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Medium 9781855756410

25. Wu Wang / Innocence (The Unexpected)

Peggy Jones Karnac Books ePub

above Ch'ien / The Creative, Heaven

below Chên / The Arousing, Thunder

above Sun / The Penetrating, Wind, Wood

below Kên / Keeping Still, Mountain

The meaning of ‘innocent’ derives from the Latin, nocere, to hurt or harm. Innocence is not-harming, harmlessness. It is important to differentiate unconscious innocence, a condition of the very young and the hapless, from a more consciously cultivated attitude of trusting mindfulness and lack of prejudice. If it is rigorous and not simply disingenuous (open-eyed rather than wide-eyed), then this attitude leads to a quiet readiness to welcome whatever appears, a lack of fearfulness, spaciousness, and the absence of self-seeking behaviour.

At any point in life, but particularly in the early stages of a new project, we may be inclined towards high ideals and choices based on the most elevated of principles. There is an innocence in this attitude that may enable us to stride forth into even the most threatening of situations where, if we were to be more calculating, we would hold back. As long it sustains us, there is no harm in it, but as soon as we have to sustain the attitude in order to keep going, innocence - especially if it is accompanied by impulsiveness - will prove itself to be insufficiently robust to withstand even the ordinary trials of life. Where it is strong enough to meet and even welcome challenges without sacrificing the original spaciousness and absence of personal agenda, innocence will have been tempered into something like wisdom.

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Medium 9781576753538

Chapter 11: Moving Forward for an Extraordinary Future

Tojo Thatchenkery Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

First, say to yourself what you would be; and then do what you have to do.

—Epictetus (2nd century A.D.)

It is difficult to imagine that before the 1800s, there weren’t standard names or classifications of clouds. Humans have always watched the skies, but it wasn’t until 1802 that amateur meteorologist Luke Howard classified and labeled cirrus, cumulus, and stratus clouds.1 His identification and naming conventions provided a foundation for scientists and the general population alike to categorize all clouds as a variety of three basic forms, disseminate knowledge about them, study them further, and apply the information to weather prediction. The language itself gave people a way to make sense of the natural phenomenon of clouds. Over time, many people have forgotten or have never known that cloud names or the scientific study of clouds did not always exist.

Similarly, the ability to see the mighty oak in the acorn has always been at play, and throughout history it has shaped leaders, innovators, entrepreneurs, and their success. Like farmers and sailors who developed their own systems for understanding clouds as signs of warning or fair weather, leadership scholars and innovation experts have seen and noted successful people’s novel perspectives and vision. Introducing Appreciative Intelligence, identifying it, and labeling it as a distinct form of intelligence, however, as in this book, have significant ramifications for individuals and organizations.

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Medium 9781605095257

17. The Writing Marathon

Mark Levy Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

A ten-minute burst of freewriting may be just what you need to solve a problem. Many times, though, you’ll need longer. Instead of ten minutes, you may need six or seven hours.

Yep, I’m not kidding. Hours.

The bad part of writing nearly continuously for hours: By the end, you find yourself achy and bleary-eyed. The good part: You may have written yourself into answers that had eluded you for a lifetime.

Because this technique takes a toll on both body and mind, I use it when the stakes are high. Maybe I have to generate material for a book, competitive advantages for a client’s business, or illusions for a show. A deadline invariably looms.

Here’s how the writing marathon works: Fix your subject in your mind, open a blank document, set your timer for twenty minutes, and start typing.

You’re going to be writing throughout the next few hours, but that’s no reason to start slow. Slow writing, in fact, is counterproductive. Keep up the pace, so your internal editor loses its grip. Ray Bradbury says, “In quickness there is truth.”

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Medium 9781855753990

CHAPTER SIX. A complex consideration

Theo A. Cope Karnac Books ePub

Throughout the course of this work, I have asserted a proposition: if Jung’s doctrine of the emotional complexes is a valid scientific hypothesis, then we should find empirical support for it in current scientific literature. While one can surely pick and choose scientific data to support almost any contention, it falls on experimental procedures to later falsify or verify such hypotheses. In Chapter Two, mention was made of Pierce’s scientific concept of abduction. There I asserted that abduction is widely used, though seldom discussed in scientific literature. I stated, “Abduction is a process that looks for a pattern in a phenomenon and suggests a hypothesis that is worth pursuing; though there are myriad hypotheses that can explain every phenomenon, abduction allows the investigator intuitively to have a sense of which ones are valuable and practical.”

