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1. From Nollywood to Nollyworld: Processes of Transnationalization in the Nigerian Video Film Industry

Matthias Krings Indiana University Press ePub


IN THE PAST TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS, THE NIGERIAN VIDEO industry has grown exponentially. According to a UNESCO report released in 2009, it is now the second-largest film industry in the world in terms of the sheer number of films produced. Nigerian video films travel all over the world, transforming Nollywood into a transnational and global phenomenon. Like the Indian film industry, the role played by diasporic audiences in the production, circulation, and consumption of Nigerian video films became progressively more influential in the past few years. In their 2005 collection of essays, Raminder Kaur and Ajay Sinha suggest that Bollywood is now considered a transnational industry, a “Bollyworld,” as they dub it, in which local and transnational aesthetics and narratives and formal and informal modes of production and distribution find original interceptions. A look at the contemporary Nigerian video film industry reveals a similar process, even if it is still in its early stages.

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Medium 9780253010407

9 Bobby and Bags

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

He just hits one note. He
crushed me with one note.

Eddie Marshall quoting Bobby
Hutcherson on Milt Jackson

Stuart Kremsky

The thing about Keystone, and what I think Todd’s greatest skill was, was putting together interesting combinations of musicians. Nobody else would put Max Roach and Art Blakey on the same bill, but Todd did that.

Todd Barkan

I put lots and lots of bands together. I mean, that’s part of what I do and what I’ve done for the last thirty years. I do it here [in New York] at Dizzy’s. And I did it there in the ’70s – put bands together. I’m the one that put George Cables with Charles McPherson.

Putting Bobby Hutcherson and Milt Jackson together was something that I just wanted to do for many years. I knew [from] Bobby that Milt was his hero, number one, and I knew that Milt was often very resistant about the idea of playing with another vibes player. That took quite a long time to happen. Milt Jackson had to approve it because Milt was the boss. Bobby was only one of his children. One of his progeny. Now, Bobby is the boss and Stefon Harris and Joe Locke are his children. Generations. I suggested that [they perform together] three or four times before it happened. And even the week that it happened, it wasn’t supposed to happen. Milt said, “No.” Then, finally, in the middle of the week, he said, “Man, have Bobby come in.” And, of course, I didn’t have to bend Bobby’s arm; Bobby wanted to do it from the very beginning. So Bobby came, and it was a great thing.

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Medium 9780253015167


Roy Armes Indiana University Press ePub

ARAB FILMMAKING in the 2000s consists of many strands, one of which is the work of those filmmakers who are based in Paris. These might seem to constitute a typical exile group of the kind so ably chronicled by Hamid Naficy.1 Certainly many of their films carry the marks of exile and diaspora, and some chronicle a return—real or imagined—to the filmmaker’s roots. But the filmmakers’ concern to make films set in their countries of origin meshes perfectly with the French government’s policy of creating a network of worldwide cultural filmmaking with Paris at its center. Indeed, French policies toward cinema mean that the major problem of these filmmakers, like that of their predecessors, is less exile than potential integration and loss of Arab identity. The beur filmmakers who began in the mid-1980s with striking films focused on the immigrant community in France have now largely been absorbed into mainstream French cinema.

The previously useful distinction between the beurs working within the structures of French film production and the Algerians employed by the state film organization in Algiers is no longer valid, since many of those who previously worked in Algeria are now long-term residents in France. In the 1980s, those who had grown up within the immigrant community tended to be treated as belonging to a specific beur cinema, but in a 2002 survey of young French filmmakers by René Prédal, Mehdi Charef merits just a footnote, while Rachid Bouchareb, Karim Dridi, Malek Chibane, Abdellatif Kechiche, and Yamina Benguigui are fused effortlessly into a narrative dominated by their purely French contemporaries who choose to deal with similar subject matter. As Prédal points out, “The beur current is now twenty years old and no longer constitutes a separate entity apart from the rest of cinema.”2

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Medium 9780861966608

Chapter 1 Globalization, Media and Empire: An Introduction

Boyd-Barrett, Oliver John Libbey Publishing ePub

The act of communication in itself is an arguably insufficient object of study: communication is no more nor less important than the universe of both silence and noise from which communication emerges and which gives it shape, just as the spaces between objects represented in a painting have vitality no less essential to the scope for meaning of the whole. To understand communication we must understand that which is not “there”. To communicate is simultaneously not to communicate; to enlighten may at the same time obscure; to inform may deceive. From such a premise, we should conclude that the title of this book is much less than the product of its silences.

