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Medium 9781782200789

Chapter Thirteen - A Summary of the Evolution of Winnicott's Thinking in that of his Analytic “Grandchildren”

Spelman, Margaret Boyle Karnac Books ePub

Marion Milner's analytic “children”

Pearl King

Pearl King has been celebrated for her significant contribution to psychoanalysis worldwide. Like Winnicott she is a committed clinician, an independent and pluralistic thinker, a bridge builder, motivated communicator, preoccupied with a collaborative stance with parents, with non-dogma, and a supporter of fair systems.

As an archivist, King always introduced the dimension of time to her work, to training novice psychoanalysts in Winnicott's important technique of waiting, in his idea of transitional space with a fifty-year case study, and in his idea of true self living in the patient's relation to time, in lifecycle issues and treatment of the elderly in psychoanalysis.

Amongst King's contributions to the evolution of Winnicott's thinking is her personification of a re-connection with Klein and a link with Rickman and Erikson. She connects psychoanalysis to its past, to industrial and clinical psychology, and to the psychotherapists transferring to psychoanalytic practice. She gives us a glimpse of Winnicott as both a supervisor and collaborator on the fifty-year-long case. She embodies a link between Michael Balint and Winnicott to the extent that both supervised her. Those concepts of Winnicott's that she expands include: subjectivity, inherited potential, transitional space, and true self related to sense of time.

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Medium 9781609945626

Contents

Kahnweiler, Jennifer B. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9780946439218

13. Last Thoughts

Stoller, Robert J. Karnac Books ePub

ON BEGINNING this writing, I wanted to do several things: to trace back the manifest forms an erotic daydream took from the present to its childhood beginnings; to find the impulses motivating the daydream in its varied forms from childhood on; to find the psychologic origins of these impulses; to dissect these elements out of the far larger mass of data that makes up a psychoanalysis; to give enough visibility to what went on in the analysis that outsiders might sense the process, judge the accuracy of the reports of what happened, and so feel comfortable in coming to conclusions and in playing them off against those I reached; to present the data accurately, despite the absolute need to edit the living experiences into a written language and to protect the patient’s anonymity; to write clearly in my own language; to extend my search for a methodology in psychoanalysis to help us move toward the accepted rules for a scientific enterprise; to increase our understanding of the dynamics of sexual excitement; to go after larger issues of psychology, such as the nature of meaning, wish, motivation, will, awareness, intention; to participate with colleagues in the effort to keep psychoanalysis lively, useful, creative, pertinent, honest, and a continuing source of new data and ideas.

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Medium 9781782204190

Chapter Seven: Freud's Blind Spot

Seel, Dietmar; Ullrich, Burkhard; Zepf, Florian Daniel; Zepf, Siegfried Karnac Books ePub

Freud neglects the parents’ unconscious completely; he particularly fails to include that precise element into his theoretical framework which would lend it its value, namely the primal seduction.

—Jean Laplanche, 1986, p. 217 (Translated for this edition)

The banishment of the parental activities from the aetiology of neuroses started with the rejection of the seduction theory and continued in the course of the development of the Oedipus complex. This exiling seems justified in both cases not for logical, but for psychological reasons.

This idea lies in the tradition of Balmary (1982), Krüll (1979) and Kupfersmid (1993) who assume that neither Freud's published nor his unpublished arguments were relevant but rather that psychical reasons were responsible for his rejecting the seduction theory. Kupfersmid (1993), for instance, referring to Freud's statement that “my own father was one of these perverts and is responsible for the hysteria of my brother…and those of several younger sisters” (letter to Flies, 11 February 1897, 1985c, pp. 230f.), argues that one reason for his renouncement might have been that Freud, to uphold his seduction theory, would have had to conclude that his father's behaviour was suspect. By giving up the seduction theory in favour of the Oedipus complex, the parents were not culprits. It was no longer the parent who seduced the child, but the child who wished to seduce the parent.

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Medium 9781855758414

CHAPTER FOUR: Silence and the arts

Kenny, Colum Karnac Books ePub

Artists and other creative people have long made use of silence in their work, finding silence conducive to their Muse or incorporating it into the very fabric of their art. Artists may also, as we have seen, decide that it is appropriate to fall silent publicly in respect of their work or even of art in general. For James Joyce, who left Dublin and who for years lived in Trieste, silence was a means of avoiding close engagement with others who might have suffocated him creatively. He has the semi-autobiographical Stephen Dedalus say, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man that was first published in serial form in 1914–1915,

I will try to express myself in some mode of life or art as freely as I can and as wholly as I can, using for my defence the only arms I allow myself to use—silence, exile and cunning (p. 191).

