787 Chapters
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Medium 9780253000958

Mind in the Forest

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

I touch trees, as others might stroke the fenders of automobiles or finger silk I fabrics or fondle cats. Trees do not purr, do not flatter, do not inspire a craving for ownership or power. They stand their ground, immune to merely human urges. Saplings yield under the weight of a hand and then spring back when the hand lifts away, but mature trees accept one’s touch without so much as a shiver. While I am drawn to all ages and kinds, from maple sprouts barely tall enough to hold their leaves off the ground to towering sequoias with their crowns wreathed in fog, I am especially drawn to the ancient, battered ones, the survivors.

Recently I spent a week in the company of ancient trees. The season was October and the site was the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 15,800-acre research area defined by the drainage basin of Lookout Creek, within Willamette National Forest, on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. It’s a wet place. At higher elevations, annual precipitation averages 140 inches, and even the lower elevations receive 90 inches, twice the amount that falls on my well-watered home region of southern Indiana. Back in Indiana the trees are hardwoods—maples and beeches and oaks, hickories and sycamores—and few are allowed to grow for as long as a century without being felled by ax or saw. Here in Andrews Forest, the ruling trees are Douglas firs, western hemlocks, western red cedars, and Pacific yews, the oldest of them ranging in age from five hundred to eight hundred years, veterans of countless fires, windstorms, landslides, insect infestations, and floods.

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Medium 9780253019523

7 The River and Lake in Distress

Barbara Kreiger Indiana University Press ePub

Every time I visit Israel, Jordan, or the West Bank, I feel compelled to go to the Dead Sea, if for no other reason than to see it, maybe to reassure myself it is still there. For me, the Dead Sea is like a creature in distress: a living organism ensnared by human need, or greed, depending on one’s vantage point, but in any case subject to the consequences of regional and local decisions that seem often to be based on short-term or parochial objectives. For millennia nature ran the show, and the Dead Sea’s vicissitudes were part of an exquisite ecological web. Only in recent times, indeed for hardly more than half a century, has its destiny been isolated from its environment, and to see it now is to have one’s capacity for empathy tested. The view is of a bruised landscape, and the situation challenges us to redefine our relationship with the natural world. Caged, the Dead Sea is at our mercy, as politically and environmentally charged debates and initiatives thunder from all corners of the region. Yet the lake itself is only half the picture. The Dead Sea is the terminus of the Jordan River, the other half of this environmental tragedy. The two are historically, religiously, and culturally coupled, their destinies intertwined by natural law. The situation today is dire, because the Jordan River, which figures so large in historical and religious memory, is threatened with extinction.

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Medium 9781780647296

9 Desiccation Tolerance

Shabala, S. CABI PDF


Desiccation Tolerance

Jill M. Farrant*, Keren Cooper, Halford J.W. Dace,

Joanne Bentley and Amelia Hilgart

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology,

University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa


Desiccation tolerance is the ability to survive loss of 90% of cellular water or dehydration to tissue water concentrations of ≤ 0.1 g H2O.g–1 dry mass. It is relatively common in reproductive structures such as seeds (termed orthodox), but is rare in vegetative tissues, occurring in some 135 angiosperm species (termed resurrection plants). In this chapter we present an overview of the stresses associated with desiccation and review the current mechanisms proposed to explain how orthodox seeds and resurrection plants tolerate such water loss. Physiological, biochemical and molecular processes involved in protection from mechanical stress, oxidative damage and metabolic disruptions are discussed and similarities between seeds and resurrection plants are drawn. Protective mechanisms unique to vegetative tissues are presented and differences among species are discussed. We review the biogeographical distribution and evolution of angiosperm resurrection plants and propose that the developmentally regulated programme of acquisition of desiccation tolerance in seeds is utilized in the acquisition of tolerance in vegetative tissues of resurrection plants, possibly in response to environmentally regulated rather than developmental cues.

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Medium 9781603447621

11. The Democratic National Committee and Bob Strauss

George Lambert Bristol Texas A&M University Press ePub


The Democratic National Committee and Bob Strauss

My work for Hubert Humphrey in 1968 and at the Democratic National Committee in 1969 brought me in contact with Bob Strauss, but the relationship was casual. He was the Democratic national committeeman from Texas. Bob’s counterpart as committeewoman was the gracious B. A. Bentsen of Houston, whom I will have more to say about later. Both represented the Johnson-Connally wing of the party, but because of their tireless efforts on behalf of Humphrey in 1968, I knew they weren’t mossbacks. In fact, Bob Strauss helped engineer a massive last-minute rally at the Houston Astrodome that was televised statewide. President Johnson and Mrs. Johnson showed up, John and Nellie Connally attended, and Frank Sinatra entertained. The rally electrified the troops and Texas fell into the Democratic column. So my first image of Bob was that of a can-do, national Democrat in a state where those types were getting harder to find.

