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30. A Sketch of Logical Critics (1911)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub


MS 675. [In the spring of 1909, J. W. Slaughter and G. F. Stout, two friends of Victoria Lady Welby, decided to honor her with a collection of essays on “Signifies,” and eagerly sought a contribution from Peirce. He was glad to accept, but ill health slowed him down until a reminder from Slaughter, in April 1911, revived his impetus. MS 675, probably written in August 1911, is one of the more polished versions of Peirce’s eventually unsuccessful attempt to complete his assignment. Maybe as a consequence, the collection of essays was never published.] Although this writing is at most only a fragment of the paper Peirce had in mind, it contains important clarifications and sheds much light on the late trajectory of Peirce’s thought. By “logical critics,” Peirce means “the theory of the kinds and degrees of assurance that can be afforded by the different ways of reasoning.” This is, for Peirce, a semiotic question, and one that exercised him a great deal in his later years. Although he never really reaches the question here, he does come to discuss “precisely” what we mean by “reasoning,” and points out that it is only one of two ways that knowledge is acquired, the other being experience. Belief acquired through reasoning must be justified by what preceded it in our minds; but belief gained from experience needs no justification. Peirce discusses two faults with his 1877-78 pragmatism papers: his definition of “belief,” and his failure to see that “a true would-be is as real as an actuality.” He concludes with a call for a cooperative scientific attack on the “problems of the nature, properties, and varieties of Signs.”

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7. Problematization plus Reconstruction: Genealogy, Pragmatism & Critical Theory

Colin Koopman Indiana University Press ePub


Problematization plus Reconstruction

Genealogy, Pragmatism & Critical Theory

Reconciling Problematizers and Reconstructors

Throughout this book I have been working toward a conception of critical inquiry that brings together the methodological orientations of problematization and reconstruction. It is time to more tightly tie together these two elements of my proposed form of critical inquiry. In this concluding chapter I detail how what I have been calling problematization and reconstruction fit together quite naturally to form a broad-based conception of critique, in the capacious Kantian sense of critique I outlined in the introduction. Kant initiated a project in modern philosophical practice that remains of ineliminable value for the traditions of genealogy, pragmatism, and critical theory. I am not referring to Kant’s projects of an architectonic of reason and a legislation of the moral will. That in Kant which lasts for us today is his project of critique—the severe work by which we inquire into second-order conditions of possibility of our first-order practical doings. In placing genealogy, pragmatism, and critical theory in the lineage of Kant, I aim to call attention to Kant’s best achievements for us moderns. These achievements may not be dependent upon more textbook stories we are too often taught about Kant. Indeed, I can freely admit that Kant may not recognize himself in the critical methodologies I am discussing. But that is not my point. Rather my claim is that we can recognize enough of Kant in ourselves. What I seek, then, are connections on their own terms between Foucault’s Kantian project of problematization on the one hand and the Kantian projects of reconstruction featured in the work of pragmatism and critical theory on the other.

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Epilogue - The Personal Value and Social Usefulness of Philosophy

John Lachs Indiana University Press ePub

I was born on July 17, 1934, in Budapest, Hungary. There was little in my family background to suggest a future in philosophy. My father was a lumberman and my mother, though a cultured woman, occupied herself primarily with taking care of our home. No one on either side of my family had gone to college.

Enduring daily bombings in the Second World War, the long Soviet siege of Budapest, and the subsequent Russian occupation provided ample opportunities for the development of latent reflective tendencies; nothing jolts one into thinking about life as effectively as the sight of gratuitous violence and sudden death. I started thinking about the evanescence of life and the uncontrollability of fortune even though I was only ten, and tried my hand at rendering my ideas, and my distress, in poetic form.

The “nationalization” of my father's small business by the communist government and my family's consequent passing without passports through two patrolled borders to flee Hungary created additional invitations to reflect. Immigration to Canada, and later to the United States, gave me a great deal of material for thought about language, differences among cultures, and the relations of individuals to their communities. I spent a year in a Canadian high school and then entered McGill University.

