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7 Order Primates Monkeys, Apes, and Kin

David M. Armstrong University Press of Colorado ePub

The primates are a group of rather generalized mammals descended from an early insectivorous or omnivorous eutherian stock in the Paleocene or Cretaceous (Bininda-Emonds et al. 2007), at least 60 million years ago. Early in their history, competition with rodents may have been keen, but primates adapted to life in the trees, whereas most early rodents were terrestrial.

It actually is rather difficult to define the primates, but their distinctive traits and adaptive tendencies mostly are specializations that adapt them to arboreal life: grasping hands and feet; retention of the collarbone (allowing a wide range of movements in the shoulder); reduction of the snout (which allows the eyes to move toward the mid-line so the fields of vision of the eyes overlap, permitting stereoscopic vision and thus eye-hand coordination); small litter size per body size; and prolonged maternal dependence. Most primates are social to some extent and many species are highly vocal; the associative cortex of the brain is relatively large in monkeys and apes. The dentition is rather generalized, adapted to a frugivorous (fruit-eating) or omnivorous diet.

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24: Onion and Related Taxa: Ecogeographical Distribution and Genetic Resources in the Indian Subcontinent

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Onion and Related Taxa:

Ecogeographical Distribution and Genetic Resources in the Indian


Anjula Pandey1*, K. Pradheep1 and K.S. Negi2


Plant Exploration and Germplasm Collection Division, National Bureau of Plant

Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India; 2Regional Station, Bhowali, Niglat,

Uttarakhand, India


This chapter is based on a study of the ecogeography and distribution of the onion and allied taxa of the Indian subcontinent. A field- and herbarium-based study of this group helped to classify them at the infrageneric level. The chapter also includes information on genetic resources and domestication trends of lesser-known, locally important and wild economic species from the Indian subcontinent.

24.1  Introduction

The genus Allium has more than 800 taxa occurring in different parts of the world (Fritsch et al.,

2010; Fritsch and Abbasi, 2013). The most important economic species in this genus which are cultivated include onion, garlic, shallot, leek, chives,

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4 People and Wildlife Stewardship of Wild Mammals in Colorado

David M. Armstrong University Press of Colorado ePub

Colorado has a diverse and abundant mammalian fauna that is valued and enjoyed in numerous ways by residents and visitors alike. People are fascinated by wild mammals and find in them a range of recreational opportunities—from aesthetic and educational to consumptive. The US Fish and Wildlife Service estimated that in 2006 alone 87.5 million Americans spent $122 billion nationwide on wildlife-related recreational pursuits (US Fish and Wildlife Service and US Bureau of Census 2006). Between 1996 and 2006, the number of adults in the United States who participated in non-consumptive wildlife activities increased by 13 percent. This upward trend is expected to continue over the next several years, in large part because of a steadily increasing retired population, individuals with the leisure time to pursue their interests. By contrast, Bowker et al. (1999) predicted a nationwide decline in hunting of 11 percent over the period 1995–2050. Participation in hunting declined by 4.4 percent from 1990 to 2005 (White House Council on Environmental Quality 2008). These countervailing trends are having major impacts on Coloradan mammals and their management. Despite the reduction in the number of hunters, fees from hunting and fishing licenses and excise taxes on hunting and fishing equipment still provide about 70–85 percent of the funds for state wildlife agencies (see, e.g., Colorado Division of Wildlife 2007a).

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Gary Lantz University of North Texas Press PDF


Morning Comes to Elk MouNtain

parents provide care throughout. They’ve been known to scoop

Junior up in their stout mandibles and move to a safer sanctuary.

Overall, Ma and Pa Bess beetle appear to meet the criteria of the region’s often espoused family values.

Bess beetles head for the shelter of a rotting log when winter descends with a more virulent bite, but for now there’s insect business to attend to here in the vicinity of the buffalo trail. Yet other than traffic here on the beetle interstate, there’s not much happening on this chilly gray morning that portends more of the same.

