1152 Chapters
Medium 9781780646947

7: Plant Diversity: Envisioning Untold Nanofactories for Biogenic Synthesis of Nanoparticles and their Applications

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Plant Diversity: Envisioning Untold

Nanofactories for Biogenic

Synthesis of Nanoparticles and their


Syed Baker1, K.S. Kavitha1, P. Azmath1, D. Rakshith1,

B.P. Harini3 and S. Satish1&2*


Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in

Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India; 2Department of

Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 3Department of

Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka,



Plants, owing to their rich biodiversity, form almost unlimited natural resources on the planet. Exploitation of plants has been happening since ancient times, and has shaped the biosphere and its inhabitants. Plants have been serving mankind in various ways since life arose and man has been continuously using them for various requirements. A closer understanding of the association of humans with their surrounding flora is essential for better utilization of plants. The recent implementation of new technologies and improved scientific knowledge related to plant biology have been the focus of much attention, with the intention of bioprospecting and reformulating plants for diverse applications. One such area gaining importance is the evaluation of nanoparticle synthesis. The process of plant-mediated nanoparticles can be termed phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, wherein metal salts are efficiently reduced to materials at a nanoscale. At this size, the materials often exhibit significant and enhanced properties compared to its bulk material. In recent years there has been a significant interest in scientific communities towards plant mediated nanoparticles, especially noble metallic nanoparticles such as silver, gold, platinum and bimetallic ones. Owing to the fact that nanoparticles have been used in innumerable applications in various fields of sciences such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, electronics, food packaging, biosensors, industrial spares components, textiles and anti-infective agents, nanoparticles have been envisioned as the particles of the century.

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Medium 9781780647296

8 Plant Stress under Non-optimal Soil pH

Shabala, S. CABI PDF


Plant Stress under Non-optimal Soil pH

Andre Läuchli† and Stephen R. Grattan*

Department of Land, Air and Water Resources,

University of California, Davis, California, USA


Most soils cultivated for crop production fall within the pH range of pH 6–8, where nutrient availability to the plant is typically optimal. Profoundly acid soils (pH < 5.5) and alkaline soils (pH > 8), however, fall outside this optimal pH range and pose challenges for the plant such as low nutrient availability, ion toxicities and nutrient imbalances. The characteristics of acid and alkaline soils are described. Among the alkaline soils one needs to differentiate between calcareous (pH > 7.5) and sodic (exchangeable sodium percentage, ESP > 15) soils, as they present a different set of challenges. Most nutrients are not equally available to plants across the pH spectrum.

Several mineral nutrients are severely affected in these non-optimal pH soils, particularly Ca, K, P and Fe. The reactions of plants to these nutrient elements under extreme soil pH conditions are discussed in detail, with emphasis on plant growth, morphological, physiological and membrane transport processes. Finally, a special case is presented of the recently discovered complex interactions between salinity, boron-toxicity and pH in plants.

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APPENDIX A Checklist of Maine Birds

Pierson, Elizabeth Down East Books ePub

By Peter D. Vickery, Jody Despres, and Jan Erik Pierson

This checklist portrays our understanding of the status, distribution, and seasonal abundance of Maine’s birds. A total of 419 species of birds and one additional form, “Thayer’s” Gull, have been recorded in Maine as of October 1995, excluding the extinct Labrador Duck, Great Auk, and Passenger Pigeon. No fewer than 27 species and that one form (listed below) have been added to the state list since 1978. Of these, four had occurred in Maine before but were not then recognized as full species (marked with an asterisk below). A specimen of Eurasian Siskin, collected at Kittery in 1962, had previously gone unlisted as a possible escape from captivity. Eurasian Siskins are now considered vagrants from Eurasia. In addition, two reports of Sprague’s Pipit, although not thought to have been American Pipit, are now treated as Pipit sp., due to possible confusion with other species.

Additions to the Maine state list since 1978 include the following:

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Forrie, Allan Thistledown Press ePub
Susan Musgrave weaves history, language, and imagery relating to stones into a beautiful metaphor for life in “How Do We Know Beauty When We See It: Twenty Meditations on Stones”.
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8 Risks for Human Health Related to Invasive Alien Reptiles and Amphibians

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF


Risks for Human Health Related to Invasive Alien Reptiles and


Olivier S.G. Pauwels1* and Nikola Pantchev2


Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels,

Belgium and 2IDEXX Laboratories, Ludwigsburg, Germany


More than 100 amphibian and reptile species have established populations outside their natural geographical range, mostly as a consequence of the international pet trade. About 40 zoonoses are associated with reptiles and amphibians. The main zoonotic risks from alien invasive reptiles and amphibians are salmonellosis and probably also vibriosis from a bacteriological point of view, pentastomids, sparganosis and potentially trichinellosis from a parasitical point of view, and West Nile virus. There are also new and emerging pathogens, e.g. atypical Brucella spp., with zoonotic potential. Transmission of pathogens from introduced reptile and amphibian species to humans is limited by the important physiological differences between them and humans, the secretive or shy habits of most introduced species and the rarity of direct contact (with the notable exception of a few exotic species eaten by humans). Locally, alien reptiles include venomous species and large species able to inflict bites of medical concern. In certain areas some species (mainly anuran amphibians) are generating noise pollution affecting human well-being. Given the continued increase of invasive alien population establishments with time, the spread of alien arthropod vectors and aggravating factors such as climate change, it is expected that alien reptiles and amphibians and their associated pathogens will generate more public health concern in the future.

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