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Fragmentary Activities and Total Action

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253009241

3. How Follow the Animal . . . That I Am?

David Farrell Krell Indiana University Press ePub

It may seem odd to revert to an earlier text of Derrida’s on the theme of the animal—after all the hours devoted to the subject in The Beast and the Sovereign. Yet there is more than one reason to turn back to The Animal That Therefore I Am, which gathers together texts written during the year 1997 with a view to the colloquium at Cerisy-la-Salle titled “The Autobiographical Animal.” The published volume is edited by Marie-Louise Mallet, who reports that Derrida’s was a long text, one that would have taken a dozen hours to present. Even though the text of the later two-year seminar might seem to make this earlier collection obsolete, such appearances are deceptive. First of all, it is very instructive to see how Derrida himself compresses his remarks here—a dozen hours would be nothing compared to two years’ worth of seminar sessions—and brings his arguments succinctly and powerfully to the fore. Secondly, some parts of this earlier text, designed for publication in the Cahiers de l’Herne, enable us to see how Derrida allowed himself much greater freedom and expansiveness in his seminars than in texts designed for conference presentations that he knew would soon become publications. Thirdly, and most surprisingly, there are analyses in L’animal que donc je suis that do not appear in the much more detailed La bête et le souverain, among them analyses of Genesis that were among the very first themes Derrida intended to treat during the seminar but then postponed. For these three reasons, then, the present chapter takes up the very particular kind of animal that Derrida was and followed.

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7 Enabling Immanence: Prayer in a Time of Divine Hiddenness

Shai Held Indiana University Press ePub


In his essay “On Prayer,” published in 1970, Heschel speaks again of the centrality of self-transcendence to the act of prayer. He writes that in prayer, “I leave the world behind as well as all interests of the self. Divested of all concerns, I am overwhelmed by only one desire: to place my heart upon the altar of God.”1 Prayer, Heschel insists, “must never be a citadel for selfish concerns but rather a place for deepening concern over other people’s plight.”2 And in one of his more poignant formulations, he avers that “in order to be human, one must be more than human.”3 But in this essay, Heschel’s deepest concerns lie elsewhere. At its heart, “On Prayer” is a meditation on the dynamics and significance of prayer in an age of divine hiddenness.4

“The fundamental statement about God in Judaism,” Heschel writes elsewhere, is that “God is in search of man”; this bold statement, he insists, can be said to “summarize all of human history as seen in the Bible.”5 And yet, as we have seen, human beings consistently ignore and defy God’s call. God’s interaction with Adam and Eve in the garden is paradigmatic for much of human history: human beings hide from the God who seeks them. But God finds this situation intolerable, and He turns away from humanity even as we turn away from Him. Thus, humanity’s stubborn defiance has led to a calamitous cosmic predicament: the world is plagued by a kind of double-concealment in which humanity’s hiding leads God to hide in turn. Heschel laments that “God is hiding and man is defying. At every moment God is creating and self-concealing.”6

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1 Tears the Civil Servant Cannot See: Ethics and Politics

Michael L. Morgan Indiana University Press ePub

How does Emmanuel Levinas understand the relationship between the domain of responsibility or the ethical, on the one hand, and the domain of justice or the political, on the other? Broadly speaking, many commentators have argued that Levinas has a story to tell about this relationship that is informative, serious, and compelling; critics, however, claim that whatever Levinas has to say about the matter is unclear and unhelpful. It betrays a weakness in Levinas’s thinking and its implausibility or its irrelevance or both.

In his paper “The Possibility of an Ethical Politics: From Peace to Liturgy,” John Drabinski begins his account by noticing that at least some criticism of Levinas is leveled against the primacy of the biblical tradition and his Hebraism. This is tantamount to claiming that what prevents Levinas from developing his political thought is a one-sided attention to the primacy of the ethical for our lives and too great a dependence on the Bible, religion, and Judaism. Drabinski identifies Gillian Rose as one among several critics of this kind, and he notices too a host of passages in Levinas’s own writings that seem to take the face-to-face and responsibility as a disturbance of the political and as opposed to it.1 But, at the same time, Drabinski is surely right to point out that this criticism fails to take seriously Levinas’s frequent claims that Europe is both “the Bible and the Greeks,” ethics and politics. Any one-sided reading of Levinas that leads to anarchism or asceticism is surely mistaken.2 What Drabinski stakes out is a position between dismissing the political as secondary or derivative and privileging the political at the same level as the ethical. As he puts it, the singularity of the face and the universality of law open up a gap between the two; politics is necessary and yet opposes the ethical. The face signifies without context; the face as citizen is the political, which contextualizes the face.3

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Marsilio Ficino on Leadership

Michael Shepherd Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

Love of mankind alone is the food by which men are won, and only by the favour of men do human affairs prosper. *

THERE is a crisis in leadership in the world. Political and business leaders are suffering the burdens of office, facing turbulent changes in both social and economic systems, and all without an apparent reference to an unchanging authority, either in their own lives, or when taking decisions in public office.

