1152 Chapters
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Medium 9781780646947

6: Observations on Some Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF

6

Observations on Some

Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand

Sanjeev Kumar*

Chief Conservator of Forests, Working Plans Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India

Abstract

This chapter describes the indigenous knowledge associated with medicinal plants used by the tribal people of Jharkhand.

During an ethnobotanical survey, 100 plants were recorded. Such information can be utilized to improve the economy of the tribes by organizing the systematic collection of medicinal plants and their parts, and establishing cottage industries based on them. Conservation of biodiversity is always linked with tradition, hence such a study helps in developing strategy in this direction.

6.1  Introduction

People living in and around forests have been dependent upon them for most of human history.

In fact, the genesis of ethnobotany goes back to early humans, who started using plants for various purposes, including food, medicine, bark (as cloth), weapons to hunt animals, and other uses. Traditional knowledge evolved by trial and error. But ethnobotany in the modern era started only a century ago.

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Medium 9780253007896

Ongoing Restoration: More Dreams Coming True

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Environmental restoration activities in Duneland are ongoing and have been active for many decades. Restoration takes many forms, from simple cleanups, removal of invasive species, planting, and care of native species to removing ditches and drain tiles from previously drained wetlands.

The state of Indiana began a major restoration process at Dunes State Park when it was created in the 1920s. The National Park Service did the same when the National Lakeshore was established. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources, especially through its Heritage Trust license plate program, has raised and used voluntary contributions for hundreds of restoration purposes—many of them in Duneland.

Non-governmental organizations have done a vast amount of restoration work in Duneland. Organizations such as the Nature Conservancy, the Izaak Walton League, Save the Dunes, the Shirley Heinze Land Trust, Wildlife Habitat Council, and many others have restored or supported the restoration of thousands of acres of woodland, wetland, and prairie.

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Medium 9781574414486

Agradecimientos

Bernard Goffinet and Ricardo Rozzi and Lily Lewis and William Buck and Francisca Massardo University of North Texas Press PDF

AGRADECIMIENTOS

Este libro es el resultado de una década de trabajo de inves gación, educación, conservación y ecoturismo en el Parque Etnobotánico Omora. Agradecemos a los numerosos amigos del parque, voluntarios, autoridades, profesores, periodistas, ar stas, estudiantes graduados y de pregrado, que cada año han tomado el curso de conservación biocultural de la Universidad de Magallanes desde el 2003, y han ayudado a construir el Sendero de los Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos y a crear la narra va del ecoturismo con lupa. Agradecemos especialmente a Mauricio Zárraga,

Carlos Catrin y Jaime Godoy, quienes hicieron posible las primeras expediciones al Cabo de Hornos a bordo de la “Maroba”, en el 2000 y el 2001, y a los profesores María Anguita, Carlos Soto, Fernando

Saldivia, Francisco Fernández, y Nelson Cárcamo, con quienes hemos mantenido los talleres de “Los

Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos” en el liceo de Puerto Williams por más de diez años.

La fotogra a es mayoritariamente a Adam M. Wilson (adamwilson.us) y Oliver Vogel, con la colaboración de Gonzalo Arriagada, Ricardo Garille , Bernard Goffinet, Kris n Hoel ng, de

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Medium 9780253009555

Quick Key

Jeffrey E. Belth Indiana University Press ePub

…or a Moth?

Quick Key: Butterflies

Quick Key: Skippers

Quick Key: Grass Skippers (wings closed)

Quick Key: Grass Skippers (wings open)

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Medium 9781770907041

19 | Other Fascinating Survival Strategies

Jesse Vernon Trail ECW Press ePub

This chapter is reserved for the best of the rest: special plant adaptations or characteristics that don’t fall under the categories we’ve already considered.

There are certain plants that open and close their leaves at specific times. The morning glory, Ipomea, blooms prolifically, especially in the early morning. Before noon, all the flowers are closed. Chicory flowers, Cichorium intybus, which are so prevalent along many roadsides and in abandoned sites, open their exquisite vivid blue blooms in early morning and close at noon as well. Many of the evening primrose species, Oenothera, open their flowers in the late afternoon and remain open well into evening.

Some flowers open only in sunshine and close on dull days or whenever a cloud passes overhead. The four o’clock plant, also known as marvel of Peru, Mirabilis jalapa, opens its colorful trumpet-shaped blooms around — you guessed it — four o’clock each day. The flowers remain open until dark. On dull, overcast days the blooms open earlier and remain open all day.

