1525 Chapters
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6 The Shaba Wars

Erik Kennes Indiana University Press ePub

THE MPLAS POLITICAL and military victory in Angola in November 1975 radically changed the political outlook throughout central Africa.1 The establishment of this overtly Marxist state, supportive (like Frelimo-ruled Mozambique) of revolutionary nationalist movements in southern Africa, placed the region’s racist settler regimes on the defensive and destroyed the assumptions on which Western policy toward the region had been built. It also led to decades of civil war with UNITA, backed by South Africa and (during the 1980s) the United States. No less significantly, it created new tensions with Zaire, which had suffered a military humiliation in Angola and which, facing economic crisis and reduced Western support, appeared particularly vulnerable.

This weakness represented an unprecedented opportunity to Mobutu’s many enemies inside and outside Zaire, not least the FLNC. Rearmed by the MPLA’s Cuban and Soviet allies, and strengthened by the Cossa Accords, they seized this opportunity, first to strengthen their numbers and then to invade the former territory of Katanga (renamed Shaba in 1971), but now with significantly altered aims and political direction. The first Shaba war of 1977 led President Mobutu to make significant political reforms, with effects that last until today. The second Shaba war of 1978, in which the Tigres seized the town of Kolwezi and severely destabilized the country’s strategic mining industry, posed the greatest threat the Mobutu regime faced until the 1990s. This was the first time that the FLNC had, as an independent political and military actor, pursued its aims on an international stage in ways that would attract the attention and response of a wide range of international actors, including both superpowers.

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Medium 9781523095056

3 Why Do We See the World the Way We Do?

Ross, Howard J.; Tartaglione, JonRobert Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

If you’re treated a certain way you become a certain kind of person. If certain things are described to you as being real they’re real for you whether they’re real or not.

— JAMES BALDWIN

I have established how important belonging is to human beings. One of the most important ways that we form these connections is through a common morality, a common set of values. How we see ourselves and determine what is important to us and the groups to which we belong is a fundamental part of our orientation to life. Questions of moral choice, such as how we decide between right and wrong and how we make some of life’s hardest decisions, are undoubtedly some of the most intricate, multifaceted problems we are likely to come across, and they are deeply rooted in our relationships to the groups to which we belong. Our morality plays such an important role in connecting us to others that it is important for us to look at how our morality shapes the world we see.

Let’s consider one of the most famous thought experiments in human ethics, the Trolley Dilemma.1 You see a trolley car coming down the track at a high rate of speed. When you look down the track in the direction the trolley is heading, you see five workers whom you have no way of warning about the oncoming trolley. Assume that they will be killed if the trolley is not diverted. However, you are standing in front of a lever that you can pull to turn the trolley onto a different set of tracks on which there is only one worker. Is it acceptable for you to pull the lever and redirect the trolley onto the track where the one worker is standing, knowing that this worker will consequently be killed?

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Medium 9780253012845

8 Life and Death

Lynne Ann Hartnett Indiana University Press ePub

MUCH OF THE JOY EKATERINA FIGNER felt upon learning that Vera’s death sentence had been commuted dissipated when tsarist officials informed her that her daughter had been taken to Shlisselburg Fortress. While the state refused to end Vera’s life on the scaffold, its judicial arm had no compunction about consigning her to a living death behind high fortress walls and a dangerous current at the mouth of the Neva River. Ekaterina spent years longing for news of her eldest child, but for more than a decade her anxious curiosity encountered only silence. It seemed that the prison administration intended to abide by the retributive promise made to the Figner matriarch in 1884 when an official ominously vowed that the next she would hear of Vera would be when she was “in her grave.”1 In spite of her fears, months and years passed and news of Vera’s death never came. Although Ekaterina had no idea what her daughter’s life was like, she found comfort in knowing that at least her firstborn was still alive. But for Vera the line between life and death blurred in Shlisselburg as she discovered a life that was much worse than her anticipated death. While each passing day without news of her daughter’s death brought a measure of solace to Ekaterina, Vera’s endless days in her tomblike cell led her to wistfully recall how close she had come to realizing the martyrdom on the scaffold that she had sought.

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Medium 9780253015846

5 Capitalist Ethics?

Samuli Schielke Indiana University Press ePub

 

Although People Understand grand schemes as being located outside the ordinary world, they do have material form and shape. And most often in the early twenty-first century, that form is of a commodity.