Real leaders never move from the single authority of the will of God, which shows itself as both love and law. Lawful living is conducive to consciousness and wisdom, and such living is naturally full of love. Love and law are two forces generally absent from current considerations of public affairs, yet for Ficino they were the very essence of the matter.

As philosopher and priest Ficino was obviously well qualified to expound, through the beautiful poetry of his letters to many of the key decision-makers of the day, the reverence of God and its practical application in the meeting of secular and religious conspiracies and other events. As a consequence of his single focus on the divine, it would be all too easy in our modern world of tabloid newspaper headlines and media soundbites to discard his advice as irrelevant. Yet deeper penetration of his advice, along with a willingness to use human intelligence to discover universal principle and apply it to particular and current situations, would bring rich rewards to contemporary business and political leaders.

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Conduct and Experience (1930)

LARRY A HICKMAN Indiana University Press ePub

Conduct,” as it appears in the title, obviously links itself with the position taken by behaviorists; “experience,” with that of the introspectionists. If the result of the analysis herein undertaken turns out to involve a revision of the meaning of both concepts, it will probably signify that my conclusions will not be satisfactory to either school; they may be regarded by members of both as a sterile hybrid rather than a useful mediation. However, there are many subdivisions in each school, and there are competent psychologists who decline to enroll in either, while the very existence of controversy is an invitation to reconsideration of fundamental terms, even if the outcome is not wholly satisfactory.

Before we enter upon the theme, an introductory remark should be made. That is that the subject is so highly complex and has so many ramifications that it is impossible to deal with it adequately The difficulty is increased by the fact that these ramifications extend to a historical, intellectual background in which large issues of philosophy and epistemology are involved, a background so pervasive that even those who have no interest in, or use for, philosophy would find, if they took the trouble to investigate, that the words they use—the words we all must use—are deeply saturated with the results of these earlier discussions. These have escaped from philosophy and made their way into common thought and speech.

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26. The Law of Mind [Excursus on the Idea of Time]

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


The Law of Mind

[Excursus on the Idea of Time] early May 1892

Houghton Library

Events seem to flow in time. Before inquiring how far this seeming is true, we have to analyze the idea of time it presents.

Time is a system among certain relations. Anything that dures has its time-relations not completely determined in one way; that is to say, for example, Monday is in part a whole day subsequent to Sunday noon and in part not. But every space of time is separated from others by two instants, or temporal individuals; and every instant is wholly determinate in its time-relations to every other. The properties of time may conveniently be stated as properties of instants, as follows:

1. There is a determinate general relation of time between any two different instants, this relation being distinct from its converse. Of two different instants, the one is previous to the other, the latter subsequent to the former; and no instant is both previous and subsequent to the same instant.

2. This general temporal relation is a transitive one. Any instant previous to a second instant that is previous to a third is itself previous to that third.

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19 Mindful New Materialisms: Buddhist Roots for Material Ecocriticism’s Flourishing

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Greta Gaard

IT IS SATURDAY-MORNING yoga class at the Minneapolis Midtown YWCA. A diverse group of practitioners assembles, varying in ages, genders, classes, races, sexualities, and nationalities, all gathered to practice an hour of mindful yoga. In Pali (the language of the Buddha), “yoga” means “to join” or “to unite,” and its practice involves joining attention to movements involving the body, the breath, the mind, and the larger interconnectedness of all beings. We begin with sun salutation and end in a position familiar to those who have seen the most common depictions of the Buddha, seated in yogic meditation. Joining body ecology with spirit ecology, we bring our attention to the breath, a flow of matter that is exchanged among our many bodies in this enclosed room, and beyond this room as well. Breath is one of the many “flows” that illustrate our interbeing and invite us to embark on a journey of mindfulness wherein the illusion of a separate self is revealed.

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IX. The other beginning

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub





To what extent is the beginning event-like? To what extent is the appropriating event beginning-like?