For many decades from its inception during the first half of the twentieth century scholars advanced the study of media when more correctly they may be said to have promoted a propaganda of public opinion and pluralism; they concentrated on the place of media within the nation rather than media’s role in construction of the nation. In dealing with the administrative entity that we call the state, and the cultural product to which it lays claim and that we call the nation, they understated the dependence of these upon the play of symbolic power through media. Their focus on media within the nation took insufficient account of the play of international interests, technologies, finance, and ideologies in shaping media; and marginalized the adventures of national media on international markets, and the role of media in securing the compliance of populations both domestic and foreign with the international political and economic ambitions of domestic and transnational elites. Transnational dimensions of media activity were first presented (in the 1960s) in the context of benign discourses of modernization and democratization, or discourses of cultural protection for local (often elite) cultural products, in preference to malign discourses of imperialism, whose relevance should surely have been acute in the decolonization context of that period. When in the 1970s scholarship did seize on the importance of media as tools of political, economic and cultural subjugation of nations, classes, genders and races, in competition for the earth’s resource and for the precious time and trusting fealty of citizens, subjects and employees, discussion soon reverted to audiences and the nebulous processes by which human beings struggle to make meaning from texts on the basis of limited cognitive and cultural resources. The political economy of media as agents of both imperialism and resistance, was further diverted, hijacked even, during the 1990s, by discourses of globalization that focused on markets and regulation more than interests and social classes, on discontinuities between modern and pre-modern more than continuities, on the surface chatter of trade and cultural policies more than long-term strategies of power. Discourses of globalization, attending to interdependencies, networks, transformations of space and time, transnational corporate networks, the seductions and utilities of corporate products, constant assurances of goodwill for mankind and a better future, stand in sharp opposition to the discourses of imperialism, with their attention to hubris and control, victimage and justice, and the critical interrogation of media as vehicles of product promotion, distraction, and self-exculpatory consolations for, diversions from and denials of an incessant savagery and enslavement that, with particular intensity these past few hundred years, has visited alike colored and white, man and woman, and the very earth itself, its creatures, forests, oceans, and air. Neither set of these incompatible narratives is complete: globalization theories focus on the benefit of liberal markets and understate the continuance of protected markets (e.g. US government subventions and favorable tax policies in such areas as agriculture and movies). Imperialism theories excoriate the nefariousness of the empire’s cultural product yet are reluctant to acknowledge the potential for liberation in exposure to new informational and entertainment paradigms and technologies.

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Medium 9780253017154

3. Eugene Jarvis: Games and Design

David S. Heineman Indiana University Press ePub

AS LONG AS VIDEO GAMES HAVE BEEN A COMMERCIAL MEDIUM, they have appeared in arcades. Their success there has waxed and waned over the decades, and for much of the past fifteen years the arcade business has seen most game studios ceasing production of coin-op games, have witnessed more arcades shuttering their doors than opening them, and have seen their historical role as a primary driver of industry trends shifted toward a contemporary role as a niche part of the video game landscape.

Eugene Jarvis, for all intents and purposes, is the “last man standing” in the arcade business in the United States. Jarvis cut his teeth programming classic Williams arcade games like Defender and Robotron 2084 before working on popular titles like Smash TV and the Cruis’n series for Midway in the 1990s. The company he founded in 2001, Raw Thrills, Inc., is the only U.S. game developer regularly producing new arcade titles. In recent years they have produced arcade cabinets related to the Fast and Furious film franchise, the Terminator franchise, and the Batman films and have developed several original properties such as the Big Buck Hunter series. They have found success in placing their machines in Wal-Marts and truck stops and in bars and restaurants, as well as in many other locations outside of the traditional arcade space.

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Medium 9780253013873

10 Zombie Postfeminism

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

The corpse is death infecting life.

