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Medium 9781782203193

Chapter Six: A Question of Boundary

Lorraine Price Karnac Books ePub

[…] I usually made her a drink when she came, and if I wasn't very careful at the beginning she would sit holding her cup, she would start drinking and then she would just start staring, and she would just stare, and I'd suddenly realise she was going, if I was able to contact her at that point I would do, get the cup out the way and things, but she would gradually just go deeper and deeper and deeper, and she might start crying, she might start coughing and heaving ‘cos she'd been orally abused, sometimes she would shut herself away into the corner, and occasionally I would have to just go out of the room, get a duvet, give her the duvet and leave her, and she used to go to sleep after the session, and that was often the only way she would come round, so she […] I used to assign four hours, so that she'd got time to have the session, time to get her back from her […] wherever she'd gone, and then I'd let her go to sleep, and then wake her up with a cup of tea, and then she'd go home.

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Medium 9781855757035

Chapter Two: The view of the world around him

A.H. Brafman Karnac Books ePub

The psychoanalytic theory of the development of the sense of self and other is intellectually appealing and, to me, very convincing. The theory goes that at birth and for a period of weeks the infant has no awareness of other human beings or of an external world in which he lives. During this period, supposedly, the infant would experience the feeding breast as an integral part of his self. At some point, the infant realizes that this breast is, in fact, not under his control, not a part of his self. A very interesting hypothesis is put forward at this point: at first, the infant believes the breast is a total, self-contained unit and only at a further stage of development does he realize that, in fact, the breast is a part of a whole individual, the mother, who not only feeds him, but also takes general care of him. These descriptive phases refer to the infant relating to a “part-object” and, later, to a “whole object”. What makes this distinction so interesting is the fact that we find adults who see other people not as “whole individuals,” that is, people with thoughts and feelings of their own, but only as sources that provide for the needs of that person. For example, a partner will be experienced as a source of sexual pleasure, but not recognized and treated as a separate human being with needs and sensitivities of their own; a waiter or a maid may be experienced as sources of food, but not as human beings who deserve the same consideration we give to those close to us. In these cases we speak of people relating to “part-objects” (some authors also describe these people as treating others as “need-satisfying objects”) and not to “whole objects”.

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Medium 9781780491233

Chapter Five: Next Steps

Agnes Bamford Karnac Books ePub

“Creating a warm, caring, supportive, encouraging environment is probably the most important thing you can do for your family”.

—Stephen R. Covey

You have managed to get through the first year as a parent. Congratulations! In this section we will cover practical issues you will have to deal with as a parent, different types of feelings and behaviour you and your child may be experiencing, and invite you to reflect on how you can create a great relationship with your child in the future. We also invite you both to reflect on your role as a parent and to ensure that you take care of yourself. We will furthermore ask you to imagine what the world looks like from your child's perspective.

How will you manage household tasks?

Activity 5.1: Your role as a parent

What do you think/feel about how you are managing household tasks?

How has having a child changed the way you share/manage household tasks?

How can you communicate constructively with your partner and find a way to manage the tasks that suits you both?

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Medium 9781910444016

CAPÍTULO X: La experiencia del grupo creativo

Edited Maggna Ediciones Karnac ePub

Tara Pepper Goldsmith y Naomi Ben Simon

En este capítulo, exploraremos la comunicación no verbal entre terapeutas y jóvenes en un grupo integrado por pacientes hospitalizados que lideramos dentro de la unidad de psiquiatría de un hospital especializado en trabajo con niños. Una de las tareas de una unidad como ésta es ayudar a cada niño a fortalecer su capacidad para profundizar más en su vida emocional y, consecuentemente, eliminar algunas de las barreras hacia su desarrollo. Establecimos el grupo creativo en la unidad para ayudar a los niños a comenzar a representar sus estados mentales mediante el arte y, posteriormente, a reflexionar y hablar sobre sus sentimientos. Describiremos cómo nos hemos basado en parte en el modelo de Tavistock de observación de infantes para entender lo que los niños comunican mediante los movimientos de sus cuerpos y sus expresiones faciales y para explorar nuestra experiencia respecto a la transferencia y la contratransferencia.

La unidad de psiquiatría recibe niñas con desórdenes alimenticios y desórdenes somáticos muy pronunciados, incluyendo pacientes diagnosticados con retiro generalizado de la vida. Una niña que se retira de la vida de manera generalizada puede permanecer muda, inmóvil y retraída del mundo durante semanas o meses comunicando un terror silencioso al tratamiento y sólo mantenerse viva porque las enfermeras le alimentan mediante un tubo gástrico-nasal. Una niña anoréxica también puede negarse a ingerir comida o bebida y requerir ser alimentada mediante un tubo gástrico-nasal; algunas veces, incluso, saboteará su proceso de alimentación sacándose el tubo, vomitando o físicamente atacando a las enfermeras que la están alimentando. Pueden, asimismo, ejercitarse moviendo sus piernas de manera constante en ciclos rápidos y repetitivos, haciendo saltos de tijera o saltando. A la hora de dormir una niña anoréxica puede intentar dormir de pie o condicionarse para despertarse temprano o durante la noche para interrumpir su sueño y hacer ejercicio cuando nadie está presente. Cuando habla, generalmente es para expresar su deseo de estar delgada o de morir.

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Medium 9781855753136

CHAPTER TWO. The genesis of meaning-making

Val Richards Karnac Books ePub

In acknowledging the link between adult psychotherapy, infancy and early childhood, it is necessary also to observe that what happens to meaning-making between adults in the analytic space directly contributes to and influences theories and assumptions about infant states. For a big feature in psychoanalytic theories of infant development and of the nature of the self is their basis in adult roots, from the shoots that spring up in clinical work with adults. Just as direct experience with babies and children, through infant observation and actual parental experience, influence psychotherapy, so also, psychotherapy with adults contributes to and shapes the myths and maps of infancy.

There is a recursive element, a loop: for these myths and maps of babyhood, which in part originate from work with adults, are then applied as a template for adults. Reductive infantile readings of adults may thus mask a prior recycling for infants of adult material.

Such material, therefore, may sometimes be saying as much as— or more—about the complexity of adulthood than about its roots in infancy. The parallels may imply no less that “adults are like babies” than that “babies are like adults”—or are imagined to be like them. Only consider, for example, the rapturous meditations from an adult perspective by analytic writers on the infant’s feelings towards the breast (e.g., Meltzer, Bion, Benvenuto). So, the apparent naturalness of the analogy between therapist-patient and mother-baby may suppress some of their dissimilarity. Hence, this dialectic is a two-way affair. As much as regressive manifestations by adults seem to reflect early life, this view of “early life” is itself partly constructed from observation of adult complexities.

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