1525 Chapters
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Medium 9780253008374

8: Media Sustainability in a Postconflict Environment: Radio Broadcasting in the DRC, Burundi, and Rwanda

Edited by Kenneth Omeje and Tricia Redek Indiana University Press ePub

Radio Broadcasting in the DRC, Burundi, and Rwanda

Marie-Soleil Frère

THIS CHAPTER INTERROGATES the capacity of radio stations in three countries of the African Great Lakes region (Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, and Rwanda) to act as influential independent stakeholders in the postconflict public debate. The three countries are all former Belgian colonies and have been historically, economically, and culturally interconnected for decades. During the past twenty years, Burundi, Rwanda, and the DRC have experienced varying degrees of liberalization of the political space as well as the media landscape after decades of single-party rule and state monopoly on the media. Moreover, these three countries have also undergone armed conflicts in which some journalists and media agencies have been key players. Radio stations especially have experienced significant growth in recent years and radio broadcasting in these postconflict environments is clearly superseding print and television media, both of which are perceived as elitist and urban-based.

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Medium 9780253016430

4 How and Why Explanations Vary across Countries

Mark Tessler Indiana University Press ePub

The views of ordinary citizens about the role that Islam should play in government and political affairs are not monolithic. On the contrary, many men and women in the Muslim-majority countries of the Middle East and North Africa believe that Islam should occupy a place of importance in the political life of their society; many others disagree, believing that religion is an essentially private matter and should be separated from politics; and still others hold views that place them at some point in between these two poles of opinion. This division of opinion was illustrated in the preceding chapter in table 3.1.

Against the background of this division of opinion, chapter 3 sought to move from description to explanation and asked why individuals hold different views about Islam’s political role. The focus was on individual-level dynamics shaping predispositions and preferences, on causal stories and the associated pathways that might, in the language of social science, account for the observed variance in attitudes toward political Islam. Toward this end, the chapter sought explanatory insights by formulating four sets of hypotheses. The first of these proposed that an individual’s views about the political role that Islam should play are shaped, in part, by his or her cultural values. A second hypothesis proposed that attitudes toward political Islam are determined, in part, by judgments about the regime by which an individual’s country is governed. A third hypothesis proposed that an individual’s economic circumstances and level of economic satisfaction are among the determinants of views about political Islam, and a fourth proposed that explanatory power is also to be found in an individual’s level of education.

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Medium 9780253018250

Nelson Mandela’s Two Bodies

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

What becomes a legend most? Nelson Mandela.

—LISA JONES, “Mandela Diary” (1990)

FOR MILLIONS OF people worldwide, Nelson Mandela’s passing in 2013 marked the death of an icon, one who expressed, more than any other, the twentieth century’s struggles for freedom and equality that changed the lives of people worldwide. When Mandela died, as is the case with the loss of any world leader or celebrity, to express our grief and process our loss, we talked, we wrote, we tweeted, and we updated our Facebook statuses. In addition, seemingly countless Internet memes featuring Mandela’s face paired with one of his best-known quotes—or at least one attributed to or equated with him—spontaneously appeared. These ephemeral, sometimes bizarre, infinitely reproducible objects, unlike the tweet or the Facebook status, mark a kind of affiliation around both Mandela and those ideals we hold to be self-evident from his charismatic character. However, these pictures are only the latest iterations of the innumerable images of Mandela, including photographs, paintings, drawings, statues, public murals, buttons, t-shirts, refrigerator magnets, and more, that have proliferated since the late 1980s (his image was banned in South Africa until then), and attest not only to the enduring iconic status of his person, but also to the tremendous power his myth exudes in the visual world.

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Medium 9780982417126

3. The Terrible Tale of the TARP

Baker, Dean Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The passage of the Troubled Asset Relief Program, or TARP, in the fall of 2008 was a demonstration of the extraordinary power of the financial industry and what it will do when its fundamental interests are threatened. The industry was quickly able to unite the leadership of both political parties behind a massive $700 billion bailout program that imposed few serious constraints on the industry. The industry was also able to enlist the media in this effort, turning many reporters into TARP cheerleaders until the bill passed Congress. The opponents of the bill, which included many of the country's most prominent economists, were portrayed as knuckle-scraping Neanderthals.

The American public must clearly understand the forces at play in the passage of the TARP, as the industry will undoubtedly muster similar forces in the future to prevent major reforms that threaten its profitability. The passage of the TARP was, in fact, a remarkable political accomplishment deserving of a certain kind of respect. Although Wall Street banks were never very popular institutions, they managed to get themselves a massive bailout when the country was suffering from a serious recession that was a direct result of their greed and incompetence.