It is this method that I have followed in my investigations of Jung’s complex doctrine. As a hypothesis, this complex doctrine must have explanatory power for the phenomena of emotion in general and traumatic experience in particular; moreover, it needs to have practical value for therapy and daily life. It must also, it seems, answer the following question as suggested by Magnani (1998): does the complex doctrine best explain the psychological experience of emotions? Is it a plausible theory upon this basis, and a more expansive empiricism?

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Medium 9781782204879

Chapter Five: The Suicidal Condition

Antonia Murphy Karnac Books ePub

In the introductory chapters we have examined some of the ideas, common constructs, understandings, and misunderstandings about suicidality. Now we will look further into the condition of the suicidal mind and examine it in some depth. The hope is that we may then have both a better understanding of this condition and also perhaps be relieved of some of the terror, rejection, guilt, or disdain, or other strong feelings, that may arise when we are asked to think about suicide. That which is able to be faced is better able to be accepted than that which is not. To accept that the condition of suicide might always be with us as part of the human struggle is not the same as ignoring it with a phlegmatic/dismissive “People kill themselves so we should just let them”, nor is it the same as trying to stop it happening, but rather it is about our decision and our ability to tolerate it. This of itself is a helpful act, perhaps the most helpful act in relation to the suicidal person: for us to try to tolerate what the suicidal person believes cannot be tolerated by them or about them.

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Medium 9780946439942

CHAPTER ELEVEN: A moving tribute to Freud

Joan Riviere Karnac Books ePub

Joan Riviere wrote this tribute to Freud a week after his death on 23 September 1939, in London. It is a moving account of her appreciation of his genius and of his vision but, most importantly, of Freud the man; he comes alive as a person of great integrity and inflexible honesty, of humour and sensitivity. He had expressed surprise (letter to Jones, 23 September 1927) that Riviere found Melanie Klein’s theories of child development relevant. Riviere however had no difficulty in reconciling theories of Freud with those that she considered extended his work. Her loyalty to the man and his enormous contribution to science and the world is apparent in this tribute. She never lost her appreciation of Freud although she was at the same time ready to admire and explore new ideas.

Her statement that ‘his power to see new facts and to check his observations diminished after his operation in 1924’ might be queried by some. However, it can be seen to echo what Freud himself had said in his ‘Postscript’ (1935a) to An Autobiographical Study (1925d [1924]): that since the time he had put forward his ‘hypothesis of the existence of two classes of instinct (Eros and the death instinct) and proposed a division of the mind into ego, superego and id’ he had made ‘no further decisive contributions to psycho-analysis’.

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Medium 9781855756793

2. On the Survival Function of Autistic Maneuvers in Adult Patients

Judith L. Mitrani Karnac Books ePub

The skin is an envelope which emits and receives signals in interaction with the environment; it “vibrates” in resonance with it; it is animated and alive inside, clear and luminous. The autistic child has a notion-doubtless genetically pre-programmed-of such an envelope, but for want of concrete experiences to bring it into being the envelope remains empty, dark, inanimate, dumb. Autistic envelopes thus provide a proof a contrario of the structure and functions of the Skin Ego.

[Didier Anzieu, The Skin Ego]

Francis Tustin (1972, 1981, 1986, 1990) devoted her life’s work to the psychoanalytic understanding of the bewildering elemental world of the autistic child. Her realization that some of our more neurotic adult patients are haunted by the same primeval forces that constitute an enclave of autism has been profound. The notion that autistic maneuvers serve as a protective shell against the terrifying awareness of bodily separateness and dissolution into nothingness has had a substantial impact upon the rethinking of such notable analysts as Boyer (1990), Grotstein (1983), D. Rosenfeld (1984), and H. A. Rosenfeld (1987).

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Medium 9781855750289

10. The patient-therapist fit and countertransference reaction in the light of frame theory

Athina Alexandris Karnac Books ePub

Hector Worries

Bion has captured the concept of the frame in his metaphor of the artist in whose painting “something has remained unaltered and on this something recognition depends” (Bion, 1977, p. 1). The invariants of a painting by an impressionist and a realist would convey different meanings. The frame has been compared by Bleger (1966) to the mere background of a Gestalt that may evolve into a figure. The background would be the constant, the invariant factor or the non-process, and the figure the transformation, the variable or the process. The frame is therefore the invariant element that is “the receiver of the symbiosis” (p. 513) and in that sense expresses the maternal configuration. The analytic process itself is pregnant with ambiguity and multiple meanings and does not contain the symbiotic experience. The frame acts as a support of the analytic process but does not accept its ambiguity. It is similar to the child’s symbiosis with the mother, which enables him to develop his ego in a background of safety and support. Within the frame or the container, there is a space and an analytic atmosphere, which may have certain characteristics—that is, optimal distance, refusal to play a role, neutrality, self-effacement, and benevolence. The analytic frame is deliberately unbalanced in order to activate unconscious meanings. The frame of transference expectations usually finds sufficient fit with what is transpiring in the analytic frame.

