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6: Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Especially Grey Mould

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

6 

Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by

Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases,

Especially Grey Mould

R. Errakhi,1,2,3* F. Bouteau,3 M. Barakate4 and A. Lebrihi2

Plateforme de Biotechnologie, AGRONUTRITION, Carbonne, France;

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan,

France; 3Laboratoire d’Électrophysiologies des Membranes, Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Université Paris Diderot, Orsay, France;

4

Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech,

Morocco

1

2

Introduction

The biological control of plant pathogens is an integral component in maintaining ecological balance in the world of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants. It also helps to reduce the use of chemical pesticides to the minimum (Nautiyal, 2000;

­Nautiyal et al., 2002). Whipps (2001) has reviewed the use of various biocontrol antagonists, including bacteria, in plant disease control. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how some microorganisms control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens include mycoparasitism and antibiosis (Whipps, 2001). Mycoparasitism involves the production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyse fungal cellwalls, while antibiosis involves the production of secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere. These metabolites inhibit the growth and/or differentiation of fungal pathogens.

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CUBS

Don Hunter University Press of Colorado ePub

T O M    M C   C A R T H Y

MONGOLIA, KYRGYZSTAN A noted snow leopard scientist and father describes two young cubs that capture his heart.

For nearly two decades I have been exceedingly privileged to have been able to make a living doing something most people can only dream of—studying snow leopards. And yes, I am one of the fortunate few, even among my peers, who has seen a wild snow leopard in its native habitat, several in fact. Not that it could ever become mundane, gazing at a beast so mythically rare and elusive. Had I seen fifty in the wild, and the actual number is not even half that, each encounter would still be as inspiring as my first. A moment with a snow leopard on its home ground, playing by its rules, is an ethereal and moving occurrence that is not soon forgotten. So when asked if I could write about some of my most profound or heart-touching experiences in the presence of snow leopards, I had to sort through a fair number of emotion-filled memories to settle on a couple that I wanted to share. In the end, it was a fairly easy decision and it came down to tales of cubs, all now grown but just cubs at the time and the source of some of my most personally inspiring recollections.

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PART IV Negotiating Interests

David M. Freeman University Press of Colorado ePub

In defense of their water tower and to assemble their contribution to a habitat recovery program, Colorado’s South Platte water providers configured their designs to fit the fundamental realities of their situation. They needed to preserve the integrity of the Nebraska-Colorado Compact, develop alliances with water interests on the lower river near the Nebraska border, prevent opportunistic destructive water raids in the name of legal compliance, and secure water flows for listed species in a heavily appropriated basin.

Interstate water compacts allocate rights to consumptive use (Corbridge and Rice 1999: 534–540; Dunbar 1983). They are treaties made among states, ratified by the respective state legislatures, signed by governors, and adopted by the U.S. Congress. Colorado pioneered the use of compacts to resolve interstate disputes, and its waters are the most compacted of any state (Tyler 2003).

On the South Platte River, Colorado’s water consumption is limited by a compact agreement with Nebraska mandating that if flows fail to equal or exceed 120 cubic feet per second (cfs) of natural flow to Nebraska from April 1 to October 15 each year, Colorado is obligated to curtail the diversions of a specific set of Colorado users with priorities junior to June 14, 1897. Users subject to curtailment are those located downstream of the Washington County line where the South Platte flows through the Balzac/Cooper gauge and is measured into what becomes the “lower river,” about 100 miles long as it winds its way northeast to the Julesburg gauge at the Colorado-Nebraska border (Map 9.1).*

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IV. Birds from the Forest Margins

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF

CD 1 / Track 24

In the forests of southern Chile and Argentina, inhabits a Chilean Pigeon or Kono, an endemic pigeon larger than the domestic one so common in the world’s cities. Kono has a beautiful, reddish-chestnut coloration, orange eyes, and an elegant white band at the nape of the neck with a metallic green patch below. It is gregarious, and lives in flocks high in the trees where they eat fleshy fruits like the peumo (Cryptocaria alba), the lingue (Persea lingue), the Winter’s Bark (Drimys winteri) or the olivillo

(Aextoxicon punctatum). They nest in the trees, constructing small platforms of small, dry sticks, where they incubate and then feed their chicks with a kind of “milk” from the digested seeds of fruit.

BIRDS OF THE FOREST MARGINS

Kono

Torcaza

Chilean Pigeon

Hidden in the foliage of the trees, the pigeons emit their sonorous cooing that so typifies the austral forests—the sound was heard by Spanish conquistadors and caused them to believe that kono was the most abundant bird. Places such as Conumo (37º16’S; 73º14’W) in the mountains near Arauco, and the town of Pucón (39º15’S; 71º58’W) on the shores of Villarrica Lake express with their names of

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14. Vertebrate and Cave Invertebrate Species Described from Indiana

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

A number of early biologists worked in Indiana and described several species from the state. We will list here the vertebrate and cave invertebrate species that have their type localities in Indiana. An impressive number of fish and cave invertebrate species were described from Indiana—fish because some of America’s earliest and most productive ichthyologists worked here, and cave invertebrates because of their high degree of endemism. The information on plants described from Indiana is not readily available and thus has not been included here.

Fish

Thirty-seven species of fish were described from localities in Indiana, out of the 211 fish historically known from the state (17.5%). This is not surprising, as a number of ichthyologists worked in the state throughout the nineteenth century. Samuel Rafinesque described 24 on his own, from a trip in 1818 down the Ohio River and into the lower Wabash River (Rafinesque 1820). Charles Lesueur, Edward Drinker Cope, David Starr Jordan, Herbert E. Copeland, Charles Gilbert, Barton W. Evermann, and Joseph Swain also described fish species from Indiana prior to the beginning of the twentieth century. The type localities and authors for all the fish species described from Indiana are given in Table F-7. Two of these are the shovelnose sturgeon (Figure 14.1) and the greenside darter (Figure 14.2).

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