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Medium 9780253010964

Epilogue: So What Does it All Mean?

David H. Ikard Indiana University Press ePub

Come out of the fog, young man. And remember you don’t have to be a complete fool in order to succeed. Play the game, but don’t believe in it – that much you owe yourself. Even if it lands you in a strait jacket or a padded cell. Play the game, but play it your way – part of the time at least. Play the game, but raise the ante, my boy. Learn how it operates, learn how you operate – I wish I had time to tell you only a fragment. We’re an ass-backward people, though. You might even beat the game. It’s really a very crude affair. Really pre-Renaissance – and that game has been analyzed, put down in books. But down here they’ve forgotten to take care of the books and that’s your opportunity. You’re hidden right out in the open – that is, you would be if you only realized it. They wouldn’t see you because they don’t expect you to know anything, since they believe they’ve taken care of that …

Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man

 

The epigraph from ralph ellison’s invisible man is the advice that the “crazy” vet from the Golden Day – a bar/juke joint where a bunch of “shell-shocked” black war veterans hang out – gives invisible man as he heads north to find an internship after being expelled from his university for mishandling Mr. Norton, a millionaire white philanthropist. As the reader will recall, invisible man first encounters the crazy vet at the Golden Day. After Mr. Norton passes out during the melee at the bar, sparked in large part by his white presence, the vet and former surgeon revives him and rightly diagnoses the medical cause of his unconsciousness. When Mr. Norton inquires about his medical knowledge, the vet tells him about his experiences in the military as a brain surgeon; how acts of dehumanization and violence led to ulcers and his becoming sour on the notion that black accommodationism is the most viable path to success and prosperity in America: “These hands so lovingly trained to master a scalpel yearn to caress a trigger. I returned to save life and I was refused…. Ten [white] men in masks drove me out from the city at midnight and beat me with whips for saving a human life. And I was forced to the utmost degradation because I possessed skilled hands and the belief that my knowledge could bring me dignity – and other men health!”1 While the vet does not provide Mr. Norton or the reader with details about the particulars of his racial beat down, we can deduce that he was brutally beaten because he operated on a white person, and most likely a white woman, in a life-or-death scenario and was rewarded for his heroics with violence and humiliation. Though the virulently paternalistic and blind Mr. Norton labels him bitter, the reality is that the vet is justifiably indignant – he tried to use his surgical skills to save white lives even though, as a group, whites were chiefly responsible for his socioeconomic subjugation as a black man. In effect, he played by the white supremacist rules of black accommodationism and still couldn’t avoid racial violence and dehumanization.

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Medium 9780253018618

Flower Shop

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

Flower Shop

windows if the plants are ok

broken glass tank engines

who opens the flower shop

bombed out last night

the price no matter intentions

when our TV screens silent

of selling wartime stories

and the kids are ok

new york post early morning

father to son sins defiant

read between passed on beliefs

last night bombed out

liberating schools mosques

our way of life shouts out

the elders remember hell’s boom

if the plants have enough water

who opens the flower shop.

Paul r. Harding

Black Doll n°I. 90 × 70 cm. ©2012 Mirtho Linguet.

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Medium 9780253018809

Part III. New States and the Continental Order

Tom Young Indiana University Press ePub

In earlier historical periods, weak states could expect to be absorbed by stronger ones. By the twentieth century, this had become almost impossible, and as a result weak states could be virtually certain to survive. African states are a perfect example of that development, and Griffiths provides a geographical perspective on the origins and stability of their boundaries. Beyond relying on the international order to maintain their boundaries, the new states of Africa tried to build institutions that would sustain both their sovereignty and their development. The main institution was the Organisation of African Unity. May and Massey, examining a particular episode, throw considerable light on the difficulties that the Organisation of African Unity encountered in its checkered history.

IEUAN GRIFFITHS

The inherited political geography of Africa is as great an impediment to independent development as her colonially based economies and political structures. The colonial political geography derives from the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, which laid down the rules for the European partition of the continent. What were drawn as colonial boundaries have survived the transition from colonies to independent states and, more surprisingly, 25 years of African independence.

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Medium 9780253018618

He Can’t Say That, Can He?

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

black, white, and shades of gray in the films of Tarantino

Chris Vognar

LAST WINTER, ABOUT halfway through a press screening of Django Unchained, Quentin Tarantino’s garishly entertaining slavery revenge epic, I turned to a fellow critic and whispered, half facetiously, “Spike Lee isn’t going to like this one bit.” Sure enough, he didn’t.

