787 Chapters
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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 10 Reef Fisheries

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub


From the Laguna Madre de Tamaulipas, south through the Bay of Campeche to the reefs and on the outer continental shelf of the Yucatán Peninsula, reef fishes are an economically and ecologically important resource. More than 100 species of reef fish are closely associated with coral reefs and other types of hard bottom habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Maintenance of healthy reef-fish populations is important to the economic and ecological health of the region. Reef fish are important to different interest groups for a multitude of reasons. Reef-fish user groups have commercial, artisanal, recreational, and scientific interests. Important nonconsumptive uses for reef fishes, such as tourism, sport diving, education, and scientific study, can conflict with traditional consumptive uses such as commercial and subsistence fisheries.

Fishes provide significant ecological benefits to the reef system as well. Reef fishes have evolved numerous symbiotic relationships with other reef denizens, creating highly complex trophic structures that contribute to the ecological balance and diversity of reefs. Unfortunately, overfishing is a major concern for many reef-fish populations. Consequently, fishing may be one of the most important activities contributing to degradation of coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

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Medium 9781603442411

1. Harold Selman Ranches

Joe Nick Patoski Texas A&M University Press ePub

Every day in rural America, farmers and ranchers get up from their beds and go out to do their work on the land. In twenty-six years working with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, I have never met a landowner who got up in the morning and said, “I am headed out to destroy my land.” Most landowners manage based on what they know.

In every resource professional’s life, a few very bright lights shine. Those bright lights are the handful of ranchers and farmers who exemplify the best of the best in terms of their stewardship commitment. These landowners can’t get enough resource knowledge; they think first of conservation because they realize that their stewardship will sustain the operation and its economic viability, not just during their lifetime but for future generations. The Natural Resources Conservation Service is proud to take part in honoring these outstanding landowners through the Leopold Conservation Award in the same way we take pride in a wide array of cost-share programs that assist them in fulfilling their vision for enhancing the natural resources in their care.

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Medium 9781623490386

8. Beaches of Mississippi

Richard A. Davis Texas A&M University Press ePub

Beaches of Mississippi

THE beaches of Mississippi are found on two distinctly different coasts: the mainland and four barrier islands that are several kilometers from the mainland (figure 8.1). None of the barrier islands is accessible by vehicle. For this reason and because they are mostly public land, the islands are pristine. A regular ferry schedule in spring and summer conveys people to West Ship Island, a federal park. The mainland beaches are among the most beautiful and best cared for along the entire Gulf of Mexico.

Beach nourishment has been common on the mainland of Mississippi. The first such major projects were after Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), which hit this coast very hard. A volume of 280,000 m3 of sediment was placed on the eroded beach at Pascagoula with the help of the federal government (figure 8.2). Farther to the west at Ocean Springs the beach is very well maintained. This area is dominated by fine sand with few shells. Wave energy is limited along this coast due to the offshore barrier islands that provide a level of protection. This low wave energy is evidenced by the vegetation near the strand line (figure 8.3). The Ocean Springs beaches also have groins to help maintain beach sediment.

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Medium 9781780646947

8: Plant Diversity Repertoire of Bioactive Triterpenoids

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Plant Diversity Repertoire of Bioactive Triterpenoids

K.S. Kavitha1, Syed Baker1, D. Rakshith1, P. Azmath1,

B.P. Harini3 and S. Satish1&2*


Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology,

University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India; 2Department of Plant Pathology,

University of Georgia, Athens 30602, Georgia, USA; 3Department of Zoology,

Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka,



Pharmaceutical biology perceives medicinal plants as a rich source of bioactive compounds bearing biological activities which can be traced back to the dawn of life. Plants form one of the most abundant and diverse living systems in nature.

