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17. Photoshop and the Web

Lesa Snider O'Reilly Media ePub

Preparing graphics for a Web site is a journey into the unknown. Youve got no idea what kind of monitor folks will use to view your graphic, how fast (or slow) their Internet connection is, or what kind of Web browser theyve got. Its a proposition riddled with variables that you have no control over; all you can do is prepare your graphic well and hope for the best.

Your challenge as a designer boils down to finding a balance between image quality and file size. Premium-quality, minimally compressed JPEGs look stunning under almost any conditions. But if your site visitor has a pokey dial-up connection, she might decide to click elsewhere rather than waiting for the darn thing to download. On the other hand, if you try to satisfy the slowest common denominator by making ultra-lightweight images, youll deprive those with a broadband (high-speed) Internet connections from seeing impressive detail youve lovingly created.

Luckily, there are several tricks for keeping file sizes down and retaining quality. Thats what this chapter is all about. Youll learn which size and file format to use when creating images destined for the Web. Youll also discover how to make animations; craft favicons (those tiny, graphics you see in Web browsers address bars); mock up Web pages; and publish professional-looking online photo galleries.

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Medium 9781937538576

10 Mixed Ambient and Electronic Flash Lighting and Exposure

Glenn Rand Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

This environmental portrait was made for a Ceramics Monthly magazine cover. The subject used a mirror to make her pottery, so it was used as part of the portrait. Since her studio looked out on the mountains, a decision was made to balance the exposure between electronic flash for the interior and face and the view through the window.
© Glenn Rand

With exposure basics in hand, we can now accomplish some mixed light exposure techniques. We can regard portraits as either studio-lit or mixed light situations. Even within a studio setting, mixed light may be chosen either to use a window as a key light or to provide a creative accent. Many other portrait environments and styles lend themselves to mixed lighting. In most cases, making an outdoor portrait, an environmental portrait, or an editorial illustrative portrait involves mixed light sources and demands greater control of both exposure and lighting.

Many of these situations will involve a mix of ambient light and lighting equipment. This can be as simple as a reflector fill to add light to a outdoor portrait or as complicated as a lit interior and subject with a view out a window. The most complicated setups use artificial lighting along with ambient light in the portrait’s setting.

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Medium 9781933952734

30. Monochromatic Pastels

Harald Mante Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

1

Limiting the range of colors to a single tone or group of tones can give an image a highly individual look. Viewed singly, monochromatic images are often quite dull. However, including them in a series can inject life into otherwise muted photos. Compositions that include only one color or just a few closely related tones can often only be achieved using very tight framing. The range of monochromatic images is not determined by the grayscale value of the colors they contain, and so it includes all similar colors regardless of the brightness (or darkness) of their base tones.

A lightened color often crosses an undefined semantic border at which, for example, light red suddenly becomes pink. The practice of lightening colors is known as fading to white and implies that the resulting color is no longer pure. The opposite effect, known as fading to black, produces different reactions depending on the color that is being altered. Blue simply tends toward darker blue, while red is transformed into brown.

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Medium 9781937538224

Chapter 2 Interfaces

Patrick H. Corrigan Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

In computing, interface refers to the protocols (rules of communication) and the hardware that connects components and allows interaction between them. There are many interfaces used in computers, but our discussion will concentrate on those that are used to connect cameras and storage devices to a computer. These include the computer’s internal drive connectors and expansion slots, as well as the interfaces that connect to external devices such as networks, cameras, card readers, and storage devices. If this topic makes your eyes glaze over, skip ahead and use this chapter as a reference when necessary.

PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect. PCI is a connection for attaching various types of expansion cards to a computer’s motherboard (also called a mainboard). PCIe, or PCI Express, is a higher-speed version of PCI. These expansion card slots, collectively known as the expansion bus, are used to add various types of devices to a computer, including video cards, networking cards, and others. The use of PCI for personal computers began in the early nineties, replacing earlier generation expansion buses. PCIe slots were added alongside PCI slots starting in 2003. Many current computers have eliminated the older PCI slots and only have those for PCIe since many of the devices that used the original PCI are either included on the motherboard, available for PCIe, or obsolete.

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Medium 9781574412154

Toxicological Myths

Photographs by Tammy Cromer-Campbell. Essays by Phyllis Glazer, Roy Flukinger, Eugene Hargrove, and Marvin Legator University of North Texas Press PDF

Toxicological Myths

Dr. Marvin Legator

In the never-ending battle to clean up our environment and make our world safer for humanity, individuals and organizations that profit from polluting the environment have developed a series of scenarios to obfuscate the human effects of exposure to toxic substances. The underlying assumption of toxic waste facilities, and frequently state and federal agencies, is that they know more about the technical aspects of toxicology than the victims of chemical exposure. This arrogance is often manifested in the unnecessary use of technical jargon and misleading or confusing factual information. Informed residents who are knowledgeable as to the adverse health effects of chemical exposure have repeatedly challenged the toxic waste facilities and frequently persevered in obtaining necessary remedial action. The informed citizens of Winona, Texas, are outstanding examples of how to fight for environmental justice and challenge the questionable assertions of the toxic waste facility as well as state and federal agencies. In 1997, moses (Mothers Organized to Stop Environmental Sins), under the leadership of one of our present-day environmental heroines, Phyllis Glazer, was instrumental in shutting down the major polluting facility in the community of Winona.

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