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~ Virtue

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub

The sea was very calm and there was hardly a ripple on the white sands. Around the wide bay, to the north, was the town, and to the south were palm trees, almost touching the water. Just visible beyond the bar were the first of the sharks, and beyond them the fishermen's boats, a few logs tied together with stout rope. They were making for a little village south of the palm trees. The sun set was brilliant, not where one would expect it, but in the east; it was a counter sunset, and the clouds, massive and shapely, were lit with all the colors of the spectrum. It was really quite fantastic, and almost painful to bear. The waters caught the brilliant colors and made a path of exquisite light to the horizon.

There were a few fishermen walking back to their villages from the town, but the beach was almost deserted and silent. A single star was above the clouds. On our way back, a woman joined us and began to talk of serious things. She said she belonged to a certain society whose members meditated and cultivated the essential virtues. Each month a particular virtue was chosen, and during the days that followed it was cultivated and put into practice. From her attitude and speech it appeared that she was well grounded in self discipline and somewhat impatient with those who were not of her mood and purpose.

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26. The Basis of Pragmaticism in Phaneroscopy (1906)

Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub


MS 908. [The last part of this document was published in CP 1.317–21. Many versions of a text titled “The Basis of Pragmaticism” are extant; they were written over a period of nine months starting in August 1905, and they were all meant to become Peirce’s third Monist paper. The present text is Peirce’s fifth attempt, probably written in December 1905. The words “in Phaneroscopy” have been added to the title of this version.] Peirce’s original plan for this series of articles called for the third one to present the proof of pragmaticism. In this selection and the one that follows, Peirce lays the foundation on which to erect his proof (but he later decided that his best case needed to be made with the Existential Graphs). His preliminary efforts offer important insights as to how deeply pragmaticism is embedded in his system of philosophy. The basis for pragmaticism that Peirce develops here is his phaneroscopy and the doctrine of the valency of concepts that derives from it. Peirce explains why it makes sense to expect that experience will exhibit only three “indecomposable elements,” and offers an abbreviated proof of his reduction thesis. This article well exhibits Peirce’s intention to do what he can to make philosophy a science, toward which end it is necessary to “abandon all endeavor to make it literary.” Still, Peirce concludes this draft with a poetic characterization of the crucial interplay between the world of fancy, the rudeness of experience, and our “garment of contentment and of habituation.”

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22. [The Logic Notebook]

Peirce, Charles S. PDF



In short we need but one logical function to express everything

We may write this function (x,y) and let it mean

(x,y) = iy -\-j\\f + kx + /o>

U = < p + i | / + x + <*> x =

y =



lu - fey) + (i - l)x + (k- l)y lu - fey) + (i - l)x + (k- l)y


The same object may be accomplished without any logical function (x,y). Namely let us take arbitrarily any two numbers v f and let x = f

signify that whatever object can be chosen is not x x =v

that whatever object can be chosen is x. Then we cannot have at once



because f and v are different numbers. The equation

(*-f)(*-v) = 0

will denote that x = f or x = v that is that every object chosen is either x or not-*. The idea is that for each object chosen this holds so that for each, x =f that is that object is not x or x = v that is that object is v.


(*_f)(j,_v) = 0

means each object chosen is either not-* or is y.

Cayley proposes to write the negative of this thus


but this would be: the object chosen must be x and cant be y. This states too much. The true denial of the first equation would be

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Medium 9780253021083

6 The New Middle Way: Highlights of the Lotus Sūtra in Tiantai Context

Brook A. Ziporyn Indiana University Press ePub



Highlights of the Lotus Sūtra in Tiantai Context


The Lotus Sūtra is a complex and controversial text, and it can be approached and understood in a lot of different ways. Our purpose here is not to try to find out what it “really” means, or what its authors meant; rather, our goal is to try to get a grasp on how it might have been read by Tiantai Buddhist thinkers and how it helped inspire the unique forms of Buddhist thought and practice derived from that school. The previous chapter included a story to help illustrate the importance the Lotus Sūtra has in the context of Tiantai Buddhism and thereafter in all East Asian Buddhism to a greater or lesser extent. That story was created keeping in mind the situation of a modern reader who is not necessarily immersed in Buddhism sectarian polemics and terminologies. But the Lotus Sūtra itself offers many stories, fantastical special effects, wild mythological scenes, and a variety of exhortatory hints to suggest its main ideas and how best to approach them, through which we can now take a little tour, noting the significance they come to have when viewed through the lens of the concerns that will shape Tiantai Buddhism in China (and Tendai in Japan). The reader may find it useful to have a translation of the Lotus on hand and read the texts for which the summaries are offered here. The translations of Gene Reeves or Burton Watson would serve admirably for this purpose.