Silence on the stage or during a film, in music or poetry or literature, is a powerful and moving force. Its presence, or references to it, can increase our enjoyment and understanding. Artists and architects can even evoke silence through the visual or spatial dimensions of their creations. Silence may be manifest in many different forms and techniques, enhancing the beauty and meaning of a creative work. It may be an object of contemplation or praise, or the theme of a narrative, or an intrinsic part of a work's structure. When considering types of silence in the first chapter above, various literary and poetic creations were mined for illustration. Literature and poetry are now revisited, along with drama, dance, film, television, and music, in order to underline the importance of silence in the arts.

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Medium 9781780490816

Chapter Sixteen - Jung and the Buddha: Dialogue with Jackie Van Roosmalen

Pozzi Monzo, Maria Karnac Books ePub

Dialogue with Jackie Van Roosmalen

Grant me the courage to change

that which can be changed

The strength to endure what cannot

be changed

And the wisdom to know the difference.

—Reinholt Niebuhr

Reference

Sinason, V. (2010). Mental Handicap and the Human Condition. London: Free Association Books.

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Medium 9781855756250

Chapter Eleven: Psychodynamic considerations for diversity consultancy in organizations

Eleftheriadou, Zack Karnac Books ePub

Aileen Alleyne

This chapter discusses psychodynamic considerations for diversity consultancy in organizations where the challenge to address wide-ranging issues of difference is paramount. To put this topic into context, we must first acknowledge that the workplace can be a major source of daily stress, conflict, and disruptive change. Harm to personal well-being and poor organizational relationships can be the result, and these factors can threaten workplace efficiency as well as the organization's reputation. Added to this, when tensions and misunderstandings from cultural and racial differences exist, workplace difficulties can often be exacerbated, leading to gridlock and breakdown. External consultancy can be an important intervention to enable organizations to work with these conflicts and develop ways of reducing conflict and boosting workplace morale and productivity.

Organizational consultancy can provide a range of services that could incorporate training, supervision, independent and impartial advice, direction, group facilitation, and mediation. The consultant's role is to work collaboratively with employers and their employees to help them examine both their individual and organizational work practices, set realistic goals, develop ways to work effectively with diversity, and create an atmosphere of equality and inclusion for all. External consultancy can also be seen as an investment, which may work out as being cost-productive to organizations that may otherwise become trapped and embroiled in expensive complaints procedures. Consultancy, in this respect, can help repair damage brought about by old workplace cultures that have gone unchallenged over time. Experienced consultants will be able to offer a combination of psychotherapeutic, organizational, groupwork, coaching and teaching skills, as well as provide impartial and expert support designed for damage limitation and developing reflexive practices for achieving effective organizational outcomes.

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Medium 9781855752856

A Reading of an Ethics of Psychoanalysis from Freud's

Karnac Books ePub

Helen Sheehan

Rilke asked in his letters, ‘how is it possible to live when the fundamental of things, our life, is so incomprehensible,—when we are always inadequate in love, wavering in our determination and impotent in the face of death—how is it possible to exist?’ (Rilke 1988: 264).

He continues: ‘I have not managed to conquer my amazement at the fact that for thousands of years humanity has been concerning itself with life and death (not to speak of God) yet even today (and for how much longer?) stands in front of these primary—these immediate tasks (strictly speaking the only ones we have—for what else can we do?) So helplessly, so pitiably caught between terror and evasion like the veriest beginners. Is it not incredible? My amazement over this fact when I give way to it drives me into the greatest confusion and then into a sort of horror; but behind the horror there is something else; something so immediate and yet transcending all immediacy, something so intense that I cannot decide with my feeling whether it be like fire or ice’ (Rilke 1988: 264).

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Medium 9781912567188

4. The Legacy of Wilfred Bion

Glover, Nicky Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

The legacy of Wilfred Bion

“Meaning is revealed by the pattern formed and the light thus trapped—not by the structure, the carved work itself”

(Bion, 1991, Book I)

Over the past forty years, Bion's work has influenced a number of thinkers—practitioners and non-practitioners alike—who are concerned with art and creativity. Since this book was first compiled, Bion studies have flourished, and there are now available a wealth of books and articles in English and other languages. For example: Symington & Symington (1996); Sandler (2005); Bleandonu (1994). Jacobus (2005) is one of the few who have explored the connection between Bion's ideas and philosophical aesthetics. This chapter will look at Bion's development of Freud's and Klein's metapsychology and the impact of his ideas on current aesthetic debate, largely developed through the work of Donald Meltzer and his step-daughter, Meg Harris Williams.

