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1908 The South Shore Railroad

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The South Shore got its start in life in 1903 as an East Chicago streetcar line. In 1906–1908, the company constructed a well-engineered interurban electric rail line from Chicago through the dunes to South Bend and built a (pre-NIPSCO) generating station in Michigan City to provide its electricity.

By then called the Chicago, Lake Shore, and South Bend Railway, the line made much of the dunes easily accessible. Residents of Chicago and northwest Indiana could now easily take a morning train to Tremont in the dunes and be back home in time for dinner. Although it has carried both freight and passengers, it is passenger service that has made this railroad, known for years as just the South Shore, the defining railroad of the Calumet Area.

In the 1920s, there were sixteen thousand miles of interurban railroad in the United States and the Lake Shore electric line was one of the fastest. Nevertheless, it soon lost passengers as automobiles became more common. Samuel Insull, president of Chicago Edison Company, purchased the railroad in 1925 at a foreclosure sale and renamed it the Chicago, South Shore & South Bend Railroad. Besides improving service, he created an innovative marketing program that included newsletters and the now well-known poster series. Twenty-five new cars with plush seats, bathrooms, separate smoking compartments, and windows that let in fresh air were purchased in 1926 from the Pullman Company. Ridership increased so fast that the next year Insull ordered twenty more cars.

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Medium 9781771870825

The Heart of the World

Virgo, Seán Thistledown Press ePub

Yehuda Amichai

Barry Callaghan

Leprous, I sit among potsherds and nettles,
at the foot of a wall eaten by the sun.
— Rimbaud

JERUSALEM IS STONE WANTING TO BE WATER. Jerusalem is a dry wave at the centre of the earth: “When God created the world He placed the waters of the ocean around the earth. And in the heart of the inhabited world God placed Jerusalem … This is the heart of the world.”

Jerusalem has a heart as crooked as ecclesiastical sheets, as crooked as yellow thorn branches, dry in their silence. In the alleyways there is no sound of water. By a wrought-iron window in a stone house on a rise called Yemin Moshe, looking across a gully to Jaffa Gate, Yehuda Amichai the poet sits hunched forward, solid and fleshy through the shoulders and his face is red from the sun. “And what about love?” I ask.

“It goes without saying,” he says.

“It goes?”

“Sometimes it goes, sometimes it doesn’t come.”

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Medium 9781780646947

12: Gymnosperm Diversity of the Kashmir Himalayas

Ansari, A. CABI PDF


Gymnosperm Diversity of the

Kashmir Himalayas

Mohd Irfan Naikoo1*, Mudasir Irfan Dar1, Fareed Ahmad

Khan1, Abid Ali Ansari2, Farha Rehman1 and Fouzia



Environmental Botany Laboratory, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,

Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Biology, ­Faculty of Science, University of

Tabuk,Tabuk, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Botany, Women’s College, Aligarh

Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India


The Kashmir is rich in biodiversity and is known as the biomass state of India (Lawrence, 1895). Phytogeographically located at the Holarctic and Paleotropical intersection in the North-Western Himalaya, this bio-region harbours luxurious treasures of plant diversity. The Kashmir region is rich in gymnosperm diversity, which forms an important component, floristically, ecologically and socio-economically: it is known as the green gold of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Gymnosperms harbour a rich diversity of flora and fauna under their canopies. They are the rich source of diverse economic and medicinal products, providing innumerable products, including timber, fuel, gums, resins, medicines and many more useful products, besides acting as effective wind-breaks, especially the evergreen species, which also slow soil erosion and protect watersheds. The single giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), the state tree of California, which grows at Yarikhah Drug Farm (Tangmarg) in Kashmir Valley is the lone representative in the India subcontinent. Due to their immense importance, the gymnosperms have been overexploited by the human population. Sustainable management and conservation of these gymnosperms is urgently required. Anthropogenic activities should be checked and the stake holders educated about the proper harvesting of gymnosperm flora for different uses.

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Medium 9781574414615

The Tools of the Trade

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

The Tools of the Trade

Horseshoeing tools haven’t changed much since horses first started wearing shoes. If a Roman or Celtic horseshoer of old were to find himself in this century, he would have no problem shoeing a horse with the tools of today. I’ll describe them.

The “shoeing box” holds most of the tools. It’s usually made of wood, and has various sections for nails and tools of different sizes. The problem with a wooden box is that it breaks apart when it inevitably gets stepped on by the horse. Usually you can repair the box, but after my box had been stepped on and repaired four times, my seventh-grade son got disgusted and made me a new one in shop class. He added a clever invention: a three-foot cord attached to the box that would allow me to pull the box toward me if I got separated from it by the movement of the horse. I was really pleased with that addition, but it does have its drawbacks. For one, to a nervous horse, the cord looks just like a snake. A second problem can appear when you pull the box to you. Watching a box apparently moving by itself is unsettling to a lot of horses, especially if the box is moving toward them. I’ve learned to be cautious whenever I pull the box by the cord, but I’m quite pleased with my son’s invention.