My experience with Bob and the DNC over the course of 1969 mirrored the party as a whole. Losing is never easy, particularly to a despised figure like Richard Nixon: the often brilliant but deeply flawed human was the epitome of the political evil enemy. The party was deep in debt and divided. Meetings were rancorous. Debates were mean-spirited and accusatory: northern liberals against southern conservatives, with every variation in between, topped off by fear of, and intimidation by, George Wallace. Unfortunately, Hubert Humphrey’s selection of Senator Fred Harris of Oklahoma to be chairman of the DNC only added to the problem. But as I observed the meetings and comings and goings, Bob Strauss was always in there trying to find middle ground with common sense and high humor.

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Medium 9781574411546

5 Leave Bambi in the Forest

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

He was sure the fawn was abandoned. The man was working with a construction crew, clearing undeveloped wildlands to prepare the area for a large office building that was going to be built. One evening as he was leaving work, he noticed a fawn wandering around and looking disoriented. The little guy was at the edge of the field they had just cleared. The man guessed that the bulldozers had disrupted the fawn and scared off the mother. He was probably right.

The man knew already to leave the fawn alone in the area where he found him. He knew that the mother may be nearby, ready to return for the fawn at any time. He left the fawn there overnight. But the next day, the man found the fawn in the same spot, still wandering around and looking disoriented.

The fawn looked weaker than he had the previous evening. The mother was nowhere in sight. The man continued to work throughout the day, all the while keeping an eye on this little guy. When it was time to go home that evening, the man picked up the fawn and brought him home.

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Medium 9780253006820

12. Vulnerability of the Electricity and Water Sectors to Climate Change in the Midwest

Sara C Pryor Indiana University Press ePub


The water and energy sectors exhibit high exposure to climate change and variability, and as discussed in chapters 2 and 17 of this volume, water and energy are also highly interlinked. Water systems use large volumes of energy, and equally, the energy sector is a major consumer of water (see chapter 2). According to some estimates, water supply and treatment consumes 4 percent of the national power supply in the United States, and electricity accounts for a substantial fraction of the cost of municipal water processing and transport (National Assessment Synthesis Team 2000). As described herein, water is essential to electricity production from fossil fuels, and a key tendency that may substantially increase water demand within the Midwest is expansion of ethanol production (see chapter 2 of this volume). Conversion of corn grain and stover to ethanol requires nearly five times as much water to generate fuel to travel one kilometer than is used in conversion of crude oil to gasoline (Scown et al. 2011). In this chapter we introduce some of the primary ways in which climate change may cause changes in the risks realized in the energy and water sectors, the interlinkages between water and energy, and possible methods to reduce vulnerabilities in both sectors.

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Medium 9781574411546

6 Lions and Tigers and Bears

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Lions and Tigers and Bears

the old mining town called Buckskin Joe. It recaptures the spirit of the Old West in an actual frontier setting with 30 buildings that are original structures from ghost towns in the Rocky Mountain region.

People come to learn about Colorado’s history, as well as experience things like gunfights, hangings, and magic shows. Some of the entertainment is based on real events that happened in the 1800s.

Perhaps one event that the park didn’t bank on having was an act by a guest who wasn’t on the entertainment line-up. That guest was a black bear.

The bear had been frequenting the park in search of food. Wildlife officers say that food is the main reason a bear will initially come around and stay around. The park offered plenty of leftover snacks from all of its tourists.

The bear was causing trouble, however. He was getting into trash and searching the rest of the park for a meal or two. The Colorado

Division of Wildlife stepped in after the bear had come around one too many times and set a trap. The bear found himself in that trap soon afterwards.

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Medium 9781603448147

4. June—Sea Turtles of the Dry Tortugas

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

4. June

Sea Turtles of the Dry Tortugas

There are few experiences as serene, as calm, and—somewhat paradoxically—as exhilarating as being underwater and watching a sea turtle effortlessly swimming through a turquoise sea. These animals exemplify peacefulness as they glide through an underwater world we can only visit. Of course, sea turtles are only one of many fascinating and colorful animals that can be found in the world’s oceans. And nowhere are the oceans more alive and colorful than in the coral reef habitats. The healthiest and most colorful coral reefs in the contiguous forty-eight states are those found in Dry Tortugas National Park, an island park far off the Florida Keys. One needs a boat or floatplane to get there, but it's well worth the ride.

