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Chapter Five: Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Sanctuary within Caregiving Organisations: The Eighteenth John Bowlby Memorial Lecture

Karnac Books ePub

Sandra Bloom

Introduction: changing paradigms

In the nineteenth century, an American poet named John Godfrey Saxe retold in verse, an old Indian parable about the blind men and the elephant. In the poem, six blind men travel to see what an elephant looks like and in so doing, each one individually grabs hold of a part of the elephant and mistakes it for the whole. This poem stands as a superb metaphor for our understanding of human nature up until now, with every discipline declaring its own explanations for various aspects of reality.

But a new paradigm is emerging from neuroscience, medicine, developmental paediatrics, evolutionary science, genetics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy that is destined to change our view of human beings and our place in the world. Although still lacking an appropriate, encompassing word, this new way of thinking is already beginning to have significant impact on caregiving services under the general rubric of “trauma-informed care”, because it originated in the study of post traumatic stress disorder and related complex problems.

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Medium 9781782201632

CHAPTER THREE When I grow up I want to have sex: working with children and young adults

Corbett, Alan Karnac Books PDF


When I grow up I want to have sex: working with children and young adults


n his 1912 book The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of

Feeble-Mindedness the American psychologist Henry H. Goddard told the story of “Deborah Kallikak” a woman he worked with in the New Jersey Home for the Education and Care of Feebleminded

Children (Goddard, 1912). Goddard had an interest in studying the origins of disability and, using Deborah as a case study, he traced her genealogy back to Martin Kallikak, her great-great-great grandfather, a Revolutionary War hero married to a Quaker woman. While still a young man, Martin had a sexual encounter with a “feeble-minded” barmaid that resulted in a son. Martin himself went on to become a respected citizen, head of a family of prosperous and successful children. Two branches of the Kallikak family tree were thus created: one containing disability and one without. Goddard concluded that the disabled branch, descending from the barmaid, was peopled by the insane, the delinquent, and the criminal, seemingly proving his hypothesis that

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Medium 9781782200659

CHAPTER NINE Are dreams still the guardians of sleep?

Civitarese, Giuseppe Karnac Books PDF


Are dreams still the guardians of sleep?

Giving the body back to the mind

Godzilla, Bob, King Kong, Zero, Leonard Smalls (aka the Lone Biker of the Apocalypse), the Strangers, the Hamiltons, the Hulk, the monsters of They, Nosferatu, Chigurh—these are just some of the extraordinary characters that populate cinematic dreams and later enter our own dreams (or is it the other way round?). They give shape and form to the dark depths of the soul that we deal with as analysts. But what is ultimately the function of this colourful assortment of spectres?

In this chapter I want to attempt a concluding summary. I would be satisfied if the reader who retraces his path through the pages of the book were able to gain a sufficiently clear idea of the elements of continuity—but also the differences—between the various models.

Central among these differences is Bion’s introduction of the concepts of the α function and waking dream thought. I have come back to these two points on several occasions but each time from different angles, in much the same way as a leitmotif recurs in ever new forms in a musical score. The unsolved problem that these concepts help to frame is the shift from body to mind, from proto-sensations and proto-emotions to images.


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Medium 9781904658313

King of Disks

Zalewski, Chris; Zalewski, Pat Aeon Books ePub

The King of Disks wears a winged bulls’ head emblem above his crown, on his breast and knee guards. This emblem represent quickapplication of strength, power and determination and it is also linked to his Taurean nature. The sigil of his scale is a hexagram within a square. This differs from that of the Knight because the King is more stable, hence the square Prithivi Tattwa of Earth shows solidarity. The Wand he holds has a cross, a symbol of spirit descending into matter through Earth into the Septenary which binds him to matter. The orb he holds is reversed showing that he has not utilised its power correctly. The flowers beneath him are life and growth.

As Prince of the Gnomes he acts through the gaseous nature of Earth that is entrapped below the Earth's surface. He is responsible for helping humanity through this type of fuel and frequently he will also work with other elementals as well, especially the Knight of Disks, King of the Salamanders. He often considers himself a guardian of the earth's hidden treasures and will prevent humans from finding them by protecting them with his gaseous nature, especially in tunnels and mines.

