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Medium 9780253015594

2. Italian Cinema and the Colonies to 1935

Ruth Ben-Ghiat Indiana University Press PDF

2

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Italian Cinema and the Colonies to 1935

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his chapter offers an overview of the imbrications and encounters of Italian c­ inema with the colonies up to 1935. I focus on the 1920s, a decade that has been slow to receive attention in accounts of both Italian colonial and filmic enterprises. During those years, the Fascists developed the ideologies and strategies of conquest that would serve them in Ethiopia and during World War II, quelling active rebellion in Somalia and carrying out a ruthless repression of resistance in the Libyan regions of

Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. In the realm of ­cinema, the 1920s is normally considered a period of crisis and retrenchment, due to the collapse of production and distribution structures. Tenacious research has revealed a variegated filmic landscape, though, one characterized by a good number of colonial and exotic-­themed productions.1 I bring these imperial and filmic histories together in my reading of Camerini’s 1927 work Kif Tebbi, which is located within the Orientalist genre that flourished internationally in the decade after World War I. My discussion of this Italian narrative of masculine redemption emphasizes the ways it sets the tone for empire films, but also highlights Orientalist elements that found less favor in the militaristic climate of later Fascism. This chapter also explores the notion of c­ inema as an “eye of the war” as it emerged during the Italo-­Turkish

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Medium 9780861966608

Chapter 13 Toward Globalization or Localization: Multinational Advertising in Eastern Europe

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

The economic and political opening of Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 was a signal for multinational advertising agencies to establish their presence there as soon as possible. With the following influx of Western media products, an excellent laboratory has emerged for the observation of the relationship between global advertising and local economies and cultures. Drawing on Kelly-Holmes (1998), this chapter argues that commercial advertising non-deliberately fulfilled the function of socialization, teaching East European audiences not just about individual products, but about how to live and participate in a consumer society, bringing to the previously planned economies the ideology of consumption and discourse of the market.

Globalization, originally defined as the intensification of human interaction across territorial boundaries, has recently come to encompass the increasing promotion of a neo-liberal economic and political agenda. Driven by the ideology of free market, this process entails a systemic transformation of the economy, polity, culture, in the modes of existence and the degree of control exercised locally, and is characterized by intensification of the longue durée of commodification around the world (Mittelman, 2004; Gill, 1995). Transnational advertising, along with financial capital, has become a central factor in facilitating the process worldwide. “If financial capital is the fuel that fired the engine of transnational corporations, transnational advertising is the fire that lights the path toward capitalism and consumption” (Viswanath & Zeng, 2002). After the 1989 collapse of Communism in this region, Central and Eastern Europe’s opening to an inflow of foreign capital and foreign media products provided a rich site for observation of the relationship between multinational advertising and the processes of globalization.

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Medium 9780253007223

Chapter: 1. Histoire(s) du cinéma: A History

Michael Witt Indiana University Press ePub

Looking back on the early stages of his film history project from the perspective of 1979, Godard suggested that his desire to actively investigate cinema history had originated in a growing confusion he had experienced around 1967 or 1968 regarding how to proceed artistically. He realized that what he needed to sustain and renew his creative practice as a filmmaker was a deeper and more productive understanding of the relationship between his own work and the discoveries of his predecessors, and felt a thorough dissatisfaction in this regard with written histories of cinema:

Little by little I became interested in cinema history. But as a filmmaker, not because I’d read Bardèche, Brasillach, Mitry, or Sadoul (in other words: Griffith was born in such and such a year, he invented such and such a thing, and four years later Eisenstein did this or that), but by ultimately asking myself how the forms that I’d used had been created, and how such knowledge might help me.1

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Medium 9780861966820

The Wind in the Willows (1995) and The Willows in Winter (1996)

