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Medium 9781855756410

37. Chia Jên / The Family (The Clan)

Peggy Jones Karnac Books ePub

above Sun / The Gentle, Wind, Wood

below Li / The Clinging, Fire

above Li / The Clinging, Fire

below Kan / The Abysmal, Water

The family is the most powerful institution in society in terms of the formation of the individual. In this way we can say that the influence of the family is similar to that of a fire that burns brightly and can be seen from far away. Fire has the dual aspect of something warming and protective against the dangers of what lives or lurks beyond its circle and also something which is potentially destructive, which can get out of control, sucking air into itself with greater and greater energy, creating the phenomena of fire-storms, hugely powerful, hungry for fuel.

In the same way, the family may be a source of comfort, nurture, and culture (fire was the essential first step towards culture) or it may be consuming, destructive, a trap, a claustrum. Functional or dysfunctional, the family is our first experience and one that we will carry within ourselves and that will shape our own relationships throughout life.

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Medium 9781855751439

8.Resolving conflicts: repression and splitting

R.D. Hinshelwood Karnac Books ePub

If the person is divided, then, when it comes to consent to treatment, which part of the person is it that makes the choice? Even more difficult, if one part is for the time being located in someone else—in particular the psychoanalyst—”who” should make the choice? We need now to look at aspects of choice and choosing from a psychoanalytic point of view.

A person can make a conscious choice between two (or more) alternatives. We can say, if it is helpful, that his mind is divided between the two. Colloquially, he is “in two minds”. Ordinarily, when we say that a person is “in two minds” about something, we mean that he can see two sides to an issue. A student may have to decide between going to visit his parents on their anniversary or to continue swatting for an imminent examination. He has choices and has to “make up his mind”—that is to say, he has to decide between those alternatives. It is a perfectly familiar aspect of life. Often resolving difficult, conscious conflict counts as part of the satisfaction in life.

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Medium 9781855756458

Psychoanalytic glossary

Alan B. Eppel Karnac Books ePub

Conflict theory: Freud’s theory that human behaviour is determined by inner conflicts between opposing mental forces. There is conflict between the drives of the id and the rational requirements of the ego.

Death instinct: the tendency of every living thing to return to the inorganic state.

Defences: unconscious automatic mental processes that serve to reduce anxiety in response to internal or external threats. Common defence mechanisms are sublimation, displacement, reaction formation, projection, and humour.

Drive theory: Freud’s view that drives are central in human development and behaviour. The principle drives are the sexual and aggressive drives.

Ego: refers to the rational thinking part of the brain that mediates between internal drives of the id and the requirements of social reality and moral standards.

Eros: refers to the life instincts, which includes the sexual instinct and the instincts for self-preservation.

Id: refers to the unconscious instinctual drives, which include aggression and sexuality.Instinct: an inborn striving that seeks expression such as the sexual instinct. Instincts have an inner bodily source and have an aim directed towards an object.

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Medium 9781780490823

Chapter Thirty-Three: Fairbairn and partitive conceptions of mind

Graham S Clarke Karnac Books ePub

Tamas Pataki

Partitive conceptions of mind in philosophy

In the second of his Meditations Descartes wrote: “I am unable to distinguish any parts within myself. I understand myself to be something quite single and complete” (1642). Here Descartes identifies himself with his mind or soul, a conception akin to a pre-philosophical intuition that in each of us something inner, unified, an essential “me” is the locus of perception, deliberation, decision, and agency. That is not the only way in which to understand personal identity but some such conception underlies our everyday understanding and expectation of others, our moral attitudes to them, and our various contractual and judicial institutions. Personal unity (and continuity) seem to be ineliminable conditions of self-understanding and the understanding of others in social arrangement.

However, the conditions are strained in various circumstances. The most striking of these are multiple personality disorder and some psychoses, but there are others. Philosophers for a long time have been concerned with four sets of such circumstances: ambivalence, akrasia (weakness of the will), self-deception, and wishful thinking. I want to say a few words about these concepts, unfamiliar perhaps to the psychoanalytic reader.

