787 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253000958

Mind in the Forest

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

I touch trees, as others might stroke the fenders of automobiles or finger silk I fabrics or fondle cats. Trees do not purr, do not flatter, do not inspire a craving for ownership or power. They stand their ground, immune to merely human urges. Saplings yield under the weight of a hand and then spring back when the hand lifts away, but mature trees accept one’s touch without so much as a shiver. While I am drawn to all ages and kinds, from maple sprouts barely tall enough to hold their leaves off the ground to towering sequoias with their crowns wreathed in fog, I am especially drawn to the ancient, battered ones, the survivors.

Recently I spent a week in the company of ancient trees. The season was October and the site was the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 15,800-acre research area defined by the drainage basin of Lookout Creek, within Willamette National Forest, on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. It’s a wet place. At higher elevations, annual precipitation averages 140 inches, and even the lower elevations receive 90 inches, twice the amount that falls on my well-watered home region of southern Indiana. Back in Indiana the trees are hardwoods—maples and beeches and oaks, hickories and sycamores—and few are allowed to grow for as long as a century without being felled by ax or saw. Here in Andrews Forest, the ruling trees are Douglas firs, western hemlocks, western red cedars, and Pacific yews, the oldest of them ranging in age from five hundred to eight hundred years, veterans of countless fires, windstorms, landslides, insect infestations, and floods.

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Medium 9781603442015

A Taste of the Marsh

Ken W Kramer Texas A&M University Press ePub

Susan Raleigh Kaderka

AS we walked down to the saltmarsh near the observation tower on Mad Island Marsh Preserve, Cathy Porter bent over and broke off a sprig of saltwort, a spiky succulent that grows in clumps by the water’s edge. “Taste it,” she said, offering me a piece and putting a bit into her own mouth. It was an idle gesture, something she’s probably done countless times leading groups of schoolchildren on tours of this 7,000-acre Nature Conservancy preserve. She had been naming off the various species of marsh vegetation for me—seablight, Gulf cordgrass, saltmarsh bulrush—and just come across one worth tasting.

True to its name, the plant tasted salty. As Porter no doubt points out to visiting students, it is well adapted to the conditions of the Texas Gulf Coast, thriving near salt water in a sandy soil. But as I chewed it, a different landscape suddenly came to mind. For a moment, I was back in the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York, where I lived up to the age of six.

Like most children growing up in the late 1950s, I spent almost all of my free time outdoors. This habit was not evidence of any special affinity for nature. It did not prefigure my later work in wildlife conservation. It was not unique to me at all; it was what everyone did. Childhood pretty much took place out of doors. If you were indoors, it meant it was raining, or nighttime, or, later, that you were in school. Even in winter we played outdoors, bundled up in hooded snowsuits, rubber boots, and mittens. Snapshots of my sister and me in the snowy field opposite our house show us smiling out at the camera from jackets so thick our arms stuck out from our sides. But unquestionably we were outside.

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Medium 9781574410624

6 • The Great Egret's Flight

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

28 • Through Animals' Eyes

she had ever seen. There was no doubt in my mind that we were dealing with an egret.

Egrets and shore birds have a very low tolerance for stress.

The last thing they want in their lives is a confrontation with a human, no matter how well intentioned. This particular egret had been wandering about the neighborhood for three days.

On occasion he would disappear for a few hours, probably going down to the river to feed. Then he'd return to wander from yard to yard, exciting children and terrifying cats.

As I drove to rescue the bird, I had only my trusty collection of clean white sheets and a large cardboard box. I hoped and prayed that the bird was not injured, only tired, because all too often an egret with a serious wing injury can't survive the surgery needed to save the wing. When I arrived in the vicinity of the call, it was easy to see where the egret was spending his time this afternoon. On one street there was a crowd of about seven children and five or six adults. Three cats looked down from the safety of a large mesquite tree.

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Medium 9781574411751

CHAPTER II The Indians’ Assault

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER II

The Indians’ Assault

T

he first group to assault the virgin wilderness of the Big Thicket were the Native Americans. None of the indigenous peoples of Texas lived within the Big Thicket. However, three principal tribes—the Hasinai, Bidai, and the Akokisa—lived on its fringes. The Hasinai Indians, who were members of the Caddoan linguistic stock, lived in several villages scattered along the upper Trinity and Neches rivers just beyond the northern boundary of the Big Thicket.1 The Hasinai customarily called their friends or allies by the name “Tejas.”2 The Spanish, in turn, applied this name to the Indians of the region. These Tejas Indians were sedentary and followed agricultural pursuits. Maize, pumpkins, watermelons, and peas constituted some of their primary crops. Some writers have hinted that the