What’s Remarkable about Sea Turtles?

The first sea turtles appeared on earth over 100 million years ago, at a time when the earth was populated with dinosaurs. Somehow these turtles survived the mass extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs and many other species about 65 million years ago. Although it’s easy to say the turtles survived because they were in the oceans, that doesn’t fully explain their persistence; many ocean “dinosaurs” such as plesiosaurs (not technically dinosaurs, but often lumped with them) and other sea creatures became extinct. In fact, it’s been estimated that three-quarters of the species identified in the fossil record disappeared during that cataclysmic period (perhaps due to a massive meteorite hitting the earth). So how did a slow-moving, nonaggressive, cold-blooded animal manage to survive when so many others perished? It’s a mystery that may never be solved, but what is known is that sea turtles are remarkable creatures.

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Medium 9781605094649

9 Water — Essential for Survival

Abdul-Matin, Ibrahim Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

What we know from our Deen, the path or the way of Islam, is that we are not the owners of anything in the universe. This includes a molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom: water. The Earth is 70 percent water.1 The somber trust that we have with our Creator (amana) to be stewards (khalifah) of the Earth means that we will be held accountable for our actions. These actions include those related to water.2 If the Earth is a mosque, then 70 percent of our mosque is water. Our mosque is oceans, streams, rivers, lakes, springs, and wells. It is our right to benefit from water; indeed, we need it for sheer survival. However, we negate that right if we contaminate, poison, or withhold water from plants, animals, and our fellow humans—all of whom also need water for survival.

This chapter advances two main points regarding the distribution of water. First, water should be a community-shared resource. Second, water should be managed by governments who operate justly. The equitable sharing and just managing of water is central to a Green Deen, the path and religion that espouses the Oneness of God and His creation; it is the most basic way to support Oneness (tawhid), justice (adl), and balance (mizan) in this world. We all come from water, we all need water to survive, and we all are responsible for keeping water safe for everyone.

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Medium 9781574414615

What Do Horses in the Wild Do?

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

What Do Horses in
the Wild Do?

This is a question I get all the time. People want to know how horses who aren’t privileged to have a visit by a horseshoer every eight weeks get along by themselves. I’ll try to shed light on that question, although, as with most questions about horses, there’s a variety of conflicting answers. An old cowboy pal once told me about what he called the “Golden Trim,” where, he claimed, shortly after the birth of the foal in the wild the mother chews off the excess growth of the new baby’s hoof to the exact proportions needed for that baby. From then on, he said, the baby’s foot would remain perfectly balanced in angle and length. (I couldn’t help but picture in my mind the baby extending its foot to be carefully examined and chewed to the exact angles by the mother who had learned this in some kind of instinctive equine birthing clinic . . . )Then, my friend said, the horse will run around on perfect feet that will never need any work until it is caught by a human and ruined by restricting the terrain available to the horse, and by putting iron shoes on its previously perfect feet.

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Medium 9781603447621

7. Moving into My Mountains

George Lambert Bristol Texas A&M University Press ePub


Moving into My Mountains

I’m sure to some sophisticates the scene, freeze-framed from behind, would have looked like an Edward Hopper or Norman Rockwell painting: a boy silhouetted in the door frame and an Olympia beer sign blinking in the window, while lights from the jukebox cast an eerie blue into the night and human forms milled about in shadows. Perhaps a darting figure would also have been seen within: working behind the bar was a woman, the manager and soul of the place then and for years to come. Freda Otsby was the patron saint of the Glacier Park trail crew until her death some forty years later, even though she would go on to be an outstanding public school teacher.

I spotted her and went up to the bar to get directions to the park headquarters. I must have said that I was on the trail crew, because she shouted out, “Bruce and Doug, he’s one of yours!” Out of the mass of humanity appeared two young men, Bruce Murphy and Doug Medley, who instantly took me under their wings. After introductions, they got me a beer. I was too young to buy, by a couple of months—it was June 1961 and I wasn’t yet twenty-one—although it didn’t seem to matter. In turn they introduced me to others who would be working on trails, blister rust control, and construction. Little did I know then that my budding friendship with Bruce and Doug would grow to span over half a century.

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Medium 9780253356024

4. Forest Lands

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

The main natural habitat of Indiana has always been deciduous forest (Figure 4.1; Map 4.1). Prior to settlement by colonists from the young United States, some 20 million of the state’s 23 million acres were probably forested. Indiana is part of the vast temperate deciduous forest biome of eastern North America, though near the western edge of it: Illinois was “the prairie state.” As elsewhere in the biome, climate and soils dictate the forest and its predominant leaf type. Indiana’s annual rainfall of 36–44 inches (91–112 cm) and a 5- to 7-month growing season favor trees and forest over other vegetation, and the state’s mid-temperate latitude and rich soils favor deciduous broadleaf over evergreen needle-leaf species.

