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1: The History of Animal Trade

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

The History of Animal Trade

1

1.1  Introduction

Our ancestors existed as hunter gatherers, and before that as anthropoid apes. The hunter gatherers had varied diets, which gave them security as a population against climatic extremes that favoured certain plant and animal types (Milton, 2000). The costs and risks of procuring meat and animal products were high and many were primarily gatherers. However, meat, once it was obtained, was a concentrated source of energy and protein, the most important nutrients that they required for survival. Not only did hunter gatherers in different parts of the world have quite varied diets, depending on availability, they were also free to migrate to utilize different fauna and flora sources, depending on the season and weather patterns.

Settled agriculture, adopted over a period of just a few thousand years beginning about 10,000 years ago, offered the opportunity for higher yields from plants and animals that were farmed in small areas. However, the static nature of this activity and the enhanced resource requirements of this form of food production, in the form of a regular water supply and a nutrient-rich soil, increased exposure to climatic and seasonal extremes. The inevitable variation in productivity could only be absorbed into a successful existence if humans cooperated with neighbouring groups, so that food surpluses in one region were transported to others where the need was greater. Thus our cognitive skills in organizing this trade, coupled with our highly social behaviour, combined to make plant and animal raising a viable alternative to hunter gathering when societies cooperated by trading in surplus goods.

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9. Natural Remedies for Common Ailments

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

I

ts inevitable that your dog will have minor ailments and accidents. Here you will learn what to keep in your medicine cabinet for those occasions.You will also learn what to do in case of trauma and shock, and how to prevent or delay the progression of some of the more common ailments that all dogs, including mixed breeds, are highly prone to.

ACCIDENTS

For minor accidents, such as cuts, scrapes and burns, clean the wound thoroughly and use a zinc ointment or Dr. Cappel-Kings herbal cream (see page 104 for recipe) on the wound for faster healing. Zinc is important for healthy skin and has antibacterial properties. Dr. Cappel-Kings herbal cream is easy to make and is great for pets and people too.

Try to keep your dog from licking the wound long enough for the salve to be absorbed into the skin. If you cant keep your dog from licking, wrap the wound and change it twice a day. I have found that the self-sticking bandaging gauze works well and doesnt tear the hair out when you take it off. If that fails, your veterinarian will have a neck brace or cone that will prevent your dog from getting to the wound. If you watch your dog for a while after the wound is bandaged and gently tell her no when she starts to lick or chew, that is often enough. Unless shes very uncomfortable, shell probably leave it alone once she knows what you want from her.

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Part 1. Animals and Us: Reflections on Our Challenging, Frustrating, Confusing, and Deep Interrelationships with Other Animals

Marc Bekoff New World Library ePub

Reflections on Our Challenging, Frustrating, Confusing, and Deep Interrelationships with Other Animals

FROM TIME TO TIME, people ask me and the editors at Psychology Today why I write for them. I was astounded when these queries first came in, but I came to realize that it’s often not clear how the lives and emotions of animals relate to human psychology. In fact, our interactions with animals tell us a good deal about how we perceive ourselves, we who are also animals. Our interactions with animals run deep, and in very direct and pragmatic ways, these interactions affect both ourselves and the animals involved. Simply put, when we harm other animals, we hurt ourselves, and when we protect and nurture other animals, we heal ourselves. Whether we deny or recognize animal emotions and intelligence, this has real-world consequences for everyone. This is why I prefer using the word “interrelationships” rather than “relationships,” and why I prefer phrases like “other animals” and “nonhuman animals” rather than “animals,” as if humans were somehow separate from or not animals. In these ways I try to emphasize that all animal species share a continuum of being, which includes the way we feel and what we think.

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6: Trade in Live Farm Animals

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Live Farm Animals

6

6.1  Introduction

Trade in live farm animals spans a wide range of cultures and societies, from a local level to the big bilateral export trades that exist around the world. The local trade has a long history. Livestock have been used as dowry for thousands of years, and are still used in Africa and by primitive tribes in Asia (Anon., 2010). However, the live animal trade usually refers to live export and import, i.e. animals that are traded across national borders, but many livestock are also traded within a country, particularly if it is large, such as the USA, Australia or Brazil. Nowadays, with intensification of the livestock industries, the availability of fast transport and growing demand for animals and their products in many parts of the world, the live animal trade is rapidly increasing.

