787 Chapters
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Medium 9780253007896

Duneland Fauna and Fungi

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Red squirrel.


Raccoon. M. A. Griswold, M.S.

Gray squirrel.

White-tailed deer. (above and below)


Four-footed friends in the forest

Springtime path. (facing) Daniel Schwen

All photos by Ron Trigg except as noted

There are at least 46 species of mammals found in Duneland, most of which are seldom seen by the casual visitor. However, if one is quiet and observant, several of the ones pictured here might make themselves known.

According to Dr. Ken Brock, author of Birds of the Indiana Dunes, more than 350 species of birds have been seen in the dunes area. This large number is because of the north-south orientation of Lake Michigan, which provides a flight route for migrating species. Nineteen of those species are pictured on these pages.

Hawk. (left) Tom Dogan

Canada Geese. Tom Dogan

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Medium 9780253020901

Part 2 The Southern Indiana Landscape

Steven Higgs Indiana University Press ePub

From the majestic hills of Dearborn County to the surreal swamps of Posey County, Southern Indiana’s physical landscape, formed over billions of years, is a tilted physiographic plane that, while many of its landforms are treacherously precipitous, is in the geologic sense a rather soft, gentle descent.

Like the rest of Indiana, the state’s southern landscape is underlain with layers of sedimentary bedrock, formed through the ages by the compression of various materials into limestone, dolomite, siltstone, sandstone, and shale. Depending on the location, from east to west, the rock at or near the surface is between 505 million and 266 million years old and was formed during one of five geologic periods, identified in Marion T. Jackson’s The Natural Heritage of Indiana as Ordovician (505–438 million years ago), Silurian (438–408 million years ago), Devonian (408–360 million years ago), Mississippian (360–320 million years ago), and Pennsylvanian (320–266 million years ago).

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Medium 9780253007896

1926 Indiana Dunes State Park

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Indiana Dunes State Park is one of Indiana’s most popular state parks. Besides the beach, it has a landscape that is beautiful, inspiring, and historic. Dunes State Park has for years been the second-most-visited park in the Indiana state park system.

The three tallest dunes in the park are

• Mt. Tom, at 192 feet, probably named for Tom Brady, who was captured by British soldiers at the Battle of Petite Fort in 1780,

• Mt. Holden, at 184 feet, named for Edward J. Holden, president of the Prairie Club of Chicago, for his and the club’s efforts to establish the park, and

• Mt. Jackson, at 176 feet, named for Indiana Governor Edward L. Jackson in gratitude for his support of the park when that support was so vital.

The eastern two-thirds of the park is the Dunes Nature Preserve. It contains the three dunes listed above, blowouts, and extensive wetlands and woodlands. Much of the preserve is accessible by established trails that range in length from ¾ to 5½ miles and in difficulty from easy to rugged. Hikers on trail 8, the most strenuous, climb all three of the highest dunes.

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Medium 9780253007896

1915 The Prairie Club and the NDPA

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Prairie Club was the first group to propose that a significant section of the dunes along the Lake Michigan shoreline be set aside, maintained in its natural state, and remain open to the public for its benefit and enjoyment.

The Prairie Club was a Chicago organization started in 1911 by outdoor enthusiasts that regularly scheduled hikes out to the dunes. Although Prairie Club outings were held in many locations, the Indiana Dunes became a favorite locale. The Club purchased forty-nine acres of land in the dunes (in what is now Dunes State Park), including a half-mile of shoreline. Its beach house east of Mount Tom had a broad veranda, living room, kitchen, and sleeping quarters that could accommodate sixty people. It was in this house that the club had gatherings and planned for the preservation of the area that they had come to so appreciate.

The Prairie Club celebrated the Dunes and held several masques (plays) in nearby blow-outs, which were natural amphitheaters. On Memorial Day, 1915, it staged a masque called The Awakening in front of 1,200 spectators. The plot was simple but the production fanciful, perhaps extravagant:

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Medium 9780253356758

10 Gaining Ground: The Evolution of Terrestriality

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

10.1. Occipital views of tetrapods. (A) The embolomere Pholiderpeton. (B) The seymouriamorph Seymouria. (C) The temnospondyl Eryops. (D) The early amniote Paleothyris. Opisthotic/supraoccipital, dark shading; basioccipital, medium shading; exoccipital, light shading.

Steps toward Terrestriality

This extended survey of the anatomy and lifestyles of tetrapods throughout the Paleozoic has explored the evidence and speculation bearing on the advent of tetrapods onto land. This final chapter now goes on to consider the evolution of several key aspects of their biology and how they became truly adapted to terrestriality. The solutions that these early tetrapods arrived at laid the foundations for terrestrial living in a huge group of vertebrates that have ultimately become a highly conspicuous part of the fauna of the planet. How these changes were achieved over that time has influenced the anatomy, morphology, and evolutionary pathways of all subsequent tetrapods and is still reflected in our own anatomy.

