880 Chapters
Medium 9780253020659

Introduction: Mediterraneans and Migrations in the Global Era

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

I am neither French nor Moroccan, I am in between. I am Spanish!

—Mustapha Al Atrassi

The end of summer at the port of Melilla, a Spanish enclave in northern Morocco. Arabic music played loudly, drowning out the conversations of families in cars and vans. It was late at night in this remnant of Spain’s protectorate. About an hour earlier, the drivers were directed to form lines near the ferryboat so that Spanish customs security employees could check vehicles and identification papers. I was seventeen years old when, at this same port, I watched a dog sniff out a teenager hidden in a bag tucked under the feet of the rear seat passengers in the car parked in front of us. As my family waited to be searched, we observed the entire episode. From inside our car, we saw the frightened teenager being taken away, gasping for air and sweating heavily. We never knew what became of him or the other people in that vehicle. Every September on our way back to France, we would see young men walking back and forth on the rampart that overlooked the docks. They would get as close as possible to vehicles waiting to board the ferry in hopes of catching a ride. The vigilant agents of the Guardia Civil relentlessly chased the migrant hopefuls away. On one particular trip, I saw a young man try to board our ship by climbing up an anchor rope. Alerted by the cheering of travelers, agents ran to the ferry and attempted to shake the man off his precarious perch on the rope. The crowd grew anxious when he seemed likely to fall to the ground. Moroccan strangers were imploring God’s help. Some women covered their eyes, anticipating a tragic end. A few passengers were screaming. Two couples, however, who happened to be taking an evening walk took in the scene with seeming amusement, probably because they were accustomed to witnessing such events. The man was finally captured upon reaching the deck and then escorted into the rear of the patrol van and driven away in the night. This was one of several encounters I had with this type of chase on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar.

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Medium 9780861967155

Chapter 24 Not Just a Day Job: Experimental Filmmakers and the Special Effects Industry in the 1970s and 1980s

Edited by David E James and Adam Hyman John Libbey Publishing ePub

Julie Turnock*

West Coast experimental filmmakers’ participation in the special effects boom of the late 1970s is a little-known and much misunderstood phenomenon. A perception persists that the 1970s special effects industry “gutted” the experimental optical animation community, exploiting them for their labor and sidetracking them from their art.1 Elsewhere, I have argued that the intensification of special effects practice in the late 1970s initiated a technological, aesthetic, and narrative shift in feature filmmaking as significant as the introduction of sound in the late 1920s.2 My research has also revealed the influence of experimental filmmaking on late 1960s and 1970s special effects-heavy feature filmmaking, especially the science fiction extravaganzas like 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), Star Wars (1977), Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), and Blade Runner (1982). Furthermore, it is clear that the impact of West Coast experimental filmmaking went far beyond lending these science fiction films transitory psychedelic visuals representing alien worlds. More specifically, I argue that in the 1970s, experimental filmmakers, both directly as labor and indirectly as inspiration, taught popular filmmakers like George Lucas, Steven Spielberg, and Ridley Scott and their teams, strategies for organizing and mobilizing the elaborately designed composite mise-en-scène. Or, in other words, they provided the technological, aesthetic, and conceptual scaffolding for creating the infinite and complex worlds desired for these science fiction films. Moreover, these filmmakers took skills and inspiration from their day jobs back to their own work.3

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Medium 9781770906396

5.21 Promised Land

Crissy Calhoun, Heather Vee ECW Press ePub

Damon: Yeah, I know: find Markos, kill Markos, save Mystic Falls from becoming Traveler homeland. It’ll be a busy day for me, Stefan. Time to strap on the hero hair.

5.21 Promised Land

Original air date May 8, 2014

Written by Rebecca Sonnenshine Directed by Michael Allowitz

Edited by Glenn Garland Cinematography by Darren Genet

Guest cast Cadarious Tyrez Armstead (Businessman Traveler), Tamara Austin (Maria), Wayne Austin (Truck Driver), Cynthia Barrett (Soccer Mom), John Eddins (Mr. Douglas), Cigie George (Businesswoman Traveler), Paul Hamm (Mailman), Chad Marvin (Bike Messenger Traveler), Randall Newsome (Mr. Sikes), Vince Pisani (Fruit Stand Worker), Kathleen Walsh (Young Mother Traveler)

Previously on The Vampire Diaries Paul Wesley

The Travelers take over Mystic Falls.