By now it’s a rite of pop culture passage: Tarantino makes a fetish of the word “nigger” in a movie or otherwise rankles Lee’s sense of blackness. Lee gets mad. Tarantino gets defensive. The pattern commenced with the release of Tarantino’s blaxploitation tribute Jackie Brown in 1997: “Quentin is infatuated with that word,” Lee quipped after seeing the film. “What does he want to be made—an honorary black man?” Fifteen years later Lee didn’t even bother to see Django before condemning it. Both directors have their parts in the debate down pat; the ongoing conflict has become its own predictable media sideshow, almost as engaging as the movies in question.

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Medium 9780253350893

6 The Voters Speak

Ray E. Boomhower Indiana University Press ePub

1  2  3  4  5  6  7

The Voters Speak

On a spring day in 1968, residents of northwest Indiana were treated to a rare sight. In a caravan of automobiles that swept along city streets could be seen icons of the past and the present. One was a boxer, the son of Polish immigrants from Gary, Indiana, who had risen to become middleweight champion of the world, earning for himself the nickname “The Man of Steel” both for the place of his birth and his ability to take the punishment handed out by his opponents in the ring. The other man had also traveled a hard road to success, winning a place in the state’s history as its first African American mayor. From their very different backgrounds, Tony Zale, the boxer, and Richard G. Hatcher, the mayor of Gary, were brought together by Robert F. Kennedy’s campaign to win the Indiana primary. The two heroes of the region joined Kennedy in a motorcade through the streets of Gary on May 6, the day before Hoosier voters trooped to the polls. They represented Kennedy’s attempt to bridge the gap between whites and African Americans and bring both into a coalition that could win elections for the Democratic Party. “We have to write off the unions and the South now,” Kennedy told a reporter, “and replace them with Negroes, blue-collar whites, and the kids. If we can do that, we’ve got a chance to do something.”1

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Medium 9780253018335

2 Liturgical Music and the Middle Class

Merih Erol Indiana University Press ePub

2    Liturgical Music and the Middle Class

IN ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY, music was considered a privileged pedagogical field whose correct cultivation served the moral development of the person and consequently the flourishing of the collectivity in which he lived. In the early centuries of Christianity, music was also significant as an effective means of communicating with the divine. In various passages of their writings, the great fathers of the Church addressed Christians in musical terms: “Exalt Him with the voice of the trumpet…. Exalt Him with the psaltery and the cithara. Or, with the drum and the lyre.”1 In Basil the Great’s Epistles, the prayer of the congregation who confesses to God in pain, sorrow, and tears is followed by antiphonal singing rendering the Psalm.2 Reversibly, as opposed to the “beneficial” or positive ways of using the sense of hearing, as in the case of singing hymns of praise and thanksgiving to God, the “abuse” of this sense was severely forbidden by the Orthodox monastic tradition.

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Medium 9780253010155

7 Shopping on Red Alert: The Rhetorical Normalization of Terror

Patrick M. Brantlinger Indiana University Press ePub

Terror has long been terrible: but to the actors themselves it has now become manifest that their appointed course is one of Terror; and they say, Be it so. “Que la Terreur soit à l’ordre du jour.”

—THOMAS CARLYLE, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1837)

Waiting for my flight, I hear the announcement: “The Department of Homeland Security has just raised the terror threat level to orange. Be on the lookout for any suspicious activity.” The girl drinking pop has purple streaks in her hair. A suit-and-tie man reads The Wall Street Journal. A woman in fringed leather jacket yaks at her cell phone. The only suspicious character may be the pale young man with the backpack pacing nervously near the counter. Why so nervous? Suddenly he returns my stare. Am I suspicious? Going through security, they seized my toothpaste. My miniscule tube weighed 2.5 ounces (or less). “This needs to be in a plastic bag,” said the guard; “If you want it back. . . .” “Never mind; I’ll buy some when I get there.” I did not ask why my toothpaste would be safer in a plastic bag.

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Medium 9780253010803

10. Human Rights and the Rule of Law

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

 

NOURA ERAKAT

Between 27 December 2008 and 18 January 2009, Israel embarked on an unprecedented aerial and ground offensive against the Gaza Strip. In a span of twenty-two days, Israeli ground and aerial forces demolished 2,400 homes, 21 schools, and 60 police stations, and killed approximately 1,300 civilians, 280 of them children. The onslaught was particularly egregious because of the means employed. For eighteen months prior to the attack, Israel had imposed a debilitating naval blockade and ground siege that increased food dependency for survival to 56 percent and increased unemployment to nearly 40 percent. Moreover, Israel prevented Palestinians from fleeing the attack by sealing the borders, thereby preventing Palestinians from becoming refugees. Finally, Israeli forces obstructed the movement of medical personnel and used white phosphorous against heavily populated civilian areas. The horrific stories documented by Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Physicians for Human Rights-Israel, and the National Lawyers’ Guild confirmed that war crimes were indeed committed and that the rule of law had been subverted in the name of national security underpinned by international complicity.

