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Medium 9781937538187


Bob Weil Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

A Winter Landscape

In this tutorial you will learn how to sharpen an image, add a variety of textures, adjust the colors, then blend and mask the image to create the final look.


Iris Photo Suite (iPad version)

ScratchCam FX

I have always loved photographing landscapes. Fifteen years ago I was taking images like this with my 4×5 camera. Today my iPhone—combined with the art of apping—is my tool of choice. I love snowy, wintry days when there is almost no visible distinction between the sky and the ground. I take images with a lot of negative space, or with a very simple composition, knowing that I will app them later. I love adding distressed textures and scratches that leave viewers wondering if they are looking at a photograph or a vintage image or maybe even a painting.

Step 1: Preparing the Base Image

I took my base image with Hipstamatic. I used the Helga Viking lens, which is a very neutral lens, and combined it with the Blanko film |1|. This provides a square format and a thin black line framing the image with a white border. In Laminar I sharpened the image to pull more detail out of the trees. This became the base image that I blended later with the other textured images. I wanted the detail in the corn and the trees to be prevalent. I liked the exposure and contrast, so I didn’t make any changes. I saved this version of the image.

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Medium 9781937538330

9 Everything Is Relative

Sandra Petrowitz Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

A Sense of Scale

Everything is relative, even size – what one person considers large, another may consider small, and vice versa, depending on the reference figure. As viewers of a photograph, our own background knowledge helps us to evaluate the size of the elements present in a picture. It can be nearly impossible to detect the actual size of an object if a viewer’s subconscious can’t recall any information to help him or her determine the size of an object and the photographer doesn’t supply any point of reference.

It’s possible to employ this effect deliberately. For example, clues about size are often left out of abstract photos where shapes, colors, proportions, and composition are of primary concern. The photo from the Tunisian Sahara on page 80 is an example of this – it appeals mostly because of its graphic elements, and information about the relative sizes of the objects is irrelevant to the impact of the picture.

That’s the exception rather than the rule, though. It’s much more common for a photographer to be on the lookout for something that will convey information about the relative proportions of an image. For example, a photographer might emphasize the vastness of a landscape by including a person who appears tiny within it. This kind of information about proportions supplements and often even constitutes the message of a photo: Look how imposing the glacier’s escarpment on the previous spread looks next to the (relatively) tiny rubber dinghy! Without the raft and the people in it this photo would lose most of its power because there would be no point of comparison to comprehend the massiveness of the ice cliff.

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Medium 9781933952499

Coloring Grayscale Images

Klaus Goelker Rocky Nook ePub

The functions to colorize black-and-white images only work in RGB mode.

Any black-and-white photo that can be opened in RGB mode can be colorized. There are several options available to apply a color tone to an image. You can even use sepia, which will make your image look like an old photograph. Various tools can be used to assign several different colors to an image or to colorize or brighten specific image areas.

You will probably use these options frequently when working with scanned images. If you scan an image with a color depth of 24 bits rather than in grayscale mode, the image will take on a slight color cast, corresponding to the color space of your scanner. In such a case, or when simply editing a color image in grayscale, its best to use the Colors > Desaturate menu item to convert an image into pure gray levels. There is no need to convert it to grayscale mode.

However, if you scanned an image in grayscale mode (with a color depth of 8 bits total), youll need to convert it to RGB in order to edit it. Just choose Image > Mode > RGB and make the change.

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Medium 9781937538279

9 Alternatives to Photoshop Layers

Juergen Gulbins Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Photoshop layers are powerful and flexible tools, but there are nevertheless situations in which other technologies offer equivalent or better functionality. This chapter addresses some of these alternatives.

If you shoot in Raw format, you will have to deal with the question of which processing steps to perform using a Raw converter and which you are better off executing in Photoshop. Raw converter technology is developing fast, and most programs nowadays include editing functionality previously only available in Photoshop, such as lens corrections, vignette removal, or selective local corrections to colors, tones, and contrast. This chapter includes thoughts and tips on dealing with this aspect of the photo workflow, and discusses some alternative approaches to non-destructive image editing.