Improved scientific knowledge in plant biology has led scientific communities to gain in-depth knowledge of plants and their metabolites by screening and characterization of novel phytochemicals with innumerable valuable roles, which has had a huge impact on all human life. Owing to this, research on plant-based natural products has generated tremendous interest with numerous studies highlighting new secondary metabolites of plant origin. Among these secondary metabolites in plants, triterpenoids form a prominent group of bioactive compounds, widely distributed among diverse plants species.

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Medium 9781623491376

5. Water: Shared Ownership

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub


States neighboring Texas claim ownership of their surface water and groundwater. The states share surface water, from major boundary rivers to hundreds of streams and creeks. The Red River and the Sabine River form part of our boundaries with Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Texas shares transboundary aquifers with New Mexico, and the Rio Grande springs from Colorado and New Mexico headwaters. In any dispute between states over surface water, the only court with jurisdiction is the United States Supreme Court.


To date there have been few disputes with our neighboring states other than some boundary disputes with Oklahoma as the Red River meanders—disputes concerning oil and gas reserve locations. The Sabine River between Texas and Louisiana is located in the wet area of the state in relation to rainfall, so the potential for disputes over water issues is lessened. However, the Sabine springs from headwaters in Texas, and any diversion of Sabine flow would certainly concern Louisiana, as any diversion of the Sabine on the Louisiana side would Texas. The Canadian River flows through the Texas Panhandle from New Mexico through a large part of Oklahoma. Any diversions by New Mexico and/or Texas concern Oklahoma. In the early twentieth century the Elephant Butte Reservoir on the Rio Grande caused quite a debate, but Texas and New Mexico came to agreement and the reservoir was built.

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Medium 9781574410624

14 • The Natural Healer

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF




Several years ago in early June, WRR received a call from one of the San Antonio Fire Departments. In the process of extinguishing an apartment fire, someone had noticed a raccoon trying to escape from the crawl space in the attic. The firefighters had to concentrate on the fire and the human inhabitants of the building, but they wanted to save the raccoon as well. So they called WRR.

When I arrived on the scene, the fire chief on duty met me in the parking lot, immediately took me to a back stairway and escorted me to the attic. There was thick smoke in the building and a portion of the stairs had been scorched, but all in all it was safe, and it was the only way to reach the stranded animal. Once I was there I was able to see that the raccoon had indeed been burned. She was suffering from smoke inhalation as well; she was coughing, confused and having trouble walking. In only a matter of minutes I secured her in a small carrier and was driving her to see one of our veterinarians.

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Medium 9781780646947

26: Cryoconservation Methods for Extended Storage of Plant Genetic Resources

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Cryoconservation Methods for Extended Storage of Plant

Genetic Resources

Saikat Gantait1,2*, Uma Rani Sinniah2, Gopal Shukla3 and

Narayan Chandra Sahu4


AICRP on Groundnut, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi

­ iswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India; 2Department of Crop


Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor,

Malaysia; 3Department of Forestry, Uttar Banga Krishi ­Viswavidyalaya,

Pundibari, Coochbehar, West Bengal, India; 4Sasya Shyamala ­Krishi ­Vigyan

Kendra, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Arapanch, ­Sonarpur,

Kolkata, West Bengal, India


This chapter seeks to deliver an elucidation of the diverse technological attributes identifying the vastly effectuated and evolving technique of cryoconservation, a biotechnology developed to enable the prolonged storage of diversified flora.

The foremost cryogenic methodologies and the pivotal phases for their effective adjustment to varied kinds of germplasms are expounded. Herein, numerous examples of cryopreservation of plant species are mentioned, to illustrate the incredible breakthrough that has been made, along with its additional roles in supporting genetic breeding programmes and in eliminating systemic plant pathogens by means of cryotherapy; thus making it an effective substitute for the purpose of conservation of germplasm.