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Medium 9780950164762


Ernest Jones Karnac Books ePub

FROM time to time in the course of the past fifty yeats or more a fresh wave of interest has been aroused in the subject of autosuggestion. These waves fall into four or five fairly well-marked periods, but it is not proposed to give any historical description of them here. On reviewing the literature produced by these different periods one does not, I am afraid, get the impression that the last half-century has seen any serious addition to our knowledge of the subject, which remains much as it was in the days of Baragnon,2 seventy years ago, who- discussed it under the name of auto-magnitisation.

That being so, it would be tempting to seek elsewhere than in scientific curiosity for the source of the interest that periodically continues to be taken in the subject, and one might in this connection throw out the following suggestions. Assuming that there really is a phenomenon of auto-suggestion, and that its therapeutic value can compare with that of the usual suggestion treatment, then it is clear that the use of it presents two features that are bound to make a wide appeal. In the first place, the idea caters to the universal desire for’ free will’ and flatters the narcissistic sense of omnipotence by according with its favourite conception of the ego as a self-sufficing and self-acting agent, independent of the outer world and able to gratify all its wishes by the incantation of magic verbal formulae.3 In the second place, it specifically delivers the patient from the most dreaded form of outer dependence—namely, the sexual transference which psycho-analysis has shown to underlie what must for the sake of convenience be termed hetero-suggestion.4 The motives just indicated probably apply to the physician as well as to the patient, for in treating numbers of patients en masse by ‘ auto-suggestion ‘ he can gratify the hypnotist’s sense of power without needing to become aware of the accompanying personal (and sexual) dependence of the patients. The medical dread of this transference relationship is well known, and I surmise that we may also attribute to it the fact that so many hypnotists have, during the past forty years, insisted on their preference of ‘ suggestion in the waking state ‘ to hypnotism proper; one need only instance the names of Bernheim, Bramwell, Forel, Van Renterghem, and Vogt.

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Medium 9781904658313

Four of Swords

Zalewski, Chris; Zalewski, Pat Aeon Books ePub

In the Four of Swords the central Rose is not pierced but rather enclosed and held by the four Swords. The Rose, as the central point,is intact but the swords still threaten it. The crossed Swords actually lock themselves together nullifying their own action. The Rose, as such, represents a haven from the strife of the Swords. The symbol formed by the swords and rose is the double cross, which implies, due to the presence of the rose, resurrection from the Cinders.

The alchemical association is the third stage of Cibation, which is a resuscitation, or resurrection as mentioned above. Although the clouds have lifted to the sides of the card, they still meet at the bottom. In the “Treatise on the Great Art” Dom Antoine-Joseph Pernety says:

At all times bodies exhale a subtle vapour, this is manifested more clearly in summer. The warm air sublimates the waters into vapours and attracts them to itself. When, after a rain, the rays of the sun beam upon the earth, one sees it smoke and exhale itself in vapour. These vapours hover in the air in the form of fogs, when they do not rise far above the surface of the earth: But when they mount to the middle region, one sees them float, here and there, in the form of clouds …

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Medium 9781782200925

Chapter Four

Espy, John C. Karnac Books ePub


After school started Lori and Gerald were still talking about getting a new place but hadn't done anything about it. They were three months behind on their rent and the landlord was beginning to hound them something awful, always knocking on their door wanting his money. Lori told him he'd get it when she had it.

Late on a Friday night in October, Lori, Gerald and the boys moved into a small pink house not too far from Roland's high school. She didn't leave a forwarding address with anyone except Bar Jonah. Usually they wrote each other about once a week. Bar Jonah didn't get over there much at all. It was too far to drive and he didn't have much money. He was also working more hours at Hardee's. But he sure missed her and the boys. Someday they were going to have to set some time aside to have a big dinner, Bar Jonah wrote.

A couple of months after school started, Bar Jonah began visiting Lincoln Elementary almost exclusively. A couple of the teachers at the other schools commented that they were surprised Bar Jonah hadn't been coming around on patrol. He said that he had been temporarily reassigned but he was back now. One of the teachers joked that Bar Jonah was more predictable than the school clock. When the teacher looked out the window and saw Bar Jonah, she knew her day was almost over.

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Medium 9781855750210


Karnac Books ePub

It is essential that this exercise is prefaced by an explanation of Minuchin’s meaning of intensification by which he means amplifying or exaggerating a dysfunctional interaction as a challenge to the existing structure. There are a number of different methods that he describes, i.e., repetition of the message, repetition of isomorphic transactions, changing the time and resisting the family pull. These will need to be described beforehand and can all be practised within this exercise.