Commodity and consumption have become a ubiquitous part of life in Egypt. Being a respectable person largely depends on one’s capacity to buy consumer goods. Love is transformed through the consumerist principle of gratification. Religious proselytization is a lucrative trade. This shared sense of existence is in the focus of this chapter. Capitalism is not only a configuration of relations of production and consumption but also a sensibility of existence inherently accompanied by an ideology, promises, and ends of its own. And while Islam may appear to be the moral counterpart to capitalist economy, the Islamic revival has brought key anxieties to the forefront of people’s religious consciousness that resonate with capitalist modes of production and rationality in peculiar ways. Capitalism and religious revival share a sense of temporality that connects the two in complex and unpredictable ways. It is the temporality of a life in the future tense.

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Medium 9780253018250

A Snub for the Ages

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

Nelson Mandela in Miami

WHEN NELSON MANDELA landed in Miami on June 24, 1990—only recently released from his twenty-seven years of imprisonment for fighting apartheid—he was, figuratively speaking, slapped across the face four times. The governor of Florida administered the first slap by not showing up at the airport to greet Mandela. The Miami-Dade County mayor administered the next slap by not appearing at the county-owned airport where Mandela landed. The mayors of the City of Miami—a city which was, and still is, dominated by conservative Cuban Americans—and of Miami Beach, with its substantial Jewish population, administered the third slap by also not showing up. The last lick was laid on Mandela by local Jewish elected officials, who also refused to appear with Mandela. Meanwhile, everywhere else in the U.S. and the globe to which Mandela traveled on his tour, he received a hero’s welcome. To comprehend why Miami snubbed Mandela requires some understanding of ethnic relations in the city, particularly with regard to African Americans, Cuban Americans, and Jews. Mandela’s arrival stirred the ethnic stew in Miami in ways that had not been done before. First, Mandela had insulted the Cubans by expressing appreciation to Castro for having supported him when few others, including the United States, did. He maligned the Jews by doing the same for Yasser Arafat and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). To many in the African American community, the Mandela episode in Miami was surreal. Mandela snubbed? Who on earth would have the nerve or the reason? Only in Miami! The perspective of most African Americans in Miami was that the most important black figure of our time had come into our midst, only to be insulted by Cubans and Jews. The why of it all requires some knowledge of the history of wounds left upon the minds and souls of both the Cuban and Jewish communities, a quagmire of ethnic emotions that Mandela stepped into when he arrived in Miami.

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Medium 9780929398136

8. The Black Hand Over San Antonio

Mary Beth Rogers University of North Texas Press PDF

8

The Black Hand

Over San Antonio

San Antonio, 1966

It is two weeks before the May Democratic Primary election.

University of Texas graduate student Ernesto Cortes has recruited his aunts and neighbors to join him and other college students to stuff envelopes and go door-to-door for a MexicanAmerican attorney, John Alaniz, who is trying to get elected to the Bexar County Commissioners' Court, the official local government arm of the state of Texas. In San Antonio, the political heat is at the boiling point, particularly for those candidates like

Alaniz who are backed by the emerging progressive coalition of

Hispanics, blacks, teachers, unions, and limousine liberals who have won a few offices in the past but have never come close to seizing real power-a voting majority on any public body in the city or county. Now, with more than 100,000 of Bexar County's

235,000 registered voters living in the coalition's strongest voting precincts, the coalition is threatening to capture the majority vote on the five-member county commission and take over the local Democratic party organization. If Alaniz could win, he would join on the commission Albert Pena, who represents the

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Medium 9781609948337

17 Reallocating Time

Rowe, Jonathan Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

No man is an island, the poet John Donne wrote, and neither is the market. It needs a realm outside itself—a commons—for sustenance and life. It needs a natural commons in the form of water, air, trees, and the like. It needs a social commons in the form of language, sidewalks, community and respect for law. And it needs a temporal commons, a pool of time available for work outside the market. If this extra–market work doesn’t get done—if no one cares for young and old, serves as neighbor and friend, or attends to the work of the community—then the market itself will eventually collapse.

There is thus a symbiosis, and also a competition, between the market and the commons for our finite time as living beings. In recent decades, however, the distribution between the two sectors has gotten seriously out of whack. The market has been claiming more and more of our time, just as it has been claiming more of nature. Never before in history has a society expended so much time on monetarily enriching work—trading derivatives, for example—while neglecting so much work that really needs to get done.

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Medium 9781576752814

5: Empire and Its Discontents

Garrison, James Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

THE CHALLENGE TO AMERICAN LEADERSHIP today is that people around the world are increasingly experiencing America more as the enemy than as a friend, as Goliath rather than as David. Bewilderment about America, fear of America, even hatred of America are on the rise as people use American light to judge American power. In attaining so much power and in applying its power in such a highly militarized way, especially during the Cold War and since 9/11, it seems to many that the United States has betrayed its founding vision, as if in protecting the American dream at home, it has felt it necessary to deny its ideals abroad.93

AMERICA’S DARK HISTORY IN IRAQ The history of U.S. relations with Iraq provides an excellent case in point. Removing Saddam Hussein from power in 2003 was not the first time the United States engaged in regime change in Iraq. President Kennedy initiated the first one back in 1963.