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Medium 9781780491684

Chapter Two: On the Nature and Varieties of Guilt

Donald L. Carveth Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER TWO

On the nature and varieties of guilt

…for here there is no place that does not see you. You must change your life.

—Rainer Maria Rilke, Archaic Torso of Apollo

At a roundtable (Carveth, Cavell, Eigen, Greenberg & Lewis, 2007) addressing the question “What is guilt?” at the Philoctetes Center for the Multidisciplinary Study of Imagination in New York, philosopher/psychoanalyst Marcia Cavell opened the discussion with the admission that “This awful subject has been on my mind for many years, beginning consciously, oh, some thirty years ago when my analyst said to me, ‘If only you could feel the right kind of guilt!’ I didn't know what she meant and I don't think I ever asked her what she meant, but I was deeply puzzled.” Had she asked her analyst for clarification, I doubt she would have received a very illuminating answer, at least not one likely to satisfy a philosophic mind. In alluding to important distinctions between different types of guilt her analyst was, I suspect, operating more on intuition than reasoned understanding. From the beginning of the discipline, psychoanalysts have been as puzzled as Professor Cavell or anyone else in this area.

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Medium 9781855754621

4. Tensions and transitions: what the leaders think

Gilles Amado Karnac Books ePub

In this chapter, drawing on material from two sources, we shall discuss the transitional context and the tensions associated with

The first source were the interviews “one year on” of the leaders who participated in our research. It was striking to observe how helpful the leaders found it to review their experience in the light of the tensions and how ready they were to endorse the accuracy of the tensions themselves. Incidentally, in our original analysis of the case studies, we had identified six tensions-The seventh (Reciprocity) emerged during the interviews and we were able to validate its existence with subsequent interviewees.

This confirms to us the value of an iterative, back-and-forth, process of careful and collaborative exchange between researchers and those implicated in real-life work situations. In its way, this is the interplay between theory and practice.

The second source were the interviews of a diverse group of experienced leaders who had not been part of the research. In doing these interviews we wished to check ourselves against taking too narrow or inward-looking an approach. We also wanted to gather these leaders’ reactions to our emerging conclusions and to enrich our database of experience of transitions.

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Medium 9781855754898

CHAPTER FIVE: The therapist's revenge: the law of talion as a motive for caring

Michael Jacobs Karnac Books ePub

It is almost customary for therapists who write to thank their patients or clients—and rightly so, since the most stimulating learning (which with adaptation is often transferable to other client work) comes from insights or ideas that emerge in the material that clients bring to therapy. This paper was one such, solely brought to life by the case example of Brenda (not, of course, the client's name, although the details are factual). Brenda provided another example that I was able to use in teaching and in a different book, although one that taught me to take greater care in disguising client material so that even the client herself could not recognize it. I will say no more, except to say I was very grateful to a co-therapist who handled that situation so well that Brenda and I emerged on good terms. It was my mistake, but I wonder whether there was a type of revenge in the incident. On my part, of course, for being in debt to her for the idea she planted and that bore fruit in what at the time seemed (and perhaps is) original.

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Medium 9781855756564

4. The Seminar Encounter: The Transmission of Psychodynamic Knowledge

James Davies Karnac Books ePub

Having described the basic therapeutic encounter in the last two chapters, and how this encounter endows trainees or patients with the disposition to imagine psychodynamically, we are now in a better position to understand the institutional devices of socialisation which appeal to this imagination for their legitimacy. In this chapter, then, by finally entering wholeheartedly into the training institute by describing the next stage of professional socialisation—seminar education—I will show how in seminars the psychodynamic imagination becomes deeply affirmed and wins for itself conceptual dressing.

When describing this second stage of training I shall lay special emphasis on how the roles between trainees and trainers are structured hierarchically. By making use of Elisabeth Hsu’s (1999) concepts concerning how medical knowledge is transmitted to novice practitioners, I shall further illustrate how this hierarchy is legitim-atised by the various‘styles of knowing’ (secret and personal) that obtain in the therapeutic community. Moreover, I shall explore how via the institutional transmission of‘standardised’ therapeutic knowledge (knowledge contained in the‘official’ or‘core’ therapeutic texts) such knowledge is protected from criticism. In all, by dwelling on these themes I shall suggest that the educative atmosphere in which psychoanalytical knowledge is transmitted is by and large more‘affirmative’ than‘critical’, finally concluding thatthis style of‘affirmative’ education reflects communal anxieties about the dissolution of the psychoanalytic tradition and about the need to duly protect it.