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Medium 9781609941246

8 Cocreating a Better World

Lee, Ann Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

So, let us not be blind to our differencesbut let us
also direct attention to our common interests and to
the means by which those differences can be resolved.
JOHN F. KENNEDY

FUTURISTS OFFER DIFFERENT PREDICTIONS about what will happen in the coming decades. George Friedman of Stratfor has speculated on the domination of the United States in geopolitics. Ray Kurzweil believes in singularity and that humans will one day achieve immortality. George Orwell and Franz Kafka wrote about authoritarian dystopias ruining everyday lives. All of them or none of them may come true. But the future begins now because what happens in the future always begins as thought in the present.

Today we have an explosion of ideas and opinions that appear on the Internet, on media airwaves, and in daily conversation. Sorting out truth and priorities can be daunting, especially when consensus is difficult to achieve. But its important to recognize that the most vital things to our lives commonly appear to be the least urgent and sometimes require the most work. For example, reconciling difficult relationships or studying for exams can offer great payoffs when the proper time and care are invested, but breaking the inertia in order to genuinely begin the hard work often becomes the biggest stumbling block. The problem is that the world cannot afford to procrastinate on solving the mounting global problems. We need to develop the political will and wisdom to work with all nations of the world to come up with agreeable and actionable solutions. That work will prove difficult to do and easy to put on the back burner, but humanity is at stake. In a hyperconnected world, it no longer will be sustainable for the minority international elite to thrive while billions of people suffer and die unnecessarily. The poor of the world will know and will not tolerate the present state of affairs. Change will happen whether we take a proactive position or not. I suspect that taking a proactive stance will help make the inevitable transitions smoother and less radical in the long run.

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Medium 9780253016249

14 Kilbinger House

Jane Blaffer Owen Indiana University Press ePub

For it is a heart silence to which we must attain. . . . But, like those places fathoms deep in the sea which no storms reach, no turmoil disturbs, so the inner chamber of one’s being may be still whatever the outward conditions.

—Lida A. Churchill, The Magic Seven: 7 Steps to Perfect Spiritual Power

 

The first reborn of my adopted family of Harmonist houses was No. V on Steammill Street. Kilbinger House, on the southeast corner of Main and Granary, became my second child and, like its sister, a hungry orphan (25 on town map). An arm could reach through a wide crack in the brick of its west wall. If these bricks could be carefully reknit, the state might be shamed into doing necessary repairs to its building next door, Harmonist Community House No. 2, an approach I called “whitemail,” as it encourages positive action by example rather than coercing by extortion. Missing roof shingles from the Kilbinger house invited rainwater. The house, built in the 1820s, tottered on the brink of the same steep cliff that New Harmony has hovered upon since its inception and from which it has been, so far, consistently and mercifully rescued.

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Medium 9781576752920

CHAPTER 5: DOG-WAGGING WITH BUSH

Derber, Charles Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

You want to win this election, you better change the subject. You wanna change this subject, you better have a war. ROBERT DE NIRO, as a political operative in the 1997 film Wag the Dog

The popular film Wag the Dog portrayed a president who invented a war in a faraway place to distract attention from domestic scandal that could destroy his presidency. While this plot might have seemed tailor-made for President Clinton during Monica-gate, President George W. Bush has his own domestic problem, which I call Econogate in Chapter 7. How does he paper over a huge gap between his whole domestic agenda and the will of the American people? Polls show that the majority of the people feel the regime is going in the wrong direction on almost every issue—indeed, that the domestic agenda is directly counter to their own interests.

Hollywood provided the answer to Bush’s domestic problems. His advisors have promoted the war on terror as if they were scriptwriters for Wag the Dog. Mark McKinnon, Bush’s chief media advisor in the 2000 campaign, said after 9/11 that homeland security and the war on terrorism throw “a huge blanket over the entire domestic agenda. The domestic agenda right now is security. It’s covering up everything else.”1 Only a tad more circumspect, Matthew Dowd, chief pollster for the president, said regarding the merits of the war on terror, “Issues that the Democrats may have an advantage on may get shoved aside, like the environment or Social Security.”2 The president’s chief political advisor, Karl Rove, has been laser-focused on the virtues of the war on terror, shoring up the GOP base while capturing suburban Independents who might defect if the campaign focused on domestic concerns.123

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