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Medium 9780253357014

Part 3: The Clades of Dinosaurs

Michael K BrettSurman Indiana University Press ePub

J. Michael Parrish

Most readers will be familiar with groups such as dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and crocodiles, but the larger group to which all of these organisms belong, the Archosauria, is more obscure. Archosauria was initially erected by Cope (1869) to include dinosaurs, crocodilians, and all their presumed common ancestors. It has been slightly redefined by modern systematists to include the last common ancestor of the two extant groups of archosaurs–the crocodilians and the birds–and all of the descendants of that common ancestor. This is the sense in which I will use the name here.

The amniotes (the evolutionary group containing reptiles, mammals, and birds) have historically been differentiated on the basis of the arrangement of openings in the cheek region of the skull behind the orbit (Fig. 17.1). The pattern that is seen in fishes and amphibians, and that is primitive for the amniotes, is a solid cheek, without any openings. This pattern, termed anapsid, is also seen in early amniotes like captorhinids and pariesaurs, and is retained today in turtles, although some studies suggest that turtles may have acquired this condition secondarily (DeBraga and Rieppel 1997).

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 3 Origin and Geology

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub


The Gulf of Mexico is a roughly circular basin encompassing parts of the southeastern United States and eastern Mexico. It is some 1,500 km in diameter, up to 3,700 m deep, and has been filled with 10–15 km of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments (Salvador 1991a). Its boundaries are the Florida Escarpment and Platform to the east, the Campeche Escarpment and Platform to the south, the Sierra Madre Orientál to the west and the Gulf Coastal Plain to the north and northwest (Fig. 3.1). These boundaries reflect Mesozoic-Cenozoic carbonate platform growth (Florida and Yucatán platforms), Laramide compression (Sierra Madre Orientál), and progradation (Gulf Coastal Plain) (Ewing 1991). While the transition between the basin and the Florida and Yucatán platforms is abrupt, the transition to the coastal plain to the north and west is gentle. The coastal plain is much broader (> 500 km) to the north and narrower (< 50 km) to the west. The deep, central part of the basin is underlain by oceanic crust, while the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Florida and Yucatán platforms are underlain by continental or transitional (rifted continental) crust. As the emphasis of this volume is on the southern Gulf of Mexico, this discussion will largely be restricted to two areas, the Yucatán Platform and the western Gulf Coastal Plain.

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Medium 9780253009555

Beyond the Basics

Jeffrey E. Belth Indiana University Press ePub



• Indiana and Its Butterflies

• Where, When, and How to Look for Butterflies

• The Life of a Butterfly

• Butterfly Behavior

• Activities with Butterflies

• Butterfly Conservation

Indiana and Its butterflies


Within the 36,000 square miles of Indiana, 149 species of butterflies and skippers have been recorded; about 124 of these probably occur regularly.

Crossing central Indiana by interstate highway, you might wonder how our state could possibly support so many butterfly species, since it appears to be entirely flat with nothing to offer but endless fields of corn, wheat, and soybeans. But if you get off the highway and explore, you will find that Indiana harbors a surprising diversity of habitats—all stemming from the ecological crossroads found within her. Between our borders the forests of the east meet the prairies of the west, while elements of the north such as fens, and cypress sloughs reminiscent of the deep south, can also be found.

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Medium 9780253356758

8 East Kirkton and the Roots of the Modern Family Tree

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

8.1. (Color Plate 15) The East Kirkton Quarry site once clearance was complete and a section had been excavated through the sequence, with the author standing at the level of unit 82, where most of the best tetrapod specimens have come from. Photograph by R.N.G.C.

Background to the East Kirkton Locality

A small former mining town called Bathgate, about 20 miles from Edinburgh, Scotland, has recently been made famous in the paleontological world for being the location of a window through which to view an extraordinary episode in evolutionary history. At the edge of a housing estate lies a quarry where in the 19th century a rock called the East Kirkton Limestone was dug out. It had some curious qualities that made it attractive as a building stone and hard wearing for making the local farm walls.

