858 Chapters
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Medium 9780253356680

1 Assia Djebar’s Transvergent Nuba: The Nuba of the Women of Mount Chenoua (Algeria, 1978)

Florence Martin Indiana University Press ePub

Shahrazad’s tales included other tales in a mise en abyme that deepened as the Nights unfolded. Contemporary Maghrebi women’s filmic narratives often follow a similar pattern. The resulting films offer a complex narrative web of embedded tales. In Barakat, for instance, the surface narrative of the quest for a disappeared woman soon reveals another narrative embedded within it: the story of a past mujahida (woman freedom fighter). Shahrazad also embedded political messages in her narratives: this Sultan whose story I am telling you, she whispered to the caliph prettily, is “fair,” is “wise,” and acts in a politically courageous way. Similarly, Rachida, for instance, tells a fictitious story focused on one female protagonist that embodies the plight of Algeria during the 1990s (see chapter 3); and Bab al-sama maftouh/Une Porte sur le ciel/A Door to the Sky by Farida Benlyazid, for instance, tells a fictitious story focused on one female protagonist whose spiritual and feminist choices reach into the history of women in the Maghreb, and shows how to make significant personal/political choices.

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Medium 9780861967223

Chapter 5 The New Zealand Film Archive become Guardians of the Treasured Images of Light/Ngā Kaitiaki o ngā Taonga Whitiāhua

Emma Jean Kelly John Libbey Publishing ePub

Within its first decade, the NZFA developed from its “very European” origins (Dennis, 1989 p.10) into an institution which had a working document called The Constitution/Kaupapa in which the Treaty of Waitangi principles were incorporated and acknowledged as the founding document of the nation.91 In particular the Archive developed an understanding of Article Two of the Treaty which referred to “taonga”, as we have seen, a concept which would alter the manner in which institutions in New Zealand would engage with Māori materials (McCarthy, 2011). As set out in the previous chapter, in the 1970s there was a re-evaluation of socio-political processes in the cultural heritage world, with small and incremental shifts eventually leading to changes in institutional practices. Because the NZFA was not a government department it was not obliged by legislative changes or ministerial decree to shift its practice. But the staff were aware of the changes occurring both inside and outside bureaucratic regimes. They were also becoming attuned to the needs of their multiple audiences, informed by Witarina Harris, Merata Mita, Barry Barclay and others.

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Medium 9780861967025

Outstanding Examples

Edited by Martin Loiperdinger John Libbey Publishing ePub
Medium 9780861967131

Chapter 11 World War II and Propaganda

Harrington, Seán J. Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter shall offer textual analyses of the propaganda and educational films produced by Disney during World War II. These textual analyses can be situated within their industrial and socio-historical context and the points collected in these analyses can be related to the greater process of hegemony, and integrated into a theory of the cartoon body as begun in previous chapters.

During World War II there was a tremendous drop in box office attendance. This, coupled with closed foreign markets, led to a severe crisis for many Hollywood studios. Many studios began working for and with the government to provide alternative sources of income. Disney likewise became involved in the war effort, even renting part of its studio to the United States Military. Although this would be a difficult time for Hollywood studios, the tactics they employed in recouping their losses at home would greatly benefit the American film industry after the war. Ensuring that their films were able to recoup production costs at home meant that foreign markets could be exploited purely for profit, which similarly led to Hollywood’s domination of European markets after the First World War (Kolker, 1999). Disney survived this period both through its ability to diversify its products and by working closely with the American government. Its production of propaganda was particularly important, as it provided the company with the grounds to experiment with and perfect the manipulation of American hegemony for commercial ends: to position itself centrally in American culture, tradition and consumerism.