The evolution of Bion's work begins with his early papers on schizophrenia in the 1950s, which were the basis of the elaboration of a more sophisticated “theory of thinking”, developed in 1962. His earlier writings (pre-1970) attempt to place psychoanalysis on a more “scientific” footing, using various analogies mainly taken from mathematics, geometry, biology, physics, and chemistry. These methods of exposition, however, largely fell short of Bion's expectations, and in his pursuit of a new universe of discourse we see him gradually shifting away from the scientific to the more aesthetic and mystical (religious) vertices, drawing upon an impressive array of philosophers, poets, and mystics, including Sophocles, Plato, Meister Eckhart, Kant, Shakespeare, Milton, and Keats.

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Medium 9781855758247

CHAPTER FOUR: Love in the time of psychotherapy

Gerrard, Jackie Karnac Books ePub

Love in the time of psychotherapy

“It is the physician’s love that heals the patient”

(attributed to Ferenczi)

It has long seemed to me that “love”, in our work as psychoanalytical psychotherapists, seems to have been much neglected. I believe that most patients who present for analysis or psychotherapy feel themselves quite unlovable at some very deep level. My hypothesis in this chapter is that until and unless there can be felt moments of love for the patient by the therapist the patient is not able to develop fully. I think it is only when a patient can arouse our deepest loving feelings (not empathy) that we can really hope for a truly positive outcome from our work.

At times when I have questioned changes in patients, I have asked myself “Do I love X because he/she is making use of me and starting to change?” (my narcissism); or, indeed, “is it because I have found myself able to love him/her that growth and a sense of lovableness are now possible?” (allowing his/her healthy narcissism to develop). Paradoxically, I may discover my loving feelings when a patient is finally able to vent his/her rage and hate towards me or when a patient is struggling to reach, or has managed to reach, feelings of pain, loss, despair, joy, etc., either towards me or towards some significant other. I may find my loving feelings when a very “concrete” patient shows some capacity for play and symbolization. In other words, those moments, not of compassion, pity, or empathy, but of an unspoken rush of feeling of “I really love you” for a patient, can arise at various times and within many scenarios. In my first analysis, when I felt unlovable very often, even though I had many loving relationships in my life, I wanted urgently to know if my analyst loved me. Her wise response was something like “when you come to feel loved by me, then you will know”. It was very true. It happened again in my second analysis. In hindsight, although many years of hard work and interpretation were undergone by both of us, what mattered most to me was that I reached a deeply felt sense of being lovable.

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Medium 9781855759206

17. Man without God?

Rickman, John Karnac Books ePub

A belief in one God or in many gods is almost universal in mankind, but there are individuals—and worthy ones—who live full, kindly and creative lives without apparently, any such belief. So a belief in God, though widespread, is not a necessity in Man’s life, as are oxygen and food. Without these last, no one can live for long; without a belief in God, however, some people can develop harmoniously—indeed, it is sometimes difficult to tell from their behaviour, even under stress, whether those people believe in God or not.

How the idea of God arises

I think it unwise to make general statements on a subject of this kind because general statements so often express the aspirations of the speaker rather than a reflection of what we see in the world around us. Instead, I want to put some questions, as much to myself as to you: when does the idea of God come into the individual’s mental life? Is there in the course of a man’s life a change or series of changes in the pattern or quality of this idea? What function does the God-idea serve in the development of the personality? Can the idea of an omnipotent God ever act as an inhibiting factor in the growth of the personality or of the intelligence? Is it possible that disbelief may be an endeavour to free the mind from an unnecessary constraint? What factors alter an individual’s apparent need for God, and is there a direct or an inverse relation between the need for God and other of man’s needs? And lastly, under what conditions does a person become, or appear to become, independent of a belief in God?

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Medium 9781780490250

1: Rejection, refusal, denial: developing capacities for negation

Karnac Books ePub

1

Bonnie E. Litowitz

In 1925 Freud published a brief paper on negation. This paper has endured as a classic, not because Freud could produce the definitive explanation of this concept in such a few pages, but because he brought to public awareness a fundamental and pervasive aspect of how the mind works. Since its publication, psychoanalytic writers, as well as those from other disciplines, have returned again and again to the paper as a point of departure for their own explorations of its insights.