It is composed of thinly alternating bands of dark carbonaceous limestone, pale silica, and hardened gray volcanic ash called tuff, and often the bands are speckled with small white nodules or twisted and distorted into intriguing curls and waves. In the 1830s, fossil collectors also found some unusual specimens, which are now recognized as the carapaces of eurypterids or sea scorpions, as well as many plant remains. The quarry was closed in about 1844, and though geologists visited occasionally afterward, it was eventually forgotten and became grown over.

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Medium 9781574412161

No Fowl Play

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

No Fowl Play or

This Duck Means Business

As every new morning dawns, it is easy to see that we are completely surrounded by another beautiful and fortunately green summer. Walking about the grounds here at the sanctuary in Kendalia,

Texas, my eyes are often met with the site of multiple small flocks of who I like to call, “mixed ducks.” These amiable, feathered beings waddle about in their colorful coats of snow white, brown, mixed lush greens, blues, and coal black. They quack and squawk and call to one another creating such a cacophony of sound that at times it is possible only to listen to their conversations instead of having one of your own.

We have been rescuing ducks here at WRR throughout our history. Most have come from private hands, the unknowing public who purchased a fluffy, yellow baby from a roadside vendor or feed store.

These babies, along with helpless orphaned chicks, have been exploited for decades; for years they were dyed every hideous color imaginable and were never allowed the loving care of their mothers. They are sold to a public who does not realize that, before what seems like overnight, these precious little ones will grow into mature adults with needs very different from that of a youngster. Ducks are intelligent, curious birds who enjoy the company of other members of their flock and who seek out and need the close-knit relationships that are a natural part of their society. There are ducks who are considered

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Medium 9780253013958

8 Painful Material Realities, Tragedy, Ecophobia

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Simon C. Estok

THE BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL, and material bases of human ontology constitute central sites of investigation and theoretical comment for material ecocriticisms. If we understand pain as a fundamental part of human ontology, then we must also understand that theorizing matter profits from understanding the importance of relationships among cultural representations of pain, matter, and environment. Building on “a field that defines itself by a neologism (ecocriticism), based on another neologism (ecology)” (7), as Middlebury Shakespearean ecocritic Dan Brayton has recently described ecocriticism, material ecocriticisms seek both to further complicate and to further define what it is that ecocriticism pursues and how. For a movement such as ecocriticism, which has sought, from its inaugural moments, to cross disciplinary boundaries, to avoid intellectual isolationism and hermeneutic sequestration, and to connect with and affect the material world, engaging with new and evolving theories about matter is fundamental and vital—indeed, it is surprising that these theories and developments came so late in ecocriticism’s history. Out of the welter of books and articles that have recently appeared relating to material ecocriticisms, human bodies have reappeared as the site and source of concerns about our changing relationships with the material world. These bodies are often a site of beleaguerment from a threatening “outside.” They are, in Iovino and Oppermann’s terms, “material narratives” about the way human corporeality is dangerously entangled within a complex of discourses and material agents that determine its very being. Because imagining a menacing alterity of the natural environment (an otherness often represented as ecophobic life-and-death confrontations for humans) means imagining materials and their intractable grip on our lives and deaths, the utility of theorizing about ecophobia for material ecocriticisms through discussions about pain (and about threats of pain) can help not only to illuminate theoretical connections that allow us to see how we participate in the systems we critique but also to contextualize what it is about nonhuman agency that evokes such strong resistance (philosophical and material).

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Medium 9781780642109

6: Acidification of Tropical Soils under Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Edited by F.Q, Brearley and Andrew D. Thomas CAB International PDF


Acidification of Tropical Soils under

Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Kazumichi Fujii,1,2* Chie Hayakawa,2,3 Shinya Funakawa2 and Takashi Kosaki4


Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; 2Graduate

School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 3National Institute for

Agro-Environmental Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Department of Tourism Science,

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan

6.1  Introduction

In the humid tropics, shifting cultivation is an extensive farming system on typically highly weathered and leached soils (Nye and Green­ land, 1960; Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Owing to rapid population growth, traditional shifting cultivation with an adequa­ tely long fallow period has been replaced with more intensive cropping systems with shorter fallow periods or continuous cropping (Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Since restoration of soil fertility is dependent upon a  sufficiently long fallow period, continuous cropping risks widespread soil degradation and reductions in plant productivity in Asian countries.