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Medium 9780253009234

4. Nollywood Made in Europe

Edited by Matthias Krings and Onookome O Indiana University Press ePub


THE HISTORY OF NOLLYWOOD CAN BE TRACED BACK TO THE home video industry that emerged in Nigeria in the early 1990s. The video films rapidly reached an audience far beyond Nigerian borders, circulating throughout Africa and beyond and creating a buzz that soon became a media blitz. Over the past ten years, the Nigerian diaspora has been gradually integrated into Nollywood, a word that quickly became shorthand for the video phenomenon in Nigeria. It is now very popular fare in the diaspora due partly to the fact that some of the films are shot abroad, often in collaboration with expatriate communities. Nigerians living in Europe, who do not want to miss out on the success of this flourishing industry, have seized the initiative and begun producing their own films. As they live abroad, they feel the urge to tell their stories and often in the manner of Nollywood. With its distinctive use of cheap digital technology and video, Nollywood has made this possible. The main purpose of this chapter is to describe examples of the filmmaking by Nigerian immigrants in the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium by examining the work of Tony A. B. Akinyemi, Leonard Ajayi-Odekhiran, Isaac Izoya, John Osas Omoregie, and Azubuike Erinugha who, like many Nollywood filmmakers, produce, write, act in, or direct their films. In this chapter, I aim to discuss their personal lives as migrants and what drives them to be filmmakers. I will discuss their thematic preoccupations, bringing into the debate the multiple publics that are involved in their works with an aim of bringing into sharper focus how these immigrant filmmakers negotiate the various cultural and national boundaries they cross. I will also examine the production, distribution, content, and aesthetics as they are mobilized in these films in order to uncover the similarities and differences between Nollywood made in Europe and Nollywood made in Nigeria, which I will sometimes refer to as “domestic Nollywood.” One key question that will be part of this inquiry is whether they can actually be called Nollywood filmmakers. In this process, the importance of the practices of the Nigerian immigrant filmmakers for African communities throughout Europe and their relationship with Nigeria will be unraveled. I have chosen to examine the work of these filmmakers because of the geographical proximity of their host countries and the connections they share, for they all know and inspire each other. This chapter is based primarily on the interviews I conducted with the five filmmakers in their homes in 2010 and is complemented by my textual analysis of their films with the aim of highlighting their motivations and expectations.

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Medium 9781864620542

Stereotyping a Competitor: Images of Television in Spanish Cinema in the 1960s

John Libbey Publishing ePub

An image may comprise a number of rather different things. Of the various mental, visual and physical objects with which it may be identified, I am concerned in this essay with a rather practical definition. My principal concern is with the cinematographic representation of television, both in image and sound.

If the question of the interrelationship of the cinematographic image to its signified cannot be avoided, the prime purpose of this study is not to establish whether there is a ‘discrepancy between facts and representations’.1 My aim will be to analyse the ways in which an historical process, in this case, the establishment and diffusion of television, is liable to produce a variety of images amongst which the cinematographic happens to be comparatively easy to reconstruct. The outcome of this limited study is to determine a diachronic series of images which in some way map a case in the history of culture. In so far as the content of that development is concerned, what is at stake is the way in which films addressed the new world of moving images which television brought into existence during the period in which the new technology had its initial impact. My basic question relates to the ways in which film represented television as a social phenomenon and provided the medium with a narrative content that contributed to socially received ideas regarding the image of television in the popular imagination.

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Medium 9780253006790

12 The Business of Patriotism

Stephen M. Norris Indiana University Press ePub

The Renova Group is one of Russia’s most successful businesses. Founded in 1990, by 2009 Renova was the largest private business group in Russia with twenty-five billion dollars in holdings.1 The company owns and manages assets in metals, oil, mining, machine building, energy, telecommunications, and other industries. Renova also owns stakes in business across the world, from Switzerland’s Sulzer AG to South Africa’s Harmony Gold Mining.2 Renova, by any economic indicator, is an unqualified success.

In its handbook for employees, Renova articulates a vision of selfhood that aims to transform communists into capitalists. Renova employees must not commit the business sins of insider trading or securities manipulation. They also have a social responsibility, for Renova “is committed to supporting economic, social, and cultural development of communities where it operates through creating jobs for resident population and charitable, cultural, and other initiatives.” Moreover, Renova employees must comply with environmental requirements, “acknowledge internationally recognized human rights and freedoms as the highest values,” “value the uniqueness of each member of its staff,” maintain honesty and transparency in all business transactions, and not accept bribes.3

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Medium 9780253002952

2 Milongueando Macha Homoerotics: Dancing the Tango, Torta Style (a Performative Testimonio)

ARTURO J ALDAMA Indiana University Press ePub


I have spent most of my life thinking up close to and in the middle of people, people to people. Recently I have been looking at the need to rethink gender in a historical and global manner so that one could no longer separate gender, class, sexuality, and race but could not think of them as intersecting, either. The relation of intersection still requires conceptually separable entities, categories. Today I said to myself, “Let’s think about the tango with these things in mind and see what I can make of it without losing a sense of the erotic.”