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Medium 9780946439010

The Aims of Psycho-Analytic Treatment

Karnac Books ePub

Elliott Jaques

I

Wilfred Bion has been among those writers who have been most clear and explicit about the differences between normality and abnormality, a difference he has expressed so sharply in his distinction between each person’s psychotic and non-psychotic personalities (1957). It is this distinction which is essential for the formulation of the aims of psycho-analytical treatment and of the criteria for the termination of treatment. This theme may, I hope, be a suitable contribution for this occasion of recognising Wilfred Bion’s long and distinguished contribution to psycho-analytic theory and practice.

II

It has always been easier to say what is abnormal in human behaviour than to say what is normal; easier to specify or diagnose symptoms of illness than to specify the signs of health. The difficulty is that as soon as we turn to normality it is hard to avoid producing a long list of moral and ethical values-such as being capable of work and of love. And when we do produce these values, it begins to seem as though to be normal is to be filled with goodness and virtue. It then becomes impossible to know whether our conception of normality is merely a relative protestant, or capitalist, or socialist, or bourgeois, or some other kind of religious or political ethic, or whether we are considering something more fundamental in human nature.

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Medium 9781855752627

CHAPTER EIGHT. A profile of the schizophrenic mind

Salomon Resnik Karnac Books ePub

When we approach the world of the schizophrenic patient, one of the problems we encounter is a difficulty in perceiving sense and structure in his message. His thinking is so distorted that the rules that ordinarily apply to the way we think are of no help to us in our attempts at understanding. Bleuler (1950) had underlined the importance of thinking disorders in schizophrenics and had observed also their difficulty in associating; the associative process, he argued, is blocked. This corresponds to a global split in the personality.

Minkowski (1927) investigated the schizophrenic’s lack of contact, not only with respect to thinking but also in his relationship to the world (loss of vital contact). This schizoid tendency—loss of contact with other people—is related on the intra-psychic level to loss of contact with oneself. There are communication disorders first with oneself (inner dialogue) and then with the outside world (external dialogue).

The schizophrenic is usually described as malfunctioning because of his “tendency” to cut himself off from reality. The paradox is that, being cut off in this way, he manages to set up a kind of “psychotic equilibrium’“ which allows him some degree of adjustment to reality.

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Medium 9781855756366

Chapter Ten: Child dream development: a longitudinal observation

Claudio Colace Karnac Books ePub

The home-based study allowed the collection of dream reports from one child in two separate sessions at one year’s distance. Lisa (not her real name) was interviewed in the first session when she was four years and six months old, and later at five years and six months of age. Lisa was a good dream recaller. Apart from reporting, at the request of her mother, twelve dreams (five in the first dream week session and seven in the second), she spontaneously reported additional dreams on certain mornings. Lisa’s mother was co-operative during both observation periods. This allowed to us optimize the collection of the child’s dream reports and the mother’s comments about them.

The case of young Lisa allows me to describe in greater detail the changes that intervene in dream processes during development stage, which I covered in Chapters Seven and Nine. However, I cannot report the differences concerning the development of superego functions, because the relevant tests could not be administered in the second period of observation.

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Medium 9781780490724

CHAPTER TWENTY-SEVEN: Why shouldn’t we interrupt?

Peter Philippson Karnac Books ePub

This paper was part of an ongoing discussion between myself and my long-term co-therapist and co-author John Bernard Harris, aimed towards finding our own style and understanding of group psychotherapy. In general, our preferences lean towards allowing impulses to be brought to awareness and followed, even if this is messy, rather than queued up, retroflected, and lost in order to provide more tidiness. So, as well as allowing interruptions, we allow movement around the room, more than one process happening at once (as long as there is the possibility of support for it all) and sub-grouping, sometimes in two rooms, where the whole group is too big an arena for some exploration at some times.

