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7 Emerging into the Carboniferous: The First Phase

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

The Carboniferous World

At the end of the Devonian, a major extinction event hit most groups of vertebrates, both marine and nonmarine. Although an earlier extinction event at the Frasnian–Famennian boundary has been recognized for many years, it appears to have affected invertebrates, especially marine ones, with most vertebrate groups essentially passing through it unscathed. By contrast, a massive vertebrate faunal turnover at the end of the Devonian, associated with the geological phenomenon known as the Hangenberg event, saw the extinction of many groups of vertebrates such as placoderms, and most acanthodians and sarcopterygians (Sallan and Coates 2010). Of those acanthodians and sarcopterygians that did survive, most were represented by only a remnant of their former populations, and these too eventually became extinct. After the extinction, a few groups notably survived well. These included the ray-finned fishes, which had begun their radiation in the Late Devonian but which expanded greatly in numbers, species, and niches in the Early Carboniferous. The chondrichthyans, although they had been persistently present through the Devonian, again became more widespread and numerous, particularly later in the Early Carboniferous. Finally, the tetrapods really began their radiation at this stage. From this point on, the multidigited forms from the Devonian were rare or absent, and five-digited forms became dominant.

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2. 77 Ranch

Joe Nick Patoski Texas A&M University Press ePub

In Texas we are losing productive, open-space land faster than any other state in the nation. Our legendary wide-open spaces are becoming cluttered with suburbs, shopping malls, and miles and miles of asphalt. The landscape is literally changing before our eyes.

As a result, caring for the land and the resources is no longer enough. Today’s most effective stewards must also be evangelists, spreading the good news of land stewardship to an ever-growing audience that has no relationship with the natural world.

Gary and Sue Price have embraced the challenge of communicating stewardship’s message with the same zeal that they have embraced the challenge of managing the native Blackland Prairie that is the core of their 77 Ranch. On the ranch, they have succeeded by carefully observing the world around them, working with the natural forces that are in play, and moving deliberately toward the future. It is with their eyes on the future that they have opened their ranch gates and welcomed fleets of yellow school buses to the 77 Ranch, so children can experience life beyond the artificial habitats of concrete and carpet grass.

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Medium 9780253020901

Part 4 Supplementary Materials

Steven Higgs Indiana University Press ePub

The following plant and animal species are mentioned in this book. This is not an exhaustive list of the flora and fauna that live in or pass through Southern Indiana. It represents what the areas’ land stewards and others, most significantly, various units of the National Audubon Society, prioritized when describing the places.

Rankings for species that are endangered, threatened, or otherwise of conservation concern were drawn from Indiana Department of Natural Resources lists with the following designations.

FE (Federally Endangered): Any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

FT (Federally Threatened): Any species that is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

SC (Special Concern): Any animal species requiring monitoring because of known or suspected limited abundance or distribution or because of a recent change in legal status or required habitat. These species do not receive legal protection under the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.

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The Tools of the Trade

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

The Tools of the Trade

Horseshoeing tools haven’t changed much since horses first started wearing shoes. If a Roman or Celtic horseshoer of old were to find himself in this century, he would have no problem shoeing a horse with the tools of today. I’ll describe them.

The “shoeing box” holds most of the tools. It’s usually made of wood, and has various sections for nails and tools of different sizes. The problem with a wooden box is that it breaks apart when it inevitably gets stepped on by the horse. Usually you can repair the box, but after my box had been stepped on and repaired four times, my seventh-grade son got disgusted and made me a new one in shop class. He added a clever invention: a three-foot cord attached to the box that would allow me to pull the box toward me if I got separated from it by the movement of the horse. I was really pleased with that addition, but it does have its drawbacks. For one, to a nervous horse, the cord looks just like a snake. A second problem can appear when you pull the box to you. Watching a box apparently moving by itself is unsettling to a lot of horses, especially if the box is moving toward them. I’ve learned to be cautious whenever I pull the box by the cord, but I’m quite pleased with my son’s invention.

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4: Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF


Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against

Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

A. Aziz,1* B. Verhagen,1 S. Villaume,1 M. Höfte,2

F. Baillieul,1 C. Clément1 and P. Trotel-Aziz1

URVVC EA 4707, SDRP, University of Reims, Reims, France;

Laboratory of Phytopathology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium




Plants have evolved the ability to form beneficial relationships with mutualistic microbes that are important for plant growth and health (Mendes et al., 2011; Berendsen et al.,

2012). The colonization of plant roots by mutualistic microbes is associated with an enhanced defensive capacity in the aerial parts of the plant, resulting in induced systemic resistance (ISR) (Pieterse et al., 2012). This resistance may also result from a priming of the tissues to express basal defence mechanisms more rapidly and more strongly after subsequent pathogen challenge (Verhagen et al., 2011; Zamioudis and Pieterse, 2012).

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