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Medium 9781855758988

1: The analytic legacy

Peter Blake Karnac Books ePub

WHY HISTORY?

Rosa, a 17-year-old girl, has just thrown a brick through the window of a church. This is next to the clinic she attends for weekly psychotherapy.

Anne, her therapist, hears the breaking glass and rushes out of the clinic to see Rosa and a small group of girls running away. In this scene it is hard to see how Anne knowing about the history of psychoanalytic work with children could be of any relevance to helping her work with Rosa, yet it is. Anne must recover from the shock of this incident and begin to think about why Rosa is doing this. This thinking is crucial in determining what she will do. But she is not alone in this process. She has the benefit of over one hundred years of thinking and clinical experience of great minds to help her understand what may be going on for Rosa. The conceptual and technical tools used by current child therapists are the legacy of previous generations of therapists, who have shared their thoughts in publications and supervision. To understand, and more importantly, to challenge these historical wisdoms, it is imperative to know how they evolved and in what context they were formed.

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Medium 9781855756991

CHAPTER SIX: Revenge ethics

Michael Eigen Karnac Books ePub

Hamlet is asked to avenge his father's murder. He hesitates somewhat, not a very long time. It seems so long because H of everything that goes on inside him. Shakespeare creates a sense of inner monologue that runs throughout the dialogues of the play. It is psychic time that seems so long, an underlying counterpoint to external events and linear time, the march of history. The play is drenched in subjective depths that seem to last forever.

In Rage (2001b), I wrote that Hamlet did not hesitate enough. He was caught between alternative “ethics”, primitive blood revenge and an ethics of subjectivity. I think all revenge is blood revenge. One feels bloodied and responds in kind. Eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Yet, more is involved than equalizing pain. Revenge takes place in an aura of magnification. Pain and blood and wounds and rage are acutely magnified. Literature and cinema portray vengeful faces as distorted. One's being undergoes deformations, visible and invisible.

An inner meaning of revenge ethics is: one tries to right things, redress an injury, right a wrong. Revenge is on the side of some kind of sense of justice, an affective attitude that has pervadedmuch religion. The just God seeks revenge for sin, correcting what has gone awry. A distillation of this tendency is God's urge to wipe out sinful humanity, blotting out disturbance by annihilating it. The image of a primordial flood has never left. Freud called flooding a primal trauma and emotional storms of infancy, in one form or another, find expression, even gather momentum, all life long (Eigen, 2005).

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Medium 9781782203247

8 - Fostering Relationships for Looked after Children

Andrew Briggs Karnac Books ePub

Sara Barratt

I work in a specialist multi-disciplinary team that is part of an NHS CAMHS providing therapeutic services for children who are “looked after”, have been adopted, or are in kinship care. We also provide consultation to professionals. Referrals come from GPs, social workers, and other organizations involved in working with this population; while the majority of children referred to us live in London, we also take referrals from many different parts of the UK. Adoptive and foster families referred to our service do not usually have a biological link to one another, and they are thus in the process of thinking about how they belong together; our work is often to help them work out their relationship together. Developing a sense of belonging and the ability to form attachments is essential for the emotional health of children and adults. This chapter describes our work with foster families considering complex emotions that arise through developing a sense of belonging both for the families that re-configure to include, as is often the case, a non-biologically related member and for that child who is thus included. As a team, we find it important to draw on a range of different therapeutic modalities in order to provide a service that fits for the children referred and their caregivers. Although not discussed in detail here, we include systemic family psychotherapy and child psychotherapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), mindfulness, and mentalization. We also run groups for children, parents, and carers.

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Medium 9781855750326

10. Different Levels of Psychotherapy (1963)

Harry Guntrip Karnac Books ePub

IN the previous chapters an attempt has been made to pursue the analysis of the disturbed personality to the deepest possible levels and to arrive at a truly radical understanding of mental ill-health. This endeavour must go on, and no doubt much more remains yet to be understood. Perhaps the search can never be pushed to an absolute final conclusion. When, however, we turn our attention to the problems of psychotherapy, it is well to remind ourselves that theoretical ultimates must here give way to practical possibilities. The analysis of the schizoid problem must have profound and far-reaching implications for psychotherapy, but only relatively few therapeutic analyses can be carried to that depth. In psychotherapeutic practice we are limited to what the patient wants, and to what his circumstances in a variety of respects make possible. Psychotherapy is a function of at least three variables: the personality and experience of the therapist, the incentives and the nature of the problems of the patient, and the facilitating or frustrating nature of the environment both materially and personally. This is especially clearly emphasized in Freud’s cautionary comment, that things cannot be raised from the unconscious purely by analysis, and we often have to wait for the impact of life itself to trigger off what is repressed. Thus psychotherapy in practice is not a uniform thing and certainly does not go to the same depths with all patients. If we were to consider solely the deepest problems revealed by analysis of the basic schizoid level in the personality, we might be tempted to conclude that radical psychotherapy was beyond our powers. It can certainly only be carried out when therapist and patient can go on together for a very long time.