Forests are only superficially monotonous. The knowledgeable observer can catalog regional and local diversity in tree species associations almost endlessly. Only a subset, typically 20 to 30 species, of Indiana’s “101 trees” (Jackson 2004) are present in a given forest parcel of 10 hectares or so. Species occurrences and relative abundances differ between upland and floodplain, between 38 and 41 N latitude, and are influenced by soil type, fire frequency, and other factors. Second, there is a structural diversity associated with forest age. Many forests begin with tulip (Liquidambar) saplings in an old field, and go through a characteristic series of vegetative phases: from old field to seedling/sapling, to pole stage, and finally to mature or high-canopy forest. This also happens constantly within mature forest when gaps are created. The early and mid-successional habitats are as important to certain wildlife groups as mature forest is to others.

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Medium 9780253002303

Epilogue. Lessons from the Deep Past

Fariña, Richard A. Indiana University Press ePub


In this book, we have undertaken a journey through the wonders of the South American megafauna, not only because the fauna is intrinsically interesting in itself, but also to provide examples of how paleontology manages to overcome the paucity of remains—meager scraps, really—that have been left to us to interpret the history of past life. Through our adventurous and often tortuous path, we discussed the never-ending game of science, the ephemeral truths that shed transitory light on our vast ignorance; we paid homage to those giants on whose shoulders we, as a community rather than individually, stand (to paraphrase Newton and several other less famous scientists) by giving a short account of their lives and accomplishments; we set the geoecological stage on which our drama unfolded by summarizing the history of South America as a land mass and the life it had supported, giving special attention to one of the main biogeographic phenomena in vertebrate history, the interchange of mammalian faunas between North and South America that occurred with the emergence during the Pliocene of a land bridge that connected these continents after their long isolation.

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 2 Reef Distribution

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub


There are 46 named coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Of these, 31 are the Veracruz Shelf reefs (VSR) in the southwestern Gulf off the state of Veracruz, and 15 are the Campeche Bank reefs (CBR) in the southeastern Gulf (Table 2.1, Fig. 2.1). Other named and unnamed shoals and banks have yet to be explored; these likely have coral communities as well. Dahlgren (1993), for instance, lists approximately 10 named and more than 25 unnamed banks (topographic highs and reefs) on the Campeche Bank for which there is little or no scientific information.

Coral reefs in the southwestern Gulf are typically located nearshore (<200 m) to mid-shelf (22 km) on a narrow terrigenous continental shelf (Morelock and Koenig 1967). The climate here is subhumid to humid and has high rainfall and substantial mainland drainage. In the southeastern Gulf, reefs are located on a wide carbonate shelf, primarily along the 55 m contour on the outer shelf, and range from 130 to more than 200 km offshore (Tunnell 1992). In contrast to the southwestern Gulf, the climate here is semiarid. The southeastern Gulf reefs are surrounded by oceanic Caribbean waters from the Yucatán Channel and are not affected by mainland drainage. The southern Gulf reefs are submerged “mountain-like” structures scattered across the continental shelf, in contrast to the scattered patch reefs in nearby low-energy coastal areas such as the Florida Keys and Belize, where mangroves line the shoreline and seagrasses predominate as submarine vegetation nearshore. Mainland shorelines are moderate-energy sandy beaches or rocky shores (volcanic) in the southwestern Gulf and low-energy sandy beaches or rocky shores (limestone) in the southeastern Gulf.

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Medium 9781780643373

1: Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Keith J. Kirby1* and Charles Watkins2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;


School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK


1.1  Introduction

Europe’s trees and woods range from Mediterranean olive groves to extensive forests of pine and spruce in Scandinavia, from tall lime trees in the forests of Poland to scrubby oaks barely overtopping the heather on Atlantic cliffs. Some contain beautiful orchids, strange beetles or wild wolves. These patterns reflect variations in past and present climates and soil conditions; the natural environment sets limits on what can live where. However, people have also been living in Europe for thousands of years. Since the last Ice Age, our ancestors have shaped the distribution, composition and structure of woods and forests

(Williams, 2006). There is less forest now and it is more fragmented than in the distant past; in many countries the proportion of conifers to broadleaves has increased; some animals are now extinct, such as the wild ox, while others, such as the grey squirrel, have been introduced and become pests.

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