In 1958, Iraqi leader Abdel Karim Kassem had overthrown a monarch friendly to the West, but he was tolerated by President Eisenhower because he provided a counterweight to Washington’s nemesis of that era—Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, who was stirring the Arab world with visions of national revival and power. But Kassem became a problem for Washington in 1961 when he began to buy arms rivaling those of Israel, threatened Western oil interests, and talked openly of challenging American dominance in the region. Kennedy decided that Kassem needed to go. Interestingly, Kennedy received support from Britain and Israel but faced opposition from other allies, especially France and Germany.94

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Medium 9781626566743

4. Indonesia: Lessons for an EHM

Perkins, John Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In addition to learning about my new career, I spent time reading books about Indonesia. “The more you know about a country before you get there, the easier your job will be,” Claudine had advised. I took her words to heart.

When Columbus set sail in 1492, he was trying to reach Indonesia, known at the time as the Spice Islands. Throughout the colonial era, it was considered a treasure worth far more than the Americas. Java, with its rich fabrics, fabled spices, and opulent kingdoms, was both the crown jewel and the scene of violent clashes among Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, and British adventurers. The Netherlands emerged triumphant in 1750, but even though the Dutch controlled Java, it took them more than 150 years to subdue the outer islands.

When the Japanese invaded Indonesia during World War II, Dutch forces offered little resistance. As a result, Indonesians, especially the Javanese, suffered terribly. Following the Japanese surrender, a charismatic leader named Sukarno emerged to declare independence. Four years of fighting finally ended on December 27, 1949, when the Netherlands lowered its flag and returned sovereignty to a people who had known nothing but struggle and domination for more than three centuries. Sukarno became the new republic’s first president.

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Medium 9781626568471

CHAPTER 8 What Kind of People Engage with Corporations

Behar, Andrew Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Many activists came of age in the 1960s, first with the civil rights movement and then with protests against the Vietnam War. Watch any episode of Mad Men to get a taste of the stifling social and political structure of the period, and you’ll understand why a rejection of authority was also a component of the protest period. If you are a millennial, you may have seen a movie set in that time when expressions like “Never trust anyone over 30” were common. In the wake of the civil rights and anti-Vietnam war movements, the focus then turned to what became the environmental movement with the publication of Rachel Carson’s pioneering Silent Spring80 in 1962 and the first Earth Day in 1970.81 For many, distrust of authority came along with these movements.

Distrust of the establishment isn’t misplaced. Many giant corporations are not instruments of social good. They are instruments of profit. In the past several decades, with the escalating globalization of the economy, corporations have grown far more powerful and far more remote from the concerns of ordinary people. The pressure for short-term profits drives decisions to externalize their pollution at no cost to companies’ bottom lines but at a huge cost to society at large.

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Medium 9780253016249

2 Indian Mound

Jane Blaffer Owen Indiana University Press ePub

Humility, that low, sweet root,
From which all heavenly virtues shoot . . .

—Thomas Moore, The Loves of the Angels

 

My fears about a racing-stable absentee husband began to dissipate. In the first year of our marriage, Kenneth began necessary improvements to the Laboratory residence and purchased a large portion of Robert Owen’s original holdings, rolling farmlands that culminated in the highest point on the Wabash River for many miles, a rise known as Indian Mound (see area map). Archaeologists called it a midden, a deposit containing refuse indicative of an early human settlement; this one was created with mussel shells discarded by prehistoric Native Americans. But generations of townspeople had other names and softer feelings for this ageless place. Indian Mound became for Kenneth and me (and later our three daughters) a refuge from the rattle of trucks along Church Street, heat, and concerns. The greatest reward for climbing that far, however, was the expansive view of Cut-Off Island, belonging half to Indiana and half to the nearby fertile, flat plains of Illinois, still innocent of factories and housing developments on the other bank of the Wabash (see area map).1

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Medium 9780253354303

2 The Use of Force: War, Collective Security, and Peace Operations

Thomas G. Weiss Indiana University Press ePub

• Antecedents: Taming the Use of Military Force

• Knowledge Gaps: Still as Many Questions as Answers

• Normative Gaps: Trying to Regulate the Use of Force

• Policy Gaps: Ad-Hocism Has Its Advantages

• Institutional Gaps: Lacunae Filled, Lacunae Remaining

• Compliance Gaps: The Limitations of Chapter VII

• Culture of Prevention and the Role of International Commissions

• Multiple Levels and Multiple Actors in Global Governance: The Contemporary Reality

