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Medium 9781855752337

7. THE INTERGROUP EXERCISE

Rice, A.K. Karnac Books ePub

In the first intergroup exercise in the 1959 conference, the members were asked to split into groups in any way they wished and, by negotiations between the groups, to decide on the content of four sessions in the conference programme. They were provided with a summary of information gathered from registration forms that they had filled in before coming to die conference. These forms included a section on ‘special interests’ not covered by the formal conference programme. Members were also given information about the staff’s competence to deal with some of the topics listed. The members succeeded in filling the sessions allocated to them, albeit with some difficulty. The staff tasks were seen as responding to requests for expert help widi particular topics and, at the same time, helping members to learn about intergroup processes.

In subsequent conferences the same task, that of filling sessions, was given to the members, but the task of the staff was seen as concentrating on the relations between the groups that were formed for this purpose. At the 1959 conference, members were invited to choose their own method of dividing into groups; in later conferences they were allocated by die staff, as for study and application groups.

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Medium 9781855754058

UNMASKING DIFFERENCE, CULTURE, AND ATTACHMENT IN THE PSYCHOANALYTIC SPACE: "Don't you make my blue eyes brown"

Karnac Books ePub

Irris Singer

Myself

I would like to set the scene by saying something about my family background and how it relates to my own sense of difference. I have a photograph of two of my grandchildren, one so fair, and one so dark, which reflects my core experience of difference. These two beautiful little boys are an embodiment of my parents’ (their great-grandparents) colour differences and how they were in the world. And of course, my parents’ colour codedness deeply impacted on my sense of self and how I am in the world. Even so, my parents’ individual difference was in fact only one component of difference in my childhood; they were part of my extended Yiddish speaking immigrant family which located itself in a very small, very English village during World War 2. The women folk, our grandmother, mothers and aunts, protected themselves and the children from the safety of our cottage, and were no doubt conspicuous by their absence in village life, while the men folk, our grandfather, fathers and uncles stayed in London visiting us in their long coats and trilby hats late Saturday night and leaving before the first light on Monday morning. I remember the adult sense of foreboding, conveyed in hushed Yiddish, which lurked beneath our childhood fun of shared tin baths, shared beds, storytelling, all submerged in the clouds of steam and smells of our mothers’ endless washing and cooking. Sometimes we children played with the village children on the ruins of a house which a stray German bomb had destroyed, but we were not allowed to visit the children in their homes. One kind neighbour “Uncle Frank” brought us a small Christmas tree each year, which our bewildered mothers did not like to refuse, even though the word itself, Christmas, was forbidden in our family. The tree stood forlornly unadorned in a corner of the living room, avoided by the adult eyes, while we children secretly longed to decorate it. Some years later, after the war when I was eight years old, my father came to my bed late at night to tell me that the United Nations had voted in favour of a homeland for the Jews, the State of Israel. Poland was no longer de haeme (the “homeland”) and apparently neither was England. It appeared that Israel was now our home and we would be going there as soon as possible. We were no longer to be strangers in a strange land.

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Medium 9781780490847

Chapter Thirteen - A Culture of Mania: A Psychoanalytic View of the Incubation of the 2008 Credit Crisis

Karnac Books ePub

Mark Stein

Abstract

In this theoretically informed study I explore the broader cultural changes that created the conditions for the credit crisis of 2008. Drawing on psychoanalysis and its application to organisational and social dynamics, I develop a theoretical framework around the notion of a manic culture, comprised of four aspects: denial; omnipotence; triumphalism; and over-activity. I then apply this to the credit crisis and argue that the events of 2008 were preceded by an incubation period lasting for over two decades during which a culture of mania developed. Then, focusing especially on the Japanese and South East Asia/LTCM crises, I argue that a series of major ruptures in capitalism during this incubation period served not as warnings, but as opportunities for a manic response, thereby dramatically increasing the risks involved. I also argue that this mania was triggered and strengthened by triumphant feelings in the West over the collapse of communism. I suggest therefore that this manic culture played a significant role in creating the conditions for the problems that led to the credit crisis.