I am someone with an intimate connection with tango style, music, dance, lyrics, its lived geography, both from within circles of affection and from within the moving anonymous encounters of the street, the milongas, tango bars like chapels where one listens to someone sing, getting in touch with the sacred within pain. I am also a witness to the development of tango tourism.

Robert Duval, an american tango aficionado and a self-proclaimed authority on the tango, confuses it with a dance and finds its attraction in the impression that “here is a people that know that men are men and women are women and are not all embarrassed about it,” a claim he makes with a great sense of pride of having found a people so close to his own sensibilities. By this he means that men lead—on the floor of life as it were—and women follow, in a debased sense of the word. The tango for him is a dance understood to be a quintessentially heterosexual performance of the active/submissive understanding of masculinity/ femininity. No sexual ambiguities, thus no ambiguities about agency. I want to think about the logic of tango here as a more complex phenomenon than the one tango tourism sells.

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Medium 9780253016737

4 Children of the Revolution: The Rebirth of the Subject in Revisionist Discourse

Constantin Parvulescu Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter focuses on Krzysztof Kieślowski’s Camera Buff (Amator, Poland, 1979). So far, I have discussed the work of directors whom history has not included among the major cinematic innovators of the Eastern Bloc. After Somewhere in Europe, Radványi participated in uninteresting projects (Women without Names, 1950) or in politically problematic ones (The Doctor from Stalingrad, 1958). In spite of his long and successful career with DEFA, Maetzig never became a director whose personal style would be remembered,1 while Moskalyk, who made a bold step towards auteur cinema with Dita Saxová, continued his career in the less prestigious medium of television in the conservative, post-1968 Czechoslovak climate of “normalization.”2 In contrast, Kieślowski’s work was nominated and won some of the industry’s most desired international awards3 and became the object of book-length studies. He is nowadays remembered as “one of the most acclaimed Polish film-makers” (Iordanova 2003, 109), representing a generation that gained artistic prominence in the 1970s, when, one can speculate, intellectual, aesthetic, industrial, and to a certain extent political conditions were more conducive to art cinema than in the 1950 or early 1960s.

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Medium 9780861966820

When the Wind Blows

Marie Beardmore John Libbey Publishing ePub


The same year The Snowman was released, 1982, England went to war with Argentina over the Falkland Islands. John didn’t make a film as a comment on that war, but he did later get the opportunity to comment on nuclear war with a film based on Raymond Briggs’ book, When the Wind Blows. He had been anti-nuclear war since his army days and the devastating attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, so the film was a chance to show something of the horror of nuclear war, vividly depicting its consequences for ordinary folk.

John and Raymond had forged a strong bond during production of The Snowman, so it was not surprising the two collaborated again when there was opportunity. When the Wind Blows is an altogether darker film depicting what happens to people following government guidelines in the event of nuclear war. Written in the cold war era, when there was talk aplenty of the US and the red button, it is the darkest and most sombre of Raymond’s books. At first glance, the film might seem an unusual choice for a company who had just started to make its reputation in ‘family films’. Yet TVC had previously gone to the edge with the psychedelic odyssey Yellow Submarine, and had refused to opt for a safe ending with The Snowman – he was always going to melt!

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Medium 9780253012265

11 Cosmopolitan Women: Marlene Dietrich, Anna May Wong, and Leni Riefenstahl

Jennifer M Bean Indiana University Press ePub

Patrice Petro

RECENT YEARS HAVE witnessed new scholarly interest in concepts and practices of cosmopolitanism across a range of disciplines, even as the term itself remains contested and elusive. As Steven Vertovec and Robin Cohen argue,

For some contemporary writers on the topic, cosmopolitanism refers to a vision of global democracy and world citizenship; for others it points to the possibilities for shaping new transnational frameworks for making links between social movements. Yet others invoke cosmopolitanism to advocate a non-communitarian, post-identity politics of overlapping interests and heterogeneous or hybrid publics in order to challenge conventional notions of belonging, identity, and citizenship. And still others use cosmopolitanism descriptively to address certain socio-cultural processes or individual behaviors, values or dispositions manifesting a capacity to engage cultural multiplicity.1

Humanists as well as social scientists have explored the multiple meanings of the term “cosmopolitan,” as evidenced by the variety of scholarly books published in the past decade and more that explore cosmopolitanism in relationship to nationalism, transnationalism, and globalization. Particularly noteworthy in this regard are Pheng Cheah and Bruce Robbins’s collection of essays Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation (1998) and Kwame Anthony Appiah’s monograph Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (2006).2

