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Medium 9781608680221

4. Cycling for Health, Wealth, and Freedom by Todd Litman

New World Library ePub

Todd Litman

For honesty’s sake, car advertisements should show motorists who look overweight, impoverished, and stressed, since that is the real outcome of a lifestyle dependent on the automobile. A lifestyle that includes plenty of cycling can make you truly healthy, wealthy, and free.

If irony could kill, driving to a health club to exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike would be deadly. Yet many people see this as normal: exercise is considered a commodity they must purchase with time, money, and effort. This approach is also a prescription for failure. Health clubs sell about five times the number of memberships their facilities can actually accommodate because they know most people quickly drop out.

A much better approach is to integrate exercise into your daily transportation routine by walking and cycling. Even if such trips are slower than driving, they provide savings overall by eliminating the need to devote time and money to exercise at a health club.

With a little planning, many trips, even long ones, can be made efficiently by a combination of walking, cycling, and public transport. Social, recreational, and shopping trips, errands, and journeys to school — trips that account for a major portion of personal travel in the United States — are particularly well suited to nonmotorized travel. Automobile transportation is costly. In the United States, owning and operating even a basic car costs $3,000–$5,000 annually in depreciation, fuel costs, insurance, registration, maintenance and repairs, and parking expenses. For many middle- and lower-income households, owning and operating a car for each adult can impose significant financial burdens that prevent people from fulfilling their aspirations. For example, data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ 2008 Consumer Expenditure Survey for the lowest income quintile (households with the lowest 20 percent of incomes) show that costs associated with a motor vehicle accounted for 30 percent of total household income: the average household income was $10,608, and households spent an average of $3,310 on each vehicle they owned, as illustrated in table 1.

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Medium 9781855759428

CHAPTER TWELVE: Freud/Einstein correspondence

Jean Arundale Karnac Books ePub

[Original in English] 23 September 1949

To Dorothy Thompson

Dear Mrs Thompson,

It is a pleasure to receive the letter of a normally intelligent person in contrast to the evil flood of idiotic and malevolent insinuations I seemed to have released in the USA.1

Well, you know I am just as deeply concerned with the extraordinary as well as uncanny situation of the world as you are yourself. (By the way, I have read quite a number of your political comments and admired their practical intelligence and common sense!)

I could say quite a lot about the actual dilemma of the world from my psychological point of view. But I am afraid it would lead too far afield into realms of psychological intricacies which would demand a great amount of explanation.

I will try to be simple. A political situation is the manifestation of a parallel psychological problem in millions of individuals. This problem is largely unconscious (which makes it a particularly dangerous one!). It consists of a conflict between a conscious (ethical, religious, philosophical, social, political, and psychological) standpoint and an unconscious one which is characterised by the same aspects but represented in a ‘lower’, i.e., more archaic form. Instead of ‘high’ Christian ethics, the laws of the herd, suppression of individual responsibility and submission to the tribal chief (totalitarian ethics). Instead of religion, superstitious belief in an ad hoc doctrine or truth; instead of philosophy, a low-grade doctrinary system which ‘rationalises’ the appetites of the herd; instead of a differentiated social organisation, a meaningless chaotic agglomera tion of uprooted individuals kept under by sheer force and terror and blindfolded by appropriate lies; instead of a constructive use of political power with the aim of attaining an equilibrium of freely developing forces, a destructive tendency to extend suppression over the whole world through attaining mere superiority of power; instead of psychology, use of psychological means to extinguish the individual spark and to inhibit the development of consciousness and intelligence.

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Medium 9781855759428

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO Exile and bereavement

Jean Arundale Karnac Books ePub

Barbara Hart

Introduction

It has been pointed out by Grubrich-Simitis (1984) in relation to the survivors of the Holocaust, that whereas in psychosis a disruption of inner reality is experienced, for the survivor the catastrophe is an actually experienced external event, though with massive effect on the internal reality. It is the collision of external and internal realities which I will examine in considering the impact of bereavement in the context of the multiple traumas of exile. While this collision is a feature of bereavement in general, there are particular factors, internal and external, which have an effect on the mourning process in exile and increase its difficulty.

Psychological implications of exile

The experience of exile itself has been characterised as one of multiple bereavement (de Wind, 1971; Munoz, 1981; Grubrich-Simitis, 1984) in terms of loss of country, status, activity, cultural reference points, social networks, and, above all, of family.

There is also the commonly experienced sense of ‘lost time’, i.e. hopes, ambitions, expected life-pattern disrupted, for example, by periods of imprisonment or being in hiding, or by discriminatory laws. These losses are often experienced simultaneously as a massive, pervasive trauma, or cumulatively.