Julia Kristeva

While Julia Kristeva doubtless did not have in mind the undead corpse of the zombie when she wrote of the abject and how it forces death upon the living, the walking dead undeniably embody abjection. It is not strange, then, that in representations of zombies, in film, literature, television, or other media, the primary focus is on how the humans who have not been infected confront and battle those who have returned from the dead. Those who engage in zombie fighting are necessarily confronting and denying the death (among other things) that the posthuman monster represents. This analysis of Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009) looks at how the heroine of his contemporary novel is rewritten to be physically strong, capable of independence, and yet still chained to the necessity of finding the ideal mate that is the touchstone of the original Jane Austen text. The pervasiveness of postfeminism is apparent in the book as Elizabeth Bennet fights off the monsters even while the ideal end for her is to marry well.1 Her education and the fact that she is one of the best in her field are subsumed under the ability to use these skills to secure a man. In fact, it is her very prowess in fighting the zombie offensive, her abilities with a sword, and her capacity for killing that win her the esteem of those around her and garner her the greatest prize of all: Mr. Darcy, a rich and handsome (and equally well-trained) husband. Despite the fact that her militarized body and violence are constructed as being first and foremost for the defense of herself and her loved ones, her finely tuned body is heteronormatively attractive, though this is presented as an added bonus, the result of so much training for the defense of others and not the primary motive for her training. Her body is of primary concern, especially because it is one of the principal tools in the fight against the zombie hordes. It contrasts starkly with the zombie body: where one is contained, in control, and integral, the other is messy, falling apart, and contagious. Arguably, though, the difference between the body of the zombie and that of the zombie slayer hides a more chilling similarity: that both raise the heteronormative necessity of eliminating the other.

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Medium 9780861967124

Chapter 3 Commentaries

Peter Wyeth John Libbey Publishing ePub

This Section fills out the propositions put forward in the aphorisms and sketched in the opening chapter in order to set out an overall framework, the basis of a paradigm to analyse Cinema.

A basic factor in biology is that life is change. Life itself is a process of change – a cycle of growth and decay. Change is also movement. Without change there is no movement, and without movement there is only stasis, and stasis is the absence of life. In Death there is no change, no change in life. Death may feed life in other forms, but the object that has no life can no longer grow, change in the sense that life moves by its own force. Life is dynamic, founded on change. The tale of the seasons in nature is one of constant change and it is the same with all life. Life is constantly in movement and never at rest.

Change is fundamental to Cinema. Change equals movement, and Cinema is all movement. The images move, the eye moves to follow that movement, the characters’ fate moves and our emotions follow theirs in the sense of tracing them, our attention is devoted (by Cinema) to their emotional status. Moving pictures move us. Movement is change and change is life. No change, no life. Cinema brings us to Life.

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Medium 9780253013873

14 Zombie Cocktails

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

We take great pleasure in drinking big zombies.

Simone de Beauvoir, America Day by Day

When Betsy Connell, female lead in Jacques Tourneur’s I Walked with a Zombie (1943), confesses that is she isn’t in fact familiar with zombies, her interlocutor, Dr. Maxwell, first tells her that she is dealing with “a ghost, the living dead” and then informs her more cheerfully that the Zombie is also a drink, at which point Betsy finds herself on more familiar territory. “I tried one once,” she says, “but there wasn’t anything dead about it.” Uttered in 1943 at the height of Hollywood’s tiki craze, these lines are no doubt an inside joke. By this time, actors and audience alike were more than familiar with the real Zombies that had overrun America’s bars and the mystical powers they allegedly possessed. And much like Val Newton’s cinematic living dead, the Zombies served at bars such as Don the Beachcomber and Trader Vic’s evoked echoes of Haitian vodou, supernatural possession, and the mystical, transatlantic origins of the zombie myth.1

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Medium 9780253016126

4. Minoritarian Cinematic Forms as Counter-History

Marcia Landy Indiana University Press ePub

There is a universal figure of minoritarian consciousness as the becoming of everybody, and that becoming is creation. One does not attain it by acquiring the majority. The figure to which we are referring is continuous variation, as an amplitude that continually oversteps the representative threshold of the majoritarian standard, by excess or default. In erecting the figure of a universal minoritarian consciousness, one addresses powers (puissances) of becoming that belong to a different realm from that of Power (Pouvoir) and Domination.

—Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus (1987, 106)

THIS CHAPTER EXPLORES counter-historicizing through the ways in which “a deterritorialising minority uses the language of the dominant, major voice but makes it speak in a minor way” (Martin-Jones 2008, 36). Minority expression addresses “a people who do not yet exist . . . a cinema of the body . . . a potentiality defined by relations and forces, or the power to affect and be affected” (Rodowick 1997, 154). These relations and forces are aligned to an emphasis on time that puts all into crisis, involving connections between past and present, objective and subjective perception, physical and mental sensations, and indeterminacy between the real and the imaginary. Time is present in both the movement- and time-image, indirect in the former and direct in the latter.

