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Medium 9781574414615

Graduation

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

Graduation

I’ve finally received my doctorate from the University of Oregon. It’s taken me 12 years to develop a Celtic Studies major for colleges and universities, partly due to procrastination and discouragement, partly due to administrative confusion. The only connection this short section has with horseshoeing is that horseshoeing kept me in the real world that the Ph.D. program kept trying to drag me out of. I’m just now finding myself able to turn on my computer without my heart pounding in anticipation of the next administrative botch or the revelation of a deadline I had failed to meet. I am beginning to be able to look at my university’s logo on passing cars without getting sweaty palms. I can drink my coffee out of my university logo mug, while wearing a U of O baseball cap.

I’m not going to describe the horror of this educational experience or the campus politics and other things often associated with university departments. I’m just going to give thanks to my advisor, Dr. Diane Dunlap, and all those horses who helped me through the process. My old horseshoer buddy, Gary, used to give me a lot of grief because he said I always thought too much, mostly about the enormous and unsolvable problems in my life. “You need to get under more horses,” he always told me. “You think too much. Get under more horses.” Thanks, Gary. That advice, although not always followed, has done a lot to keep me going over the years. Thank you, horses. Thank you, Gary.

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Medium 9781574410624

19 • The Great Horned Owl

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

The Great Horned Owl. 93

fected. Upon closer examination, I noticed that what appeared to be wires were actually feathers around the eye that were so encrusted from the infection they had become hard and dry, preventing the eye from opening. As I peeled each tiny, dry feather away, I could see that the injury was several days old. In fact, I wasn't at all sure that he still had an eye.

The owl was so debilitated that he did not even struggle as I worked to open his eyelid. He just sat patiently, watching my every move with his one good eye. His large beak would open slowly to warn me that he was not totally incapacitated. I noticed that his beak was chipped and scarred, and felt certain that-if he could talk-he would have many stories to tell about how he acquired all his battle scars.

He was bone thin and would need immediate care if he was to recover fully. That evening, I cleaned and medicated his injured eye and fed him small strips of beef heart soaked in water. He would take these from my hand reluctantly, but he was anything but shy when it came to devouring half a cup of food from a dish.

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 5 Reef Zonation and Ecology: Veracruz Shelf and Campeche Bank

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub

ERNESTO CHÁVEZ, JOHN W. TUNNELL JR., AND KIM WITHERS

For decades, the ecology and zonation of coral reefs have dominated ecological studies in tropical regions of the world. Along with the geologic history of an area, physical environmental parameters govern ecological and geographical distribution of reef organisms. Benthic habitats and communities are usually similar and typical in various geographic regions, but understanding the reef types characteristic of any given region can be critical to understanding the ecological processes. Platform reefs are the characteristic reef type in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

Coral reefs are generally classified by their shape and proximity to the shoreline. Major types include atoll reefs, shelf or platform reefs, fringing reefs, and barrier reefs. Atolls are the common reef structure in the central Pacific Ocean. These reefs are typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon and develop on igneous rock emerging from the deep ocean. Atolls often have emergent margins (reef flats and islands that are also known as keys or cays) and may also have patch reefs in their sediment-dominated lagoons. A shelf or platform reef is a reef bank emerging from a continental shelf rather than the deep ocean. Located near or far from the mainland coast, the reef platform may include a shallow lagoon with sand keys. In cross section, these reefs look like flat-topped mountains (Fig. 5.1), and when viewed from above, their outline is often ellipsoidal. Fringing reefs are found on or near the shoreline and are composed of only a reef front or forereef slope.

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Medium 9780253356758

2 Skulls and Skeletons in Transition

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

2.1. Skull of Eusthenopteron to show structures. (A) Left lateral view of skull roof and lower jaw. (B) Dorsal view. (C) Lateral view with skull roof bones shown transparent, and palate, braincase, and gill arches visible beneath. (D) Ventral (undersurface) view with braincase in position. (E) Medial (internal) view of lower jaw. (F) Lateral view of braincase. (G) Ventral view of braincase. Based on Jarvik (1980).

This chapter is an introduction to the skeletal anatomy of animals that exemplify the fish–tetrapod transition. The first part examines how the skulls and skeletons of lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods were built, and will introduce the terminology used for the bones. Unfortunately, many of the terms will be unfamiliar to the nonspecialist reader, but at least some of them need to be assimilated because in most cases, there simply are no other words available to describe them. It is probably a good idea to refer constantly to the diagram of skull structure (Fig. 2.1).