You know you’ve just witnessed a TVD classic when you’re left thinking, Did that really happen? “Promised Land” delivers a Vampire Diaries master class: the dialogue crackles, it looks insanely beautiful, it’s gory and gruesome and full of wonderful character moments. And on top of all that we spend some time with “the beautiful citizens of Mystic Falls,” as Damon would call them. The town is not just home to our gang, but to Mr. Sikes who gave Caroline a lollipop after she signed up for her first savings account. To the guidance counselor Pam Douglas, who we’ve seen give a hoot about Jeremy … and now she’s a Traveler named Karl who sticks her husband in the neck with a pair of scissors. That scene in particular is wonderfully quirky and well played, an unusual detour away from the main cast. These little moments make it more powerful, and tragic, when all those possessed citizens die in the town square as the Travelers’ spell takes hold. As Caroline asks Julian, does Markos have to be so violent about things?

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Medium 9780253353801

17 Abiding (as) Animal: Marmot, Pomeranian, Whale, Dude

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

David Pagano

Non-human animals do not get much screen time in The Big Lebowski. We do see two domestic, misnamed mammals, one that Walter calls a Pomeranian and another that the Dude calls a marmot, but they are onscreen for only seconds. Other animals appear even less prominently, but before the film is over we hear the songs of humpback whales and the cries of seagulls, encounter a woman named Bunny, and apprehend references to bears, camels, walruses, steers, and pigs (in a blanket). It seems, then, that though they are not often visible in the film, animals manage to leave their tracks or traces in the possibilities of meaning that the movie generates. The question is, can we follow those tracks, master these traces, or do they constitute too many strands to keep in our heads? A little of both, I suggest: animals are an essential component of the Dude’s journey or anti-journey, but because they speak insistently to the question of language in the film—more specifically, the question of how or whether language can cross boundaries and establish communication—they must to a certain extent escape our snares. In a word, in this film, animals abide, both with and within the Dude and his friends. Although I do not have time to address all of the species cited in the film, I show that animality, if there is such a thing, is a central concern for the Dude and for the human comedy he inhabits.

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Medium 9780253009234

12. Nigerian Videos and their Imagined Western Audiences: The Limits of Nollywood's Transnationality

Edited by Matthias Krings and Onookome O Indiana University Press ePub


THE POPULARITY OF NOLLYWOOD VIDEO IS NOT NEW. ONE reason for this is that it is able to read into the souls of its audience. This popularity is also partly based on the narratives, which are easily recognized and held dear by ordinary Nigerians. It is popularity that has sustained the industry thus far. What started out as a national visual practice more than two decades ago has gained a transnational coloration brought on by an expanding diasporic spectatorship. In terms of circulation, the video film does not just move from one African migrant to another: video stores in Western cities and many Internet sites sell them in virtual marketplaces. However, with the circulation of the Nollywood videos in global spaces, producers are beginning to rethink their transnational audiences as part of the narrative and production equation. They are keenly contemplating the idea of generating a Western audience for the video film. In my interviews and discussions with the video filmmakers, they expressed hope that a Western audience would yield more profits. However, given the divergence between the Western motion picture regime and Nollywood's video practice, this chapter queries how a truly Western audience might be gained for the video film. Using the experiment undertaken at Schlachthaus Theater in Bern, Switzerland, in 2005, in which I recut Nigerian videos for a Western audience, the chapter explores one means by which Nollywood could address non-African audiences.1 While my recut made Nollywood video accessible to Western audiences, this is ambivalent because mainstreaming Nollywood videos into a Western frame might prove futile. This process is risky, as it could also disenfranchise African audiences without generating the imagined Western patronage. By recutting Nollywood to suit the West, what remains of Nollywood, and can the resultant film still be called Nollywood?

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