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Medium 9780253000958

The Force of Spirit

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

My wife’s father is dying, and I can think of little else, because I love him and I love my wife. Once or twice a week, Ruth and I drive the forty miles of winding roads to visit him in the nursing home. Along the way we pass fields bursting with new corn, stands of trees heavy with fresh leaves, pastures deep in grass. In that long grass the lambs and calves and colts hunt for tender shoots to nibble and for the wet nipples of their mothers to suck. The meadows are thick with flowers, and butterflies waft over the blossoms like petals torn loose by wind. The spring this year was lavish, free of late frosts, well soaked with rain, and now in early June the Indiana countryside is all juiced up.

On our trip to the nursing home this morning, I drive while Ruth sits beside me knitting. Strand by strand, a sweater grows under her hands. We don’t talk much, because she must keep count of her stitches. To shape the silence, we play a tape of Mozart’s Requiem from a recent concert in which Ruth sang, and I try to detect her clear soprano in the weave of voices. The car fills with the music of sorrow. The sound rouses aches in me from earlier losses, the way cold rouses pain from old bone breaks.

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Medium 9780253006820

10. Intra-Urban Variations in Vulnerability Associated with Extreme Heat Events in Relationship to a Changing Climate

Sara C Pryor Indiana University Press ePub


In the developing literature on the nature of climate change and its potential impact on society, vulnerability is an emerging pervasive theme. As can be seen in chapter 1 of this volume, vulnerability, by its very nature, is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional concept and thus requires multiple levels of definition and examination (Bankoff 2001, Bankoff 2003). Vulnerability is also a term that has been recently utilized as a “catch-all” phrase and thus is in danger of losing some of its descriptive effectiveness (Cutter et al. 2008). Vulnerability is so encompassing because it stems from multiple conditions that could represent the social, health, intelligence, or economic status of an individual or location (Wisner 2004). For the present discussion, we are concerned with the vulnerability of populations to a changing climate; our definitions will focus on health and social vulnerability to extreme events, such as those that will likely punctuate climate change globally, particularly heat waves. This chapter intends to introduce vulnerability in the context of extreme heat and to present a case study where such an analysis of vulnerability has taken place.

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Medium 9781780643373

11: The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The Importance of Veteran Trees for Saproxylic Insects

Juha Siitonen1* and Thomas Ranius2

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Vantaa, Finland; 2Department of Ecology,

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden


11.1 Introduction

Old trees – often referred to as ancient or

­veteran – have always attracted attention, but recently there has been a revival of interest in them from an ecological and conservation perspective. Ancient trees are old individuals that have clearly passed beyond maturity and often show features such as cavities or hollow trunks, bark loss over sections of the trunk and a large quantity of dead wood in the canopy. The term

‘veteran tree’ includes younger individuals that have developed similar characteristics as a result of adverse growing conditions or injury (Woodland Trust, 2008; Lonsdale, 2013).

Veteran trees are defined as being of interest biologically, culturally or aesthetically because of their age, size or condition (Read, 2000).

A large old tree has been described as an arboreal megalopolis for saproxylic species

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Medium 9780253356024


Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Table M-1. Mammal Species of Indiana, by Order and Family

Extirpated Species

Species Introduced into Indiana by Humans

House mouse, Mus musculus (with first European settlers)


Black rat, Rattus rattus (with first European settlers s)


Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus (about 1827 with first European settlers)


Red fox, Vulpes vulpes (about 1855)


Notes: IN = throughout the state, S = south, CT = central, etc.; A = abundant, C = common, O = occasional, U = uncommon, R = rare, M = migrant, EX = extirpated; SE = state endangered, SC = state concern, FE = federally endangered.
a These two species were unknown in Indiana until after 2000 (see the end of chapter 3).

Table M-2. Mammals of Forest Lands

Note: IN = throughout the state, S = south, CT = central, etc.

Table M-3. Mammals of Grasslands, including Savanna

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Medium 9781574411546

9 If You Hate Mosquitoes, You’ll Learn to Love Bats

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

If You Hate Mosquitoes, You’ll Learn to Love Bats

Earlier that day, four bats were trapped inside the school where she worked. When school administrators and security personnel found out, they became frantic. Unfortunately, there are many myths associated with bats that cause people to panic. People often think that bats will suck your blood, become tangled in your hair, and dive bomb you to try and attack you. They also often believe that all bats have rabies. Those are just myths, and they may have been some of the exact myths in the minds of administrators when they ordered that the bats be killed!

A custodian was elected to “take care” of the bats. All the administrators were sure that these bats were a serious health threat to the students. They told the custodian to get rid of them however he felt fit. That custodian used a can of Raid insect killer and sprayed the bats.

Two of the four creatures died from the deadly poison within minutes. The other two managed to cling to life. They were trying to fly and get away, but the poison was slowly overcoming them. They were soon grounded, or unable to take flight any longer. They could only flap their wings slowly on the floor of the school.