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Medium 9781603448147

5. July—American Bison of Theodore Roosevelt

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

5. July

American Bison of Theodore Roosevelt

“We landed, ascended the bank, and entered a small skirting of trees and shrubs that separated the river from an extensive plain. On gaining a view of it, such a scene opened to us as will fall to the lot of few travelers to witness. This plain was literally covered with buffaloes as far as we could see, and we soon discovered that it consisted in part of females. The males were fighting in every direction, with a fury which I have never seen paralleled, each having singled out his antagonist. We judged that the number must have amounted to some thousands, and that there were many hundreds of these battles going on at the same time . . . I shall only observe farther, that the noise occasioned by the trampling and bellowing was far beyond description. In the evening, before we encamped, another immense herd made its appearance, running along the bluffs at full speed, and although at least a mile from us, we could distinctly hear the sound of their feet, which resembled distant thunder.”

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Medium 9781574411546

3 Growing the Deer-Resistant Garden

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Three

Her joy over seeing healthy green shoots protrude through the rich mulch in her garden would turn to horror soon after they had broken through the ground’s surface. Before they even had time to roll out leaves or blossom flowers, these shoots would turn into nothing more than gnawed-off stems.

My mother thought the culprits must be snails. It was an odd conclusion to come to, because she didn’t think there was a problem with snails in Colorado. Sure enough, one early morning as dawn crept across the sky, she found out that her theory was wrong. The culprit that morning was standing in her garden, not creeping along leaving a trail of slime. He was a young buck taking a fancy to petunias.

The young buck came as a bit of a surprise. He was something we didn’t expect to see in our neighborhood full of sidewalks, paved roads, and elementary schools. But our development was built in miles of foothills full of scrub oak, pine trees, and grassy clearings— areas once roamed by herds and herds of mule deer.

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Medium 9781780643373

3: The Forest Landscape Before Farming

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

3 

The Forest Landscape Before Farming

Keith J. Kirby1* and Charles Watkins2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;

2

School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

1

3.1  Where to Begin?

Trees have spread back and forth across

­Europe many times, including species that we now think of as quite exotic (Watts, 1988).

By the first half of the Pleistocene (about

2 million years ago), the flora was much more like that of today but, even so, non-native genera such as Tsuga and Pterocarya turn up in

British pollen samples (Ingrouille, 1995).

During the Pleistocene era, there was a sequence of warm and cold phases. At the start of a warming period much of the landscape would have been composed of young, immature soils disturbed by periods of freezing and thawing, and supporting low shrub and herb communities with arctic–alpine species (cryocratic phase).

Later, both vegetation and soils developed

(protocratic phase) to the point where, through central Europe, deciduous and mixed tree cover would be expected (mesocratic phase). With subsequent climatic cooling, and further soil leaching and podzol development, there might be a shift towards heath or moorland development, or towards more conifer-dominated landscapes (telocratic phase) (Watts, 1988). As conditions became colder, forest species were restricted to ‘refugia’, such as in southern

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Medium 9781603444668

3. River Revealed: Cross Timbers and into the Llano Uplift

Margie Crisp Texas A&M University Press ePub

CROSS TIMBERS AND INTO THE LLANO UPLIFT

Below the dam at O. H. Ivie, the Colorado River cuts across layers of time, digging into the exposed shelves of millions of years. Alluvial deposits along the bed and banks of the river are recent, but the river has relentlessly carved away at the cover of Cretaceous rocks exposing the tilted stacks of old sedimentary rocks in the broad basin. On a geological map, multiple parallel bands of color stripe north to south. The river slices across in a twisting gold line of alluvial soils, descending from young to old, across pale bands of Permian limestone and shale, pink blobs and squiggles of sediment eroded from the Cretaceous and Permian rocks upriver, and into the dark blue patterns of older, exposed Pennsylvanian sandstones. Curving in a tight arc, the river bounces between the old sandstones and tongues of limestone and shale before snaking down the deep canyons of ancient Ordovician limestones into the heart of the Llano Uplift.

In this length of river, seven or eight counties, depending on how you count them, crowd up to the river, nudge each other’s shoulders, and wiggle their toes in the stream. It is a land of big ranches, white-tailed deer and turkey hunting, a few row crops, and pecan orchards. The river regains its strength, pulls water from creeks and springs, and works its way back into a free-flowing stream for a few miles before running into the dams of the Highland Lakes downstream.