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9. Characterization of Sauropod Bone Structure

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


This chapter describes the applications of some well established methods of material science in the examination of sauropod bone microstructure. Fossilized bone is characterized here at different levels of hierarchy, from the macro level (at which bone can be separated into cortical and cancellous bone) to the nano level (at which the bone is composed of an assemblage of collagen and mineral particles), and then compared to bone of extant animals. X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis in combination with electron microscopy permit the quantification of the influence of diagenetic processes on fossilized bone. The chapter emphasizes that there are a multitude of investigative techniques well suited for bone analysis at the different structural levels. For an in-depth understanding of dinosaur bone structure and its global preservation state, however, a combination of the methods is necessary.

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18. Skeletal Reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin: Summarizing 70 Years of Sauropod Research

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


The skeletal reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai displayed in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, is the largest mounted dinosaur skeleton in the world that incorporates original fossil material. Found during the course of the German Tendaguru expedition from 1909 to 1913, a composite skeleton of B. brancai was first mounted in 1938, and although it was demounted and remounted several times, it remained unchanged until the renovation of the Berlin dinosaur exhibition hall in 2005–2007. Here we describe the scientific progress, technical solutions, and specific decisions that led to the new mount, which has been on display since 2007. The new mount differs in a number of points from the old mount, including improved models of the presacral vertebrae and head, the posture of the neck, the shape of the torso, the orientation of the pectoral girdle and forelimbs, and the posture of the tail. Overall, the Brachiosaurus skeleton now looks livelier, evoking the impression of an active, relatively agile animal and symbolizing developments in our understanding of sauropods since the first mounting of the skeleton.

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Medium 9781607320074

1. The Sea of Grass

Ellen Wohl University Press of Colorado ePub

[T]he ocean [in the central continent] is one of grass, and the shores are the crests of the mountain ranges, and the dark pine forests of sub-Arctic regions. The great ocean itself does not present more infinite variety than does this prairie-ocean. … In winter, a dazzling surface of purest snow; in early summer, a vast expanse of grass and pale pink roses; in autumn too often a wild sea of raging fire.


Native grasses once sent up green shoots each spring from Alberta and Saskatchewan all the way south into Texas and the plains of Mexico. Grasses swayed in the prairie winds from the high plains of Montana east to the swampy lowlands of Illinois. Across the center of North America, 1.4 million square miles of grass supported immense herds of bison and bird migrations that darkened the skies. What Americans now sometimes call the breadbasket was a province of grasses: 46,000 square miles in the state of Iowa alone, and 40 percent of the continental United States, dominated by grasses. This was the landscape the first people of European descent to reach the center of the continent described as a sea of grass. One of the earliest written descriptions of the central Great Plains comes from Edwin James of the Long Expedition, who wrote while crossing the plains east of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in May 1820:

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Medium 9780253000958

Staying Put

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Two friends arrived at our house for supper one May evening along with the first rumblings of thunder. As my wife, Ruth, and I sat talking with them on our front porch, we had to keep raising our voices a notch to make ourselves heard above the gathering storm. The birds, more discreet, had already hushed. The huge elm beside our door began to sway, limbs creaking, leaves hissing. Black sponges of clouds blotted up the light, fooling the street lamps into coming on early. Above the trees and rooftops, the murky southern sky crackled with lightning. Now and again we heard the pop of a transformer as a bolt struck the power lines in our neighborhood. The pulses of thunder came faster and faster, until they merged into a continuous roar.

We gave up on talking. The four of us, all midwesterners teethed on thunderstorms, sat down there on the porch to our meal of lentil soup, cheddar cheese, bread warm from the oven, sliced apples and strawberries. We were lifting the first spoonfuls to our mouths when a stroke of lightning burst so nearby that it seemed to suck away the air, and the lights flickered out, plunging the whole street into darkness.

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Gary Lantz University of North Texas Press PDF


Morning Comes to Elk MouNtain

to begin the serious business of mining pollen and serving as sex surrogates for the first wave of flowering plants.

Crab Eyes seems like a good spot to choose a boulder as big as a mini-van, settle back out of the wind and ascertain if a few low notes from a small wooden flute I’ve tucked into my day pack can blend into the wild ambience of the place. However, my music doesn’t impress the skinny old buffalo bull lounging unseen in the tall grass on the opposite side of the boulder. The bull leaps to his feet, nimble as a startled deer, also startling the flute player in the process. After a few hops the massive animal appears to regain his composure and walk regally, albeit a bit stiffly, down to the little stream for a few nerve-reassuring mouthfuls of green grass. When

I manage to hit a few high notes on the flute, the visually agitated old bruiser heads for higher ground, doing whatever necessary to bring a merciful end to the open-air talent show.

By late in the afternoon the clouds are breaking up, the weather warming and a small herd of bison cows are feeling frisky as they move across the mesa top where the early morning elk fed. The cows are headed somewhere at a trot, and they buck, joust, and attempt to mount each other in the sort of play most people don’t expect from that solemn animal gracing the face of a buffalo nickel.