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Medium 9781855753990

CHAPTER FIVE. Discussion of Jung’s emotional complex doctrine Intermezzo: the complex brain nuclei

Cope, Theo A. Karnac Books ePub

Since I have laid bare both the developmental and theoretical elements of Jung’s complex doctrine, it is imperative that I discuss it more. Moreover, we have reached the point in this work where a consideration of Jung’s perspectives on emotions needs to be presented more fully. Does Jung present a theory of emotions that fills the criteria as adduced by Strongman, and delineated in the Introduction? I answer in the affirmative and explain this below. In the next chapter, I compare his approach to the complexity of emotions and emotional complexes with other theorists who focused upon representations. The prospective function of the psyche, as experienced by Jung, contributed greatly to his personal healing of traumatic events in his life. While I do examine briefly the psychological aspect that contributed to some of his personal inability to see his own complexes and their influences upon his psychology, I do so not to stigmatize or pathologize him. My intent is simple: the historical-personal dimension of Jung’s complex doctrine, to my knowledge, has not been much discussed. The historical component is personal history; the prospective or constructive dimension is creative psychic potential. Jung’s own failures must be acknowledged, though we must not thereby denigrate his contributions. If his complex doctrine has validity, if it has scientific feasibility, and if he presented psychic and physiological characteristics of emotions, then we should find empirical support for it in current scientific literature. This phase of my exploration comes in the next chapter also.

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Medium 9781782203148

Chapter Four - Reverie and the Aesthetics of Psychoanalysis

Karnac Books ePub

Giuseppe Civitarese

Bion's theory of the analytic field (Ferro & Civitarese, 2015) takes the Freudian paradigm of dreaming to its extreme consequences but also reinscribes it in an intersubjective frame. The meeting of patient and analyst gives rise to a third area that is created by both, and that is greater than the sum of the initial parts. The metaphor used to describe this intermediary space, force field, is taken from physics. The unconscious communication between minds generates the turbulence that emerges in this field. This unconscious communication takes place through projective identification and entails an effective and reciprocal interpersonal pressure to receive the projected elements. The pairing is a small group, equipped with one mind whose job it is to transform these emotional storms into thought. The operation in itself involves psychic growth.

Nevertheless, this operation concerns not only conscious thought but also preverbal thought. Preverbal does not necessarily, however, mean asymbolic. The symbolic—that is, the field of language and the rules that constitute it—also expresses itself through sensorimotor patterns written into the body. It could be claimed that the foetus is already exposed to the effects of the symbolic through the way in which, in the uterus, the mother provides a semiotic chora (Kristeva, 1974), a cradle that welcomes, envelops, and protects, and which is made up of a myriad of rhythmically ordered sensory impressions.

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Medium 9781780490335

CHAPTER FIVE. Final stages and integration

Ringrose, Jo L. Karnac Books ePub

Integration is the process whereby the host accepts all her thoughts, feelings, and behaviours (past and present) as her own. Therefore, integration means the host needs to let go of the belief that something is “not me”. Whilst we can all say, “I wasn’t myself when I did that” or something similar, the difference is that the integrated person knows there is only one self. Although she may feel she acted out of character, she still knows and accepts the behaviour was induced by a part of her and that this is always under her control.

Beyond this definition statement, there is controversy as to what integration means. For some practitioners, integration means that the alter personalities become one unified whole. I personally am unsure whether or not this is necessary. I argue that functioning can remain divided, although I have some major caveats (see below).

Kluft (1984) argues that integration is a reasonable goal for the majority of clients with DID, although this will not be achieved by some (Putnam, 1989). Kluft and Fine (1993) found that clients who elect to live as multiples often relapse under stress or if painful material is re-stimulated by current events. They state that most clients then return to therapy for integration work as they have found functional division a myth.