* Raw-to-JPEG conversion (as an explicit action) has been available in high-end cameras since about 2011.

If you shoot in Raw format and don’t convert your images to JPEG in-camera* you will have to use a Raw converter to save them to a format that your editing software understands. Photoshop cannot directly process Raw image files, and instead opens the Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) processing module when you open a Raw image.

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Medium 9780596559281

Setting ISO

Ken Milburn O'Reilly Media PDF

Sony  Alpha DSLR A100: A Better Manual

Setting ISO

One of the ways (in addition to Super Steady Shot image stabilization) to make sure you’re able to get a sharp hand-held shot is to raise the sensitivity of the sensor. ISO is the abbreviation most photographers and camera-makers use to designate that a given number represents the sensitivity of the camera’s light recording medium. It stands for

International Standards Organization, which sets standards for many types of technologies. In regard to the light sensitivity rating of image recording devices, the same designations are used that were formerly assigned by the ASA (American Standards Organization). In analog photography, that light recording medium is film. In digital photography, it’s the sensor chip. The smaller the number, the less light-sensitive the media becomes. Sensors and film are generally rated at numbers between 25 and 6400. Each doubling of the number represents a 100 % increase in sensitivity. This can be translated to one full f-stop or shutter speed setting. So an ISO rating of 100 (often the minimum on digital cameras, as is the case with the Sony A100) is half as fast as ISO 200. If your camera or meter gives you a reading of 1/100th at f/8 at ISO 100, then raising the ISO to 400 would let you choose between changing the f-stop to f/16 or the shutter speed to

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Medium 9781937538019

Appendix A—Menu Commands

Carol F. Roullard Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

This appendix lists all of the Sony A77’s menu commands in order of their appearance within the menu structure.

Use this list as a dictionary and quick reference of a command’s function and location. Many of the commands are covered in detail in previous chapters, so think of this as an index for reviewing your commands.

The list is broken into sections with the menu name and page number identified at the beginning of commands residing on the menu’s page. Each command is listed along with a description and useful information. The commands’ available options and their descriptions are listed below the command. Note the commands’ default option is bolded. Example 1 below is the first command in the Setup Menu’s page 1. The Menu start command has two options: [Top] and [Previous], where [Top] is the default option.

A few of the commands have subcommands. The subcommand options are listed and then further broken out with their individual options. Example 2 shows part of the Slide Show command. Note the command has a subcommand called Repeat, which has two options: [On] and [Off], where [Off] is the default.

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Medium 9781937538538

2 Intriguing Ideas About Zen Philosophy

Torsten Andreas Hoffmann Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Zen meditation is a practice of Zen Buddhism. It migrated to China after the 6th century, and then made its way to Japan. It has since developed a presence in Western Culture.

Before taking a closer look at Buddhism, I would like to first stress that it is not my intention to convert anyone reading this book to any particular style of thinking; especially not a religion. The beauty of Zen is that it is a practice aimed at a deeper understanding of one’s own mind and being rather than a religious doctrine. This practice of honesty and openness is an excellent foundation for meaningful personal artistic expression. While Buddhism is counted among the world’s major religions, Buddhism is actually more accurately described as a form of philosophy. The essence of Buddhism is not to internalize any sort of dogma; instead, Buddhism strives to understand the nature of the human spirit in its deepest layers to find another way of seeing the world and one’s own being. (Incidentally, photographers share this pursuit—they use their cameras to depict aspects of the world in fresh and insightful ways.) Today, Buddhism is mainly active throughout the Himalayan region and Japan; it also has a presence in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and parts of India. In principle, it is a comprehensive philosophy that summons a transformation of the spirit and inner self to embrace all beings with deep compassion.

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Medium 9781937538460

32 Campari in a Bathtub

Tilo Gockel Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Campari in a Bathtub

How to produce soft surrounding light

Using a bathtub as a light tent

Using Photoshop to create colors that pop

If you want to create a setup that bathes the subject in light, where better to work than in a bathtub? I wanted to photograph some Campari bottles and give them a gaudy, pop art look. I used a bathtub and two flashes to completely bathe the scene in light.