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Medium 9780861966738

Disney Films 1989–2005: The “Eisner” Era

Davis, Amy M. John Libbey Publishing ePub


Throughout popular culture in America in the 1970s and 1980s, changes in the ways in which women were portrayed began to appear. The images of the happy home-maker and contented wife and mother did not disappear, but neither did they remain the only acceptable alternative shown to be available to “respectable” women. Furthermore, the definition of a “respectable” woman was beginning to broaden throughout this time, encompassing not just the housewife, but also the single career woman, the working wife and mother, the single mother, and various permutations of these identities. Women’s magazines expanded from covering only such topics as fashion, recipes, and maintaining a youthful appearance, and began including articles about the ways a woman could “have it all”: being a wife, mother, and career woman all at the same time, and finding equal fulfilment in her work both inside and outside her home.296

Going also (though not completely gone) was the image of a woman whose goodness was exemplified by her being innocent and asexual, and beginning to emerge in this period was the woman who was kind, virtuous, good, and aware of (as well as able to enjoy) her own sexuality. Television, in particular, began to feature shows about strong, capable women – referred to by some as “superwomen” – who were successful – and balanced – in their careers, with their families, with their love lives, and in any other areas of their lives.297 A successful woman was one who was shown as either having it all or – if she had suffered a setback of some sort – was getting it back together and would, eventually, “have it all”. Women characters such as Claire Huxtable of The Cosby Show were presented as positive role models for America’s women, and the heroines of shows such as Kate and Allie and Alice served as role models for those women who were trying to sort out their lives.298 In Hollywood’s movie industry as well, examples were emerging of women who, instead of being on the hunt for a husband, were on the hunt for everything else, and when (because, in most of these films, a man eventually did come along and sweep the heroine off her feet) she fell in love, finding a husband and starting a family were often portrayed as being not her goal, but rather the last pieces of her life falling into place.

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Medium 9780861967223

Chapter 1 Introduction

Emma Jean Kelly John Libbey Publishing ePub


This work explores the philosophy and nature of film archiving in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) through an analysis of the role played by Jonathan Dennis, firstly at the New Zealand Film Archive, Ngā Kaitiaki o ngā Taonga Whitiāhua (NZFA), from 1981 until 1990 and thereafter as a freelance film curator until his death in 2002. The construction of a film archive in the early 1980s offers a valuable moment in which to analyse the wider purpose and the more specific process for the formation of a film archive. As a national institution presenting materials from the past, an archive quickly becomes a focus point for debates about the national past, present and future. How materials from the archive are cared for and presented offers opportunities both in their presence and absence from which to critique the notion that the archive may be a biography of the nation. This exploration of Dennis, film archiving and national identity is driven by a set of questions. Firstly, what is an archive and what should it do? Secondly, what relationship does an archive have to changing concepts of the nation as expressed by social and political movements? Finally, how might a film archive and its archivists respond to the materials within and the movements outside its walls?

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Medium 9780861966820

Early Years

Beardmore, Marie John Libbey Publishing ePub


John Piesse Coates was born on 7 November 1927, between the wars. A good year for champagne! It was also a seminal year for communication, and heralded some big changes in media and technology. It was the year of the first ever Oscar, the first transatlantic phone call – New York City to London – and the year of the Jazz Singer, widely regarded as the first talking picture, which opened to rave reviews. That movie effectively killed the silent movie era; ironic considering that the wordless ‘Snowman’ was to make John more famous than any of his other films. How he made the transition from schoolboy to eventual celebrated producer has been a fabulous odyssey and the subject of this book.

John was fortunate enough to be born into wealth. His mother was the money because she was a Rank, the family that made its initial fortune from flour milling and later, Rank Films. As a young boy, John admired his entrepreneurial Uncle Jimmy, by all accounts an illustrious character. He was a millionaire even back then and John remembers him fondly as a man who enjoyed racing, had plenty of girlfriends and liked a drink. The impassioned Uncle Jimmy was a fun influence on his young nephew, who has forever kept a love of horses, pretty women and the odd tipple, and not necessarily in that order. John’s Uncle Arthur, on the other hand, was a strict Methodist and teetotal, a way of life that proved an anathema to John.