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Medium 9781934989111

Chapter 1: Creative Happiness

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253342485

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course summer Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course Summer
Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

The bibliographical main title of volume 60 is taken from a school binder in which Heidegger had bound his 1918–19 studies of the phenomenology of religion. On the second page is found the original title: “Phenomenology of Religious Consciousness.” Later the word “consciousness” is crossed out by Heidegger and replaced with the word “life.” This earlier title is also found in his letter of May 1, 1919, to Elisabeth Blochmann: “My own work is very concentrated, basic and concrete: basic problems of the phenomenolog[ical] method, becoming free from the last shackles of acquired positions&#x2014;constant new progress toward the real origins, preparations for the phenomenology of religious consciousness&#x2014;firmly geared up for intensive, high-quality academic effectiveness, constant learning in the company of Husserl” (Martin Heidegger–Elisabeth Blochmann, Letters 1918–1969, edited by Joachim W. Storck, Marbach on the Neckar, 1989, p. 16). That Heidegger speaks of “preparations” in respect to his studies of the phenomenology of religion probably refers to the announcement of Heidegger's planned lecture course of Winter Semester 1919–1920, “The Philosophical Foundations of Medieval Mysticism.” But beyond that it seems to indicate in general a longer-standing project, for, next to the basic problems, the phenomenology of religion is the only concrete problem that Heidegger seems to “approach” at this time.

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Chapter 5: Process and Revolution

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253372086

37. James’s Psychology

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


James’s Psychology

2 and 9 July 1891

The Nation

The Principles of Psychology. By William James, Professor of

Psychology in Harvard University. [American Science Series,

Advanced Course.] Henry Holt & Co. 1890. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xii

+ 689, and vi + 704.


Upon this vast work no definitive judgment can be passed for a long time; yet it is probably safe to say that it is the most important contribution that has been made to the subject for many years. Certainly it is one of the most weighty productions of American thought. The directness and sharpness with which we shall state some objections to it must be understood as a tribute of respect.

Beginning with the most external and insignificant characters, we cannot much admire it as a piece of bookmaking; for it misses the unity of an essay, and almost that of a connected series of essays, while not attaining the completeness of a thorough treatise. It is a large assortment of somewhat heterogeneous articles loosely tied up in one bag, with tendencies towards sprawling.

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Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

It would be useful to take a leaf out of the mathematical logician's book and consider concepts such as, ‘breast’, ‘penis’, etc., as conjunctions, or the emotions as connectives, or whatever it was that was thought to be most accurate. But in fact these terms are not very suitable for psychoses because I am concerned here with something that approximates to psycho-analysis of the state of mind that in one person becomes a psychosis and in another an invention of mathematical logic. The failed mathematical logician might develop a psychosis, and the aborted psychosis might determine its experiencer to turn to mathematical logic. We may have to invent, with such assistance from the mathematical logician as we can get, a mode of abstraction for terms such as, ‘penis’.

The first need is to consider what it is that we want to abstract from such a term: if it is its function, for which of its functions do we need to find an abstraction? At the same time the question obtrudes: how is the meaning of the original object, from which the abstraction is to be effected, to be retained? The answer is, by preservation of the visual image and hence the importance of the term, ‘penis’, for example, for this term has the merit of being able to evoke a visual image. So we must never attempt abstraction without concretization.

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3 Pragmatism and the American Scene

Whitehead, Deborah Indiana University Press ePub

I BEGAN THE BOOK with James’s story about the birth of the pragmatic method in a wilderness camping dispute. Returning to Jehlen’s argument that this is a characteristically American story, I argue in this chapter that we can also read it as a kind of “primal scene” of pragmatism’s American origins, one deeply rooted in the particular geographies of the nation. Reading pragmatism as an American story in this way highlights the intimate connections between Jamesian pragmatism and nationalism. This chapter explores the “Americanness” of pragmatism in two respects: James’s use of the frontier metaphor, with its associated ideas of nature, wilderness, and the pioneer, to talk about pragmatism; and his initially hesitantly positive, then increasingly negative understanding of America as “empire.” American pragmatism is deeply situated rhetorically, historically, and culturally in relation to American nationalism, and this situatedness can be seen in some of the early pragmatist writings.