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Medium 9781603447652

14. Global Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico: Considerations for Integrated Coastal Management

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Considerations for Integrated Coastal Management

John W. Day, Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, James H. Cowan, Richard H. Day, Robert R. Twilley, and John R. Rybczyk

Global climate change is important in considerations of integrated coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. This is true for a number of reasons. Climate in the Gulf spans the range from tropical to the lower part of the temperate zone. Thus, as climate warms, the tropical–temperate interface, which is currently mostly offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, will increasingly move over the coastal zone of the northern and eastern parts of the Gulf. Currently, this interface is located in South Florida and around the US–Mexico border in the Texas–Tamaulipas region (Figs. 14.1 and 14.2) (Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004).

Within this general temperature gradient, rainfall is important (Day et al. 1989). The climate around the Gulf ranges from arid to super humid (Fig. 14.1). In parts of the southern Gulf, especially in the drainage basin of the Grijalva and Usumacinta rivers that discharge to Campeche Sound, rainfall is >3000 mm/yr. Rainfall averages between 1500 and 2000 mm/yr in the north-central Gulf from Pensacola, Florida, to the Louisiana deltaic plain, and in the southwestern Gulf in the state of Veracruz. In most of the Florida and Yucatan peninsulas and in the northwestern Gulf, rainfall is between 1000 and 1500 mm/yr. Arid areas with less than 1000 mm occur in the northwestern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula near Progreso and in the western Gulf coast between Tampico, Tamaulipas, and Corpus Christi, Texas. At this broad geographic scale, temperature and rainfall are two of the principal determinants of coastal wetland distribution (Day et al. 1989; Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004).

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Medium 9781574415278

Conclusion: A Last, Great Place

Gary Lantz University of North Texas Press PDF

Conclusion: A Last, Great Place

A spring day, cool and party cloudy. A morning in the mid-forties that’s morphed into the seventies by mid-afternoon. Rain fell the week before, and the Wichita Mountains grass is green, flowers bright red, blue, and yellow, buffalo calves a playful reddish orange, prairie dog pups the color of pale sand and as frisky as little terriers.

A perfect day, basically, to be in one of the nation’s oldest managed wildlife refuges, and visitors have descended in droves.

The parking lot is full at the prairie dog town bordering the main east–west road through the refuge. A camera club from Oklahoma

City, represented by maybe a dozen members, stalks the lively little rodents, tripods poised like shotguns in the hands of trap shooters.

The prairie dogs are cooperating mainly by their sheer fecundity.

New pups seem everywhere. One burrow holds three, heads out, scanning the crowd. Others either wrestle with littermates or cling tightly to their mothers. It looks like a good year, population-wise, for the prairie dog colony, but members of the photo club are worried. “Where are the mothers,” one concerned woman asks a fellow photographer. “All I’m seeing are little pups.”

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Medium 9781574414615

The Marin County Rodeo

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

The Marin County Rodeo

I’ve shod horses at a lot of rodeos over the years, and I’ve always been impressed with how professional they are, even the “amateur” ones. Good stock contractors like John Growney (Growney Brothers), and Cotton Rosser, out here in the West, are what make these rodeos as good as they are. These boys know what they’re doing, and they’re respected throughout the rodeo world.

But one rodeo stands out in my mind. It took place, or I should say tried to take place, on the Civic Center grounds in Marin County, California.

Some local promoter of music concerts thought this small yuppy community might pay to see a real rodeo with real horses and cows and bulls, and everything. (Actually, the term “yuppy” had not been invented yet, but I can’t remember the official name we called yuppies in 1976.) There were a few ranches and horses in Marin, but they were mostly out on the edges of this county where no bad smells or flies could drift into the sophisticated suburban designer home neighborhoods.

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Medium 9781603447652

12. Landscape, Land Use, and Management in the Coastal Zone of Yucatan Peninsula

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira, Francisco A. Comin, and Luis Capurro Filograsso

To reach the sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems, we must first understand the interrelationship between different physical and biological components controlling the functioning and dynamics that regulate the systems. This ecosystem approach is especially applicable in coastal environments because they are the final destination of all drainage basins regardless of whether the basins are superficial or underground; the hydrological connectivity between inland and coastal marine ecosystems is strong. This connectivity must be acknowledged in all coastal environments analyzed using the ecosystem approach.

