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Chapter 5

Tony Grey John Libbey Publishing ePub

Bearing the pride of Roman youth, hungry for battle, the Road leaves the silt-laden river and passes into grassy plains which are gently undulating and articulated with clumps of trees. Birds are singing and all is benign. It could almost be in Italy. The great connector is making the march easy, pleasant even, as if it’s enticing the soldiers to the expected clash. And no wonder, for nothing in its history has been on the scale of what is to come. It lives for action. Whether it’s in trade or violence is of no account.

The sound of the army on the march is prodigious. Squeaking and crunching of the baggage train’s wheels, bronze armour rasping against itself, snorting animals, tread of man and horse, create a corridor of sound that extends the presence of the invaders wide into the countryside.

Soon the terrain changes, becomes drier and subsides into gnarled scrubland. Eventually it abandons vegetation altogether, sliding into sand like a shoreline ceding its domain to the sea. No birds are left to sing.

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12. The Categories Defended (Lecture III)

Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 308. [Published in CP 5.66–81, 88–92 (in part) and in HL 167–88. This is the third Harvard lecture, delivered on 9 April 1903.] In this lecture Peirce goes into more detail concerning the nature of his categories and uses them to distinguish three kinds of signs: icons, indices, and symbols. He analyzes in particular one type of symbol, the proposition, which always refers to its object in two ways: indexically, by means of its subject, and iconically, by means of its predicate. Peirce defends his categories against the view he attributes to A. B. Kempe that Thirdness is not required to express the relations of mathematics, and he argues for the independence of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness.

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Category the First is the Idea of that which is such as it is regardless of anything else. That is to say, it is a Quality of Feeling.

Category the Second is the Idea of that which is such as it is as being Second to some First, regardless of anything else and in particular regardless of any law, although it may conform to a law. That is to say, it is Reaction as an element of the Phenomenon.

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Chapter 3 - On Word, Image, and Gesture: Another Attempt at a Beginning

Dennis J. Schmidt Indiana University Press ePub

Three texts published in 1960, the same year in which Heidegger largely abandoned the question of painting, proved to be among the most promising for opening up a new approach for the philosophical concern with painting. The first was the reissue of “The Origin of the Work of Art” (written and delivered as a lecture in 1935, first published in 1950, reissued as a separate text in 1960), which was published this time with an introduction by Gadamer and a new addendum by Heidegger. With the addition of these texts, one is led to see “The Origin of the Work of Art” in a new context and so read it in a new way. The second text of 1960 was “Eye and Mind,” a text in which Merleau-Ponty asks about the “fundamental of painting, [and hence] perhaps of all culture,”1 and which does this more rigorously from within the standpoint of the painter than perhaps any philosopher had yet accomplished. The third text of this year was Gadamer's Truth and Method, which, more systematically and more rigorously than any other text, draws together all of the historical strands that have defined the decisive moments in the history of philosophical approaches to artworks—especially with regard to painting.2 There were other texts from this period that pursued the question of art; among them, several would single out Klee's work as opening up new possibilities for painting. Adorno, Foucault, Deleuze, Lyotard, Marcuse, Bloch, and, to some extent, Sartre, Blanchot, and Bataille all take up the question of the work of art, especially painting, as a central philosophical issue and not merely as an adjunct concern, and all turn to Klee as exemplary in addressing this question.3 In other words, precisely at the moment that Heidegger despairs of the possibilities of art in our times, precisely when he quietly retreats from the question of painting, art—painting above all—comes forward to define the central philosophical questions of this moment and in a variety of thinkers.

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5. The Promise of Jewish Education

Claire Elise Katz Indiana University Press ePub

Train up a child in the way he should go and even when he is old he will not depart from it.

—Talmud: Kiddushin 29a

What then does God do in the fourth quarter?—He sits and instructs the school children, as it is said, Whom shall one teach knowledge, and whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk.

—Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Avodah Zarah, 3b (see also
Isaiah 28:9)

In his biography of Emmanuel Levinas, Salomon Malka opens the chapter on Levinas’s years as the director of École Normale Israélite Orientale (ENIO) with the following quote:

After Auschwitz, I had the impression that in taking on the directorship of the École Normale Israélite Orientale I was responding to a historical calling. It was my little secret . . . Probably the naïveté of a young man. I am still mindful and proud of it today.1

His confession echoes Theodor Adorno’s warning twenty years earlier in his 1966 radio interview published as “Education after Auschwitz.” Responding to the atrocities of the Holocaust, Adorno opens the essay with the declaration that “the premier demand upon all education is that Auschwitz not happen again.”2 Barbarism is not something that poses merely a threat of a relapse. Adorno insists Auschwitz was the relapse. He describes the only meaningful education as “an education directed toward critical self-reflection.” And, like Levinas, he implores us to turn our attention to young children: “Since according to the findings of depth psychology, all personalities, even those who commit atrocities in later life, are formed in early childhood, education seeking to prevent the repetition must concentrate upon early childhood.”3

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Seminar in Zähringen 1973

Heidegger, Martin ePub

September 6

After the Thor seminars, the Freiburg seminar begins. Whereas in 1968 and 1969 an access to the question of Being was attempted on the basis of Hegel and Kant, here such an access is attempted on the basis of Husserl.

The point of departure is a letter from Jean Beaufret, in which two questions are raised:

1) To what extent can it be said that there is no question of Being in Husserl?

2) In what sense is Heidegger able to call his analysis of environment104 an “essential gain”105 and yet claim elsewhere that it “remains of subordinate significance.”106

The work begins by the examination of the second question.

The analysis of the worldhood of the world is indeed an “essential step” to the extent that, for the first time in the history of philosophy, being-in-the-world appears as the primary mode of encountering entities. Better: being-in-the-world is discovered as the primary and irreducible fact, always already given, and thus radically “prior” to any conception of consciousness.

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