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Medium 9780253018335

4 The Music Debate and Tradition

Merih Erol Indiana University Press ePub

4    The Music Debate and Tradition

NEARLY TEN YEARS after the dissolution of the Musical Society of Constantinople, the city’s Greek Orthodox intelligentsia and its wealthy and educated strata rolled up their sleeves in order to solve what they considered the “musical issue.” The profile of the musical commission they created within the Greek Literary Society of Constantinople (GLS) in 1877 is remarkable for the large number of its members with European education. The scholar of Byzantine hymnography, Matthaios Paranikas, was one of those who joined the ranks of this educated elite calling for musical reform, and were far from agreeing on one model.1

The Greek Orthodox upper classes whose residences and center of life were concentrated in and around Pera/Beyoğlu began to express their demands for westernized church music in a more pressing and visible way. It may seem oldfashioned to attribute the Ottoman upper classes’ adoption of European cultural novelties to their sense of uncertainty caused by lost wars and internal political turmoil, especially on the eve of the Russo-Ottoman War (1877–1878), which had disastrous consequences for the Ottoman Empire. Yet it is also true that the optimism of the reform period faded first in 1871 with the death of Âlî Pasha, the ambitious reformer of the Tanzimat, and later with the abrogation of the constitution by Abdülhamid II, who used the war with the Russians as an excuse. The San Stefano Treaty of March 3, 1878, sealed not only the biggest Russian expansion into the Ottoman Balkans, but, by stipulating the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality and by ceding territories to Romania and Serbia, it minimized the Orthodox ecumene under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate in Istanbul.

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Medium 9781576754641

“There Is One Right Answer”

Adam Kahane Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

WHEN I WAS YOUNG, I thought that the world’s toughest problems would be solved by the world’s smartest people, and I wanted to be one of them. So in 1978, when I started university at McGill in my home town of Montreal, I chose honors physics. This degree involved courses only in theoretical physics and advanced mathematics—nothing but the laws of nature and of pure reason.

My classmates and I were proud to be inducted into this elite intellectual fraternity. We trained by reproducing an increasingly difficult series of logical proofs. Our textbooks contained questions at the end of each chapter and the answers at the back of the book. Our quantum physics course was graded based on a single open-book exam. Before the exam I worked through every exercise in the text, and so I got a perfect grade.

We understood that there is only one right answer.

During the summers, I had electronics jobs in different laboratories. When you’re troubleshooting circuits, either the wires are connected properly and it works, or not: you’re completely in control. One weekend I went horseback riding, and I was concerned with how to get the horse to raise its leg to get over a log, when—without any instructions from me—the horse did it! I was not used to dealing with living, sentient systems.

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Medium 9789351380900

Ch_14_F

Sangit Kumar Ragi Laxmi Publications PDF

14

Douglas McGregor

1906–1964

Biographical Sketch

Douglas McGregor, popularly known as Doug among the students and faculty of Michigan Institute of Technology (MIT), where he served as a faculty member for over a decade, was a great management thinker. The beauty of his thought lies in the fact that he did not attempt to idealize the situation in industry but looked at its working and the problems as well as solutions from a purely practical point of view. He always said, ‘Forget the “intellectual claptrap and theoretical nonsense” and come out with “practical ideas” which could improve the organization’s performance’. His two seminal works The Human

Side of the Enterprise published in 1960 and The Professional Manager (1967) have truly been described as the guide books for the practicing managers as they involve a whole set of new ideas relevant to modern management. The two books are truly a great contribution to the field of management science.

Born in a family of strong religious belief and passion for music, on September

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Medium 9781626561106

Chapter 1: The Birth of Pro-Voice

Aspen Baker Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I grew up in the middle of our nation’s wars over abortion.

In 1976, the year I was born, the first clinic bombing was reported. The 1980s, my formative childhood years, were dominated by the impact of aggressive pro-life protests. California, my home state, had one of the most successful anti-abortion campaigning organizations around: more than 40,000 pro-life activists were arrested while protesting abortion clinics during a four-year period in the ’80s.1

As I was growing up in Southern California, it wasn’t unusual for me to see a huge picture of a bloody, dismembered fetus on a massive sign attached to the side of a minivan driving up and down the freeways near my home. I was certainly affected by pro-life public-awareness efforts but unaware of the violence against clinics. I grew up without a TV, so if these events were covered on the news, I never saw them.

As regular attendees of what I like to call a “surfing Christian” church and school, both nondenominational, my family and I spent time with other church and school families on the beaches of my hometown. San Clemente is steeped in surfing culture: it’s the home of Surfing Magazine; surf legends such as the Paskowitz, Fletcher, Beschen, and Gudauskas families; iconic surf brands such as Rainbow Sandals and Astrodeck; the nonprofit ocean conservation organization the Surfrider Foundation.2 To top it all off, our “Spanish Village by the Sea” was made famous by Richard Nixon during his presidency as the location of his “western White House.” Everyone, including many of the moms and all the kids, surfed, and in our circle, a special occasion meant it was time to pull out a nice Hawaiian shirt or sundress and wear the good flip-flops. Only the preacher wore a suit. Everyone was pro-life, and we all mourned the tragedy of abortion, but no one ever invited me to a protest, and as far as I knew, no one in our community participated in one, either—violent or not.