Demand for trade in live food animals is principally dependent on the size of the human population, their demand for animal products and the feasibility of them being traded alive, rather than as a processed product. The trade most obviously follows a migration of animals from the southern to the northern hemisphere, with regions such as Australia/New Zealand, southern Africa and South

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4. Special Nutritional Needs

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

D

ogs, like people, have changing nutritional needs in the varying stages of their lives.Younger dogs have a lot of energy and require foods that promote their growth, pregnant dogs need proper nutrition to create new life, and older dogs are sedentary and need easily absorbed nutrients. If your dog becomes ill, her body will need the proper nutrients to heal. In this chapter you will learn how to make adjustments to your dogs diet to meet her special nutritional needs.

PUPPIES

Puppies are irresistible to even the grumpiest of people.They make the sick forget their pain and the elderly feel young. These fun-loving balls of fur need a puppyhood filled with the same pure joy and happiness that they give us. A key to your puppys happiness, health, and longevity is to build a strong body and a strong immune system with high-quality food and a stress-free environment. (You will learn more about the immune system in Chapter 5, The Importance of a Strong Immune System.)

Your puppys immune system will get its foundation for health from its mother in the first twenty-four hours after birth. Just as with humans, these critical hours are the only time the mother produces a special milk called colostrum. Colostrum gets the immune system off to a strong start by providing antibodies and other immune-supporting nutrients that will guard against disease as the immune system matures.

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8: Trade in Horses, Cats and Dogs

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Horses, Cats and

Dogs

8

8.1  Introduction

Horses, cats and dogs share a common usage as companion animals but they can also variously be used as racing animals (horses and dogs), for meat production

(horses mostly, sometimes dogs and very occasionally cats), milk production (horses) and fur production (cats and dogs). Because these animals supply specialist markets, not mainstream like cattle and chickens, trade is often local. The trade is often not regulated as well as the livestock trade, frequently covert and sometimes illegal.

8.2  Horses

Horse trading has a long history, with evidence of activity in central Asia around

1000 bce (Wagner et al., 2011). The close relation between owner and horse makes the transaction very reliant on the owner’s report of the characteristics of the horse. The potential for deceit in this activity has given the term ‘horse trading’ special meaning in relation to business deals.

According to the World Horse Organization (WHO, 2015), there are now approximately 58 million horses worldwide, with 16% in the USA, 13% in China,

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10. Breed-Specific Health Problems

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

T

he process of adopting a dog starts with deciding whether you want a mixed-breed dog or a purebred dog. Mixed-breed dogs, also known as mutts, mongrels, and Heinz 57s, are just as the names implya mixture of breeds. Mixed-breed dogs have a significantly larger genetic background than purebred dogs, so they are not as prone to health problems as purebred dogs. Purebred dogs are man-made dogs whose genetic background is limited by the breed and the specific line within the breed that is created by the breeder. Purebreds can easily become inbred, which exaggerates both positive traits and weaknesses, for example a predisposition to illness.

Mixed-breed dogs, although generally healthier than purebred dogs, have high incidences of the most common health problems. If you have a mixed-breed dog and can connect her to a specific breed, or breeds, such as a German-shepherd mix or a Labrador-retriever and golden-retriever mix, familiarize yourself with the health problems for the breed(s) your dog is related to.

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Medium 9781780643137

10: The Future of Animal Trade

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

The Future of Animal Trade

10

10.1  Introduction

The past has seen some dramatic changes in world trade in animals. This chapter considers what will shape the future of the animal trade and what changes in the trade are likely. Continuation of current trends does not seem to be an option. Worldwide meat and milk production have been growing, as outlined in

Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. Even taking into account increasing population, meat availability per capita has been increasing steadily over the last 50 years to approximately double what it was at the beginning of the 1960s; milk availability per capita has increased by about 20% over the last 10 years (Fig. 10.1). The increasing livestock production requires prodigious quantities of feed grain and there is still potential for meat consumption to increase in many developing regions of the world, e.g. sub-Saharan Africa. The steadily increasing trajectory for meat availability per capita has been consistent over the last 50 years (Fig. 10.1), and it will therefore take extreme measures if this is to be changed.