Tejas and other tribes were too frightened of the Thicket to live within its confines. This was not the case. The Tejas Indians never established permanent villages in the Big Thicket because the region was ill-equipped to support their agriculture-based society. The redlands where they lived were much more fertile than the sandy soils of the Thicket.3 Also, the Indians would have been required to spend years of arduous labor clearing the

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Medium 9781574412086

4. Pete Gunter, “A Sense of One Place as the Focus of Another: The Making of a Conservationist”

Edited by David Taylor University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 4

Pete Gunter

A Sense of One Place as the Focus of Another:

The Making of a

Conservationist

Pete A. Y. Gunter is past president of the Big Thicket Association and currently serves as Big Thicket Task Force Chairman of the Texas Committee on

Natural Resources. He grew up in Houston and Gainesville and has divided his time between writing on environmental issues, teaching philosophy, and writing about the relationship between philosophy and environmental ethics.

Among the products of this latter preoccupation are Texas Land Ethics (1997) with Max Oelschlaeger, plus numerous articles and reviews.

I have been haunted, while writing this paper, by Annie Dillard’s remarks concerning human perception in Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. We see the world impressionistically, she admonishes, noting the green fringe of trees, the blue sky, a swatch of grass, a few human figures in the foreground or background. We feel at home in a world which we have constituted for ourselves out of a mixture of impressionistic gloss and sheer familiarity:

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Medium 9781574412826

CD – I

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF

Name

Time

1

Trutruka song (Lorenzo Aillapan)

1:06:51

FOREST

INTERIOR

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Magellanic Woodpecker

Magellanic Tapaculo

Black-Throated Huet-Huet

Chucao Tapaculo

White-Throated Treerunner

Thorn-Tailed Rayadito

Austral Parakeet

Desmur´s Wiretail

0:40:57

0:22:36

0:32:65

0:31:14

0:24:40

0:25:40

0:28:57

0:50:67

OWLS

10

11

12

13

14

Rufous-Legged Owl

Austral Great Horned Owl

Barn Owl

Austral Pygmy Owl

Bicolored Hawk

0:43:14

0:31:21

0:27:52

0:28:16

0:17:52

WETLANDS

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Ringed Kingfisher

Common Snipe

Plumbeous Rail

Bar-Winged Cinclodes

Dark-Bellied Cinclodes

Chilean Swallow

Blue-and-White Swallow

Buff-Necked Ibis

Southern Lapwing

0:31:60

0:39:17

0:29:27

0:25:18

0:24:02

0:31:26

0:25:24

0:33:21

0:23:18

FOREST MARGINS

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

Chilean Pigeon

Eared Dove

Chilean Flicker

Striped Woodpecker

White-Crested Elaenia

Black-Chinned Siskin

Patagonian Sierrafinch

Austral Thrush

House Wren

Patagonian Tyrant

Tufted Tit-Tyrant

Rufous-Collared Sparrow

Fire-Eyed Diucon

Austral Blackbird

Green-Backed Firecrown

Giant Hummingbird

Common Diuca Finch long-Lailed Meadowlark

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Medium 9781780643373

6: Coppice Silviculture: From the Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

6 

Coppice Silviculture: From the

Mesolithic to the 21st Century

Peter Buckley* and Jenny Mills

Peter Buckley Associates, Ashford, UK

6.1  Introduction

Coppice refers to the repeated cutting of stems regrowing from a stump or ‘stool’ at intervals, typically from 5 to 30 years (Plate 6). It is one of the oldest silvicultural systems known, with well-documented archaeological evidence dating from Mesolithic, Neolithic, Roman and

Anglo-Saxon times in Europe. Such management would have maintained regular openness in woods, together with its many associated species. Rotation lengths are, however, generally too short to allow much development of conditions for late-successional species dependent on old growth, except in old coppice stools, or as occasional mature trees left on boundaries and as standards.

In modern Europe, the landscape now consists mainly of high forest patches, set in open landscapes dominated by agriculture.