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Medium 9781937538347

The Colorado: A River Not Quite as Grand

Peter Essick Rocky Nook-IPS ePub

I was able to take two rafting trips through the Grand Canyon when I photographed a story about an experimental artificial flooding of the Colorado River in 1996. In March, the floodgates of Glen Canyon Dam upstream were intentionally opened wide for seven days. The idea was to simulate the annual flooding that used to happen every spring before the dam was built.

The Colorado River carries a big load of sediment that builds up the beaches in the Grand Canyon. The river rafting companies had noticed that since the dam was built in 1962, the beaches had been slowly eroding away, leaving little room for the rafters to camp. But there were other unforeseen environmental effects downstream from the dam that were more significant than inconvenienced rafters. The post-dam banks had become filled with exotic tamarisks and native willows that were growing closer in to the river than was ever possible during the time of annual floods. This riparian vegetation teems with insects; the insects draw birds, which are preyed on by peregrine falcons. The native humpback trout that favors the silty waters is now outnumbered by rainbow trout, a favorite meal of bald eagles.

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Medium 9781574412086

7. Gary Clark, “Memories of a Prairie Chicken Dance”

Edited by David Taylor University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 7

Gary Clark

Memories of a Prairie

Chicken Dance

Gary Clark is a dean at North Harris College and author of “Wonders of Nature,” a weekly column in the Houston Chronicle. His writing has been published in a variety of state and national magazines including AAA

Journeys, Birds & Blooms, Birder’s World, Living Bird, Rivers, Texas Highways,

Texas Parks & Wildlife, Texas Wildlife, and Women in the Outdoors. Gary’s

first book, Texas Wildlife Portfolio (Farcountry Press, 2004) is available through major booksellers.

Gary has been active in the birding and environmental community for over 25 years. He founded the Piney Woods Wildlife Society in 1982 and founded the Texas Coast Rare Bird Alert in1983. He served as president of the Houston Audubon Society from 1989 to 1991 and purchased the North

American Rare Bird Alert (NARBA) for Houston Audubon in 1990. He currently serves on the Board of Directors for the Gulf Coast Bird Observatory.

During his collegiate career, Gary has been a professor of marketing, a faculty senate president, a Teacher Excellence Award recipient, and the

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Medium 9781605094649

11 The Wonderful World of Wudu

Ibrahim Abdul-Matin Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Muslims have a special relationship with water. It is one of the great signs (ayat) of God in nature, and it has been mentioned specifically in the verses of the Qur’an. Water is indeed a sign of Allah that is everywhere in one of its many forms. For everyday Muslims, water is nothing more than an expression of the covenant, or trust, (amana) we have with God, for with it we ritually purify ourselves to begin each act of worship. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said that “cleanliness is half of faith.”

For Muslims, cleanliness begins with the practice of bathing and ablution, or wudu, the ritual cleansing before each prayer. We make wudu every day, sometimes five times a day. Water is essential for this most important ritual, but we can also make wudu part of our green, eco-conscious way of living our Deen, the path of Islam, by being conscious of how we use this most precious gift.

The Qur’an gives us the origin and power of water:

He sends down water from the skies, and the channels flow, each according to its measure. (Qur’an 13:17)

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Medium 9780874216509

Chapter 2. The Ancient Saga of Water and Land: Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Bear

Craig Denton Utah State University Press ePub

At times, the Bear’s cascades become waterfalls, its tributaries plummeting over shelves at right angles, as on Ostler Fork.

At about 11,000 feet, McPheters Lake is one of the highest in the Stillwater Fork drainage of the Bear River Basin.

Like all rivers, the Bear begins in the sky. A molecule of water hovers in a gathering storm, anxiously suspended until the cloud no longer can support its weight. It falls and begins the earthly leg of its hydrologic journey.

