126 Chapters
Medium 9780861966608

Chapter 8 Localization Strategies of International Media Companies: Entering India in the 1990s

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

Localization is an expensive option. Why, then, do global media corporations do it, even when there is no regulatory pressure on them to do so, as in India? The basic aim is to gain acceptability among audiences, advertisers and those who monitor cultural or moral standards. I will focus on the localization strategies of companies that are the progeny of corporate alliances and local partners. I argue that in tracing these strategies one must look beyond manifest content to underlying homogenization in the modes of production and distribution. Corporations absorb the uncertainty of local market taste by decentralizing or out-sourcing local production. These collaborators then become the foothold for outsiders to gain inside positions, as well as giving local operators an outlet to global networks. Specific practices of localization include (a) localization of programming content, which includes (i) splitting satellite beams; (ii) ceding creative autonomy to locals; (iii) creating culturally specific made-for-market programming; (iv) enhancing visibility to local artists; (v) basing local programming on American formats; and (b) the cosmetic localization of programming through (i) dubbing, (ii) sub-titling, and (iii) using local hosts to “link” programming. But it is only in the larger cultural-linguistic markets that we see customization take place.

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Chapter 12 Global Advertising in Asia: Penetration and Transformation of the Transnational Advertising Agencies

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

The history of global advertising in Asia is relatively young, when compared to Western Europe and Latin America. Until the late 1980s, most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, except Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, remained largely untapped by TNAAs. Since then, the transnational advertising agencies (TNAAs) made vigorous expansion into the region, mainly to serve their clients, transnational corporations. The Asia/Pacific region has been recognized by these global marketers as one of the fastest growing and healthy markets boosted by the buying power of expanding middle class populations. It has emerged as a vital consumer market for transnational corporations rather than as a low cost labor market for manufacturing transnational products (Kilburn 1995; Kim, 2003).

Research into transnational advertising focuses on two main areas: one centers on relevant creative strategies: e.g. whether standardized or specialized campaigns are appropriate and effective in the context of foreign countries. Such research focuses on the effectiveness of message strategies and approaches. The other centers on the global political economy of the industry: e.g. the structure of ownership patterns and the growth of transnational advertising (see Miracle, 1984; Moriarty & Duncan, 1991; Janus, 1986; Schiller, 1989; Sinclair, 1992; Kim, 1995).

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Chapter 9 Transnational Media and National Vision: Television in Liberalized India

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

The transformation of political values and objectives brought about by exposure to foreign programming and the entry of foreign capital in the national communicative space remains a significant concern for several observers of transnational media. Yet, the notion of values central to this discussion continues to be an abstraction in most literature. Terms such as beliefs, opinions, and political or social values commonly appear in discussions around media. Such investigations, however, require specified notions in the context of a community because of differentiated reception of foreign messages. Without doubt the entry of foreign media represents a salient development for local communities, their economies at the least, but the more explicit implications may be lost in broad discussions and conclusions.
Tracing values in their social and political context presents an essential exercise for furthering our understanding of global expansion of commercial media. Media institutions play multiple roles in a setting. The programming may offer illustrations of social and political realities of a community (Curran & Gurevitch, 1991; Ang, 2001). Communities also utilize local media institutions to articulate and reinforce their sense of community by providing communication sphere for community discussions. How does the entry of foreign corporations and commercialization of domestic media change this role and what form of threat does this present for community values?

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Chapter 13 Toward Globalization or Localization: Multinational Advertising in Eastern Europe

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

The economic and political opening of Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 was a signal for multinational advertising agencies to establish their presence there as soon as possible. With the following influx of Western media products, an excellent laboratory has emerged for the observation of the relationship between global advertising and local economies and cultures. Drawing on Kelly-Holmes (1998), this chapter argues that commercial advertising non-deliberately fulfilled the function of socialization, teaching East European audiences not just about individual products, but about how to live and participate in a consumer society, bringing to the previously planned economies the ideology of consumption and discourse of the market.

Globalization, originally defined as the intensification of human interaction across territorial boundaries, has recently come to encompass the increasing promotion of a neo-liberal economic and political agenda. Driven by the ideology of free market, this process entails a systemic transformation of the economy, polity, culture, in the modes of existence and the degree of control exercised locally, and is characterized by intensification of the longue durée of commodification around the world (Mittelman, 2004; Gill, 1995). Transnational advertising, along with financial capital, has become a central factor in facilitating the process worldwide. “If financial capital is the fuel that fired the engine of transnational corporations, transnational advertising is the fire that lights the path toward capitalism and consumption” (Viswanath & Zeng, 2002). After the 1989 collapse of Communism in this region, Central and Eastern Europe’s opening to an inflow of foreign capital and foreign media products provided a rich site for observation of the relationship between multinational advertising and the processes of globalization.

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Chapter 6 Regulating Globalization: Domestic Response to International Investment in China’s Media Market

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

This chapter discusses domestic and international forces that have accelerated the opening of China’s media market to the world. The combination of a unique social-political history and recent endeavors towards reform and openness breeds an inconsistent policy system characterized by tight regulation of media investment and weak or inconsistent implementation of the regulations. This chapter investigates both the legitimate zone of foreign involvement in China’s media as well as a “grey area” that comprises operations and interactions that were initiated in advance of recent legislation. The impact of China’s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and subsequent regulation of foreign media investment is addressed. The chapter examines how China maintains a delicate equilibrium between media commercialization and political and cultural integrity, while exploring the power dynamics that govern China’s relations with global media investors.

Media globalization and localization. Media globalization is the product of a process of intensified media commercialization that originated in the Western world. According to Herman and McChesney (1997), media systems tend to reflect the overall political economy. As capitalism develops and the profitability of commercial media increases, issues of media control move from a predominantly political to a predominantly business and commercial context. Often starting as small enterprises in competitive markets, some commercial media grow into large enterprises that shape monopolistic or oligopolistic markets. There has been increasing concern in Western countries about concentration of large media in the hands of a few conglomerates, and the possibility that media may be increasingly susceptible to manipulation by the same plutocratic elites that disproportionately influence the financing and conduct of political campaigns. Such monopolies often exhibit high restraint in dealing with issues of great importance to political and corporate elites.

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