When the sun finally decides to shine about midday, a buffalo bull walks out of the oak grove windbreak and soon slumbers in the open, eager to soak up some winter rays. The massive animal is so relaxed that he doesn’t even open his eyes when I amble past on my way back to the trailhead.

Six days later, the weather is 30 degrees warmer and sunny, yet with a strong north wind. It seems to be the sort of winter day that invigorates canyon wrens, or at least the one I’ve disturbed that keeps up a scolding chatter from a dead post oak tree.

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chapter three BIRD ISLANDS

Silliker, Bill, Jr. Down East Books ePub

Circling, calling terns protect their nesting area at Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge.

There are great colonies of seabirds on many of these islands that lie scattered variously from the Bay of Fundy, whose tides are the greatest in the world, to the calmer waters off the serene and sandy shores of southern Maine. And it is here in these wild colonies that bird enthusiasts are given opportunity to observe closely the home life of many of our most fascinating birds, providing living proof that, if intelligently protected by man, birds will once more fill our ears with natural music and our eyes with wild beauty.


Bird Islands Down East, 1941

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Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub


Oregon—An unexpected feline visitor creates a stir among a cabin’s owners. Pondering what to do, the couple considers calling the officials.

The growling I heard from under the cabin was something new; something deep and, well, scary, like deep animal growls are supposed to be. It was dark, New Year’s Day, and we’d just gotten back from a week-long holiday absence.

One of our dogs was sticking his snout under the cabin, an eight-by-ten-foot outbuilding I use as an office, and barking intently. I knew right away that something was under there—the dog was acting unusual. I hadn’t even gone in the house yet, which is of course all one wants to do after traveling cross-country for the day, but I had to investigate, see what was there, and at least get the dog to simmer down.

Just thirty feet from the house, the cabin’s a log timbered structure with open alcoves under the flooring, the early-winter snow already piling up around it and the nearby pines.

As I crunched through the snow I casually assumed that I’d encounter the neighbor’s cat hunkered under the structure, being unnecessarily intimidated by the dog, or maybe a raccoon, which the dogs hate for some reason and can’t resist a good barking session over.

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Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub


South Dakota—A scientist, using a vacant summer cabin as a blind, is treated to a rare viewing of a mother cougar and her three cubs.

My interest in wildlife grew out of a childhood passion. I always felt a deep connection to the wild. I knew I would spend my life continually seeking to know more about it. But when I saw a BBC film called Puma: Lion of the Andes, my focus became clear. In the documentary, the brilliant filmmaker Hugh Miles tracks and documents a female puma in the wilds of southern Chile. There are no settlements nearby and, in time, the feline comes to accept his constant presence and his ongoing observations. Eventually, she gives birth to a litter of kittens, and we see the family’s early life play out before our eyes. I was completely mesmerized from beginning to end. At the time, I had no way of knowing just how much this film would impact my life; I just knew I needed to know more about this amazing animal.

A few years ago I was working on a cougar research project in the Black Hills of South Dakota. One afternoon I got a call from the groundskeeper of a remote, vacant summer camp. He informed me that he had discovered a fresh deer carcass, presumably killed by a cougar, in the woods surrounding the camp.

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15: The Curious Case of the Even-aged Plantation: Wretched, Funereal or Misunderstood?

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The Curious Case of the Even-aged

Plantation: Wretched, Funereal or


Chris P. Quine*

Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, UK

15.1  Introduction

Plantations have proved to be an effective way of delivering the wood and wood prod­ ucts that we consume at alarming rates, para­ lleling to some degree the intensification and specialization that has been seen in farm­ ing (Brockerhoff et al., 2008). Indeed, much of the wood and wood products that we con­ sume depends upon the production from plantations, with some estimates suggesting up to 35% currently and more in the future

(Carle and Holmgren, 2008; Sutton, 2014); such production may limit the further loss of natural and semi-natural forests.

However, we also look for a wider range of ‘ecosystem services’ from our forests, in­ cluding from plantations (Quine et al., 2011,

2013). Hence, the policy and practice devel­ opments of the latter half of the 20th century have often been around moderating the pursuit of timber products, for example by introdu­ cing more structural complexity and extend­ ing rotations, so that other objectives can be met (Fig. 15.1).