Aim: Skills practice of intensification.


1. The group can be asked to present a family.

2. The group can be asked to map the family.

3. The group can make a restructuring plan.

4. The teacher can decide with the group what area to focus on for the interview.

5. The group can then plan the interview with the instruction that the therapist will attempt to restructure the family with the use of intensification techniques.

The role play can be set up and enacted. Everybody in the group needs to have a part in the role play in some form. It is helpful to have two therapists from the group working together. Should the therapist find it difficult to stay on task, alternative therapists could be substituted during the role play.

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Medium 9781782201762

Chapter Two - First Tunes—The Labyrinth between Archaeology, Etymology, and Symbology

Tricarico, Giorgio Karnac Books ePub

As a Jungian, I could probably begin with a detailed analytical presentation of the myth of Theseus, knowing that mythical tale is the living expression of the reality of the Soul and thus of inestimable value to a psychologist, who should deal with the Soul itself. But this has already definitely been analysed from every possible point of view (literary, historical, linguistic, archaeological, and even symbolical).

For the purposes of this work, thus, let us leave the famous mythological tale aside, with its characters, their feats, and their possible interpretations, and instead look to explore the meanderings, as it were, which make up the symbol of the labyrinth itself, in search of visions, as Hillman stated,1 and other suggestions made long ago.

A symbol signifies nothing.

“Signi-fy” means “to do a sign, to make a sign”, and so when a symbol signi-fies something, it is dead, it has been killed, it has been forever silenced. If the labyrinth is a symbol, it cannot signi-fy anything but rather can “refer to”, “evoke”, and “allude to” in a fascinating, numinous, and ultimately mysterious way.

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Medium 9781780491318

6: “If one Only Knew What Exists!”

Karnac Books ePub


“If one only knew what exists!”

Laurence Kahn


As a footnote to his translation of Charcot's Tuesday Lectures, commenting on Charcot's famous statement that “la théorie, c'est bon; mais ça n'empêche pas d'exister”, Freud writes: “If one only knew what exists!”—and he emphasized “what” (Freud, 1892–94, p. 139).1

This was in 1887. But to some extent, this marginal note runs through Freud's work as a whole. It leads Freud to state, in his reply to Einstein, that the theory of the drives is our mythology and that the drives are “mythical entities, magnificent in their indefiniteness” (Freud, 1932a, pp. 57, 95). It underlies the analogy inspired by Kant between the internal foreign territory—that is, the repressed—and the external foreign territory—that is, reality—both of which need to be distinguished from the modality of their emergence. And what are we to make of Freud's hesitation regarding the primal murder as primary reality if we consider that, whereas the authoritative text of “The Return of Totemism in Childhood” qualifies the father's murder as “the great primaeval tragedy”, the manuscript in its final version still evokes “the great mythological tragedy” (Freud, 1912–13, p. 156; Grubrich-Simitis, 1996, p. 173)?

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Medium 9781780490038

12. The social construction of school exclusion

Karnac Books ePub

Sadegh Nashat & Sue Rendall

Children grow up within a network of complex systems. These include the child’s own inner world, a system comprising, for example, personality, attribution, innate abilities; the family, a system comprising, for example, culture, dynamics between family members, family structures, family scripts; and the school, system comprising, for example, culture and ethos (Rendall & Stuart, 2005).

This chapter offers an understanding of school exclusion within different levels of contexts and explores how these are interconnected. Historically and geographically, the act of excluding children and young people from school has taken different shapes and significance, largely influenced by social and political processes. Despite claims that policies and educational decision-making are evidence-based, our experience is that there is a resistance to acknowledging different forces that influence those processes, and therefore, perhaps, a denial of the complexities involved.

In the first part of the chapter, we present the theoretical lenses through which we explored the social construction of school exclusion. Later we draw upon case studies to illustrate connections between individual and social narratives. The experiences of being excluded from school, as reported by pupils, parents, and families, professionals and institutions, will be seen through different lenses and, as shown in the subsequent examples, result in different constructions of events—different “truths”.

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Medium 9781780491134

Chapter Three - The Emotional Impact of Cancer on Children and their Families

Jonathan Burke Karnac Books ePub

Anthony Lee and Jane Elfer

The child and adolescent psychotherapy discipline at University College London Hospital (UCLH) is part of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychological Medicine, which also comprises teams of clinical and systemic psychologists and child and adolescent psychiatrists. With two other child and adolescent psychotherapists and a child and adolescent psychotherapist in training, we provide a psychoanalytic psychotherapy service to children and their families and to young people referred from within the hospital. We dedicate a significant proportion of our time to work with the young people who are treated in the teenage and young adult service, as well to the many young children who are treated here for their cancer in the paediatric service. A high proportion of children with brain tumours come to UCLH for radiotherapy treatment.