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Medium 9781855758780

CHAPTER FORTY: Reason and Violence

Karnac Books ePub

In this book, Laing and Cooper present expositions of Sartre’s three major works of the past decade. There is a lucid introduction, which for most profit should be re-read immediately once one has finished the book: it illuminates the difficult terminology, and particularly discusses the concept of “ambiguity” in Sartre’s work and language for which the reader should prepare himself if he is to attempt understanding. Part One––”Question of Method”—repays careful and attentive reading, as the use of such concepts as praxis, totalization, depassment thereby become more intelligible: if some awareness of them is assimilated, then Part Three—”Critique of dialectical reason”—is best taken at a run, without too much vertiginous dwelling on individual statements. The ideas it is expressing are vastly comprehensive and complex, and can best be appreciated in this way. Part One speaks more directly to the practising psychoanalyst, making one reflect on possible extensions of technique, and on increase in flexibility. While the section on Genet presents a fascinating existential study in terms which are reasonably accessible to a clinician, the Questions of Method offer stimulating lines of thought on the extent to which psychoanalysis compares unconflictingly with Sartre’s thought, and yet how far also Sartre “depasses” it.

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Medium 9781780490182

CHAPTER FIVE: Depression or Dark Night of the Soul?

Harborne, Lynette Karnac Books ePub

“Depression is a label and a syndrome, while a dark night is a meaningful event.”

—Thomas Moore (2004)

In this chapter I will attempt to define what is meant by the terms “Dark Night of the Soul” (DNS) and “depression”, and to identify indicators that may help us to recognise the two conditions. I hope this will help therapists to work more effectively with the spiritual elements of their clients’ experience, while enabling spiritual directors to recognise indicators of depression in order to make a competent risk assessment. I raise questions about how we can differentiate between depression and DNS—are they in fact manifestations of the same inner experience, are they two quite separate experiences, or can they be said to co-exist? And, whatever the answers to these questions, how can we address them in both therapy and spiritual direction? Nelson’s view that “The dark night is really a normal process, whereas most people consider depression to be an abnormal condition” (2009, p. 378) will be considered.

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Medium 9781782200079

Chapter Four - Unassimilated Aggression and the Emergence of the Unit Self: Winnicott, Jung, and Matte Blanco

Karnac Books ePub

William Meredith-Owen

Introduction

I suspect the subtitle of this paper may well, for many readers, place Winnicott in unfamiliar company, but I hope that this may prove to be a context that can offer a fresh and perhaps even challenging perspective on a core concern of Winnicott's last years, namely the emergence of a “unit self” capable of making proper and full “use of an object” (Winnicott, 1969). His pursuit of this theme led Winnicott towards a more creative reading of the nature of drive and even further away from the classical Freudian presumption of the unconscious as essentially the repository of the repressed. It is this element that links Winnicott with Jung and Matte Blanco, for they too, albeit in distinctive but also complementary ways, invite us to a radical reconsideration of the dynamic and potentially generative nature of the unconscious.

Winnicott needs no introduction. Carl Jung (1875–1961) will at least be a widely recognised name, perhaps most readily associated with his advocacy of reparative engagement with what he termed “the collective unconscious”. Ignacio Matte Blanco (1908–1995) was a Chilean psychiatrist who trained as an analyst at the Institute in London, before eventually settling in Italy and becoming an increasingly influential figure through his two major works, The Unconscious as Infinite Sets (1975) and Thinking, Feeling and Being (1988). His particular contribution was to apply the complexities and paradoxes of mathematical logic to the psychoanalytic unconscious, establishing what he termed a bi-logic frame within which two contrasting modes of being, the symmetric and the asymmetric, could be envisaged in dynamic tension.

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Medium 9781782200697

Chapter Four: Deception

Akhtar, Salman Karnac Books ePub

While overtly destructive acts derived from rage and hatred draw sharp clinical and public attention, far more damage is done to human relations by the quieter evils of lying, cheating, and deceit. In myriad forms that range from pretentious decorum at official events to pseudo-cordiality among political adversaries, from socially convenient bending of truth to outright lying for monetary gain, and from laborious inflation of the self to deliberate fraud for seducing others, deception corrodes trust that is the glue of attachment and interpersonal bonds. Regardless of its form, deception arises from trauma and causes suffering to self and others. A common denominator in various types of deception (e.g., mendacity, forgery, betrayal) is the existence of a lie.