Coppices have either been abandoned or converted to high forests, thereby reducing the intensity and frequency of disturbances and thus discriminating against species of open woodlands. In Britain, for example, woodland census data indicate an 80% contraction in the area of coppice from the post-war period 1947–

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Medium 9781603444668

6. Into the Gulf (almost): Gulf Prairies and Matagorda Bay

Margie Crisp Texas A&M University Press ePub

GULF PRAIRIES AND MATAGORDA BAY

Tiny whitecaps run upstream against the current, slap the kayak hull, and explode into my face. If I stop paddling for a second, sweeper trees reach out and tangle branches in my hair. After disengaging myself from an amorous willow tree, I have had enough. In a snit, I yell at the wind, “I give up!” and hold my paddle high overhead. The wind grabs the kayak and spins me dizzily up stream where I’m deposited on a gravel bar under a high sand bank. The cold blast and the relentless whistling is blocked; I hear the rumble of traffic on nearby roads, the squeals and keening of killdeer, lesser yellowlegs, and spotted sandpipers as they dodge and bow along the banks. A peevish cry catches my attention. Above me, an adult bald eagle hunches miserably in the crown of a dead cottonwood, feathers ruffled for warmth and looking less than dignified. The giant bird seems just as irritated as I am with the sudden drop in temperature and the onslaught of stiff wind. Buoyed by the eagle’s grumpy camaraderie, I head back into the wind and fight my way downstream.

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Medium 9780253013958

11 Excremental Ecocriticism and the Global Sanitation Crisis

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Dana Phillips

It’s not leaking. It’s overflowing.

—Homer Simpson, The Simpsons Movie

NEW MATERIALISTS ARE fond of lists. Consider, as a first example, the beginning of Myra Hird’s 2009 review essay on “material feminism”: “Trans-corporeality. Entanglement. Meeting-with. Matter. Nonhuman. Causality. Intra-action. Disclosure. Agential realism.” Each of the terms on this list names a concept central to the “emerging field” Hird is preparing to survey (329). Most of them have come to occupy an equally important position in the discourse of new materialist theory broadly speaking, which draws on material feminism but also taps additional sources, such as phenomenology and the philosophy of science, for ideas.

Some new materialist list makers are evidently less categorically minded than Hird seems to have been when writing her trend-spotting essay. Their lists go beyond generalities to identify the particular “matters” (that is, both things and the multifarious circumstances in which things are embroiled, are effected, and produce effects) that new materialists find striking—and illustrative of the theoretical claims they wish to make about trans-corporeality, intra-action, agential realism, and the like. For instance, political philosopher Jane Bennett writes, “Worms, or electricity, or various gadgets, or fats, or metals, or stem cells are actants, or what Darwin calls ‘small agencies,’ that, when in the right confederation with other physical and physiological bodies, can make big things happen” (Vibrant 94). Bennett devotes all or part of a chapter of her 2010 book, Vibrant Matter, to each of the items she identifies, in the sentence I have quoted, as a member of some “confederation” or another. Such instances of the material and such confederations, she argues, should be seen as “vibrant, vital, energetic, lively, quivering, vibratory, evanescent, and effluescent” (112). Here Bennett pays her debt to the phenomenological tradition by adding a clutch of modifiers of the kind phenomenologists like to use to the inventory of new materialist vocabulary.

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Medium 9781603444750

2. General Ecology

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 2.1. Ecological regions of Texas. (Cartography by Eric J. Redeker; Data Source: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department)

IMAGINE THAT YOU ARE 6 inches tall, weigh 6 ounces, and would rather walk than fly. Your view of the world would change. A knee-high shrub would become a small tree, a dense stand of bluestem would become an impassable jungle, and a 1-mile jog would telescope into a half marathon.

You are beginning to see the world through the eyes of a bobwhite. These are delicate, typically sedentary birds that require a variety of habitats. They are largely concerned with living space from ground level to a height of about 3 feet on areas usually no larger than 20–30 acres. Managers, therefore, must create crazy-quilt patterns of cover on small areas. “Patches” in the quilt must fulfill all the needs of bobwhites. These include whistling posts, nesting cover, brood cover, feeding cover, resting coverts, and roosting cover. In this chapter we discuss the food, water, and cover needs of bobwhites on a seasonal and annual basis.