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Medium 9781603442015

Hooked on Rivers

Ken W Kramer Texas A&M University Press ePub

Myron J. Hess

I LOVE being outdoors. Those rare times when I am able to step back from the frenzied pace of everyday life and feel in rhythm with nature give me an incredible sense of peace, of calmness. And, if you throw in a flowing river or stream, I can get close to achieving a state of nirvana. The love of nature came early. The appreciation of the special role of flowing streams developed a bit later.

As the youngest of seven children growing up in Cooke County in rural North Texas near the Oklahoma border at a time when TV watching was still an occasional event and computer games were science fiction material, I spent the bulk of my early childhood outside. When my siblings were home, I followed them around as much as they would let me. When they had all started school and I was still at home, the yard became my preschool and kindergarten classroom. Fortunately for me, farmyards can be incredibly interesting places: chickens and ducks to observe, ground squirrels and lizards to stalk, insects and toads to catch, and bird and mouse nests to discover. I think my dad was relieved to see me start school so he didn’t have to spend so much of his time answering my questions about what I had found or seen, and he could get back to farming full time.

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 3 Origin and Geology

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub

W. DAVID LIDDELL

The Gulf of Mexico is a roughly circular basin encompassing parts of the southeastern United States and eastern Mexico. It is some 1,500 km in diameter, up to 3,700 m deep, and has been filled with 10–15 km of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments (Salvador 1991a). Its boundaries are the Florida Escarpment and Platform to the east, the Campeche Escarpment and Platform to the south, the Sierra Madre Orientál to the west and the Gulf Coastal Plain to the north and northwest (Fig. 3.1). These boundaries reflect Mesozoic-Cenozoic carbonate platform growth (Florida and Yucatán platforms), Laramide compression (Sierra Madre Orientál), and progradation (Gulf Coastal Plain) (Ewing 1991). While the transition between the basin and the Florida and Yucatán platforms is abrupt, the transition to the coastal plain to the north and west is gentle. The coastal plain is much broader (> 500 km) to the north and narrower (< 50 km) to the west. The deep, central part of the basin is underlain by oceanic crust, while the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Florida and Yucatán platforms are underlain by continental or transitional (rifted continental) crust. As the emphasis of this volume is on the southern Gulf of Mexico, this discussion will largely be restricted to two areas, the Yucatán Platform and the western Gulf Coastal Plain.

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Medium 9780253020901

Part 4 Supplementary Materials

Steven Higgs Indiana University Press ePub

The following plant and animal species are mentioned in this book. This is not an exhaustive list of the flora and fauna that live in or pass through Southern Indiana. It represents what the areas’ land stewards and others, most significantly, various units of the National Audubon Society, prioritized when describing the places.

Rankings for species that are endangered, threatened, or otherwise of conservation concern were drawn from Indiana Department of Natural Resources lists with the following designations.

FE (Federally Endangered): Any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

FT (Federally Threatened): Any species that is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

SC (Special Concern): Any animal species requiring monitoring because of known or suspected limited abundance or distribution or because of a recent change in legal status or required habitat. These species do not receive legal protection under the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.

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Medium 9781574412161

The Lady Hawk

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

The Lady Hawk

Have you ever been driving or sitting and reading or just going about your daily chores when something you see or smell or hear enlivens the memory of a particularly sweet and meaningful event in your life? This very thing happened to me when my partner, Craig

Brestrup, and I were driving into San Antonio. As we drove through the remaining wooded areas along 281 North we passed a giant golf ball towering over the trees advertising a totally out-of-place golf course. I have seen this gaudy edifice countless times but for some reason this time I was reminded of the area that is situated well beyond that turn in the road.

When I was growing up in San Antonio in the 1950s, my parents purchased a small lot in a new “development” called Cypress Cove. I was the youngest of six and had the good fortune to be blessed with parents who were two of the finest people I have ever known. My mother and father loved nature and had a dream to one day, after all of us kids were raised and on our own, build a small house on that lot in Cypress Cove and spend their retirement years in the peace and quiet of the Hill Country. There was little or no peace and quiet for them while they were raising my five siblings and me, and they so loved the outdoors that this seemed a very fitting way to live out the last years of their lives. In preparation for the realization of their dream, they used to take me and a brother or two out to their favored spot so that we could all enjoy a day away from the city. And we kids would go there on our own to swim in the ponds and run off some of our endless energy. Thanks to our parents’ influence we all loved nature and were happiest when we were climbing trees or sitting by a creek. It was not by accident that the Cuny home was the place to go if you lived in our neighborhood and had found a homeless dog or cat or if you encountered an injured or baby opossum, lizard, frog, or on one occasion, a red-tailed hawk.