It is this central feature that I will address in this contribution. I will begin with elucidating the formal characteristics of lies and the motivations that propel individuals to distort the truth. In the passages that follow, I will take up the developmental achievements necessary for the capacity for lying to emerge. Then I will make a brief sociocultural foray into the worlds of art and entertainment, politics, propaganda, advertising, forgery, and counterfeit. Following this digression, I will return to the clinical realm and address the implications of lying for conducting psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. I will conclude with a few synthesising remarks.

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Medium 9781910445129

CAPÍTULO OITAVO - A família

Waddell, Margot Editora Karnac ePub

“A experiência psicanalítica mostra que o caráter é profundamente marcado pelo modo preferido de aprendizagem, e esses modos preferidos são por sua vez profundamente influenciados pelos modos prevalecentes no grupo familiar e seu estado de organização.”

Donald Meltzer

No capítulo anterior, foi colocada ênfase considerável na natureza da relação mãe/bebê como protótipo de uma qualidade específica de pensamento e de aprendizagem, ou a falha em atingir essa experiência. À medida que a criança cresce, a continência inicialmente oferecida pela mãe se estenderá para ambos os pais, para a família, a escola, relacionamentos com seus pares, a comunidade em geral e, eventualmente, para ambientes profissionais e de trabalho. A maneira como o grupo familiar funciona pode agora ser vista em termos semelhantes aos discutidos em relação à mãe e ao bebê: ou seja, como o grupo incentiva ou obstaculiza o desenvolvimento de seus membros individuais?

A “família” é vagamente concebida aqui como uma categoria normativa, designando o grupo ou grupos de cuidado dentro dos quais a criança está sendo criada. A família pode ser um grupo de dois, um pai/mãe único e seu filho, ou pode compreender uma multiplicidade de relações, como novos parceiros, meio irmãos e irmãos emprestados. O que está em questão é a forma de descrever as maneiras predominantes de se relacionar em qualquer grupo, seja complexo ou simples. Será feita uma tentativa de caracterizar uma gama de possíveis tipos de família em termos de como cada uma pode ajudar ou atrapalhar o crescimento emocional daqueles que a ela pertencem. A questão é sempre saber se o agrupamento contém e ampara, ou se inibe o potencial de desenvolvimento e os movimentos de separação da criança. Naturalmente, estados de esclarecimento ou de opressão no ambiente social e político mais amplo têm uma influência significativa sobre a forma como qualquer família se desenvolve. As questões de raça, classe, economia, saúde, habitação, isolamento, empregos, amigos, escola, etc. desempenham um papel importante na capacidade da família de manter o equilíbrio entre as inter-relações emaranhadas e em constante mudança dos seus membros. No entanto, quaisquer que sejam as pressões das circunstâncias externas, a maneira como se lida com elas é significativamente determinada pela forma como funciona a própria família internamente. É uma questão, por exemplo, relacionada à tendência da família a organizar-se em torno da intolerância à dor e à adversidade, por um lado, ou, por outro, organizar-se em torno do prazer e da promoção de esperança e bem-estar, sejam quais forem as circunstâncias externas.