A white bathtub is the best location for this kind of setup, but you could also improvise with a bed sheet in a large cardboard box. I used Plasticene to keep the bottles in position and lit them from the sides using two non-TTL YN-460 flashes aimed at the sides of the tub and softened with paper diffusers. I used RF-602 radio triggers and my Canon EOS Rebel T1i (EOS 500D) fitted with an EF 85mm f/1.8 lens.

Schematic showing our bathtub setup with two flashes that flood the scene with light

Two flashes with paper diffusers are aimed at the sides of the bathtub

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Medium 9781449398507

12. Drawing with Brushes, Shapes, and Other Tools

Barbara Brundage O'Reilly Media ePub

If youre not artistically inclined, you may feel tempted to skip this chapter. After all, you probably just want to fix and enhance your photoswhy should you care about brush technique? Surprisingly enough, you should care quite a lot.

In Elements, brushes arent just for painting a moustache and horns on a picture of someone you dont like, or for blackening your sisters teeth in that old school photo. Lots of Elements tools use brushes to apply their effects. So far, youve already run into the Selection brush, the Clone Stamp, and the Color Replacement brush, to name just a few. And even with the Brush tool, you can paint with lots of things besides colorlike light or shadows, for example. In Elements, when you want to apply an effect in a precise manner, you often use some sort of brush to do it.

If youre used to working with real brushes, their digital cousins can take some getting used to, but there are many serious artists now who paint primarily in Photoshop. With Elements, you get most of the same tools as in the full Photoshop, if not quite all the settings for each tool. Figure12-1 shows an example of the detailed work you can do with Elements and some artistic ability.

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Medium 9781933952734

35. Packaged Objects

Harald Mante Rocky Nook-IPS ePub


Normally, a quick glance is enough to check our surroundings for potential danger or interesting input. As soon as our view is blocked, our deep-seated instinct for survival makes us take a closer look at what is going on. In everyday situations such as riding a bicycle, driving a car, or walking along a street, we constantly survey our surroundings for changes in detail.

When we view pictures, we can give them our undivided attention. The first step involved in viewing a well-composed image is recognizing the main subject, which usually occurs within a split second. The recognition process takes longer if an image portrays an unfamiliar object or a familiar object presented in an unfamiliar way.

When we view packaged objects, it takes a while to comprehend the nature of the material that is blocking our view. The transparency of packaging materials can vary enormously. The best-known objects that hinder our view are fences, gratings, and textured glass. We are used to the limits imposed on private property or the safety provided by fences that separate people from animals. A cage that covers the entire frame is impossible to overlook but doesnt prevent us from recognizing the animals inside it.

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Medium 9781933952444

A. Flash Units for Canon EOS

NK Guy Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

These flash units are compatible with all Canon EOS type A cameras that support E-TTL and E-TTL II metering. All but the 270EX can also be used with older film cameras in legacy TTL mode.

The E-TTL successor to the Speedlite 200E has slightly greater range and a few E-TTL functions. Its a tiny portable flash unit for cameras that lack built-in flash. It can neither tilt nor swivel, nor can it serve as a wireless E-TTL slave. Fixed 28 mm coverage, and the red AF assist light covers the center point only. This model has been discontinued.


The 220EXs replacement has a tilting head and a two-position hand-operated zoom. It supports E-TTL but is the first Speedlite to drop support for legacy TTL metering. Unfortunately, it lacks a red AF assist light and instead pulses its main tube annoyingly in low light conditions. It uses only two AA batteries, so its quite compact.

Unfortunately many of the 270EXs features are only available on cameras that have Speedlite menu control. Its therefore much more suited to recent digital models and less suited to earlier cameras.

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Medium 9781937538415

Chapter 19: Adding Illumination

James Johnson Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

We use a number of tools to manipulate and capture light; that is the very essence of photography. The primary challenge is being able to identify the important aspects of light, roughly quantify them, and then manage them to contribute to the final image. Studio shooting offers a (generally) consistent environment and spending some initial time evaluating and adjusting studio lighting can be much simpler than what the photojournalist, sports photographer, or birthday-shooter will encounter.

