787 Chapters
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Medium 9781786390981

3 Human Health Impact by Alien Spiders and Scorpions

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

3

Human Health Impact by Alien

Spiders and Scorpions

Wolfgang Nentwig*

University of Bern, Switzerland

Abstract

Only a few alien spider species are of medical importance to humans because they are large and/or aggressive enough to inject venom and/or possess peculiar venom components.

­Spiders of serious medical concern include several Latrodectus (Theridiidae) and Loxosceles species (Sicariidae), numerously and globally introduced into many new areas. Loxosceles species are the only spiders that can cause severe local effects (necrosis) and both mentioned genera contain the only alien spider species that can provoke severe systemic effects. However, fatal issues are very rare. For all other spider species large enough to penetrate the human skin and introduced somewhere as alien species, 42 genera or species from 16 families are considered in detail. The venoms of these spiders cause only modest local (redness at the site of the bite, itching and swelling) and systemic (headache or nausea) effects and can be considered as harmless. In contrast to spiders, information on health issues of alien scorpions is rare and restricted to three species so far. One of them is potentially dangerous to humans, two species are not.

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10 Impact of Alien Mammals on Human Health

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

10

Impact of Alien Mammals on

Human Health

Dario Capizzi1*, Andrea Monaco1, Piero Genovesi2,

Riccardo Scalera3 and Lucilla Carnevali2

1Latium

Region, Environment and Natural Systems, Rome, Italy;

Institute for Environmental Protection and Research,

Rome, Italy and 3IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group,

Rome, Italy

2ISPRA

Abstract

We provide an overview of the impact of wild invasive alien mammals on human health, focusing specifically on species acting as zoonotic hosts or pathogens, along with the diseases and mechanisms of disease transmission associated with mammals in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. We checked for published data on the impact on human health for 129 alien invasive mammals, reported in 123 different countries. The highest number of invasive alien mammals causing impacts on human health is reported in

Japan (31 species), followed by Australia (24) and Argentina, New Zealand and Cuba (19).

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11 Climate Change and Increase of Impacts on Human Health by Alien Species

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

11

Climate Change and Increase of Impacts on Human Health by

Alien Species

Stefan Schindler1*, Wolfgang Rabitsch1 and

Franz Essl1,2

1Environment

Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria and 2University of

Vienna, Austria

Abstract

There is mounting evidence that climate change will facilitate biological invasions. Regarding alien species relevant for human health, climate change can modify their impacts by altering the likelihood of their introduction, establishment, distribution and abundance, the scale of impacts and management. In this chapter, we summarize climate change impacts on health-relevant alien species with a focus on Europe. Climate change can support introductions of alien species impacting human health, but its role is moderate compared with the other aspects of globalization, such as increased trade and people’s increased mobility. There is strong evidence that changing climate characteristics, notably temperature, are crucial for the establishment and spread of human health-relevant alien species. Resulting increases and shifts in distribution might cause increasing health impacts, particularly in cold regions such as temperate and polar regions or areas of higher elevation. In Europe, changes in health impacts caused by alien species are mainly related to arthropod vectors and plants with allergenic pollen. As numbers of alien species will probably increase, preventive management needs to be strengthened. Further, a better understanding of drivers and management options of alien diseases and vectors, as well as joint efforts in education and outreach to the public and decision-makers, is required. There is a need for action and research,

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2 Invasive Alien Plant Impacts on Human Health and Well-being

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

2

Invasive Alien Plant Impacts on

Human Health and Well-being

Lorenzo Lazzaro1*, Franz Essl2, Antonella Lugliè3,

Bachisio Mario Padedda3, Petr Pyšek4,5 and

Giuseppe Brundu3

1University

of Florence, Italy; 2University of Vienna, Austria; of Sassari, Italy; 4The Czech Academy of Sciences,

Institute of Botany, Průhonice, Czech Republic; and 5Charles

University, Prague, Czech Republic

3University

Abstract

In this chapter we review, based on information available in scientific literature and reports, the most common negative direct impacts of invasive alien plants and Cyanobacteria on human health and well-being. Poisonous or toxic plants, i.e. plants containing toxic compounds, may impact human health generally after the ingestion of part of the plant (see

Nicotiana glauca) or of some product derived from toxic plants (see Senecio inaequidens

­poisoned products). Allergenic plants are among the most studied cases of impacts of alien plants, particularly concerning the role of allergenic pollen. Many invasive species are

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9 Do Alien Free-ranging Birds Ae ff ct Human Health? A Global Summary of Known Zoonoses