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Medium 9780861967025

Stimulating the Audience:

Edited by Martin Loiperdinger John Libbey Publishing ePub


Early cinema reached its widest scope with the commencing boom of fixed-site cinemas from 1906 onward. The large majority of films from the period of early cinema shown again today date from 1906 to 1912. Under the leadership of Pathé, the film producers of that time provided the quickly growing market of fixed-site cinemas with numerous short films of different genres every week. Film distributors and cinema owners collected widely varied programmes from this plentiful offer. Film production expanded: The number of films produced increased, as did the number of copies per film title. Thus, from 1906 to 1912, substantially more films have been preserved than from the preceding years. With the rising output of films, the producers also developed a broader diversity accompanied by intensified standardisation within the genres themselves. Both tendencies met the need to assemble short film programmes following a model of lively alternation. This permitted the cinema owners to offer the audience good entertainment with seven or eight or even up to 20 short films. The ‘number’ programme of the fixed-site cinemas lasted at least one hour and up to much over two hours. These programmes were changed once or twice, sometimes even three times a week.

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Medium 9780253016126

1. A Crisis of the Movement-Image and Counter-History

Marcia Landy Indiana University Press ePub

A FORM OF history making, associated with the cinematic treatment of national history, involved monumental and antiquarian modes of filmmaking; these flourished in pre–World War II cinema and were described by Deleuze in Cinema 1 as characteristic of the movement-image. In this chapter, I examine films that are representative of the movement-image as exemplified by the Hollywood western, a cinema where history and myth converge to express ethical leadership, the presence of a people, an organic relation to nature, and the performance of requisite action. Two westerns from the mid-silent era are addressed: James Cruze’s The Covered Wagon (1923) and John Ford’s The Iron Horse (1924). This form of filmmaking—much as with the earlier epics by D. W. Griffith, The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916)—underwent a crisis in identity and belief in the post–World War II world, giving rise to forms that revealed altered modes of perception, affect, and action, as these effect thinking differently about historicizing. Hence, I also discuss three Hollywood films from the sound era that exemplify the crisis of the action-image from the interwar years up to World War II: John Ford’s Stagecoach (1939), George Marshall’s Destry Rides Again (1939), and William Wellman’s The Ox-Bow Incident (1943).

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Medium 9780861967025

The Art of Crazy Programming

Edited by Martin Loiperdinger John Libbey Publishing ePub


Crazy Cinématographe Programme Modules as Performed on the Luxembourg Fairground Schueberfouer 2007–2010

Schueberfouer 2007

Dates: 23 August to 11 September

Number of showings: 152

Total entries: 9,374

Crazy Pot-Pourri

Concours de gourmands, France 1905, Comedy

Agoust Family of Jugglers, Great Britain 1898, Vaudeville Act

The Adventures of ‘Wee Rob Roy’ No.1, Great Britain 1916, Animated Film

[Dansa Serpentina], France 1900, Dance Film

Le Cochon danseur, France 1907, Vaudeville Act

Dévaliseurs nocturnes, France 1904, Comedy

Les Kiriki, acrobates japonais, France 1907, Trick Film

Großer Blumen-Corso 1906, Luxembourg 1906, Topical / local film

Cabinet of the Bizarre

Photographie d’une étoile, France 1906, Comedy

L’Homme mystérieux, France 1910, Vaudeville Act

Fox terriers et rats, France c1902, Topical

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Medium 9781864620542

Architectonics of Seeing: Architecture as Moving Images

John Libbey Publishing ePub

Space is never empty;
it always embodies a meaning
– Henri Lefebvre1

Sergei Eisenstein seems to have believed that one of the ancestors of cinema was architecture. The ancient Greeks, he writes, ‘have left us the most perfect examples of shot design … Acropolis of Athens could just as well be called the … most ancient [of] films’.2 Eisenstein’s thoughts can be found in ‘Montage and Architecture’, an essay written towards the end of the 1930s. For the soviet filmmaker the buildings on the Acropolis were first and foremost a montage of carefully enframed spatial views. The Parthenon, for example, faces the spectator obliquely, he notes, just like a calculated shot, thus becoming even more picturesque. According to Eisenstein, the origins of cinema – or more precisely, cinematic perception – were ancient architecture, since, as he puts it, ‘it is hard to imagine a montage sequence … more subtly composed, shot by shot, than the one which our legs create by walking among the buildings of the Acropolis’.3

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