One of the debates within the Gestalt world is on whether the term “interruption to contact” is an appropriate one, or whether the term should be renamed in a way that would more positively connote what is happening. For example, the Polsters (workshop presentations) speak of “self-regulation at the contact boundary” and Wheeler (1991) speaks of “moderating contact”, or “styles of contact”. The aim is to remove any sense of “the client is doing something wrong or resisting here”, and explore from a purely phenomenological perspective what the client is doing.

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Medium 9781780491288

CHAPTER TWENTY SIX

Voula Grand Karnac Books ePub

Honor woke, stretched, and sleepily reached out a hand to Eliot. Not there. A week had passed and he was still not home. She’d missed him more than she could have possibly imagined, once the first few days of liberation had passed. Her lonesome evening cup of tea had turned into a large lonesome evening glass of wine. Two large glasses last night she remembered, as she felt the dull throbbing in her temples. With a heavy sigh, she sat up. That was another thing she missed, a hot cup of tea brought to her, with Eliot’s cheerful smile. Who would have thought that starting the day with the comfort of a warm human body next to you could make such a difference to the way that you felt for the rest of the day? Yet she’d known this in theory for most of her professional life: after all, what were most of her clients seeking? Longing for, dreaming of? The simple return to that primitive embrace, a warm body holding yours. She knew it now, anyway; she really knew it, body and soul.

She sat up, checked the clock; she’d slept through the alarm, and she was going to be late. Hearing the sounds of the children waking, and of Celestine and Eden bickering over the bathroom, she closed her eyes and took a deep breath; they had become fractious and irritable during Eliot’s absence. What a delicate eco-system a family was. One change and, in relatively short order, the whole system started to alter in several small subtle ways that added up to a noticeable shift.

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Medium 9781855756786

IX. 1914 Mourning and Melancholia (Identification Processes)

Donald Meltzer Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

I would like to discuss now that rather interesting period in the early years of the First World War when Freud had very few patients, since his students were mainly from abroad, and when he had time to think and take stock of the science which he had fathered - or mothered. He realized that there were great difficulties in every direction: in the training direction, in the theoretical direction, in the technical direction and also in conceiving its place in the world and what it might reasonably mean as part of the culture. He had been considerably stirred up earlier by the so-called defections of Adler and Jung and in the years from 1910 or 1911 onward there are outbursts against them in his writings every once in a while. They are interesting outbursts because their content often suggests that he is reviling them for just those things about which he is really troubled himself and with which he has not yet come to grips. For example, much of what he reviles Jung for will in fact later turn into his revision of instinct theory, although it is of course not quite the same as Jung’s theory. He is reviling Jung for abandoning the central role of sexuality, the Libido Theory and so on in favour of something that he considered to be a watered-down, popularly acceptable product. Twelve or fifteen years later, it changes in his own hands into the new instinct theory, in which sexuality is not given this primary place but has to take its position within the life instincts and be opposed to what he calls the ‘death instinct’. Similarly in his reviling of Adler, mainly for his masculine protest and his will-to-power theories, one finds the harbingers of Freud’s later struggle with the whole problem of hatred and evil and destructiveness, which finally became the concept of the death instinct.

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Medium 9781782201014

CHAPTER ONE Headaches and brain injury

Birgit Gurr Karnac Books PDF

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CHAPTER ONE

Headaches and brain injury

C

linicians and researchers have long been puzzled by patients presenting with enduring problems following brain injury.

Literature on mild brain injury, post-concussion symptoms, and post traumatic headaches frequently reports the lack of symptom specificity, the controversies and complexities surrounding the existence of such problems, and the rarity of good studies helping to identify their causes and consequences. Consequently, doctors and therapists have often felt paralysed in their attempts to offer helpful treatments for headache patients.

This chapter attempts to present the available knowledge about headaches and brain injury in a structured way. By showing that an understanding of the condition and its psychological treatment is possible, despite weaknesses in medical or scientific descriptions, scaffolding for later sections of the book will be provided.

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