In this chapter, we consider aspects of our experience of working closely with children with cancer. Through case material and with reference to the literature, we will attempt to construct a narrative around the emotional impact of cancer on children and their families. It is an account drawn from our close observations of the children and their families and from our countertransference responses from being in their company.

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Medium 9781855756441

2 The work discussion seminar: a learning environment

Karnac Books ePub

Jonathan Bradley

This chapter considers the potential for and process of learning in a work discussion seminar. The relationship between the seminar leader and the members of the group is at the heart of the learning experience. The material brought to the seminar is often profoundly painful and upsetting for both presenter and listeners. The crucial role of the seminar leader is in finding a way for the group to become aware of the nature of the distress being communicated by the worker, and by client to worker, to be able to hold on to it for long enough to get beyond immediate defensive responses, and ultimately to understand more about how the worker's relationship to the client may be able to modulate the emotional situation helpfully.

This kind of learning becomes possible as the seminar leader directs members' attention away from learning additional facts and towards reflection on practice. Those taking part in a seminar may well find that no one else there shares their profession. This could lead to a view of their being the undisputed expert in their field or, by contrast, allow them to become part of a group where they are free to reflect on their work in a different way. The seminar leader's task is to help the group to move in this direction.

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Medium 9781855750876

35. Philosophy and Psycho-Analysis (1912)

Sandor Ferenczi Karnac Books ePub

(Comments on a paper by Professor J. J. Putnam of Harvard University)2

THE distinguished professor of the Harvard medical school, in a paper motivated by the loftiest intentions and written with all the persuasiveness of honest conviction, argues warmly that psycho-analysis, the importance of which as a psychological and therapeutic method he unreservedly accepts, should be brought into relation with wider philosophical concepts.

All analysts will certainly accept and agree with a large part of what he says. The psychologist who makes it his task to deepen our knowledge of the human soul cannot afford to exclude from his field of observation those philosophical systems which humanity rightly holds in high regard, in which distinguished minds have set forth their profoundest convictions about the nature and meaning of the universe. Analysis having discovered permanent psychological truths, disguised in symbolic form, in those long-despised products of the popular mind, myths and fairy-tales, it is certainly to be hoped that new viewpoints and new discoveries will result from the study of philosophy and history. Also no psycho-analyst will deny that ‘no form of investigation can thrive unless its natural relations with investigations of other kinds are carefully taken into account’. Psycho-analysis is not so immodest as to claim to be able to explain everything out of its own resources and, though we are still far from having exhausted all the things that can be explained analytically, we already have a rough idea where the boundaries of our science lie, and where we must hand over the task of explanation to other disciplines, e.g. physics, chemistry, and biology.

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Medium 9781855758285

Chapter Six: Tailor-made therapy for the child: new developments in Winnicottian work with young people

Brafman, A.H. Karnac Books ePub

Winnicott was twice a president of the British Psychoanalytic Society and he was equally prominent in the medical and paediatric worlds: but if his colleagues treated him with respect, there was also a thinly disguised position of antagonism. We had no Winnicottians. Now, so many years after his death, Winnicott is becoming increasingly popular. Italians love him, Spanish analysts study him, in Latin America and France meetings and courses are being organized to spread his theories and techniques. Indeed, increasing numbers of professionals are keen to be recognized as Winnicottians.

I think there are several Winnicotts now mobilizing the attention of the psychodynamic community. The one I most admire is the paediatrician who became a child analyst. Winnicott saw an enormous number of children and, above all, he knew how to engage them. As Clare Winnicott wrote (1977): ‘Readers will sense Winni-cott’s own enjoyment in his play with the child. He perceives and accepts the transference, but he does much more: he brings it to life by enacting the various roles allotted to him’. He could express complex and profound experiences and views in a deceptively simple manner. It is important to remember that Winnicott had a deep artistic vein: he painted, he played the piano, and his writings often contain the touch that only poets can bring to life. But, much like Freud, Winnicott wanted to be seen as a scientist, and this is what probably led him to emphasize the conceptual elements in his findings.

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