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Appendix 4. Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

Appendix 4

Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Sources of Information

The follow planting recommendations for selected plant species were compiled from several sources, including Heath, Metcalfe, and Barnes (1973); Vallentine (1980); Koerth and Kroll (1994); Fulbright (1999a); Redmon, Caddel, and Enis (n.d.); Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Stephenville (http://stephenville.tamu.edu/topics/forages/forage-species/); Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Plant Characteristics (http://plants.usda.gov/); Pogue Agri Partners Web site (www.pogueagri.com); and Turner Seed Company Web site (www.turnerseed.com). Information for individual traits was selected from a single source when recommendations varied among sources; local extension specialists should be consulted for recommendations in specific locations. Many different varieties are available for plants such as hairy vetch, oats, wheat, rye, triticale, cowpeas, and soybeans. Extension specialists or seed dealers should be consulted to determine the variety adapted to the locality where food plots will be planted.

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Kevin Holdsworth University Press of Colorado ePub

The first movie western, The Great Train Robbery, was filmed in New Jersey, or upstate New York, depending on whom you believe. The Homer of western writers, Owen Wister, was a Philadelphia lawyer. Zane Grey, the king of the formula western, was a dentist from Ohio. Louis L’Amour, inheritor of the Grey legacy, wrote about the wild wild west from the City of Angels and had such powerful concentration that he boasted he could compose on a median in the middle of the Santa Monica Freeway. Mary Austin, who wrote so beguilingly of the great dry lands experience, spent much of her creative life in New York City, as did other “western” writers, Willa Cather and May Swenson. Jackson Pollock, the celebrated urbanite drip, fling, splash, and swirl painter, was born in Cody, Wyoming.

These facts might seem discordant if not downright contradictory. They may be, but the ability to keep two opposites in mind helps us to negotiate this arid vale of tears. It’s not enough to circle it as yin and yang or simply pin it on a star sign. It is instead what keeps us wrangling—to acknowledge both sides of Prudence. It may also have something to do with the way past and present coexist in our minds. It may be the way sound shifts in passing. Where we are is also where we have been. We have to escape in order to return.

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Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub


Shoeing horses is not a pleasant way to make a living, but when the weather is extreme, it is downright miserable. The extremes are heat, cold, and rain. It’s best to stay home when these conditions are severe, but when you have no food in the house, you have to do what you have to do.

Heat, without question, is the most troublesome for me. I’ll choose rain over heat, any day. In fact I will no longer shoe a horse on an extremely hot day unless there is a cool barn or some kind of shelter. I’m from the Northwest and we don’t quite know what to do on hot days. We don’t get a lot of them, so when it gets to be in the high eighties or nineties, everyone just stands around in confusion and complains. Air conditioners have arrived in most business offices and fastfood restaurants, but are seldom found in anyone’s home. I only recently got a truck with an air conditioner.

One hot day in California during my first year of shoeing when I usually took two hours to shoe a horse under normal conditions, I took almost five hours to shoe one horse. I drank a lot of water, but the heat got to me. I’d work for awhile, get dizzy, and go into the hay room and lie down on a bale of hay until the dizziness went away. I turned a hose on my head and upper body every now and then, but that didn’t stop the dizziness. That horse stood out there the whole time in the blazing sun, mostly asleep, and didn’t seem bothered at all by the heat. I probably suffered from heat stroke and didn’t have the sense to recognize it. No one was around to point it out to me.

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16 | Aquatic and Marginally Aquatic Plants

Jesse Vernon Trail ECW Press ePub

When speaking of plants, aquatic simply means living or growing in or near water, in wetland regions such as bogs, marshes, fens and swamps. Plants here may be free-floating, totally submerged or rooted on the bottom with their leaves and flowers showing above the surface.

Bogs are most often associated with peat, and plants that grow in peat bogs are adapted to the high acidity in these bogs. The watery soil here is poor in nutrients and acidic to levels that would be toxic to most other plants.