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Medium 9781608680221

12. A Rough Guide to the City Bike by Wendell Challenger

New World Library ePub

Wendell Challenger

In North America, bikes sold as ready to ride in the city are often anything but. While the geometry and handling of “hybrid” or “comfort” bikes have been designed with urban riding in mind, these bikes often lack important transportation-oriented features such as a chain guard, fenders, lights, and racks. This sends a message that these bikes should not be ridden with regular clothing, in the rain, at night, or with a load. In other words, they are for recreational purposes only. By comparison, in Europe, where cycling is a well-accepted form of urban transportation, city bikes come standard with all these features.

In North America, the onus has been on the urban cyclist to do a three-step city-bike shuffle: buy a bike; buy everything else you need; mount these extra purchases on said bike; and (optional) curse profusely when purchased add-ons don’t fit the bike, requiring exchange or modifications. While all this may be great fun for DIY types, it is an unnecessary barrier for most others. The message is clear: either cycling is not for daily transportation, or bike commuting is only for some type of cycling elite.

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Medium 9781626562141

4. Extracted Rent

Peter Barnes Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Forget about hard work and the merit system and honesty
and all that crap, and get to where the Money River is
.

—Kurt Vonnegut, God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater

When I cofounded Working Assets (now known as Credo) in 1983, we organized as a private corporation. Our corporate charter was our license to enter the American marketplace, with its 300 million consumers and all the legal, financial, and physical infrastructure Americans have built over generations. It also gave us the right to maximize financial gain for ourselves. We paid a pittance for these privileges and at no extra cost got limited liability and perpetual life. The entire package came with a timeless guarantee that our physical, intellectual, and financial property would be protected by the full authority of America’s state and federal governments.

“Not a bad deal, starting a corporation,” I mused at the time. “Sure, we may fail, and I may lose my investment, but if we win, we win big. And boy, is America behind us!”

Ten years later, when our annual sales passed $100 million, my partners and I realized that our closely held company would be worth millions more if we took it public. Thus, in addition to all the gifts America had already given us, we could pluck several extra million dollars out of thin air simply by floating a stock offering. Having just read Kurt Vonnegut’s novel God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater, about a wealthy heir and the crafty lawyer who advises him, I thought I was getting close to the Money River.

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Medium 9780253009678

3 Philanthropy and America’s Poor

Kristin Seefeldt Indiana University Press ePub

Should poverty—the lack of resources to meet basic needs—be addressed by private charity or by the state? Or by both? Although most western European nations have substantial government-funded programs to help the poor, until recently, many Asian societies relied almost entirely upon family networks to support needy adults and children.104 Today the U.S. relies on both private and governmental support but, as we shall see, that has not always been the case. In this chapter and the next we examine the systems of private and governmental support that comprise America’s safety net. We focus on how well the systems responded to the brutal forces of the Great Recession.

The set of programs serving vulnerable, low-income people (the poor and near poor) is sometimes referred to loosely as the “safety net.” However, there is some variation in the literature as to whether the safety net refers only to governmental programs or whether it also includes the combination of private, voluntary support of the poor (e.g., by family, friends, churches, charities, and community foundations). While there is no right answer to this matter of definition, we prefer to reserve the term “safety net” to mean the “governmental safety net” (federal, state, and local governments), in part because we do not wish to convey the impression that private and governmental supports for the poor are fused together in a well-coordinated “net” or even that the interaction of the two systems of support are adequately understood. Remarkably little is known about how much poverty is eradicated or attenuated by the large amounts of philanthropic donations made in the United States on an annual basis.

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Medium 9781887208086

CHAPTER 11: EMPIRE’S VICTORY

David C. Korten Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

This is an impressive crowd. The haves and the have-mores. Some people call you the elite. I call you my base.1

George W. Bush

We can either have democracy in this country, or we can have great wealth concentrated in the hands of a few, but we can’t have both.

Louis Brandeis, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (1861–1939)

Extreme inequality is the surest indicator of a society organized by the dominator relationships of Empire. It is no coincidence that the United States has the most unequal wealth distribution of any major industrial nation and is the most imperial of modern nations.