The unity of the event and the beginning is to be known from their intimacy.

This “unity” is the abyss of the difference and is the inhabited place of the pain of the thinking of beyng in its history. This “unity” is the inceptuality of the ἕν and might in the future teach us to surmise why the ἕν weighed so heavily on thinking at the first beginning. The ἕν itself already only on the basis of ἀλήθεια (cf. τò γὰρ αὐτó).

It must for a long time remain strange that event and beginning “are” intimately the same.

The event is the inceptuality of the beginning. The beginning is the denial of the differentiated departure.

The event as consignment of the clearing and refusal of the grounding.

Refusal as denial; this denial the inceptual word of the inceptual claim.

The inceptuality as abyssal and yet emergent.

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9. Life-Narrative and Death as the End of Freedom: Kierkegaard on Anticipatory Resoluteness

Indiana University Press ePub


John J. Davenport

In three recent articles, John Lippitt has raised important questions about the notions that human selves have a “narrative” structure and that the natural development of our capacity for robust selves (including autonomy and ethical maturity) involves achieving “narrative unity” in the stories that we are.1 His questions intersect with other critiques of narrative models raised in the wider and growing literature on this topic in the past decade. Lippitt forces us to reconsider claims that Anthony Rudd, I, and others made in Kierkegaard After MacIntyre that MacIntyre’s famous account of narrative unity as part of the telos of human life2 sheds light on Kierkegaard’s conception of selfhood, and that insights from Kierkegaard can help us develop and defend such a narrative model. In particular, Lippitt questions whether narrative is a useful model for real human lives, and whether movement from the “aesthetic” to the “ethical” outlook or stage of life is illuminated by the idea of narrative unity.

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28. Pragmatism (1907)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub


MS 318. [A highly complex and multi-layered manuscript, MS 318 contains five intermingled versions of an article initially conceived as a long “letter to the editor.” The article was rejected by both the Nation and the Atlantic Monthly. All versions share the same beginning—the “introduction” below, also found in CP 5.11–13 and 464–66. Other portions are published in CP 1.560–62 and 5.467–96. “Variant 1” below is the third version, composed in March-April 1907, and “Variant 2” the fifth, composed a few months later.] In this selection, Peirce comes closer than in any other to fully expressing his brand of pragmatism and to giving a clearly articulated proof. He begins by reaffirming that pragmatism (pragmaticism) is not a doctrine of metaphysics, nor an attempt to determine the truth of things, but is only a method of ascertaining the meanings of hard words and abstract concepts. By this time, Peirce has thoroughly integrated his pragmatism with his semiotics, and he bases his proof in his theory of signs (rather than in his theory of perception as he had for the 1903 proof in his Harvard Lectures). His semiotic proof begins with the premiss that every concept and every thought beyond immediate perception is a sign, and works its way to the proposition that a logical interpretant must be of the nature of a habit. “Consequently,” Peirce concludes, “the most perfect account of a concept that words can convey will consist in a description of that habit which [it] is calculated to produce. But how else can a habit be described than by a description of the kind of action to which it gives rise.Since Peirce’s conclusion amounts to a paraphrase of his definition of pragmatism, his proof is complete.

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54. Review of Ridgeway’s The Origin of Metallic Currency

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


Review of Ridgeway’s

The Origin of Metallic Currency

23 June 1892

Houghton Library

The Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards. By William Ridgeway, Professor of Greek in Queen’s College, Cork.

Cambridge (Eng.) University Press: New York: Macmillan. 1892.

Compound arithmetic can certainly make itself very disagreeable.

From the urchin writhing in the agonies of a long sum in long measure, up to Belshazzar, watching the hand write upon the wall those distressful words, “Pounds, pounds, ounces, drams,” that suggested there was an account to settle with God, mortals have doubtless undergone more misery, first and last, from this branch of mathematics than from any other. On the other hand, to accompany a learned and ingenious essayist in his explorations of ancient metrology, to cut the rope that ties us to the here and now, to mount the heights of speculation, borne up by a beautiful and globular theory, to cleave the thin air of ancient texts, and trust to our guide to get us back to terra firma, this is a most delightful and entertaining pastime. Alas! we have blown our last parting kiss to the theorists of our boyhood, Boeckh, Queipo, Hultsch, and the rest.

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