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Medium 9781603446938

4. Organizing for Success

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

This is a tale of two fundraising legends, each located in a coastal state but a continent apart. Both worked for chapters of the same organization. East and West, the chapters for which our legends worked thrived. With the blessing and oft-stated awe of chapter leadership, these two individuals assumed full responsibility for the annual fundraising events. Year after year, our legends managed the events from A to Z. Both worked hard and were successful. But that’s where the similarity ended.

Our legend in the East took control of the event in the most literal sense imaginable. He chaired every committee. He did every job he possibly could by himself. And in the few instances in which an activity was assigned to another, our legend chose his closest friends. Each assignment was divided into the most minute division of labor. The workers were expected to report progress or completion to our legend, then await the next assignment. There was no question that this was the legend’s fundraiser.

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Medium 9780253013958

8 Painful Material Realities, Tragedy, Ecophobia

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Simon C. Estok

THE BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, and material bases of human ontology constitute central sites of investigation and theoretical comment for material ecocriticisms. If we understand pain as a fundamental part of human ontology, then we must also understand that theorizing matter profits from understanding the importance of relationships among cultural representations of pain, matter, and environment. Building on “a field that defines itself by a neologism (ecocriticism), based on another neologism (ecology)” (7), as Middlebury Shakespearean ecocritic Dan Brayton has recently described ecocriticism, material ecocriticisms seek both to further complicate and to further define what it is that ecocriticism pursues and how. For a movement such as ecocriticism, which has sought, from its inaugural moments, to cross disciplinary boundaries, to avoid intellectual isolationism and hermeneutic sequestration, and to connect with and affect the material world, engaging with new and evolving theories about matter is fundamental and vital—indeed, it is surprising that these theories and developments came so late in ecocriticism’s history. Out of the welter of books and articles that have recently appeared relating to material ecocriticisms, human bodies have reappeared as the site and source of concerns about our changing relationships with the material world. These bodies are often a site of beleaguerment from a threatening “outside.” They are, in Iovino and Oppermann’s terms, “material narratives” about the way human corporeality is dangerously entangled within a complex of discourses and material agents that determine its very being. Because imagining a menacing alterity of the natural environment (an otherness often represented as ecophobic life-and-death confrontations for humans) means imagining materials and their intractable grip on our lives and deaths, the utility of theorizing about ecophobia for material ecocriticisms through discussions about pain (and about threats of pain) can help not only to illuminate theoretical connections that allow us to see how we participate in the systems we critique but also to contextualize what it is about nonhuman agency that evokes such strong resistance (philosophical and material).

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Medium 9780253002303

6 Bestiary

Fariña, Richard A. Indiana University Press ePub

The creatures—some based on real beasts, others thoroughly imagined and mythological—adorning medieval bestiaries were meant to inspire solace, astonishment, and awe in readers; but bestiaries were ultimately allegorical and thus spiritual texts, rather than attempts to accurately portray the natural history of the included creatures (elephants, for example, were said to have no desire to copulate and to represent Adam and Eve; White, 1960). The animals were created, according to medieval thought, by God to provide people with food for the body and nourishment for the soul. The books on these animals were written by people for their own edification: the texts and images of bestiary animals embodied characteristics of Christ or the devil, and they usually had a moralizing purpose (Hassig, 1995). Bestiaries commonly organized animals into groups—mammals, birds, serpents, worms, and fishes, with priority often given to wild animals and emphasis placed on the power of their symbolism. The lion, for example, leads off (Clark, 2006), because of its strength, its status as kingly, and its other purported parallels with Christ: its ability to conceal its scent (as Christ concealed his love of mankind until summoned by the Father), its ability to sleep with its eyes open (as did Christ, who was crucified and buried, yet never died), and the ability of the female lion to give birth to dead cubs that were brought to life after three days by their father’s breath (this one is too obvious to require explanation) (White, 1960).

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