative theory of pleasure and unpleasure as physical processes determining all human action occurs now as no more than an occasional echo of the past. The second, or personal, approach became enshrined in his Oedipus complex theory, with its implications that it is what takes place between parents and children that primarily determines the way personality develops; and in his transference theory of treatment, that the object-relations of childhood have to be lived through again in therapeutic analysis if the patient is to grow from them. Only object-relational thinking can deal with the problem of meaning and motivation that determines the dealings of persons with another, and the way they change and grow in the process. The history of psychoanalysis is the history of the struggle for emancipation, and the slow emergence, of personal theory or object-relational thinking. Outside the confines of orthodox psychoanalysis and its organizations, early breakaway members pursued lines of thought that might have helped theory to move in this direction. Rank never became influential enough, and his contribution, as Ernest Jones shows, stimulated Freud but led to no particular goal. Adler certainly attempted an ego-psychology, but since he did little more, theoretically, than substitute the power drive for the early Freudian sex drive, Adler's theory simply swung from one extreme to the other; and since it also involved a swing from the unconscious to the conscious, it lacked the depth that was always so important in Freud's views. Sullivan acknowledged a debt to Freud, but unlike Adler's his thought was not mainly a reaction against Freud but a genuine development of his own independent insight. Sullivan's view that the biological substrate underpins, as it were, the life of interpersonal relationships, which is the real subject matter of the science of human beings, provides a sure theoretical basis for a properly psycho-dynamic science. In his own way Jung also transcended the biological for the personal, and developed an ego-psychology, a theory of individuation. Both Jung and Sullivan were men of unique intuitive powers. Freud was surely an unusual combination of the thinker who was both intuitive and systematic, and his great difficulty was that the systematic Freud felt obliged to build on what he had been taught, while the intuitive Freud went ahead to explore new paths. Yet he provided the beginnings of a systematic framework of theory, which however much it has proven to be necessary to change under the pressure of clinical experience, has proven equal to the strain of internal development and has in its own time taken into itself the insights of Sullivan and Jung. The steady psychoanalytical accumulation of clinical facts has at length brought its theory to the object-relational point of view, which the intuition of Jung and Sullivan, though in very different ways, jumped ahead to reach. It is the detailed psychoanalytical progress through about eighty years of research, to arrive at the present state of object-relations theory that I seek briefly to trace, through one or two of its main agents.

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Medium 9781855752832

CHAPTER THREE. The refugee condition: legal and therapeutic dimensions

Karnac Books ePub

Judith Farbey

Who is a refugee? What is the essence of refugee status? In this chapter, I argue that these questions must be answered by reference to legal and not psychological criteria. I am aware that this chapter is in a book addressing the psychotherapeutic care of refugees. However, I believe that analysis of the refugee condition remains incomplete without reference to the legal framework which determines who is and who is not to be recognized as a refugee. Moreover, it is important to examine the role of psychotherapeutic dimensions in the process of determining this status.

Refugees are a disparate group, with multiple forms of past experience and multiple causes of exile from their home communities. They are united only in so far as they have all undergone a legal process and have satisfied certain legal criteria in the United Kingdom. Consequently, refugee status is externally bestowed by the State and does not reflect any shared psychological characteristics or internal pathology. In order to make good this thesis, I begin by considering the legal criteria for establishing refugee status.

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