Plants that require permanently moist conditions, ranging from mud to water, are considered marginally aquatic. The shallow waters at the sides of watercourses, such as rivers, streams and creeks, are called riparian wetlands.

Swamps, on the other hand, are usually dominated by trees, such as the mangrove, Rhizophora species, and related genera. These plants colonize wetlands, forming dense tangles of stilt-like roots (more about these in Chapter 11).


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13. Seeing the Fiscal Forest through the Trees: Conservation Spending and the National Debt

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub


Seeing the Fiscal Forest through the Trees

Conservation Spending and the National Debt

Arithmetic is not an opinion.

—Italian proverb

My involvement in this issue has allowed me to piss off just about everyone in America.

—former Senator Alan Simpson, co-chair of the President’s Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform

AS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY, fiscal sustainability is also a neighborly vision that asks how we can live together without hurting each other today or stealing the future from our children. Our nation is on an unsustainable fiscal path, requiring the government to borrow huge sums each year. Addressing this crisis will require cuts in both annual domestic and defense spending, significant changes in the big entitlement programs, and tax reform that simplifies the code and generates additional revenue. It should be clear to all that everything must be on the table—spending cuts and tax reform that generates more revenue.

In fiscal year 2011, federal spending was $3.6 trillion, revenue was $2.3 trillion, and the deficit was $1.3 trillion. As of June 1, 2013, the gross national debt, the accumulation of years of deficits, is now $17 trillion. Of that, $11.5 trillion is publicly held—over half by foreign interests. Interest on the publicly held debt was $224 billion last year but is estimated to swell to over $1 trillion by 2022 under the Concord Coalition’s plausible scenario for future deficits as interest rates rise back to more typical historic averages of 5–6 percent. For the first time since World War II, the gross debt now exceeds the gross domestic product and is projected to be almost three times GDP by 2038.

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9: Natural Resources, Climate Change, and Arctic Dinosaurs

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

Arctic Dinosaurs and the Energy Crisis

What could Arctic dinosaur research and short-term solutions to our country’s energy crisis have to do with one another? Can one burn dinosaur bones to produce energy? Are dinosaur fossils an important source of North America’s petroleum? Are dinosaur bones an alternative source of energy to coal and petroleum? The answer to the first suggestion—burning dinosaur bones to produce energy—is “No!” The answer to the second (despite Sinclair’s Oil’s iconic trademark) is also a “No!” Interestingly, the answer to the third question is a qualified “Yes!”

During the great uranium “rush” of the 1950s in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, researchers found that Jurassic-age dinosaur skeletons often contained high amounts of uranium salts.1 These concentrations of uranium were great enough to make the collected bones so “hot” that curators of museum collections were required to place them in lead-shielded containers or have them removed and sent to regional repositories for nuclear waste. This was actually one of my first chores as a curator of Earth Science at the University of Alaska Museum—an aspect of collection research and safety requirements with which I was totally unfamiliar prior to assuming this position. There is little doubt in my mind that some uranium-rich dinosaur bone ended up in reactor fuel rods or atomic bombs.

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21: Status of Invasive Plants in Tamil Nadu, India: Their Impact and Significance

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Status of Invasive Plants in Tamil

Nadu, India: Their Impact and


S.M. Sundarapandian* and K. Subashree

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University,

Puducherry, India,


Alien invasive plants always pose a major risk to native biodiversity and human welfare. Numerous species have been introduced into India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and particularly during the British administration. At present, there are

279 alien, invasive taxa in Tamil Nadu and about 69% of these are herbs. About 61% of the invasive taxa have migrated to Tamil Nadu from tropical America. Most of the exotic, invasive flora of Tamil Nadu belong to the families Fabaceae and Asteraceae. About 30.8% of the invasive plants are prevalent in all the districts of Tamil Nadu. Nilgiri district has the maximum number of invasive plants (146 taxa). A lot of research has been done on the invasive flora of Tamil Nadu and the numbers are expected to rise in the future. A brief account on the top ten invaders of Tamil Nadu is provided. Several factors facilitate invasion of alien plants such as globalization, global warming, human migration, land-use change, etc.

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