Marie Beardmore John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

TVC started working on The Wind in the Willows, an animated version of Kenneth Grahame’s classic tale while they were still working on the Beatrix Potter episodes. Ratty, Moley, and who can forget the irrepressible Toad, part of the famous riverbank set, John Coates had long wanted to do something with Kenneth Grahame’s classic tale The Wind in the Willows, originally illustrated by Ernst Shepard. He got his chance after the success of the first six Beatrix Potter films when distributor Peter Orton took him to lunch and asked him what else he wanted to do. John didn’t have to think twice: The Wind in the Willows had been in his sights for sometime. He started exploring the rights and discovered that story wise there was no problem, but he would have to go through the Shepard Estate if he wanted to use the original artwork. He tried that, but decided the publishers were a bit too “toffee nosed” about the whole thing and it would be better if TVC designed their own characters.

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Medium 9780861967025

Documentation of Crazy Cinématographe Programmes, 2007 to 2010

Edited by Martin Loiperdinger John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

Crazy Cinématographe Programme Modules as Performed on the Luxembourg Fairground Schueberfouer 2007–2010

Schueberfouer 2007

Dates: 23 August to 11 September

Number of showings: 152

Total entries: 9,374

Crazy Pot-Pourri

Concours de gourmands, France 1905, Comedy

Agoust Family of Jugglers, Great Britain 1898, Vaudeville Act

The Adventures of ‘Wee Rob Roy’ No.1, Great Britain 1916, Animated Film

[Dansa Serpentina], France 1900, Dance Film

Le Cochon danseur, France 1907, Vaudeville Act

Dévaliseurs nocturnes, France 1904, Comedy

Les Kiriki, acrobates japonais, France 1907, Trick Film

Großer Blumen-Corso 1906, Luxembourg 1906, Topical / local film

Cabinet of the Bizarre

Photographie d’une étoile, France 1906, Comedy

L’Homme mystérieux, France 1910, Vaudeville Act

Fox terriers et rats, France c1902, Topical

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Medium 9780253356680

1 Assia Djebar’s Transvergent Nuba: The Nuba of the Women of Mount Chenoua (Algeria, 1978)

Florence Martin Indiana University Press ePub

Shahrazad’s tales included other tales in a mise en abyme that deepened as the Nights unfolded. Contemporary Maghrebi women’s filmic narratives often follow a similar pattern. The resulting films offer a complex narrative web of embedded tales. In Barakat, for instance, the surface narrative of the quest for a disappeared woman soon reveals another narrative embedded within it: the story of a past mujahida (woman freedom fighter). Shahrazad also embedded political messages in her narratives: this Sultan whose story I am telling you, she whispered to the caliph prettily, is “fair,” is “wise,” and acts in a politically courageous way. Similarly, Rachida, for instance, tells a fictitious story focused on one female protagonist that embodies the plight of Algeria during the 1990s (see chapter 3); and Bab al-sama maftouh/Une Porte sur le ciel/A Door to the Sky by Farida Benlyazid, for instance, tells a fictitious story focused on one female protagonist whose spiritual and feminist choices reach into the history of women in the Maghreb, and shows how to make significant personal/political choices.