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2. Vitamins for Your Dog

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

J

ust like humans, dogs need vitamins for the growth and maintenance of a healthy body. It would be ideal if your dog could get vitamins from her food, but even the highest quality non-organic dog food, home-cooked or bought, will not provide enough vitamins to maintain optimal health.You need to use supplements, and heres why. Most produce is grown in soil depleted of nutrients and sprayed with pesticides. And meat, unless its organic, comes from animals given estrogenlike hormones to fatten them up, and antibiotics to prevent the diseases caused by overcrowding and stress. Excess estrogen can cause cancer, and overexposure to antibiotics can create resistant bacteria that no antibiotic can stop. Whether you live in the country or the city, your dog experiences a daily bombardment of physical stressors from pollutants and toxins, such as car exhaust and pesticides.And when your dog is further stressed by environmental or emotional factors, her need for vitamins is that much higher.

Unless you are treating your dog for a specific health problem or a stressful environment, the best way to provide daily vitamins is with a multivitamin supplement. Give half the daily dose with the morning meal and half with the evening meal.

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9: Trade in Wildlife and Exotic Species

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Wildlife and Exotic

Species

9

9.1  Introduction

Wildlife animals have been traded for millennia, probably even before the

­domestication of animal species for the production of food and clothing. Yet despite the development of a small number of domesticated species to provide for most of our needs, we have continued to harvest and trade in wildlife and exotic species. Exotic species are those that are not indigenous to the region, which usually precludes the domestic livestock species. These are kept by zoos, for the entertainment of the public and increasingly for conservation and for scientific purposes. Their use for entertainment in circuses is diminishing as public recognition of associated cruel practices in training and transport between venues has increased, creating public pressure for legislative control. They are also kept by a growing number of members of the public for display and a variety of other reasons that will be outlined later. Wildlife animals are harvested for food as well and may be traded with other regions because their exotic and novel nature encourages people to try eating them. The biggest harvest of wild animals, indeed the biggest of any food animals, is that of fish from the oceans. However, many other animals are harvested from the oceans and our scant knowledge of populations in the past has led to many manmade catastrophes, with populations decimated because of high demand for the products and mechanized harvesting of ever ­increasing efficiency.

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Part 7. Wild Justice and Moral Intelligence: Don’t Blame Other Animals for Our Destructive Ways

Marc Bekoff New World Library ePub

Don’t Blame Other Animals for Our Destructive Ways

IT IS CLEAR THAT OTHER ANIMALS are conscious and emotional beings. But are they moral? Do they know right from wrong? This is a hot area of research, and comparative studies are showing that indeed they are and they do. In fact, we’re learning that all animals, including humans, are far nicer and more cooperative than we previously imagined. One thing this means is that we shouldn’t blame nonhuman animals for our destructive ways. As this part points out, nonhuman animals have been observed intentionally harming one another, but on balance humans clearly do much more intentional harm to their own species than other animals ever do to their own. Further, we also can learn a lot about compassion, empathy, and morality from observing other species. But finally, new research shows that across cultures humans are really much nicer than we ever give them credit for. It’s a relative few who wage wars, kill people, and harm children. Most people in the world are nice, kind, and generous, just like their nonhuman cousins.

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7. Understanding Homeopathy for Your Dog

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

H

omeopathic remedies can heal many of your dogs health problems quickly, without invasive methods or drug side effects.You can use homeopathy to treat your dog for a wide variety of common ailments. For more complicated problems, its best to seek out an experienced homeopathic practitioner. Many homeopaths treat both people and animals, and many holistic veterinarians use at least some homeopathy.

THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HOMEOPATHY

Homeopathy is a type of medicine developed in the 1800s by a German scientist named Dr. Samuel Hahnemann. He is particularly known for creating an extensive Materia Medica (materials of medicine), a list of homeopathic remedies and the symptoms they could cause or cure. In the late 1800s, veterinary homeopathy was established by Baron von Boenninghausen, and by the early 1900s homeopathic remedies formulated specifically for animals had become available.