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Medium 9781574412826

English Bird Names

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF

ENGLISH BIRD NAMES

American Kestrel

Andean Condor

Austral Blackbird

Austral Great Horned Owl

Austral Parakeet

Austral Pygmy Owl

Austral Thrush

Barn Owl

Bar-Winged Cinclodes

Bay-Winged Hawk

Bicolored Hawk

Black Vulture

Black-Chested Buzzard-Eagle

Black-Chinned Siskin

Black-Throated Huet-Huet

Blue-and-White Swallow

Buff-Necked Ibis

Chilean Flicker

Chilean Pigeon

Chilean Swallow

Chimango Caracara

Chucao Tapaculo

Common Diuca Finch

Common Snipe

Dark-Bellied Cinclodes

230

191

201

165

82

71

87

147

84

105

199

90

209

193

141

57

113

115

131

125

110

184

59

174

99

107

Desmur´s Wiretail

Eared Dove

Fire-Eyed Diucon

Giant Hummingbird

Green-Backed Firecrown

House Wren

Long-Tailed Meadowlark

Magellanic Tapaculo

Magellanic Woodpecker

Patagonian Sierrafinch

Patagonian Tyrant

Plumbeous Rail

Red-Backed Hawk

Ringed Kingfisher

Rufous-Collared Sparrow

Rufous-Legged Owl

Rufous-Tailed Plantcutter

Southern Lapwing

Southern-Crested Caracara

Striped Woodpecker

Thorn-Tailed Rayadito

Tufted Tit-Tyrant

Turkey Vulture

White-Crested Elaenia

White-Throated Treerunner

74

127

161

171

167

150

177

52

49

145

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Medium 9781780642109

11: Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

11 

Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Andrew D. Thomas,1* David R. Elliott,2 Tasmin N.L. Griffith2 and Helen Mairs2

1

Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University,

Aberystwyth, UK; 2School of Science and the Environment, Manchester

Metropolitan University, UK

11.1  Introduction

Grazing lands cover almost half the global land area and an estimated 70% of the world’s poorest billion people rely on income generated from pastoralism (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC, 2009).

In rural dry sub-humid environments such as the Kalahari, pastoral farming is the only viable livelihood for most people, and cattle are central to the Tswana way of life. Cattle not only provide a major source of household income, but confer prestige to families within their communities (Campbell, 1990). The vast majority of livestock are reared on communal land where fences are absent and grazing resources are shared. The absence of surface water in the

Kalahari means that animals are dependent on groundwater from boreholes (Perkins and

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Medium 9780253007896

1889 The United States Coast Guard

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

In 1882, Congress authorized a Life Saving Service unit to be established on the Lake Michigan shore east of Trail Creek. Operations began in 1889. The station crew originally consisted of six civilians, called surfmen, commanded by a military officer called a keeper (better known, at least in Michigan City, as “Captain”). It was the keeper’s job to keep accurate records and to ensure that his men had constant training. He resided on base year-round. The surf-men were only on duty during the active season, from April to December.

By their own accounts, life at the station was rather dull most of the time. Occasionally there would be moments of “high adventure” as a ship, sailors, or passengers needed to be saved during a major storm. The surfmen and their keeper were “first responders” who on occasion performed their duties at great personal risk. In the early days, of course, the rescue boats had no motors and had to be rowed through often high and dangerous lake waves to get to vessels in serious trouble.

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Medium 9781603444668

3. River Revealed: Cross Timbers and into the Llano Uplift

Margie Crisp Texas A&M University Press ePub

CROSS TIMBERS AND INTO THE LLANO UPLIFT

Below the dam at O. H. Ivie, the Colorado River cuts across layers of time, digging into the exposed shelves of millions of years. Alluvial deposits along the bed and banks of the river are recent, but the river has relentlessly carved away at the cover of Cretaceous rocks exposing the tilted stacks of old sedimentary rocks in the broad basin. On a geological map, multiple parallel bands of color stripe north to south. The river slices across in a twisting gold line of alluvial soils, descending from young to old, across pale bands of Permian limestone and shale, pink blobs and squiggles of sediment eroded from the Cretaceous and Permian rocks upriver, and into the dark blue patterns of older, exposed Pennsylvanian sandstones. Curving in a tight arc, the river bounces between the old sandstones and tongues of limestone and shale before snaking down the deep canyons of ancient Ordovician limestones into the heart of the Llano Uplift.

In this length of river, seven or eight counties, depending on how you count them, crowd up to the river, nudge each other’s shoulders, and wiggle their toes in the stream. It is a land of big ranches, white-tailed deer and turkey hunting, a few row crops, and pecan orchards. The river regains its strength, pulls water from creeks and springs, and works its way back into a free-flowing stream for a few miles before running into the dams of the Highland Lakes downstream.

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Medium 9781574412161

Strength in Timidity

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

Strength in Timidity

Once, many years ago, Wildlife Rescue was called on to help save dozens of monkeys who had been confined in a woman’s basement in

Iowa. As you can imagine, suddenly being called on to take well over a dozen primates is quite a challenge. But we had been rescuing primates for many years and these animals were in particularly dire straits, so we felt it was critical to do whatever we could to make certain they did not find themselves in the hands of another collector.

Many of the monkeys were ill, some were elderly, and all were in need of fresh air, sunshine, and a nutritious diet. The individual who had the animals had continued to get more and more of them until her entire house was filled with cages full of monkeys. After she showed up at her veterinarian’s office repeatedly with dying primates, he decided it was time to contact the local health department. When the authorities arrived, they were barely able to spend ten minutes in the house before the odors of urine and feces overwhelmed them.

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