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Medium 9780253018472

12 Seth Morton · “The Archive That Knew Too Little: The International Necronautical Society and the Avant-Garde”

JONATHAN PAUL EBURNE Indiana University Press ePub

12.1. Inside the INS broadcast crypt.

12

THE ARCHIVE THAT KNEW TOO LITTLE

THE INTERNATIONAL NECRONAUTICAL SOCIETY AND THE AVANT-GARDE

Seth Morton

Over one hundred years after the first Futurist manifesto, the historical avant-garde looks like an oddity that died long ago. Perhaps nothing has served the avant-garde better than its own death. In death, the avant-garde is memorialized and archived. Its antiart position has been absorbed by the art world, and its logics inform mass culture and high art alike. Although the historical avant-garde failed to make good on revolutionary ideals, avant-garde logics continue to evolve and diversify across our entire cultural media landscape, from Dada to Monty Python and Saturday Night Live. This is the odd thing about the avant-garde: its style thrives in a cultural era overwrought with aesthetic and cultural cynicism. If a productive tension between its own cynicism and its revolutionary ideals energized the early twentieth century’s avant-garde, then the relocation of the avant-garde in the museum and in popular culture turns that tension into a perverse parody of “the avant-garde that was.” From today’s vantage point, the avant-garde seems to have cultivated a very real death wish. Its death was not stylistic or aesthetic but rather a failure to be. In the wake of its death, the object lesson of the avant-garde appears to concern the necessary failure of any project that sets radical forms of being as its goal.

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Medium 9780253015167

Egypt

Roy Armes Indiana University Press ePub

There are a number of directors with very different backgrounds, born in the 1950s, who made a first feature film in the 2000s, among them Khalid Ghorbal, Nawfel Saheb-Ettaba, Nidhal Chatta, Khaled W. Barsaoui, and Ibrahim Letaief. Ghorbal came from the theatre, Saheb-Ettaba and Chatta are marked by lengthy periods spent abroad, and Barsaoui and Letaief are products of the Tunisian enthusiasm for ciné clubs and amateur filmmaking.

Khalid Ghorbal, who was born in 1950 in Tunisia, is based in France; his earlier work, except for the short, The Chosen One / L’élu (1996), was in theatre, which he had studied first in Tunis (at the Centre d’Art Dramatique) and then in Paris (the Université Internationale du Théâtre de Paris and the École Jacques Lecoq). He directed the most widely distributed film by any of this group of older directors, Fatma, in Tunisia in 2001. The film sets out to confront the practice of repairing a woman’s vagina—just three stitches required—after she has been raped. It is Ghorbal says, “a strange compromise which seems to sort out things for everyone: the future husband, whose honor will be safe and his virility intact, as well as the young woman, who will have a husband and in that way become a wife and mother.” But underlying this is a basic hypocrisy, “which weighs only on the woman.”66

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Medium 9780253012265

Introduction

Jennifer M Bean Indiana University Press ePub

Anupama Kapse

The mirror is, after all, a utopia, since it reflects a placeless place.

Michel Foucault, “Of Other Spaces”

ONE OF THE most useful insights of scholarship that considers the conversion of 35mm films to 3D is the reminder that the latter’s appearance is not a mere novelty. Such revivals are not, as Kristen Whissel points out, a way of rescuing a seemingly threatened (U.S.) film industry in view of the coming of newer and more profitable technologies of viewing and consuming visual media. Rather, 3D is better approached as a practice that “has migrated across a broad range of platforms and media, including television, smart phones, photography, tablets, video games, and live theatrical performances.”1 Which is to say that the spatial vision of 3D—its direct, tactile address to the spectator, its mutations of time and space, its loosening of the film frame—is not a phenomenon that emerged in the crisis of the fifties, as is commonly believed. Rather, such attempts need to be understood within an archaeology of media forms that have, since the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, continued to relay moving images in a variety of spatial formats which include the history of binocular and stereoscopic vision.

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Medium 9780253010407

8 Teach Me Tonight

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

Working at Keystone, for me, was
like working in a musical library.

Flicka McGurrin

Todd Barkan

I’m not as free [now in New York] and the world is not as open as it was at that time. I think we’re politically way more conservative now than we were in 1972 and especially in the late ’60s, when I was really formulating where I was coming from in my musical life, musical vision, ideas about presenting that kind of music. I felt like a very important function of what I did was to educate and broaden the tastes and scope of the musical audience. And I think to this day that the Keystone Korner had an enormous impact on jazz in this country and particularly on what was presented in the Bay Area. And I think in the ’70s, I probably had a broader palette.

Steve Turre

Keystone had the commitment not only to the level of artistry and the level of musicianship and creativity but also the commitment to the acknowledgment of the source of the music and the roots of the culture of the music. There are a lot of places all over the country that just don’t want to acknowledge the facts of jazz.

