1678 Chapters
Medium 9781608680221

2. Because It’s Fun! by Terry Lowe

Amy Walker New World Library ePub

Terry Lowe

Ahead of me is a long, swooping downhill with no stop sign at the bottom. I climbed this ridge to enjoy the view overlooking the city, with the harbor bridge below and the North Shore mountains looming nearby. This is my city — Vancouver, Canada — and, as the sticker on my bike says, I ride everywhere. And every day.

There is nothing like riding a bike. It’s not all sweat, strain, and endurance, as some riders would have you believe. It’s more the happy awareness of a small, lightweight machine carrying you easily through the streets, the movement of your body, the air on your face, and the world in all its shapes, colors, and flavors.

A light push of the foot sets me off. As my speed increases, I feel like I’m flying. A big, happy grin lights up my face. For adults, riding a bike is one way to recover the sense of play that little children enjoy. That’s the reason we cyclists smile at each other when passing on the bike routes.

Some people guiltily reason that they “should” ride a bike because: (1) it’s green, and they will therefore reduce their carbon footprint; (2) it’s good for them, and they will thus improve their overall health and fitness; and (3) by doing so, they will enjoy the substantial financial savings associated with not owning a car. Those things are all true, of course, but to me they’re side effects. The best reason to ride a bike around town is that it’s fun.

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Medium 9780253006691

8 Into the European “Jungle”: Migration and Grammar in the New Europe

Dominic Thomas Indiana University Press ePub

Neither you nor I speak English, but there are some things that can be said only in English.

Aravind Adiga1

The official vocabulary of African affairs is, as we might suspect, purely axiomatic. Which is to say that it has no value as communication, but only as intimidation. . . . In a general way, it is a language which functions essentially as a code, i.e., the words have no relation to their content, or else a contrary one.

Roland Barthes2

In the first caption to her 2008 volume Aya de Yopougon, Ivorian comic book author Marguerite Abouet offers an ironic statement on the trials and tribulations awaiting new arrivals in France: “We are about to land in Paris’ Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. It is 6:30 AM and the temperature is 12 degrees. Thanks for choosing Air Afrique.”3 Asylum seekers, migrants, and refugees enter the increasingly patrolled and protected borders of the European Union by air and land, though in recent years the dramatic and hazardous ocean crossings to which they have had recourse have received more attention. Indeed, the gray sky and heavy rainfall in Abouet’s opening sequence also serve as indicators of the challenges associated with the post-migratory experience, whereby “in addition to the dangers associated with travel to Europe (extortion, theft, the perilous crossing of the desert or ocean), one must also add the dangers encountered in Europe itself.”4 As we have seen, these components of twenty-first-century migration have been explored in a significant corpus of documentaries, films, novels, and plays, recording distressing sociopolitical evidentiary modalities, while also contributing to the demystification of constructs and perceptions relating to economic opportunities in the E.U. Accounts intersect around the analysis and treatment of disintegrating national experiments, inadequate governance, limited accountability, and both regional and national conflict, factors that have contributed to economic hardship, social disruption, displaced populations, and translated into growing disparities and dissymmetries between regions.

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Medium 9780253019394

3 Rollback

Borhi, László Indiana University Press ePub

The year 1948 saw a basic shift in American policymakers’ attitudes toward Soviet control of European territory. The idea of peaceful cooperation, nurtured up to then by many British and American politicians and diplomats, was shattered. The last Eastern European democracy, Czechoslovakia, had been amalgamated into the Soviet camp and closed off, although, almost miraculously, Finland was released from Moscow’s grasp. Washington no longer saw Soviet control as a stabilizing factor in Eastern Europe. Instead, the restoration of independent states and the rollback of Soviet military power became the prerequisites of a secure and lasting continental peace. The goal thenceforth would be to destabilize the communist regimes of Eastern Europe in the hope of depriving the Soviets of reliable launching pads for a war against the West. The principles of national independence in Eastern Europe and Western security were now mutually reinforcing. This was a clear break with the policy London and Washington had pursued at least as far back as 1942, which was to divide the continent into Soviet and Western spheres of influence.1

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Medium 9781607320661

CHAPTER EIGHT: ON THE EVE People, Preparations, Policies

Dian Olson Belanger University Press of Colorado ePub

As I stood out on the stern of the ship at midnight a couple
nights ago, and the sun was shining over the icebergs and pack
ice and on the side of the beautiful, high, rugged Victoria
Range, I couldn’t imagine myself being any place but here. That
may sound strange to you, Sweetie, but I just couldn’t imagine
my being out of this big show.

—Carl Eklund, 19561

As Antarctica’s Scientific Age was about to begin, IGY program leaders in Washington were still working frantically. They well knew that Deep Freeze II represented the last chance for everything and everybody going to the Antarctic. The fiscal 1957 supplemental budget, which would fund about half of the U.S. IGY, was still awash in the legislative process, and more than half of the scientific bases were not yet so much as sited with certainty—a burning concern but one out of their control. Many scientists were still to be chosen, and they all had to be equipped, trained, and transported during the austral summer of 1956–1957 to have their programs up and running by 1 July 1957. There were still internal and international policy issues to settle, relationships to define and cultivate among the participating countries, and, even now, Antarctica’s future to consider amid fears of the Cold War.

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Medium 9780253009722

10 Regional Policy and Cohesion

Andreas Staab Indiana University Press ePub

10

Regional Policy and Cohesion

Cohesion intends to close the prosperity gap between rich and poor, or, more specifically, it is the process of reducing economic and social disparities between regions. The EU has 268 regions, 81 in the 12 new member states and 187 in the old EU-15. Some regions are simply synonymous with established historical entities, such as Catalonia in Spain, Tuscany in Italy, or Bavaria in Germany, but regions had to be created in countries without a federalist tradition, such as the UK. Thus Britain has the South West region, which has no historical precedent. A region ought to represent a coherent, geographical, administrative, and, above all, economic entity. The EU measures the wealth of a region based on its GDP per capita. Three questions surround the current picture of cohesion:

1. Is EU cohesion simply a side payment to buy support for European integration?

2. Has EU cohesion reduced economic disparities in the EU?

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