Homeopathic remedies may be of animal, mineral, or plant origin and they are prescribed for every conceivable type of illness, including mental and emotional conditions.

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Part 5. Consciousness, Sentience, and Cognition: A Potpourri of Current Research on Flies, Fish, and Other Animals

Marc Bekoff New World Library ePub

A Potpourri of Current Research on Flies, Fish, and Other Animals

THIS IS AN INCREDIBLY EXCITING TIME to study the behavior of other animals. It seems like every day we’re learning more and more about the fascinating lives of other animals — how smart and clever they are and how they’re able to solve problems we never imagined they could. Here I consider a wide range of research on animals that shows clearly just how well-developed and amazing are their cognitive skills. A very few people continue to ignore what we really know about other animals, but they are in the vast minority. Here you can read about flies, bees, lizards, fish, a back-scratching dog, how climate change is influencing behavior, and why respected scientists are pondering the spiritual lives of animals.

However, before getting into this wonderful research on animal minds and consciousness, I start this part with an essay that tackles one of the main and enduring criticisms of such research and of my work in particular: anthropomorphism, or the attribution of human characteristics to non-human animals, objects, or events (such as when people talk about “nasty thunderstorms.” The charge of anthropomorphism is often used to bash ideas that other animals are emotional beings. Skeptics claim that dogs, for example, are merely acting “as if” they’re happy or sad, but they really aren’t; they might be feeling something we don’t know or feeling nothing at all. Skeptics propose, because we can’t know with absolute certainty the thoughts of another being, we should take the stance that we can’t know anything or even that consciousness in other animals doesn’t exist. For Psychology Today and elsewhere, I have written extensively about the “problem” of “being anthropomorphic.” For instance, see “Anthropomorphic Double-Talk” in my book The Emotional Lives of Animals (see Endnotes, page 335). In my opinion, there’s no way to avoid anthropomorphism. Even those who eschew anthropomorphism must make their arguments using anthropomorphic terms, and they often do so in self-serving ways. If a scientist says an animal is “happy,” no one questions it, but if the animal is described as sad or suffering, then charges of anthropomorphism are leveled. Scientists can accept and treat their own companion animals as if they feel love, affection, gratitude, and pain, and then deny these very emotions in the animals they use, and abuse, while conducting experiments in the lab.

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5. The Importance of a Strong Immune System

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

S

upport of the immune system is one of the most important roles that proper nutrition plays in your dogs health. The immune system protects your dog from illness and supports the repair of her body when it is injured. Our environment is always teeming with microscopic organisms that have the potential to infect your dog with any number of minor to life-threatening diseases. How your dogs immune system responds to these organisms determines her health.

Have you noticed that when a cold or flu is going around, some people always get it and others never get sick? Those who stay well have an active, healthy immune system to protect them. Those who get sick from infectious diseases have an immune system that is in less than optimal condition.

The immune system is a complex network within the body that produces millions of cells each day. Each cells mission is to seek out and destroy foreign invaders called antigens. An antigen, which is short for antibody generating, is a foreign invader in the body, such as a bacteria, fungus, parasite, pollen, or virus. Elimination of antigens is accomplished primarily by white blood cells that use the lymphatic and blood vessels to move through the body. One drop of blood contains 5,000 to 10,000 white blood cells, and two-thirds of them are part of the immune system.

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5: Trade in Some Key Animal Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Some Key Animal

Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur

5

5.1  Introduction

The primary purpose of keeping agricultural animals has been for the production of meat. However, two key commodities, milk and wool, were highly instrumental in the development of the farming of animals because they did not require the animal to be destroyed. Both were involved in the original domestication of sheep and cattle and have remained of major significance to this day. A third commodity, fur, developed because of the need for people to keep warm, and the use of animal skins for this purpose dates back to before domestication, when hunters in cooler climes had no alternatives to keep warm other than the use of animal skins. In contrast to milk and wool, which can be obtained without animal slaughter, the terminal consequences of obtaining an animal’s skin and, nowadays, limited need to use fur to keep warm because of the many alternatives available, has given users of fur the image of decadence and cruelty as a result of the trapping and farming methods used.

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