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Medium 9780861966820

1995 – Three More Half Hour Specials

Marie Beardmore John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

With the huge success of the first six Beatrix Potter episodes, it seemed to make sense to make another three films. Jumping Jack (Dave Unwin’s company formed in the meantime) Geoff and Ginger and TVC did one each: The Tale of the Flopsy Bunnies and Mrs. Tittlemouse; The Tale of Mr. Tod and the further Adventures of Peter Rabbit; and the Tale of Two Bad Mice and Johnny Town-Mouse. They shot a new top and tail with Dennis Abey directing the live action, which worked out fine, despite the unceasing rain.

Peter Orton, of Hit fame, took over the distribution of the films and did fantastically well from them. In the US The Tales of Beatrix Potter became the favourite programme on television – and the video sales made him millions. The money he got from Beatrix Potter enabled him to go public: at that point, they’d sold something like 3 or 4 million videos in America at 19 or 20 dollars each, and Peter Orton took 35 per cent off the top.

TVC got a little bit of the profit in the end, but not an awful lot. Even so, there’s an interesting little addendum to the story. After delivery of the first six, there was immediate talk of doing three more, but they kept being put off. TVC were running a bit low on funds and having quite a hard time – this was the time of recession and it had hit lots of independent studios in London. John had a decent share in the first six, around 25 per cent, so he offered Penguin the chance to buy back 5 per cent. Penguin said they would consider it, and produced an enormous sheet of facts and figures to prove that the films wouldn’t be in profit until the year 2000 and something, and used that as an excuse for what John considered a real mean offer. He needed the money and didn’t have much to bargain with, so Penguin upped the offer a tiny bit and then he accepted it. Stephen Hall was then the finance director, who the TVC team all liked and got on well with. John, incensed at their time schedule, told him “Stephen, I bet you £25,000 it’s in profit by Christmas 1998. Ahaa, he said, it won’t be. But I’ll take you on.” Time passed and then in November 1998, John came back from somewhere raising money and Norman was standing there grinning from ear to ear. “You won’t guess but I’ve got a cheque here for £72,000.’” “I said what! And he said, Beatrix Potter went into profit in the September quarter and Stephen Hall has honoured the bet.”

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Medium 9780253355560

3: What Gives Documentary Films a Voice of their Own?

Bill Nichols Indiana University Press ePub

3    What Gives Documentary Films a Voice of Their Own?

THE QUALITIES OF VOICE

If documentaries represent issues and aspects, qualities and problems found in the historical world, they can be said to speak about this world through both sounds and images. The question of speech raises the question of “voice,” but finding and having a voice involves more than using the spoken word. When a documentary “speaks about” something, when “We speak about it to you,” for example, it speaks through its composition of shots, its editing together of images, and its use of music, among other things. Everything we see and hear represents not only the historical world but also how the film's maker wants to speak about that world.

Just like the orator or public speaker who uses his entire body to give voice to a particular perspective, documentaries speak with all the means at their disposal. Questions of speech and voice are therefore not meant entirely literally. The spoken word, of course, does play a vital role in most documentary film and video: some films, like Portrait of Jason (1967), Word Is Out (1977), or Shoah (1985), seem, at first glance, to be nothing but speech. But when Jason tells us about his life in Portrait of Jason, a key avenue to understanding his words involves what we see of his infections, gestures, and behavior, including his interaction with Shirley Clarke, the filmmaker, as she orchestrates their dialogue. And when the gay and lesbian subjects in Word Is Out or the various interviewees in Shoah speak to us about their past, a key aspect of understanding the force and severity of that past lies in registering its effect on their way of speaking and acting in the present. Even the most speech oriented of documentaries—often referred to as “talking head” films—convey meanings, hint at symptoms, and express values on a multitude of levels apart from what is literally said. What does it mean, then, to raise the question of “voice” in documentary?

