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2. On Not Becoming Man: The Materialist Politics of Unactualized Potential

Stacy Alaimo Indiana University Press ePub

Claire Colebrook

Why would feminism turn to vitalism, and how could vitalism today become a way of politicizing problems? To feel the force of these questions, we might begin to consider why, until recently, “vitalism” was a pejorative term. Only then can we begin to see how and why the re-workings of the vitalist tradition have been so beneficial—and perilous—for feminist thought.

When feminists turn to vitalism today, they do so with a full sense of the exhaustion and limits of the linguistic paradigm. The idea that the world is constructed through language merely repeats a centuries-old privilege of the formal and logical over the material (Gatens 1996). It is not surprising, then, that having returned the body to philosophy, by arguing that we should not just see the body as the vehicle through which mind or activity makes its way in the world, feminism is now appealing to more radically impersonal vital processes—such as the evolutionary forces through which bodies become, or the somatic responses that cannot be referred back to the agency of the organism (Grosz 2005; Wilson 2004). At a broader level, the work of Gilles Deleuze, with its emphasis on mind and language as emergent, has led critical theory to take up recent and fashionable work in the sciences regarding the brain, life processes, and the dynamism of matter (Protevi 2001). However we regard the “waves” of feminism, and however many waves we deem there to be, we do appear to be at the threshold of a new wave, and this would be the result of contingent but revolutionary confluences. Just as critical theory is recognizing that poststructuralism, far from being a theory of language, was a rigorous philosophy of life, the life sciences themselves—through new imaging technologies—are turning to problems of emotion, affect, distributed cognition, and emergence.

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Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

Scientific deductive system

How would a s.d.s. be produced for analytic theory? Can there be anything analogous to the ‘law of gravitation’? It seems possible to produce a series of formulas that might succinctly express schizophrenia. Let us try it in the way that Braithwaite did it:

First, I think, must come the rules of the ‘game’. But do the rules then come from the nature of the subject? Yes: that would seem to be the common sense of it. What are the rules of psycho-analytical schizophrenia? I jot down a few at random as they occur to me.

These seem adequate for a start, but I could add two more.

But these are rules of the psycho-analytical game. We want rules of a s.d.s. Are they the same? Should the rules relate instead to Kleinian theory? There is no reason why they should not relate to any or all of these things.

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Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

The Dream is an emotional event of which we usually only hear a report or have a memory, although as we shall see it is a matter of some doubt what we mean when we think, or say, we remember a dream. I wish now to extend the term, ‘dream’, to cover the kind of events that take place in an analysis of a schizophrenic—events that appear to me to merit the description, ‘dreams’.

One of the points I wish to discuss is related to the fact that the actual events of the session, as they are apparent to the analyst, are being ‘dreamed’ by the patient not in the sense that he believes that the events observed by him are the same as the events observed by the analyst (except for the fact that he believes them to be a part of a dream, and the analyst believes them to be a part of reality), but in the sense that these same events that are being perceived by the analyst are being perceived by the patient and treated to a process of being dreamed by him. That is, these events are having something done to them mentally, and that which is being done to them is what I call being dreamed—subjected to a process which I hope to describe in more detail.

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Medium 9780253007407

Fourteen: Heidegger with Blanchot: On the Way to Fragmentation

Edited by Jeffrey Powell Indiana University Press ePub


Heidegger with Blanchot: On the Way to Fragmentation

Christopher Fynsk

Maurice Blanchot never masked the importance of Heidegger’s thought for his own trajectory of thinking and writing. Nor did he dwell on a relation that grew increasingly indirect in the later years, and whose public face was devoted to questioning regarding Heidegger’s debt to the metaphysical tradition and an even more severe condemnation of Heidegger’s political and ethical compromises. Taken in the context of an almost obligatory distancing of French thinkers from their Heideggerian legacy over the past three decades, this overt resistance has perhaps had the general effect of inhibiting sustained attention to Blanchot’s relation to Heidegger and to the question of how Blanchot’s thought of “le neutre” interrupts the Heideggerian motif of Ereignis and sends his thinking on a profoundly divergent path. How do we assess that divergence and to what exigencies for thought does it introduce us? The questions remain vital, and they are immense.