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Medium 9781782202462

Introduction: The Scientific Revolution and Capitalism

Mulhern, Alan Karnac Books ePub

The age of patriarchal religions, which in one form or other dominated the consciousness of humanity for thousands of years, was challenged in Europe from the seventeenth century onwards. A growing belief in the findings of science, a series of political revolutions that freed millions from the semi-enslavement of feudal systems, and the birth of the most productive economic system in world history were a series of Promethean hammer blows that shattered the old paradigms and forged a new order out of the fiery transformations of the centuries that followed. It was also a revolution in human consciousness, which was no longer in a cosmological prison where a scientist such as Galileo could be threatened with torture for arguing that the earth goes around the sun, but, instead, was a place where enlightened enquiry was free to fly to what height it dared. Britain, central to the scientific and industrial revolutions, was different from Ancient Greece, which, for a brief period, had some of the most astounding free thinkers, including those of science, the world had ever seen, for it managed to develop its freedoms of the market and democracy, while in Greece these were to perish. Above all, the scientific revolution was to be linked with an economic system that could turn inventions to profit and technologies to world domination. The Greek and also Roman systems, despite democratic components, were founded on slavery, a military system, and, for some periods, a dictatorship. Such economies, despite enormous achievements and progress, did not possess the essential freedoms for capitalism to develop.

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Medium 9781855750562

CHAPTER THREE. Clinical prejudices

Karnac Books ePub

There are practical consequences of prejudices in the context of therapy. Realizing the distinction between thought and action is an arbitrary one; we draw this dichotomy for the purpose of describing our practices of therapy. In reflexive fashion, prejudices reveal themselves through actions and the practices of therapy and vice versa.

The post ideological orientation we are introducing is based on the luxury of doubt. We believe this orientation is somewhat purist in the sense that we are only interested in the relationship and the context of how prejudices of the therapist interact and affect each other within the therapist’s head and among his or her contemporaries; how the client’s prejudices interact and affect each other, and how these two sets of prejudices interact with one another in a kind of cybernetics of prejudices. The relationship between these prejudices, not the content, becomes very important for us.

By now we hope the reader understands our belief that one cannot not have prejudices. Having described our theory, we now feel free to outline a non-exhaustive list of some of the beliefs that direct our clinical practice.

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Medium 9781855750869

76. Supplementto'ThePsychogenesisofMechanism'. [1920]

Ferenczi, Sandor Karnac Books ePub

IN a paper on the’ Psychogenesis of Mechanism’ I criticized Kultur und Mechanik, the last publication of the late Viennese physicist and philosopher, Ernst Mach, from the psycho-analytic point of view. Amongst other things I mentioned that the little book gave the reader an impression as though the author had had Freud’s discoveries in mind when he suggested discovering the infantile element in the sense for mechanism in his grown-up son, by means of methodical memory efforts. From the fact that Freud is nowhere quoted by Mach, and from the one-sided in-tellectualistic bias of the article, I concluded, however, that Mach had perhaps hit upon this idea independently of Freud. Now, however, Dr. Pataki (engineer) has brought to my notice that in the Prinzipien der Warme-Lehre (on pp. 443 and 444 of the second edition) there is a note which proves that Mach had already for a long time been familiar with the basic idea of psycho-analysis when he wrote his book about the psychological conditions of the development of the mechanistic sense, and if he makes no reference to it, then we are dealing with a case of cryptamnesic rediscovery of an idea.

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Medium 9781855751170

APPENDIX A. Recommended reading list for the Danish seminars

Campbell, David Karnac Books ePub

Recommended reading list for the Danish seminars

Andersen, T. (1990). The Reflecting Team. New York: W. W. Norton.

Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. (1988). Human systems as linguistic systems: preliminary and evolving ideas about the implications for clinical theory. Family Process, 27 (4): 371-384.

Anderson, H., Goolishian, H., & Winderman, L. (1986). Problem-determined systems: towards transformation in family therapy. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 5: 1-13.

Argyris, C. (1990). Overcoming Organizational Defenses. London: Allyn & Bacon.

Bateson, G. (1973). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. London: Paladin.

Campbell, D., Coldicott, T., & Kinsella, K. (1994). Systemic Work with Organizations. London: Karnac Books.

Campbell, D., Draper, R., & Huffington, C. (1991a). A Systemic Approach to Consultation. London: Karnac Books.

Campbell, D., Draper, R., & Huffington, C. (1991b). Teaching Systemic Thinking. London: Karnac Books.

Drucker, P. (1990). Managing the Non-Profit Organisation. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

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