There are simply too many ways to describe this characteristic of light. In the living room, we tend to express the amount of light a bulb can produce in terms of watts, which is really quite wrong: a watt is simply a measure of the amount of electrical energy consumed while the light is on. The more accurate expression of amount of light produced would be in terms of lumens. An incandescent bulb that consumes 75 watts of electricity produces about 920 lumens of light, whereas a 25-watt compact fluorescent light bulb puts out around 1,700 lumens. One of the older ways of expressing illumination is in terms of candlepower, with one candela (roughly the amount of light emitted by one candle) equal to 1 lumen per square foot. I saw a 40-million candlepower portable search light listed at Amazon.com. That’s just over one-half billion lumens.

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Chapter 13: The Movie-Mode Specific Menus

James Johnson Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

Figure 13-1. The ShootMovie1 tab

Rotate the Live View/Movie shooting switch, and you’ll notice that the Live View Shooting tab icons on the menu bar are replaced with the Movie Shooting tab icons.

Having selected the ShootMovie1 tab, touch the AF Method line, or select AF Method and then press the SET button. Touch one of the three parameters to select and set it, or use the Quick Control Dial or the Multi-controller to select a setting. Then press the SET button.

Figure 13-2. Selecting the AF Method option

Figure 13-3. Selecting an AF Method setting

In FlexiZone-Multi, the image sensor is used for focusing. A white-bordered rectangle will appear in the center of the screen, and it will function as the AF point. You can use the Multi-controller to position that AF point rectangle where you want to focus (pressing the SET button returns the AF point to the center of the screen). Now, when you press the Shutter button halfway, the camera attempts to focus. If it’s successful, the white border on the rectangle turns green; otherwise it turns orange. With a green border on the AF point, press the Start/Stop button to begin recording the movie.

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Medium 9781937538620

6. Making Mistakes

Bertram Solcher Rocky Nook ePub

The Benefits and Drawbacks of Rules

Do textbooks and rules make sense in a photographic context? If you want to do arithmetic accurately, you have to stick to the rules. If you want to take great photos, you have to know the rules too, but you can ignore them if you want. Many photography textbooks aim to help us avoid making common mistakes and talk about the “right” composition, “correct” exposure and “ideal” shutter speeds.

I think terms like “right” and “wrong” simply don’t apply when it comes to taking photos. Photography is a creative pursuit. Anyone involved in creating photographs for anything other than purely documentary purposes doesn’t need to enslave themselves to rules and should instead concentrate on packing their images with emotion. But don’t get me wrong—an unintentionally blurred image is substandard regardless of how creatively you shoot it. On the other hand, deliberate motion blur can be an effective stylistic device. Let’s take a look at some of the more generally accepted “rules” of photography.

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Medium 9781491947197

2. Editing Images

Lesa Snider O'Reilly Media ePub

Chapter 6, Cropping, Resizing, and Rotating

Chapter 7, Combining Images

Chapter 8, Draining, Changing, and Adding Color

Chapter 9, Correcting Color and Lighting

Chapter 10, Retouching, Removing, and Repositioning

Chapter 11, The Art of Sharpening

Cropping and resizing affect your entire document (not just the active layer), and are among the most basic edits you’ll ever make—but they’re also among the most important. A bad crop (or no crop) can ruin an image, while a good crop can improve it tenfold by snipping away useless or distracting material. And knowing how to resize an image—by changing either its file size or its overall dimensions—can be crucial when it’s time to email the image, print it, or post it on a website.

Cropping is pretty straightforward (though the process has changed from how it worked in earlier versions of Photoshop); resizing, not so much. To resize an image correctly, you first need to understand the relationship between pixels and resolution—and how they affect image quality (that can of worms gets opened on Pixels and Resolution.) And if you want to make Photoshop resize your image’s background without touching its subject or focal point, the Content-Aware Scale command can do that, but there’s a trick to using it successfully. Rotating images, on the other hand, is just plain fun.

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