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Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub


Notes and Sketches on the Lecture

Letter to the Galatians

[on § 16]

Paul in struggle—not only for his mission, but for the Galatians themselves; against the “law” not only as law, but rather as belonging to the world era [Weltzeit]. A push away into the unredeemed, not a radical seizing of the spirit.

The conflict about circumcision: question of the conditions for the entry into Christian life; external sign of inner belonging to the “alliance” [Bundeswelt] after exile. Not law, with its works and morals, distinguishes, but rather, faith in Jesus Christ. Superfluousness, harmfulness […]* In law a “way to salvation” is embodied (view of existence!) (Way to salvation in upholding the commandment!) Meaning of the entire law: to refer man to his doings; the works of his doings [?], the reward will be of the law. For Paul: God alone acts in the sending of Christ! Thus: not the works of human beings, but rather grace!

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2. Existence and Dependency: Ernesto Mayz Vallenilla’s Phenomenological Analysis of Being Latin American and Augusto Salazar Bondy’s Negative Critique of Latin American Philosophy

Alejandro Arturo Vallega Indiana University Press ePub

As we have just seen, at the heart of Leopoldo Zea’s thought appears Western philosophy as a creative force that results in the domination of other peoples and cultures who have not likewise developed their reflexive rationality. Two major Latin American philosophers who engage directly with the kind of existence that results from experiencing such domination are the Venezuelan Ernesto Mayz Vallenilla and the Peruvian Augusto Salazar Bondy. The first offers a deep phenomenological analysis of the abyssal existence Simón Bolívar introduces in his “Jamaica Letter” when he articulates the difficulty of Latin American existence. Salazar Bondy takes on domination directly and shows how it is the determining factor that up to the late sixties severs Latin American philosophers from their reality. Both philosophers, in their own ways, bring forth elements that will prove fundamental for understanding the development of Latin American thought. At the same time, as we will see, both of them ultimately remain wedded to Western thought by the very way in which they pose the issue of domination. In reading these authors, as well as throughout this book, I must emphasize that I do not believe that philosophical insights and the limits of a philosopher’s thought are mutually exclusive. As I understand it, philosophy is always questioning the very delimitations of meanings, sense, reason, and humanity.

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Medium 9781934989104

~ Knowledge

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub

We were waiting for the train, and it was late. The platform was dirty and noisy, the air acrid. There were many people waiting, like us. Children were crying, a mother was suckling her baby, the vendors were shouting their wares, tea and coffee were being sold, and it was an altogether busy and clamorous place. We were walking up and down the plat form, watching our own footsteps and the movement of life about us. A man came up to us and began to talk in broken English. He said he had been watching us, and felt impelled to say something to us. With great feeling he promised he would lead a clean life, and that from this moment he would never smoke again. He said he was not educated, as he was only a rickshaw boy. He had strong eyes and a pleasant smile.

Presently the train came. In the carriage a man introduced him self. He was a well known scholar; he knew many languages and could quote freely in them. He was full of years and knowledge, well-to-do and ambitious. He talked of meditation, but he gave the impression that he was not speaking from his own experience. His god was the god of books. His attitude towards life was traditional and conformatory; he believed in early, prearranged marriage and in a strict code of life. He was conscious of his own caste or class and of the differences in the intellectual capacity of the castes. He was strangely vain in his knowledge and position.