• Conclusion: Looking Ahead

Given the UN’s central mandate to maintain international peace and security and its creation from the ashes of World War II, it is appropriate that this book’s first substantive chapter begin with the topic of security. Contrary to general perceptions, the number of conflicts between and within states, the number of terrorist incidents, and the overall number of people killed in battle has declined in recent years.1 During the 40-year “Long Peace” of the Cold War,2 the number of armed conflicts within states increased each decade until the early 1990s but then began to drop. By the end of that decade, wars and lesser armed conflicts had declined by a third to a half, depending on the definitions and the dataset chosen. The cost in lives has declined to an even greater degree.3 One of the main explanations for these trends is the success of the UN’s efforts to fulfill its security mandate.

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Medium 9780253002662

4. Foreign Investment beyond Compradorism and Primary Commodities: The Role of the Global South

Scott D. Taylor Indiana University Press ePub

4

FOREIGN INVESTMENT BEYOND COMPRADORISM AND PRIMARY COMMODITIES

The Role of the Global South

INTRODUCTION

If Africa had a dollar for every time a scholar, policymaker, journalist, or casual observer noted that “Africa is rich,” the statement might actually be true. Or at least it might have some validity beyond the geologically based wealth to which that expression almost universally refers. Without question, Africa does have stunning natural resource wealth. The continent boasts the world’s highest reserves of platinum and diamonds. Africa is home to approximately 10 percent of the world’s proven oil reserves, 8 percent of its natural gas, and 40 percent of its gold deposits. Uranium, copper, cobalt, columbite tantalum, chromite, coal, asbestos, and gemstones are found in abundance, not to mention plentiful timber, fisheries, and forestry resources. And hydrologic resources in the Congo Basin alone could supply 150,000 megawatts of power, far more than the entire continent’s present consumption. These abundant natural resources have attracted outsiders for millennia, but it was not until the colonial period that the extraction of these resources was truly transformed into a modus vivendi for Africa’s unequal entry into the global economy.

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Medium 9780253011244

Rationalities and Legal Processes in Africa

Jean Godefroy Bidima Indiana University Press ePub

Taking together place, time, and manner, it would be possible to describe “the encounter” as comprising at least six modes: fragility, temporality, activity, integrity, causality, and disparity.

1. Whether it is a collision or a harmonious synthesis, the encounter consists of a rather fragile balance, since two realities (cultures, or forms of rationality) in contact will never be arithmetically proportionate; asymmetry is a necessary part of the encounter with the other, as Emmanuel Lévinas would say. Hence that fragility, which is indeed the expression of the encounter as a place and moment of instability and thus reversibility.

2. The fragility inherent in the encounter is associated with temporality. The time of the encounter mobilizes expectation, tension, and retention1 at the same time: expectation of the unknown, tension between going toward it or resisting it, and holding back at the very moment when the need for giving (giving to others and giving oneself) is at its strongest.

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Medium 9780253020864

2. The Nixon Years (1969–74): Accomplishments amid Turmoil

Lee H. Hamilton Indiana University Press ePub

MY PERSONAL TIE TO PRESIDENT NIXON WAS THROUGH HIS mother. She was born and raised near Butlerville, Indiana, and he knew I represented that part of the state. Every time I saw him he’d ask, “How are things in Butlerville?” He always spoke very highly of his mother, and his middle name—Milhous—was his mother’s maiden name.

He used to joke with me about Indiana. He would say that whenever he ran for president he would sit down with a yellow legal pad and mark two columns—one with an R and one with a D—to get a sense of the likely electoral count. His very first entry in the R column, he said with a smile, was always Indiana. He must have told me that story three or four times. He liked Indiana not just because of his mother’s background but also for its Republican leanings.

So once I invited him to come out to Butlerville. He was surprised by my invitation, and I was even more surprised when he accepted. So in June 1971, two years into his first term, President Nixon came out to rural southern Indiana. It was a quick visit—he was only in Indiana for part of the day—but it was a major event for people in that part of the state. He flew into Indianapolis and then took a helicopter to North Vernon for his speech. His speech was fairly general, covering a range of topics, and he ended by saying, “Thank you for reminding me why my mother loved this land so much”—which was very well received. On the way back to Indianapolis he didn’t stop in Butlerville, but he did have his helicopter fly over the town. My time with the president that day was limited, but the visit clearly had an impact on him. It was an emotional trip for him, a homecoming of sorts.

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