In contrast, coastal environments, in addition to the human problem of drinking water supply, have other problems such as rapid urbanization, destruction of wetlands (including salt marshes, sandy beaches, and mangroves), and health issues caused by pollution, collapsing artisanal and industrial fisheries, salinization and pollution of aquifers, siltation and hindrance navigation, increasing muddiness of waters, and decreased biological productivity. All these problems result in coasts that are inhospitable and where sustainable activities are impossible, especially tourism and enjoyment of life.

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Medium 9781780642109

14: Conversion of Pastures into Tectona grandis Plantations in Western Panamá: Effects on Soil Properties and the Mechanisms Underlying these Changes

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Conversion of Pastures into Tectona grandis Plantations in Western Panamá:

Effects on Soil Properties and the

Mechanisms Underlying these Changes


Luitgard Schwendenmann1* and Simon Kaiser2

School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;


Tropical Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Georg-August University

Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

14.1  Introduction

The establishment of forest plantations on pastures and cropland has the potential to lead to carbon (C) sequestration and may contribute to the restoration of ecosystem services (Fisher,

1995; Montagnini and Jordan, 2005). Where trees have rapid growth rates, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics, the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and subsequent storage in aboveground biomass through naturally regenerating secondary succession, afforestation

(i.e. planting in an area where the previous vegetation was not forest) and reforestation (i.e. planting of forests on lands that were forested but that have been converted to non-forested land; CBD, 2003) is large (Silver et al., 2000; Lal et al., 2005). In this chapter, reforestation will be used to cover both reforestation and afforestation activities unless specified otherwise.

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Medium 9780253355089

6. Reconstructing Body Volume and Surface Area of Dinosaurs Using Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


Crucial baseline data in dinosaur paleobiology and for reconstructing dinosaurs as living animals are accurate measurements of one- to three-dimensional features such as length, surface area, and volume. Dinosaur skeletons mounted and on display in museums offer the opportunity to obtain such data and to create digital models of them. These models, in turn, serve as the basis for estimating physiological and other biological parameters. In this chapter, we provide an overview of data capture using laser scanning and photogrammetrical methods and describe the working steps from the captured point clouds of the skeleton to the final volume model. Because dinosaur skeletons are complex objects with irregular structures, laser scanning proved to be much more accurate for capturing their shape than previously used methods such as photogrammetry. The modeling of the body surface area and body volume with digital techniques is also more accurate than established methods that are based on scale models. Here, nonuniform rational B spline (NURBS) curves and CAD software are used to reconstruct the body surface and for surface area and volume calculations.

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Medium 9781780647296

1 Drought Tolerance in Crops: Physiology to Genomics

Shabala, S. CABI PDF


Drought Tolerance in Crops:

Physiology to Genomics

Lakshmi Praba Manavalan and Henry T. Nguyen*

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA


More frequent and severe drought combined with high temperatures have been recognized as a potential impact of global warming on agriculture. Improving crop yield under water stress is the goal of agricultural researchers worldwide. Direct selection for yield under drought has been the major breeding strategy and was successful in some crops. Drought modifies the structure and function of plants. An understanding of the impact, mechanisms and traits underlying drought tolerance is essential to develop drought-tolerant cultivars. Identification and evaluation of key physiological traits would aid and strengthen molecular breeding and genetic engineering

­programmes in targeting and delivering traits that improve water use and/or drought tolerance of crops. There is an overlap between different osmotic stresses and the selection of appropriate drought evaluation methods. The benefits of genetic engineering have been realized in crop improvement for quality traits, and several promising genes have emerged in the last decade as candidates for drought tolerance. Combining the physiological traits that would sustain yield under drought, and incorporating elite quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes underlying these traits into high-yielding cultivars, would be a successful strategy.

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Medium 9780253353139

On Loan from the Sundance Sea

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

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