Coming to psychoanalysis with a background in formal linguistics and developmental psycholinguistics, I was aware of the importance of negation in logic (and therefore in all scientific inquiry). But I was also aware that children are not born with the capacity to negate as Freud described it. A capacity for negation has its own course of development, during which it takes different forms. In a paper published in 1998 (Litowitz, 1998) I explored further logical and developmental implications of Freud’s original insights, a review of which I present below.

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Medium 9781855752023

Chapter Twenty-Eight: An Alternative Formulation of the Bipolarity Symmetrical-Asymmetrical (Unconscious-Conscious)

Blanco, Ignacio Matte Karnac Books ePub

We shall tackle in this chapter various questions which, I believe, may help to gain further insight into the subjects discussed.

As was seen in Chapter 3, the principle of generalisation was formulated in terms of classes. So, initially, was the principle of symmetry. Classes are defined in terms of prepositional functions. A class may itself be a subclass of a (more general) class, which is formulated in terms of a prepositional function of a more general type, i.e. which includes a greater number of subclasses or individuals. Seen in this light the principle of generalisation is an expression of a logical procedure which leads to more and more general classes.

For our psychological purposes there is another way of looking at the same question. We may consider a set formed by a variety of heterogeneous elements which have in common only the fact that they belong to the set. If the principle of symmetry is applied to this set, then each subset or element becomes identical to any other subset or element. Consequently, from a symmetrical-logical point of view, each element has the properties or defining features of all of the odier elements or subsets, even in those aspects which do not refer to the prepositional function defining the set (or class). (This has already been seen in Chapter 3.) Suppose we form a set by joining the set composed of all women and the set composed of all men. If the principle of symmetry is applied, all and any of the women are men and all and any of the men are women. This implies a more general class or set which includes both the women and the men, mat is, the more general class of human beings. But, on account of the application of the principle of symmetry, any element (man or woman) is identical to any other clement and to the whole class, hence any man is a woman and any woman is a man.

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Medium 9781855758001

CHAPTER ELEVEN: From under long shadows: identification and disidentification in analysis

Karnac Books ePub

Thomas P. Helscher

An object-choice, an attachment of the libido to a particular person, had at one time existed; then, owing to a real slight or disappointment coming from this loved person, the object-relationship was shattered. The result was not the normal one of a withdrawal of the libido from this object and a displacement of it on to a new one, but something different, for whose coming-about various conditions seem to be necessary. The object cathexis proved to have little power of resistance and was brought to an end. But the free libido was not displaced on to another object; it was withdrawn into the ego. There, however, it was not employed in any unspecified way, but served to establish an identification of the ego with the abandoned object. Thus the shadow of the object fell upon the ego, and the latter could henceforth be judged by a special agency, as if it were an object, the forsaken object.

—Freud (1917, p. 249, italics added)

What was really wrong with his heart was, however, eloquently revealed in another dream—a dream in which he saw his heartlying on a plate and his mother lifting it with a spoon (i.e., in the act of eating it). Thus it was because he had internalized his mother as a bad object that he felt his heart to be affected by a fatal disease; and he had internalized her, bad object that she was for him, because as a child he needed her.

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Medium 9781782204053

Warsaw, Monday, 5 January, 1903

Stein, Itzik Karnac Books ePub

His suspicions were confirmed when, at the end of the riot, Oleg approached Rayatz.

“I hope you don't have any more trouble until the end of the trip,” he said.

“We're used to incidents like this,” Rayatz replied.

“How's your father?” Oleg asked kindly.

“He's resting now,” Rayatz replied calmly.

“A friend of mine needs some advice and I wondered if he might see him,” said the secretary in a tone of voice that suggested he wouldn't take no for an answer. “I imagine his diary is full, but perhaps tomorrow, before leaving, he might grant him an audience.”

Rayatz knew that individual meetings required exhaustive preparation and demanded a great deal of Rashab's energy. At private audiences the rabbi invested himself in his fellow man's concerns to then divest himself of them. This shift meant a great spiritual effort and such a deep understanding of the other that there was no room for argument. The connection with him was so intense, it demanded that the rabbi ascend to a higher plane to then return to Earth. Hence, once the audience was over, the rabbi would not allow any questions and must rest at least a few moments.

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