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

9

Do Alien Free-ranging Birds Affect

Human Health? A Global Summary of Known Zoonoses

Emiliano Mori1*, Saverio Meini2, Diederik Strubbe3,

Leonardo Ancillotto4, Paolo Sposimo5 and Mattia

Menchetti6

1Università

di Siena, Italy; 2Centro Veterinario Cimarosa, Livorno,

Italy; 3Ghent University, Belgium; 4Università degli Studi di Napoli

‘Federico II’, Italy; 5NEMO s.r.l., Florence, Italy; and 6University of

Florence, Italy

Abstract

Non-native birds are prominent among alien taxa, with at least 415 species established outside their natural distribution ranges. Impacts of introduced birds on human health have received little attention up to now, despite previous works suggesting that disease transmission is a major impact exerted by introduced bird species. Our synthesis reveals that at least

42 species of introduced birds may represent a hazard to human well-being. Among those, most are Psittaciformes, Columbiformes and Anseriformes, species that frequently occur in urban areas, partly because of their popularity as pets and ornamental species. The main zoonoses potentially brought by these birds include psittacosis, cryptococcosis, listeriosis and salmonellosis, transmitted by direct contact or via arthropod vectors (fleas, lice, ticks and mites). Many Galliformes introduced for hunting purposes can lead to salmonellosis and other gastroenteric diseases in humans. Non-native birds can threaten human health through bird-strikes around airports and through noise pollution by species sharing colonial roosts. While we found that alien birds can theoretically transmit several diseases to humans, empirical case studies of disease outbreaks linked to alien birds are rare or non-existent. The synergistic impacts of ongoing species introductions and global climate change may increase the risk of health hazards in the future. Therefore, sanitary monitoring of traded birds, mainly of the most synanthropic and game species released for human consumption would be prudent. Strict attention should be paid to alien bird populations already established within urban areas, to verify their role in affecting human health and well-being.

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1 Poisonous and Venomous: Marine Alien Species in the Mediterranean Sea and Human Health

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

1

Poisonous and Venomous: Marine

Alien Species in the Mediterranean

Sea and Human Health

Bella Galil*

The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv University,

Israel

Abstract

The Suez Canal is the main pathway of introduction of alien species into the Mediterranean

Sea. Its successive enlargements left the entire sea prone to colonization by highly impacting invasive alien species, including poisonous and venomous ones. The temporal and spatial extent of occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea of nine species (fish, sea-urchin, jellyfish and stinging hydroid), the evidence of their impacts on human health in their native range, the frequency and severity of human health impacts in their introduced range are described, as well as management measures. This chapter aims to acquaint and forewarn the public, stakeholders and decision makers, and to urge the latter to take the necessary steps to control the pathways and vectors of introduction and prepare themselves for these new health hazards.

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7 Invasive Freshwater Invertebrates and Fishes: Impacts on Human Health

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

7

Invasive Freshwater Invertebrates and Fishes: Impacts on Human

Health

Catherine Souty-Grosset1*, Pedro Anastácio2,

Julian Reynolds3 and Elena Tricarico4

1Université

de Poitiers, France; 2Universidade de Évora, Portugal;

College, University of Dublin, Ireland; and 4Department of

Biology, University of Florence, Italy

3Trinity

Abstract

Inland waters are subject to more widespread biotic invasions than terrestrial ecosystems.

During the last century, 756 aquatic species were introduced in Europe, frequently carrying new parasites for native fauna and humans. The consequences of such invasions are the loss of the invaders’ original parasites, the introduction of new parasites, or new intermediate hosts or vectors for existing parasites. Many parasites are water-borne and need aquatic species to complete their transmission cycles. The list of 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien

Species (Lowe et  al., 2000) does not take into account human health problems, so a risk assessment of the consequences of invasive freshwater alien species requires more attention. Here we review the direct and indirect impacts of invasive freshwater alien species on human health. Direct impacts include the injuries or allergies and new contaminants (bacteria, toxins), and their role as intermediate hosts to human parasites. Indirect impacts include the effects of the chemicals needed to control these aliens, changes to ecosystem services making the invaded area less suitable for recreational human use and damage to cultivation/ aquaculture affecting human well-being in developing countries. A clear management response is urgently needed to halt their spread and reduce or minimize the risk of human and wildlife disease.

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4 Ticks and Dust Mites: Invasive and Health-affecting Borderline Organisms

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

4

Ticks and Dust Mites: Invasive and Health-affecting Borderline

Organisms

Sauro Simoni1* and Giulio Grandi2,3

1CREA-DC

Research Council for Agriculture and Economics –

Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, Florence,

Italy; 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala,

Sweden; and 3National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract

According to the situations and cases presented here, organisms belonging to tick and house dust mite groups can be included within alien invasive pests representing a risk for human health. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, a vector for many tick-borne pathogens, is able to efficiently colonize households at quite wide ranges in temperature and relative humidity. Cases of the spread of this tick by movements of pets and people are reported.