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Medium 9780861966899

Chapter 4 Giorgio Bertellini, National and racial landscapes and the photographic form

Abel, Richard John Libbey Publishing ePub

“Any viable history of photography has to be part of a history of picturemaking, and any viable history of picturemaking must include photography. “
Carl Chiarenza1

“The idea of race was [at the turn of the 20th century] in many ways and for many people not very different from what we would call today national character […] race was a determinant of national cultural experience, it was at the same time an outgrowth of previous national and cultural tradition.”
George W. Stocking,2

for Antonia Lant

How do historians usually address the relationship between early cinema and national differences? There is a wealth of methodological approaches. They range from discussions of subject matter, social themes, historical circumstances (i.e. Spanish-American War, World War I), genre/intertextual form (i.e. the western film), institutional affiliation (i.e. the Albert Kahn Archive, the Dutch Colonial Institute), economy of production, marketing, and cultural reception (i.e. French cinema in the USA).

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Medium 9781770906396

5.05 Monster’s Ball

Crissy Calhoun, Heather Vee ECW Press ePub

Caroline: Love me more than you hate him.

5.05 Monster’s Ball

Original air date October 31, 2013

Written by Sonny Postiglione Directed by Kellie Cyrus

Edited by Marc Pollon Cinematography by Darren Genet

Guest cast Alyssa Lewis (Elena Double)

Previously on The Vampire Diaries Paul Wesley

At the Whitmore Historical Ball, Damon teams up with Silas, Caroline finds out why Tyler came back, and Elena makes a new sullen friend, Aaron. Nadia tells Katherine who she is.

Katherine Pierce was once the Big Bad in Mystic Falls, the most ruthless, the most hated, the villain who our gang plotted to kill — and seemed justified in doing so. In “Monster’s Ball,” she’s a compelling contender for most human and most vulnerable. On The Vampire Diaries, the diabolical ones never quite read as all evil, and the final moments of this episode prove that the moral ground on which the “heroes” stand remains shaky.

Though the season so far has been hampered by its chronic and heavy recapping — let’s explain again the possible scenarios in which Silas becomes mortal and where he’ll end up if he dies! — “Monster’s Ball” finds its strength in moving its characters around the dance floor with cruel acts committed in the name of love … or love long lost. As Elena tries to distract herself from her grief over Bonnie’s death by focusing on her investigation of Dr. Maxfield, Tyler proves true the common platitude: we all grieve differently, which Elena tells survivor-guilt-ridden sad-sack Aaron. While Caroline and Elena do what their lost bestie wants them to do — move on from past hardship — Tyler has allowed his grief over his mother to fester, in the nine-or-so months since her violent end, into a white-hot need for revenge. Though for a while he allows Caroline to believe he might do so, Tyler won’t return to a “normal life,” knowing that Klaus got away with stone-cold murder. He puts his own need for vengeance ahead of his love for Caroline, ahead of her need for him in the wake of Bonnie’s death. Tyler seems unaware of the selfishness of his action, and how it makes him similar to his nemesis Klaus. Caroline is right on point when she tells Tyler that he sounds like Klaus — determined to ruin his chance at happiness by chasing vengeance. Tyler’s distance (both physical and emotional) has been torture for Caroline, and for him to return to town to hop into bed with Caroline for the better part of four days only to break her heart again plays as needlessly cruel. The breakup scene is a great reminder of just how powerful Michael Trevino can be when he’s given something to work with, but it’s been thin pickings for Tyler for most of the series (save for season two), with his here-today-gone-tomorrow character arcs.

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Medium 9781770906396

5.04 For Whom the Bell Tolls

Crissy Calhoun, Heather Vee ECW Press ePub

Caroline: Part of me just wishes that I could trade places with you. Because without all the memories, maybe it wouldn’t hurt so damn much.

Stefan: It’s okay.

Caroline: It’s not.

5.04 For Whom the Bell Tolls

Original air date October 24, 2013

Written by Brett Matthews and Elisabeth R. Finch

Directed by Michael Allowitz

Edited by Tony Solomons Cinematography by Michael Karasick

Guest cast Gregory Chandler (Patron), Amanda Powell (Waitress)

Previously on The Vampire Diaries Paul Wesley

Damon and Elena try to jog Stefan’s memory on Remembrance Day in Mystic Falls. When the gang is desperate for Bonnie’s help, Jeremy can keep the secret of her death no longer.

With a peculiarly morbid, drunken, and only-in-Mystic-Falls backdrop of a celebration of the beloved dead, “For Whom the Bell Tolls” is this season’s “Memorial” or “Ghost World” — a moment to pause and remember, to acknowledge the past and the lost, to examine one’s choices and relationships, and to reaffirm the purpose of being decent without reward.

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