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Medium 9780892727834

AROOSTOOK COUNTY

Duchesne, Bob Down East Books ePub

Birding in Aroostook County is like birding another country. In fact, if not for a favorable resolution of the bloodless Aroostook War of 1839, much of it would be in Canada today. Aroostook is so distinctive that Mainers refer to it as

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 4 Climate and Oceanography

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub

LAURA CARRILLO, GUILLERMO HORTA-PUGA, AND JUAN PABLO CARRICART-GANIVET

The climate and oceanography of coral reef areas within the southern Gulf of Mexico (SGM) are the result of large-scale water circulation (i.e., the Loop Current and associated large anticyclonic gyre) and mesoscale features interacting within the slope and shelf (cyclonic or anticyclonic gyres, tropical cyclones, and other meteorological events called nortes). Local conditions (such as freshwater inflow by river discharge, total volume ~187.6 × 109 m3yr–1 in the case of the Campeche, Veracruz, and Tuxpan reef areas or negligible in the case of the Yucatán Peninsula; Carricart-Ganivet and Merino 2001), precipitation, and local wind also affect the area. In this chapter, we summarize the knowledge of these oceanographic and climatic conditions in the coral reef areas of the southern Gulf of Mexico. We discuss the general surface circulation by dominant processes in the Loop Current region, deep western Gulf, Bay of Campeche, Tamaulipas-Veracruz shelf, and Campeche Bank. Local weather and continental influence (freshwater inflow) in the different coral reef areas are also discussed.

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Medium 9781607321934

LEGENDS OF ZANSKAR

Don Hunter University Press of Colorado ePub

R I N C H E N   W A N G C H U K

INDIA The snow leopard guides a native Ladakhi to safety and to a career in conservation.

Once upon a time, there were three friends: a snow leopard, an otter, and a house cat. One fine day, after playing among themselves, they decided to partake of a special meal. “I will hunt a fat ibex on the far slope,” said the snow leopard. The otter declared, “I will bring water from the river to quench our thirst.” “I will bring fire from the nearby village for cooking our delicious meal,” offered the house cat. Having decided so, the three went in separate directions. After much stalking, the snow leopard managed to kill a fat ibex. He then dragged the ibex carcass down the steep slope to the place where they were to meet. The otter, which had gone to fetch water from the river, came across a school of fish and became so absorbed chasing and playing with the fish that he forgot to return to the meeting spot. The house cat found the comforts of a house and stayed in the village relishing tasty butter and milk. The snow leopard waited and waited for his friends to return, then gave up and ate the ibex, leaving the spleen for the otter and the fat for the house cat. While the two friends never returned, to this day the snow leopard always leaves the spleen and fat of a kill for his friends, the otter and the house cat. So goes the legend from the Valley of Zanskar.

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Medium 9780874212341

11 Runaway Rafts, 1962

Richard Westwood Utah State University Press ePub

At the end of a Glen Canyon trip in May of 1962, Georgie made a difficult landing on a silt and mud bar at Kane Creek. They arrived one day early because dam construction and high water had backed the river into the mouths of some of the canyons they planned to visit. Whitey was late arriving and had been drinking heavily. He and Georgie had an argument, and it almost became a fist fight. It was a disagreeable ending to a fine trip. Georgie told Tony (Sylvia Tone), “Running the rapids in Grand Canyon is no problem, but Whitey is.”1

On May 14, 1962, Georgie left Lee’s Ferry for another Grand Canyon trip. Shine Smith was there to see them off, along with an elderly Navajo medicine man named Many Songs, who blessed the boats. L. C. B. “Mac” McCullough said, “We think he may have cursed them [the boats], the way we had trouble.”

On the evening of May 22 Georgie landed on the sandbar at Tapeats Creek. The party’s second set of boats landed there as well. But an oarlock on the third boat broke as they were attempting to land, and it was swept a mile further downstream before the crew could bring it ashore. They decided there was daylight enough left to tow the boat back up to Georgie’s camp. So young Art Gallenson stayed on board to fend it off the rocks while the rest of the group pulled on ropes from the shore. Gallenson wrote:

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Medium 9781780642109

15: Land-use Change Impacts on Soil Processes in Tropical and Savannah Ecosystems: Emerging Themes and Future Research Directions

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

15 

Land-use Change Impacts on Soil

Processes in Tropical and Savannah Ecosystems:

Emerging Themes and Future Research

Directions

Andrew D. Thomas,1* Marife D. Corre,2 Luitgard Schwendenmann,3

Edzo Veldkamp,2 Kazumichi Fujii,4,5 Krista L. McGuire,6,7

David D. Mkwambisi,8 L. Ronald Ng Cheong,9 Jennifer S. Powers10,11 and Francis Q. Brearley12

1

Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University,

Aberystwyth, UK; 2Büsgen Institute – Soil Science of Tropical and Subtropical

Ecosystems, Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany;

3

School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Auckland,

New Zealand; 4Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute,

Tsukuba, Japan; 5Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University,

Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia University,

New York, USA; 7Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology,

Columbia University, New York, USA; 8Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lilongwe, Malawi; 9Mauritius Sugarcane Industry Research

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Medium 9781574414615

Crime in a Small Town

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

Crime in a Small Town

I live in the rural Northwest, where, contrary to popular belief, a small town can have problems with crime. I’m going to tell about some of them.