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27. [Unequivocal Division of Finites]

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF


Division of Finites, 1880-81

/Unequivocal Division of Finites7

MS 383: Winter 1880-81

We have begun the inquiry into algebras in which the division of finites is unequivocal that is in which

Ifp^p' q^pq' then pq^p'q pq^pq'

Ifp^p' q^pq' then pq^p'q pq^pq'

Ifp^p' q^pq' then pq^

Ifp^p' q^pq' then pq^p'q pq^pq'


We have found that every expression in such an algebra is resolvable in one way and one only into a sum of two parts, the first of which is an ordinary number and the second such that its square is an ordinary negative number. Of course either of these parts may disappear.

An ordinary number we call a scalar

A quantity whose square is negative we call a vector

A quantity whose square is — 1 we call a unit vector

That scalar which subtracted from the quantity q yields a vector remainder we call the scalar of q. The vector remainder we call the vector of q. That positive quantity the negative of whose square is the square of the vector v we call the tensor or modulus of v.

Our next step is to prove that the vector part of the product of two vectors is linearly independent of these vectors and of unity.

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Medium 9780253331472

Two. “. . . Life-in-Death”: Reading Being and Time (II)

David Farrell Krell Indiana University Press ePub

Life has appeared thus far in Being and Time as the unlikely body of Dasein and the impossible object of ontology. We must now go to encounter life in falling, anxiety, and care. Further, we shall rise to meet it in the ungraspable reality of the resplendent sun, then descend to meet it in bedazzlement, demise, and death. Perhaps even in perishing.

The two principal problems of the “everyday being of the ‘there’ and the falling [Verfallen] of Dasein” (SZ, §§35–38) are, first, the difficulty of achieving genuine phenomenological access to falling as the movement or animatedness (Bewegtheit) of existence and, second, the ease with which the factical ideal of such a fallen yet always still falling existence, an ideal derived from certain strands of the theological and moral-philosophical traditions, surreptitiously guides Heidegger’s fundamental ontology. Both problems touch on life. For the falling of Dasein is, as we have seen, the ruinous animation of factical life as such; and the factical ideal of a vigilant, reticent, and resolute Dasein that gets a grip on itself and escapes the snares of the world is an ancient ideal—the ideal of all idealisms and asceticisms since time immemorial, which seek to protect themselves above all from life.

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Faces, Idols, Fetishes

Alphonso Lingis Indiana University Press ePub

modern epistemology set out to rigorously distinguish the real appearance of a thing from its perspectival deformations; its appearances in positions set askew or upside-down; obscured or confused appearances due to the poor lighting, the intervening medium, or the distance—to segregate the real appearances from illusory ones. Then it set out to demarcate the appearance given and perceived in a here-and-now presence from the traces of its appearance, retained by memory, of a moment before and from the anticipations of its appearance in a moment later. It set out to isolate the here-and-now given from the relationships between past, present, and surrounding appearances elaborated by the synthesizing operation of the sensibility that identifies something selfsame in a series of appearances extending across a span of time. This epistemology seeks to separate, in the multitude of appearances a thing extends in time and space, what is due to the reality of the thing from what is due to the intervening medium and what is due to the mind. It set out to inventory the pure data and to identify in the retinal imprints what is due to the thing itself.

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Medium 9780856831843

Dean Colet

Michael Shepherd Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

The eternal alone is true, the temporal only seems to be. *

WITHIN the context of this essay, I will not attempt to give a detailed analysis of the relationship between Dean Colet and Marsilio Ficino, but rather to consider the nature of their friendship, in the context of the society in which they were living and the changes which were taking place. To give a little insight into the character of John Colet, I quote from the following letter:

When you have read the contents of this letter, please to let me have it back again, as I have not a copy of it by me. And though I am not in the habit of keeping my letters by me (nor could I do so, because they are sent off by me as first written, without any copy being retained,) still, if there are any which contain matters of doctrine, I should not like them to be altogether lost. Not that they are worth preservation; but if left behind they might help to keep alive some recollection of me. And whatever other reason there may be for my wishing the letters I write to you to be preserved, this one is certainly the strongest, that I should like them to remain as enduring witness of my respect for you. Again farewell.1