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Medium 9781574416077

Chapter 1: The Spawn and Beyond

Mark Spitzer University of North Texas Press ePub

A Metaphor for Sustaining Biodiversity as the Deepwater Horizon Spews into the Sea

When I pulled up to the flooded field, there was already a line of pickups parked on the edge of it. I could see a bunch of people standing in the shin-deep water where the river had consumed the gravel road. Lindsey Lewis, gar specialist from US Fish & Wildlife, was out there with three bowfishermen, and I could also see Ed Kluender, a graduate student in biology at my university who specializes in tracking movement patterns of gator gar in Arkansas. Ed had called me the night before and told me that the spawn was on. I told him I'd meet him at 8:00 a.m., so that's why I was there—with my canoe.

I passed a couple of the bowhunters’ wives, also standing in the water, and waded out to Lindsey and Ed. They were focused on the ditch alongside the upstream side of the road, as were the bowhunters, whose bows were lowered. But before I could even say a word, a mammoth back breached like a submarine. I could see its spotted tail and dorsal fin, and enough of that greenish-black checkered pattern on its gun-metal-gray armor to know it was a six-footer, at least.

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Medium 9780253007896

Autumn Leaves and Shortening Days

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Along the Calumet Trail. (middle) Ron Trigg

The warm days, cool nights, and spectacular colors make Duneland a delight in autumn. Crowds thin at the beach, and school groups begin their annual treks to one of the most beautiful places in the Midwest.

When I was in my teens I used to love hiking.

Always a bunch of girlfriends and I would set

out for a whole day of hiking in the woods.

who lived not far from Green Heron Pond

The Chellberg Farmhouse. (top) Jim Rettker

Life is not measured by the

number of breaths we take,

But by the moments that

take our breath away.


Green Heron Pond, Miller. (bottom) Ron Trigg

A time to give thanks and to prepare for spring

The White Bridge, the focal point of the Celebration Gardens of the International Friendship Gardens, has striking beauty in all seasons, but perhaps particularly in the fall. International Friendship Gardens

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Medium 9781603444750

13. The Business of Bobwhite Management

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 13.1. Quail hunting is big business in Texas. The economy of many rural communities is supplemented by the expenditures of visiting hunters. (Photograph by Dale Rollins)

FALFURRIAS, TEXAS, is the seat of Brooks County in the Rio Grande Plains. About 400 miles to the north is Albany, the seat of Shackelford County in the Rolling Plains. Both of these small, rural towns have an air of bustle and prosperity uncommon in other towns of similar size. The residents there owe part of their good fortune to hunting. Landowners’ revenue from hunting in 2005 exceeded $8.5 million in Brooks County and $1.8 million in Shackelford County.

Bobwhites are big business in Texas. Jason Johnson, an economist with Texas AgriLife Extension Service, surveyed Texas quail hunters in 1999. Johnson reported that the average Quail Unlimited hunter spent about $10,000/year. This translated to a cost of about $438 per bagged bobwhite. If you were buying quail meat by the pound at the grocery store at this rate, it would be about $1,168/ pound.

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Medium 9781574414615


Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub


I’ve finally received my doctorate from the University of Oregon. It’s taken me 12 years to develop a Celtic Studies major for colleges and universities, partly due to procrastination and discouragement, partly due to administrative confusion. The only connection this short section has with horseshoeing is that horseshoeing kept me in the real world that the Ph.D. program kept trying to drag me out of. I’m just now finding myself able to turn on my computer without my heart pounding in anticipation of the next administrative botch or the revelation of a deadline I had failed to meet. I am beginning to be able to look at my university’s logo on passing cars without getting sweaty palms. I can drink my coffee out of my university logo mug, while wearing a U of O baseball cap.

I’m not going to describe the horror of this educational experience or the campus politics and other things often associated with university departments. I’m just going to give thanks to my advisor, Dr. Diane Dunlap, and all those horses who helped me through the process. My old horseshoer buddy, Gary, used to give me a lot of grief because he said I always thought too much, mostly about the enormous and unsolvable problems in my life. “You need to get under more horses,” he always told me. “You think too much. Get under more horses.” Thanks, Gary. That advice, although not always followed, has done a lot to keep me going over the years. Thank you, horses. Thank you, Gary.

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Medium 9781603442411

4. Terry Peters

Joe Nick Patoski Texas A&M University Press ePub

The forests of Wisconsin have a long and rich history of multiple uses, providing environmental, economic, and social benefits to the people of the state. Wisconsin’s landowners face many challenges. The greatest negative impact on forest biodiversity is permanent fragmentation—the long-term conversion of forestland to non-forest uses and loss of habitat. Additionally, the threat of uncontrolled invasive species has the potential to forever alter the forests as we know them today.

Terry Peters understands that actions we take today affect the forests of tomorrow. His vision and goals include sustainable management to ensure that the forests remain intact and managed for future generations. It is that practice and his advocacy for sustainable management that earned Terry the Leopold Conservation Award.

Terry starts at home by first setting goals and laying out management plans, then making sure everyone (family and crew) buys in and works toward the vision.

Terry doesn’t stop with his own land or his own family. He shares the sustainable forestry message in many ways, including speaking at the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center; participating on the advisory board and lecturing at the Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute at Northland College; being a charter member of the Bad River Watershed Association; supporting the Great Lakes Timber Professionals Association; and proudly participating in the “Log A Load for Kids” charitable timber harvest.

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