Before I get into the actual crimes we have to deal with here, I need to mention one curious thing. We don’t seem to have many problems with kids or teenagers. It’s an odd experience to walk up to a 17-year-old kid whose hair is sticking straight up in multi-colored spikes, his body covered with tattoos, his head filled with metal piercings, and ask him how to get to the nearest Starbucks, and he responds pleasantly and eagerly, even calling you “sir.” This usually happens. And the kid isn’t playing you for a fool; it’s the way the kids act around here. I never got that kind of response in California. Another thing that may have something to do with kids is that there never seems to be any graffiti anywhere, even on bathroom walls in gas stations. This is pretty much true throughout the area. The biggest graffiti I’ve seen is on the walls of a tunnel where the culprits use a wet towel to write their messages in the grime on the tunnel walls. The messages will say something like, “I love you Sarah,” “Support the Queen of the Netherlands,” or “US out of Oregon.” The messages last only a few days, however, because the cleanup crews wash down the walls frequently.

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Medium 9781603449519

8. The Gun: Harvest and Management Planning

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

8

The Gun: Harvest and Management Planning

KEY CONCEPTS

▼ Maintaining deer populations within the carrying capacity of the habitat should be the primary goal of harvest management.

▼ Management decisions regarding whether deer numbers exceed or are below carrying capacity of the habitat are best made by monitoring utilization of key deer forages and monitoring trends in deer body mass, antler development, and fawn survival.

▼ Establishment of a management goal is important, whether managing for trophy males or for maximum-sustainable-yield harvest.

▼ Developing a sound management plan and keeping records of the number, age, sex, body mass, and antler dimensions of harvested deer are important aids in meeting management objectives.

Harvest as a Habitat Management Tool

Aldo Leopold (1933) asserted that game can be “restored” by hunting. Our primary emphasis in this chapter is use of hunting as a tool to maintain deer densities within carrying capacity of the habitat. Maintaining deer populations within carrying capacity allows the most preferred plant species in the habitat to reproduce, affords maximum protection to other resources, and benefits all organisms in an ecosystem. We recommend managing populations based on our forage-based definition of carrying capacity, which results in densities lower than K-carrying capacity, commonly used as the basis for modeling deer population growth and harvest management. Much of the theory underlying harvest management, including the concepts of density dependence, density independence, and compensatory mortality, is based on K-carrying capacity.

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Medium 9781780647128

13: Biological Control of Grape Canker Pathogens

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

13

Biological Control of Grape

Canker Pathogens

L. Costadone* and W.D. Gubler*

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, USA

Introduction

Grapes (and raisins) represented the second most important agricultural commodity in the state of California in 2012, and was only narrowly third in 2013 (USDA Californian Agricultural Statistics Service, 2013). Fungal trunk diseases of grapevines are known to occur in most viticulture regions of the world, including California, and are responsible for significant economic losses (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2006). Fungal species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are the causal agents of canker diseases and dieback on many woody perennial hosts worldwide (Van Niekerk et al., 2004). In California, recent research has shown that nine different species of Botryosphaeriaceae can infect grapevines (Úrbez-Torres and Gubler, 2009). Symptoms of grapevine cankers include dead spurs and cordons, and eventual vine death, due to canker development in the vascular tissue (Úrbez-Torres and Gubler, 2009). Wedge-shaped cankers in cross section are diagnostic of the disease, but cankers may appear in other shapes as well owing to fungal growth in the xylem of infected wood. Usually, no foliar symptoms are associated with the disease because of the sudden death of cordons and spur positions.

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Medium 9781574412826

Mapudungun Bird Names

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781603448147

5. July—American Bison of Theodore Roosevelt

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

5. July

American Bison of Theodore Roosevelt

“We landed, ascended the bank, and entered a small skirting of trees and shrubs that separated the river from an extensive plain. On gaining a view of it, such a scene opened to us as will fall to the lot of few travelers to witness. This plain was literally covered with buffaloes as far as we could see, and we soon discovered that it consisted in part of females. The males were fighting in every direction, with a fury which I have never seen paralleled, each having singled out his antagonist. We judged that the number must have amounted to some thousands, and that there were many hundreds of these battles going on at the same time . . . I shall only observe farther, that the noise occasioned by the trampling and bellowing was far beyond description. In the evening, before we encamped, another immense herd made its appearance, running along the bluffs at full speed, and although at least a mile from us, we could distinctly hear the sound of their feet, which resembled distant thunder.”

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