If the land where that raindrop fell were a flat plain, its course in that river would be complex and full of promise. The hydrologist Luna Leopold showed that if you take random walks in any direction in a 180-degree arc, all paths eventually come together. River channels can form that same way, haphazardly on level ground. But when rain falls in high country where slopes are steep, water’s path is more resolute. When that drop of moisture strikes 12,720-foot Lamotte Peak in Utah’s Uinta Mountains, the mountain claims it for its river. There you’ll find the highest headwaters of the Bear.

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Medium 9780892727834


Bob Duchesne Down East Books ePub

The North Maine Woods provides a unique birding experience. The region west of Baxter State Park and north of Moosehead Lake is comprised of 3,500,000 acres, owned or managed by 25 different entities, including several private family ownerships, institutional investors, private conservation organizations, and some protected by the State of Maine as Public Reserved Lands. North Maine Woods, Inc. (NMW) is a non-profit association of these owners and managers formed in 1972 to oversee recreational use of these properties. Birders who venture into this region are participating in a centuries old tradition of public access on private lands and must recognize that this is an industrial forest, and respect its rules. The association charges small fees for day and overnight use to fund recreation management and campsite maintenance.

Trip planning: www.northmainewoods.org or 207-435-6213

The pleasures awaiting adventurous birders in the North Maine Woods are innumerable. Lakes, ponds, and rivers are undeveloped. Moose, coyotes, and bears roam at will. Populations of the rare Canada Lynx have increased. Forestry practices have defined the habitat for some bird populations. This is an area that has been logged repeatedly over 200 years and the species that reside here are those that have adapted to it. All of Maine

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Medium 9781623491376

4. Water: Privately Owned

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub


In the hydrologic cycle, surface water, before it becomes water in a watercourse, likely gets to the watercourse by running off the ground. Diffused surface water is rainwater or the water in our rare snowmelts—runoff—that stays on a landowner’s property before it enters a bed or channelized flow.1 This diffused surface water is owned by the landowner and is subject to capture without obtaining a permit from the state. If the landowner is able to capture the runoff water, defined as “casual or vagrant” water, before it joins a natural gully, stream, or watercourse, the landowner owns this water.2 This captured diffused water can be sold or used as the landowner sees fit. However, the moment this captured water enters a watercourse, its ownership transfers to the state. Water left standing in upland areas after a flood recedes may also qualify as diffused surface water, even though actual floodwaters cannot be captured because they are owned by the state.


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Medium 9780596801724

11. Getting Involved

Nancy Conner O'Reilly Media ePub

One person can change the world, and if you've made some of the changes suggested in this book, you've already made a difference. But there's strength in numbers, so this chapter explains how to join forces with others to make changes on a local, national, or even global scale. You'll learn how to get started, but then you have to take it from there.

"Think globally, act locally" has long been a rallying cry of the sustainable-living movement. When you walk instead of driving, enjoy a cup of fair-trade coffee, or replace energy-wasting light bulbs with CFLs, you're making changes that contribute to a better world for all. Small changes add upthe more people who live gently on the earth, the bigger the benefit.

One way to make those good deeds multiply is to get together with other, likeminded people and work for a common cause. There's power in numbers, whether it's half a dozen people picking up trash in a local park or an international organization with millions of members working to conserve natural habitats. After you've made adjustments in your own life and home, look outward. There are lots of ways for you to get involved in ongoing efforts to save the planet.

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19 Mindful New Materialisms: Buddhist Roots for Material Ecocriticism’s Flourishing

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Greta Gaard

IT IS SATURDAY-MORNING yoga class at the Minneapolis Midtown YWCA. A diverse group of practitioners assembles, varying in ages, genders, classes, races, sexualities, and nationalities, all gathered to practice an hour of mindful yoga. In Pali (the language of the Buddha), “yoga” means “to join” or “to unite,” and its practice involves joining attention to movements involving the body, the breath, the mind, and the larger interconnectedness of all beings. We begin with sun salutation and end in a position familiar to those who have seen the most common depictions of the Buddha, seated in yogic meditation. Joining body ecology with spirit ecology, we bring our attention to the breath, a flow of matter that is exchanged among our many bodies in this enclosed room, and beyond this room as well. Breath is one of the many “flows” that illustrate our interbeing and invite us to embark on a journey of mindfulness wherein the illusion of a separate self is revealed.

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