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Medium 9780253017543

3 Sacred Suffering: A Phenomenological Anthropological Perspective

Kalpana Ram Indiana University Press ePub

C. Jason Throop

IN ANTHROPOLOGY, THE sacred has long been viewed as a unique register of human existence that is at times intimately associated with human suffering in its various forms and manifestations. Often enfolded within such orientations to the potential sacredness of human suffering are associated moral experiences and ethical concerns. Whether understood in the context of painful rituals of initiation, in the light of pain-induced transformations in consciousness, in the context of particular salvational orientations to loss, illness, human finitude, and death, or in the tendency to view suffering as a means of sacrificing one’s own desires for the benefit of one’s ancestors, spirits, or deities, the link between suffering and the sacred has been well documented in anthropology and elsewhere (Geertz 1973; Glucklich 2001; Morninis 1985; Morris 1991; cf. Agamben 1998).1

Despite such extensive documentation it is still far from clear exactly how we should best understand the intimate relationship between suffering and the sacred.2 What is it exactly about suffering as a fact of human existence that can evoke orientations to the sacred? What could be considered sacred about human pain, loss, and hardship? And, perhaps, even more foundational questions: What is the sacred, what forms can it take, and to what extent do ideas of what the sacred entails shape or limit the phenomena (including experiences of suffering) to which it can be addressed? Allow me to begin by addressing this last question as a means to prepare the way for developing an explicitly phenomenological perspective on sacred suffering, which I will then ethnographically situate through a brief examination of some of the various imbrications of sacredness and the experience of suffering in Yap, a small island in the Western Pacific where I have conducted over nineteen months of ethnographic research on morality, suffering, and pain.

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Chapter Twelve. Husserl and Klein on the Logic of Symbolic Mathematics

Burt C. Hopkins Indiana University Press ePub

As Klein notes, the logic of symbolic mathematics was Husserl’s first philosophical problem. Husserl’s investigations in Philosophy of Arithmetic seek to establish the foundation of symbolic mathematics, which he also calls ‘universal arithmetic’, on the authentic concept of cardinal number (Anzahl).10 To anticipate the results of our own investigation of Husserl’s treatment of this problem in the next chapter, it begins with the assumption of the logical equivalence, in the sense of the identity of their object, of the contents of the authentic and symbolic concepts of number: Husserl initially presents each as referring to the determinate unity of a determinate multitude of units, albeit directly in the case of the authentic concept of cardinal number and indirectly in the case of the symbolic concept of number. Husserl’s investigation seeks to show that the foundation of symbolic mathematics, and thus its logic as well, lies in the authentic concept of Anzahl.

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16 October 1959

Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

Various forms of dream manifestation

1. Organic

(a) The patient may be concussed—an unlikely contingency but one to be borne in mind in view of the patient's disturbed condition, and therefore the possibility that he has been in an accident.

(b) He may be drunk.

(c) He may have taken some other drug—cocaine, barbiturates, etc.

2. Psychological

(a) α is in progress. That is to say, he is attempting to transform immediately current events in the room into assimilable form. This pre-supposes that his α capacity is rudimentary and is being expressed aloud presumably to get the analyst's help. But it may slide off into

(b) dreaming. This is the emergence of an activity which the patient dare not allow himself out of the analyst's presence through dread of the dream's manifest content, and in particular destroyed objects, un-α'd objects and super-ego.

(c) An artificially contrived dream or a hallucinated dream—the latter must be distinguished from the hallucination. Without this distinction the inability to produce associations cannot be properly understood and there is blurring of the distinction between the process intended to evacuate (hallucination) and a process concerned with a need to introject. The artificially contrived dream sounds what it is; it is consciously fabricated, and that, I think, must be taken as the distinction from the hallucinated dream. The hallucinated dream is one produced under duress; the patient must dream, and it is this compulsion which leads to an uncontrolled hallucinated dream.

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Medium 9781934989159

VI. Meditation and the Quiet Mind

Jidda Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub

Just look without thought

I wonder if you have ever walked along a crowded street, or a lonely road, and just looked at things without thought? There is a state of observation without the interference of thought. Though you are aware of everything about you, and you recognize the person, the mountain, the tree, or the oncoming car, yet the mind is not functioning in the usual pattern of thought. I dont know if this has ever happened to you. Do try it sometime when you are driving or walking. Just look without thought; observe without the reaction which breeds thought. Though you recognize colour and form, though you see the stream, the car, the goat, the bus, there is no reaction, but merely negative observation; and that very state of so-called negative observation is action. Such a mind can utilize knowledge in carrying out what it has to do, but it is free of thought in the sense that it is not functioning in terms of reaction. With such a minda mind that is attentive without reactionyou can go to the ofce, and all the rest of it.

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Medium 9780856833656

Translator’s Notes to Part Two

Ficino Ficino Shepheard Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd ePub

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