In 1998, the top 1 percent of U.S. households owned 47 percent of all household financial assets, more than the entire bottom 95 percent— and the gap is growing. In the decade between 1989 and 1999, the number of U.S. billionaires increased from 66 to 268. The number of people living below the pitifully inadequate official poverty line (about $13,000 for a family of three in 1999) increased from 31.5 to 34.5 million. The ratio of CEO pay to the pay of an average worker rose from 141 to 1 in 1995 to 301 to 1 in 2003. The legacy of slavery’s destruction of families and its denial of opportunities for intergenerational wealth accumulation by black Americans is revealed in the fact that the total wealth of the average European American household is 5.5 times that of the average African American household.2

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Medium 9781607320661

CHAPTER FOUR: LITTLE AMERICA V Science Flagship on the Ice Shelf

Dian Olson Belanger University Press of Colorado ePub

All you can see is big white and that’s it.
That was Little America.

—YNC Richard Lucier, 19551

The Navy’s simultaneous task in Operation Deep Freeze I was to establish and make ready the IGY’s headquarters science station on the edge of the vast Ross Ice Shelf. This was Little America V, already named to honor the legacy of America’s polar hero Richard E. Byrd. Before the scientists arrived, key tasks were to map a safe route deep into the interior for Byrd Station and to prepare the massive tractor trains (called heavy swings) that would haul in every pipe and plank to build the station with in Deep Freeze II.

The day after Christmas 1955 the ships of Task Force 43 split, and the Glacier, Greenville Victory, and Arneb turned east along the titanic ice barrier to locate a site for the new Little America. They reached Byrd’s Bay of Whales on 28 December, finding it nearly gone, as the Atka had reported the previous year. There was no suitable approach onto the ice shelf. Byrd made a nostalgic pilgrimage by helicopter to the site of two of his former bases, now buried one atop the other near the cliff edge and marked only by the chair-high tops of once-seventy-foot radio towers. Clearly, this historic location would not do for the IGY.2

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Medium 9780253356796

5. Imaginary Citizenship: Caryl Phillips’s Atlantic World

Akinwumi Adesokan Indiana University Press ePub

Born in the Caribbean, raised in England, and now mainly resident in the United States, the writer Caryl Phillips is an interesting figure through whom to examine the contradictions of belonging in this age of unsettled nationality. These contradictions manifest themselves not just in Phillips’s life. His writings, fictional and nonfictional, explore what it means to be in, but not of, a society, to belong legally to a country but feel excluded from it because of its history of treating one and one’s kind, whether racial, cultural, economic, or sexual, as outsiders. In this chapter, however, the focus of discussion will be on Phillips’s nonfictional writings, primarily The Atlantic Sound, a hybrid account of the author’s travels to three of the prime sites of the Atlantic slave trade, which was published in 2000. The book culminates an exploration of issues that Phillips had conducted in other works of nonfiction, particularly The European Tribe, his first published book (1999; originally published in 1987), and A New World Order, a collection of essays (2002; originally published in 2001). Focusing on these works, I think, will show that there is a structural connection between nonfiction as a literary form and the situation of artists who produce their works in the general institutional context of diasporicity, cosmopolitanism, and expatriation.

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Medium 9781574414363

5. The University of COPS

Mary Beth Rogers The University of Chicago Press ePub

5

The University of COPS

San Antonio, 1986

The doors to the old elementary school on the grounds of the Immaculate Heart of Mary parish on the West Side of San Antonio are locked. Only the small red, white, and blue lapel button taped over a doorbell gives me any assurance that I am where I want to be: at the office of the neighborhood organization COPS. A hand-lettered sign lets me know I must ring the bell to gain entrance. The parish and the West Side neighborhood are so poor and devastated by urban renewal that they can no longer support the school. So the 70-year-old building is locked, boarded up, and used only for periodic sessions of an adult literacy class—and for the COPS headquarters, located on the second floor and accessible to the West Side leaders who run the organization. After my first visit, I understood the necessity of the locked doors. There are hazards in the old building and in the neighborhood. One day I lost my footing and fell on a chipped cement stairway that had no railings. Another time, a mentally retarded man exposed himself to me in the parking lot.

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Medium 9781609945879

2. Enacting the Impossible: Making Decisions by Consensus

Sarah van Gelder Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

DAVID GRAEBER

On August 2, at the very first meeting of what was to become Occupy Wall Street, about a dozen people sat in a circle in Bowling Green. The self-appointed “process committee” for a social movement we merely hoped would someday exist contemplated a momentous decision. Our dream was to create a New York General Assembly: the model for democratic assemblies we hoped to see spring up across America. But how would those assemblies actually operate?

The anarchists in the circle made what seemed, at the time, an insanely ambitious proposal. Why not let them operate exactly like this committee: by consensus.

It was, in the least, a wild gamble, because as far as any of us knew, no one had ever managed to pull off something like this before. Consensus process had been successfully used in spokes-councils—groups of activists organized into separate affinity groups, each represented by a single “spoke”—but never in mass assemblies like the one anticipated in New York City. Even the general assemblies in Greece and Spain had not attempted it. But consensus was the approach that most accorded with our principles. So we took the leap.

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