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Medium 9781855754614

CHAPTER FIVE: Does it matter how much can be put into words? Complexities of speech and the place of other forms of communication in therapeutic work with refugees

Aida Alayarian Karnac Books ePub

Dorothy Daniell

Introduction

These reflections come from three years of work at the Refugee Therapy Centre.

My previous experience has been as a traditionally trained psychotherapist in private practice. I am particularly interested in how these two areas of work relate to, and inform, each other. I am focusing on the situation where client and therapist do not share a common language and an interpreter takes a dynamic part in the work.

Freud's theory and technique in relation to the role of speech in psychoanalysis

Common sense tells us that it matters intensely what can be spoken—in terms of the self being able to recognize its thoughts and feelings, and to share its experience with others.

Behind the naïve question “Does it matter how much can be put into words?” and the common-sense response, “Of course we know that it does!”, we can trace Freud's struggle to develop theory about the centrality of speech in psychoanalysis. He gave his patients a basic rule: that they should say directly whatever came into their minds, while on the couch, without holding anything back. This work of free association, and the analyst's interpretation, had the aim of lifting repression and extending the patient's area of consciousness. Freud also developed his aim of strengthening the patient's ego, by means of the analytic work. A note on the development of Freud's thinking concerning the role of speech related to mental functioning, is placed at the end of this chapter.

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Medium 9781855756564

3. Irony in the Therapeutic Encounter

James Davies Karnac Books ePub

An area of interest that has been increasingly growing in anthropology is that concerned with cultural understandings, manifestations and uses of irony (Crapanzano 2000, Fernandez and Huber 2001; Losche 2001). That this interest has extended itself to encompass the therapeutic encounter appears fitting given that in the bounded therapeutic space, as we have seen, many appearances are interpreted as other than what they seem. Paul Antze, in a recent book edited by himself and Michael Lambek (2004), is the first to investigate irony in the psychotherapeutic encounter by identifying two distinct but complementary‘ironic’ interpretative strategies employed by practitioners. The first he calls‘rhetorical irony’. This is where therapists interpret the ways in which patients often use their symptoms strategically to secure desired ends. For instance, a child who has learnt that by feigning illness she can arouse her parents’ sympathy, if in her later life has forgotten this strategy, may well still employ it unawares to exact care and attention in times of need. In such cases, as Freud illustrated in his case study of Dora (1979 [1909]), the therapist interprets the symptoms as veiled pleas for attention, pleas from which will be inferred clues as to the patient’s character structure.

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Medium 9781855757011

Chapter Two: Contemporary views on femininity, gender, and generative identity

Graciela AbelinSas Rose Karnac Books ePub

2

Joan Raphael-Leff

When you meet a human being, the first distinction you make is “male or female?”

Freud, “Femininity” (1933, p. 113)

Much has changed since Freud’s day. Although our primary curiosity still prevails, in the West today this male/female distinction is no longer made with the “unhesitating certainty” Freud ascribed to it (1933, p. 113). Physical distinctions between the sexes are blurred by unisex clothes, hairstyles, and mannerisms. Difference may be deliberately annulled by self-ascriptive intersexuality, presentations of transvestism, or gender-queer “poser or passer” performance. Female/male identity may be physiologically reversed by sex-change surgery, sometimes with unforeseen consequences, such as the Canadian case of a bearded transsexual man who recently gave birth.

This chapter addresses some dramatic modifications in the seemingly eternal and universal facts of life, dwelling on how our relation to “femininity”—including body schemata and identificatory introjects—has altered since Freud’s time, partly through his own influence. A fundamental shift has occurred in the psychoso-cial order, not least due to efficient female-based contraception and safe legalized abortions. Consciously assumed awareness of rights to body ownership, reproductive control, and sexual self-determination, coupled with educational parity and greater access to public power and economic resources, has altered the close connection between “femininity” and motherhood, with almost a fifth of European women of childbearing age now choosing to remain childless. Conversely, men have gained admission to the birth-chamber, nursery, and kitchen.

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