House dust mites and main storage mites – although not strictly alien species – can act not only as allergens’ disseminators but even as potential indicators of environmental quality in different settings (newly colonized areas, both geographic and within human dwellings). The impact of alien mites affecting agricultural production has been generally measured by the ecological consequences on biodiversity, but the evaluation of the effects of these species on human health has been mostly neglected. Trading, travelling and modified home conditions can increase the chance for diffusion of ticks and mites affecting human health, i.e. causing higher exposures to vector-borne pathogens and allergens, respectively. A more interdisciplinary approach that takes into account both the dynamics in ecological evaluation and the consequences on human health of these organisms is needed.

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6 The Invasive Mosquitoes of Medical Importance

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

6

The Invasive Mosquitoes of

Medical Importance

Roberto Romi1*, Daniela Boccolini1, Marco Di Luca1,

Jolyon M. Medlock2, Francis Schaffner3,4, Francesco

Severini1 and Luciano Toma1

1Istituto

Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; 2Public Health England,

Salisbury, United Kingdom; 3University of Zurich, Switzerland; and

4Francis Schaffner Consultancy, Riehen, Switzerland

Abstract

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most important group of blood-sucking insects that are vectors of human diseases. This chapter focuses mainly on six species belonging to the

Aedes, Culex and Anopheles genera, which, closely adapted to human habitats for thousands of years, have exploited human activities to spread and establish in areas far from their origin, becoming invasive. The mechanisms leading to the introduction and establishment of invasive mosquito species and the risk that they represent for human health in newly colonized areas are extensively described. In particular, this chapter focuses on the three powerful and widespread arbovirus disease vectors, Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, with shorter references to Ae. koreicus and other alien species recently recorded in Europe.

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8 Risks for Human Health Related to Invasive Alien Reptiles and Amphibians

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

8

Risks for Human Health Related to Invasive Alien Reptiles and

Amphibians

Olivier S.G. Pauwels1* and Nikola Pantchev2

1Institut

Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels,

Belgium and 2IDEXX Laboratories, Ludwigsburg, Germany

Abstract

More than 100 amphibian and reptile species have established populations outside their natural geographical range, mostly as a consequence of the international pet trade. About 40 zoonoses are associated with reptiles and amphibians. The main zoonotic risks from alien invasive reptiles and amphibians are salmonellosis and probably also vibriosis from a bacteriological point of view, pentastomids, sparganosis and potentially trichinellosis from a parasitical point of view, and West Nile virus. There are also new and emerging pathogens, e.g. atypical Brucella spp., with zoonotic potential. Transmission of pathogens from introduced reptile and amphibian species to humans is limited by the important physiological differences between them and humans, the secretive or shy habits of most introduced species and the rarity of direct contact (with the notable exception of a few exotic species eaten by humans). Locally, alien reptiles include venomous species and large species able to inflict bites of medical concern. In certain areas some species (mainly anuran amphibians) are generating noise pollution affecting human well-being. Given the continued increase of invasive alien population establishments with time, the spread of alien arthropod vectors and aggravating factors such as climate change, it is expected that alien reptiles and amphibians and their associated pathogens will generate more public health concern in the future.

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5 Bugs, Ants, Wasps, Moths and Other Insect Species

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF

5

Bugs, Ants, Wasps, Moths and

Other Insect Species

Alain Roques1*, Cristina Preda2, Sylvie Augustin1 and Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg1

1INRA

Zoologie Forestière, Orléans, France and 2Ovidius University of Constan3a, Romania

Abstract

A total of 43 insect species non-native to Europe are so far considered to affect human welfare through their biting, urticating and allergenic properties, or by causing domestic nuisances. They involve several orders. In Hymenoptera, species in two families, Formicidae

(ants) and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), are known to cause disturbance and health problems. Several moth species (Lepidoptera) have urticating larvae which may induce painful urticarial and allergic reactions. Bugs in five Hemipteran families have direct impacts on health, such as bed bugs and kissing bugs, which are vectors of pathogens, but most are considered to be household pests, causing nuisances to people when invading houses or aggregating on walls. Several non-native species of cockroaches that develop in synanthropic habitats have body parts, saliva or faeces containing powerful indoor allergens, and they can also facilitate mechanical transmission of pathogens to humans. Some species of Siphonaptera (fleas) and Phthiraptera (lice), which are obligate ectoparasitic insects of warm-blooded animals, are of high importance for human health because they cause itches and skin infection, and transmit major diseases such as bubonic plague and murine typhus.