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Medium 9780253006790

4 Wars and Gambits

Stephen M. Norris Indiana University Press ePub

Dzhanik Faiziev’s film The Turkish Gambit, a mystery set amidst the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, debuted in February 2005. It went on to earn $18.5 million—more than any other film in Russian history—besting the previous year’s blockbuster, Night Watch. Produced by Konstantin Ernst, the head of Pervyi kanal, and Leonid Vereshchagin, Nikita Mikhalkov’s producer at Studio Tri-te, The Turkish Gambit was both hailed and reviled as a sign that Russian cinema had either refound its footing or lost the battle with Hollywood altogether. To supporters, the fact that the film topped the Russian box office for three weeks straight (eventually another Russian film, Shadow Boxing, bested it), was a sign of Russian cinematic strength. Russian films led the box office for the entire month of March 2005, the first time this feat had been achieved since communism’s collapse. For detractors, however, this “victory” meant nothing, for it represented a triumph of Hollywood style over Russian substance. “Russian” cinema, for some critics, had ceased to exist, replaced by action films that deliberately used American conventions to dumb down the masses.

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Medium 9780861967155

Chapter 5 Personal State Meant

Edited by David E James and Adam Hyman John Libbey Publishing ePub

John Fles*

The last few weeks of the Scorpio trial have made certain things obvious to my mind. Whether we win or not, I have been warned that this theatre will be under constant surveillance; in other words, de facto censorship. I went thru this once, at the beginning of my career, at the University of Chicago re: the Bill Burroughs Case. I could not then and will not now accept anything less than what Karl Popper calls “The Open Society”. And tho I believe that’s coming, as the pressure rises the enemies of the open society gather force, mainly strengthening what in our time we finally have to accept as, at least, part police state. I can not continue to run this program under any kind of censorship nor will I play that other, more dangerous, game and go to jail. Within a period of two to three months Movies ’Round Midnight may (& I emphasize may) cease to exist. Not necessarily, for this is up to those who own the theatre, the Saturday night screenings but, rather, my own somewhat naïve attempt to bring you those films which, without any kind of qualification whatsoever, I thought best or most useful or funniest or most ironical or most pertinent for our time. Now these films will, for the most part, be forced underground and/or be squeezed into some more or less institutional setting, with, again, the politics which imply censorship. To what extent I will ally myself with either or both of these efforts, future strategy will tell. In the meantime there is some hope in the possibility of a newspaper which would tie the entire artistic community, from Pasadena to Venice West, together. Its purpose would be to alert all of us to dangers the society, in the concrete manifestation of police, judges, all the paraphernalia of modern day justice, imposes on the increasingly restless need for total freedom. (This growing need for complete artistic freedom is not unrelated to the best elements within the negro movement.) We must remember, in terms of our own responsibility, that at the moment external law ends, the law, if such it may be called then, must come from inside. And those of us with any sense of history, see the only law coming from inside is love. Let us make no mistake: it is love itself, in all its manifestations, which the police state we find ourselves in, is engaged in destroying.

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Medium 9780253013873

6 Zombie Physiology

Edward P Comentale Indiana University Press ePub

The point is, it wasn’t a surprise, the war . . . or emergency, or whatever you want to call it . . . it was already on. It had been, what, three months since everyone jumped on the panic train.

Max Brooks, World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War

While it has become de rigueur to portray the zombie onslaught as a war, this analogy is in fact seriously flawed and can result in lethal outcomes for humans who hew to orthodox strategies of offensive or defensive warfare. Consider that zombie warfare is not driven by a religious motive or geopolitical objective. Beyond the common innate drive to consume human flesh, zombies exhibit no cooperative group objective. Moreover, zombie predation does not appear to be driven by any planned or organized strategies conforming to the strictures of either traditional or terrorist warfare, although as described later, sufficient densities of zombies can spontaneously generate several rudimentary but lethal modes of uncoached clustering.

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