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Second Book of Laws

Arthur Farndell Shepheard-Walwyn ePub
Medium 9780253003263

4 Phenomenology as Rigorous Science

John Llewelyn Indiana University Press ePub

As a student of mathematics at Berlin, Husserl became acquainted with Karl Weierstrass and his project for founding mathematical analysis on the concept of number. Not without finding Weierstrass guilty of a certain naïve empiricism, Husserl himself aimed to further this program in the dissertation On the Concept of Number (1887) which he went on to compose at Halle under the direction of Carl Stumpf, a former student of Brentano, and which became integrated into his Philosophy of Arithmetic (1891).1 In these works Husserl demonstrates that numbers belong to a continuum that presupposes a mental act of collecting. It is not surprising that Frege criticized the Philosophy of Arithmetic for its psychologism. Without fully accepting Frege’s criticism, Husserl henceforth stressed the objectivity of the fundamental concepts of mathematics and logic. The mental act of collecting, for example, was not a subjective operation; it was conducted according to “rigorous laws,” as will be what Husserl will call his “philosophy as rigorous science.” This philosophical science will steer a course between the naïve empiricism he finds in Weierstrass, the naïve Platonism he finds in Bernard Bolzano’s Theory of Science, and the naïve psychologism he finds in Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint and other works of Franz Brentano whose classes he had attended at the University of Vienna.

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Medium 9780253211859

The Moral Self from Ethics (1932)

LARRY A HICKMAN Indiana University Press ePub

The self has occupied a central place in the previous discussions, in which important aspects of the good self have been brought out. The self should be wise or prudent, looking to an inclusive satisfaction and hence subordinating the satisfaction of an immediately urgent single appetite; it should be faithful in acknowledgment of the claims involved in its relations with others; it should be solicitous, thoughtful, in the award of praise and blame, use of approbation and disapprobation, and, finally, should be conscientious and have the active will to discover new values and to revise former notions. We have not, however, examined just what is the significance of the self. The important position of the self in morals, and also various controversies of moral theory which have gathered about it, make such an examination advisable. A brief reference to the opposed theories will help to indicate the points which need special attention.

A most profound line of cleavage has appeared in topics already discussed. Some theories hold that the self, apart from what it does, is the supreme and exclusive moral end. This view is contained in Kant’s assertion that the Good Will, aside from consequences of acts performed, is the only Moral Good. A similar idea is implicit whenever moral goodness is identified in an exclusive way with virtue, so that the final aim of a good person is, when summed up briefly, to maintain his own virtue. When the self is assumed to be the end in an exclusive way, then conduct, acts, consequences, are all treated as mere means, as external instruments for maintaining the good self. The opposed point of view is found in the hedonism of the earlier utilitarians when they assert that a certain kind of consequences, pleasure, is the only good end and that the self and its qualities are mere means for producing these consequences.

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Medium 9781771870849

Carling’s Gospel

Ratzlaff, Lloyd Thistledown Press ePub


ONE SUMMER NIGHT IN THE 1970S, two illicit bottles of Black Label beer made the Bible grow holy for me indeed. I was a young Mennonite minister, green as a peapod and with a few neuroses for good measure, and had just been on vacation in Saskatchewan with my family. When we returned to Manitoba, I left my wife and daughters visiting with relatives in Dauphin, and drove on south alone to our home in Morris. Along the way, I stopped furtively and bought the verboten lager; not a case or a six-pack — two bottles, and I meant to have a party.

Late that evening, I drew my curtains against the eyes of the neighbours across the street, who had a reputation for what they knew about people in town, and went to get myself a beer from the fridge. The brand had enticed me mainly for its childhood associations — the ads in Life magazine (“Mabel! Black Label!”), and the empties I’d gathered in the ditch, warm and sweet in the summer sun, to cash in for a penny apiece.

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