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6 Flooding Stress Tolerance in Plants

Shabala, S. CABI PDF

6 

Flooding Stress Tolerance in Plants

chiara pucciariello* and pierdomenico perata

PlantLab, Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy

Abstract

Global warming is associated with an increase in submergence and flooding events, which makes many ecosystems worldwide vulnerable to low oxygen stress. Water submersion can severely affect crop production, since it drastically reduces the oxygen needed for plant respiration, and thus survival. Plants tolerant to flooding have evolved morphological, physiological and biochemical adaptations to oxygen deficiency. In the plant biology model species Arabidopsis thaliana, considerable progress has been made in terms of understanding the molecular aspects governing these responses and the sensing mechanism of an oxygen shortage has been identified. Many studies on oxygen deprivation stress have focused on rice (Oryza sativa), since it is one of the crops that adapts best to a flooded environment. Besides being able to germinate under submergence, rice varieties display different mechanisms for successful survival. Agronomically, the study of rice strategies to survive flooding in ecotypes that have adapted to extreme environments shows great potential in the context of climate change and the increasing global need for food.

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7 Adaptations to Aluminium Toxicity

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7 

Adaptations to Aluminium Toxicity

Peter R. Ryan* and Emmanuel Delhaize

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Canberra, Australia

Abstract

Soil acidity limits agricultural production globally. Acid soils pose many stresses to plants but the major factor affecting plant growth is soluble aluminium, with Al3+ being the most toxic form. Al3+ damages root cells at sites in the apoplast and in the cytosol, and these rapidly inhibit root growth. Plants have evolved mechanisms that either avoid or minimize these damaging interactions by excluding Al3+ from the roots and leaves or by efficiently detoxifying any Al3+ that enters the cytosol. The genes conferring these resistance mechanisms have now been identified in some important crop species such as wheat, barley, sorghum and rice. Rapid progress in this field over the last decade provides exciting opportunities for increasing the Al3+ resistance of food crops through markerassisted selection and genetic engineering.

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9 Desiccation Tolerance

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9 

Desiccation Tolerance

Jill M. Farrant*, Keren Cooper, Halford J.W. Dace,

Joanne Bentley and Amelia Hilgart

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology,

University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa

Abstract

Desiccation tolerance is the ability to survive loss of 90% of cellular water or dehydration to tissue water concentrations of ≤ 0.1 g H2O.g–1 dry mass. It is relatively common in reproductive structures such as seeds (termed orthodox), but is rare in vegetative tissues, occurring in some 135 angiosperm species (termed resurrection plants). In this chapter we present an overview of the stresses associated with desiccation and review the current mechanisms proposed to explain how orthodox seeds and resurrection plants tolerate such water loss. Physiological, biochemical and molecular processes involved in protection from mechanical stress, oxidative damage and metabolic disruptions are discussed and similarities between seeds and resurrection plants are drawn. Protective mechanisms unique to vegetative tissues are presented and differences among species are discussed. We review the biogeographical distribution and evolution of angiosperm resurrection plants and propose that the developmentally regulated programme of acquisition of desiccation tolerance in seeds is utilized in the acquisition of tolerance in vegetative tissues of resurrection plants, possibly in response to environmentally regulated rather than developmental cues.

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1 Drought Tolerance in Crops: Physiology to Genomics

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1 

Drought Tolerance in Crops:

Physiology to Genomics

Lakshmi Praba Manavalan and Henry T. Nguyen*

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA

Abstract

More frequent and severe drought combined with high temperatures have been recognized as a potential impact of global warming on agriculture. Improving crop yield under water stress is the goal of agricultural researchers worldwide. Direct selection for yield under drought has been the major breeding strategy and was successful in some crops. Drought modifies the structure and function of plants. An understanding of the impact, mechanisms and traits underlying drought tolerance is essential to develop drought-tolerant cultivars. Identification and evaluation of key physiological traits would aid and strengthen molecular breeding and genetic engineering

­programmes in targeting and delivering traits that improve water use and/or drought tolerance of crops. There is an overlap between different osmotic stresses and the selection of appropriate drought evaluation methods. The benefits of genetic engineering have been realized in crop improvement for quality traits, and several promising genes have emerged in the last decade as candidates for drought tolerance. Combining the physiological traits that would sustain yield under drought, and incorporating elite quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes underlying these traits into high-yielding cultivars, would be a successful strategy.

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