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Medium 9781771870801


Forrie, Allan Thistledown Press ePub
In “Phantom Limb” Theresa Kishkan remembers Lily, a dog who was adopted from a nearby reservation and quickly became a member of the family: protecting the yard from deer, raccoons, and bears; training the new puppy Tiger; and sharing family picnics and walks before the end of her too-short life.
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chapter eleven OTHER FURBEARERS

Silliker, Bill Down East Books ePub

Beavers particularly favor the bark of hardwood trees but will also eat the buds and bark of softwoods in spring, as well as various water plants, cultivated crops, and even an occasional dead fish.

The beaver swam back and forth along the shore of the pond as it gathered its winter food supply. Living up to its reputation for busyness, the animal made many trips past our cabin every morning, hauling the limbs it had cut from trees on the far northern shore. When it reacted its lodge on the south side of the pond, it dived under the surface and jammed each new branch into the mud on the bottom to add to its cache.

Each time it swam by, it made an inviting target for my camera, except for one thing: This was a week of dull overcast skies, and the early morning light

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Medium 9781780643373

12: The Changing Fortunes of Woodland Birds in Temperate Europe

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF


The Changing Fortunes of Woodland

Birds in Temperate Europe

Shelley A. Hinsley,1* Robert J. Fuller2 and Peter N. Ferns3

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK; 2British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford, UK; 3School of Biosciences,

Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK


12.1  Introduction

We explore what is known of the history of woodland birds in Europe and how they have responded to changes in woodland extent, composition and management. Beyond the simple availability of habitat, woodland structure is a critical factor in species survival and distribution. Despite the huge transformation of postglacial forests, no woodland bird species has actually become extinct, and with forest cover now increasing, as long as diverse habitat structures can be maintained across a range of scales, forest birds should not only survive, but also thrive.

12.2  The Birds of the Early


Our knowledge of the bird fauna of postglacial woodlands (from about 13,000 years ago) is based mainly on bone fragments left by predators and found in cave deposits. Additional information can be inferred from the present bird fauna of sites where the climate is similar today, and from molecular evidence indicating if, and when, species divergence

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15 Of Material Sympathies, Paracelsus, and Whitman

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Jane Bennett

PARACELSUS (1493–1541) EXPERIENCED the natural world as a complex order of sympathies, resonances, magnetic attractions, and analogies (Pagel 52).1 Though Paracelsus is variously categorized as physician, philosopher, alchemist, herbalist, I like to think of him as a plant physiognomist, as, that is, a practitioner of the art of discovering temperament and character from outward appearance. Each natural object bore for him a divine “signature” encoded in the thing’s shape, smell, texture, color, posture. This equivocal sign served as a spur to the human perceiver to engage in the artistry—the speculative thinking and practical experimentation—that would give determinacy to the hidden “virtues” of the object.2 Paracelsus’s practice of virtue was a medico-religious one, organized around the idea that meticulous attention to plants, animal organs and fluids, and minerals would provide hints about how those bodies might contribute to the human body’s desire to live a strong and long life.

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Appendix D: Photograph Data

Jeffrey E. Belth Indiana University Press ePub

The date and county where the photographs were taken are listed below. All counties are Indiana counties, unless followed by a two-letter state code in brackets. Date and localities for photographs of specimens refer to the date and location where the specimen was collected, not the date of the photograph. A three-letter code in brackets after photographs of specimens identifies the collection where the specimen is housed. LDG: Loran D. Gibson (Florence, KY), MCL: McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity (Gainesville, FL), JAS: John A. Shuey (Shelbyville, IN), DMW: David M. Wright (Lansdale, PA). All photographs are by the author, unless indicated.

3: Eastern Tiger Swallowtail: male, upperside: April 11, 2002, Brown; female, form “turnus,” upperside: August 3, 2002, Monroe; underside: July 29, 2001, Newton. Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail: male, upperside: May 15, 2005, Ashe [NC], ©Teddy Wilcox; female, upperside: June 10, 2000, Warren [VA], ©Harry Pavulaan; underside: May 5, 2003, Clay [NC], ©Randy Emmitt. Zebra Swallowtail: upperside, form “marcellus”: April 14, 2011, Monroe; upperside, form “telamonides”: May 26, 2002, Monroe; upperside, form “lecontei”: June 12, 2011, Mason [IL]; underside, form “telamonides”: April 29, 2004, Perry. 5: Black Swallowtail: male, upperside: June 25, 2002, Monroe; female, upperside: September 7, 2002, Monroe; underside: August 24, 2011, Monroe. Giant Swallowtail: upperside: August 21, 2010, Monroe; underside: July 12, 2010, Monroe. 7: Spicebush Swallowtail: male, upperside: June 23, 2001, Monroe; female, upperside: August 2, 2009, Harrison; underside: August 25, 2001, Perry. Pipevine Swallowtail: male, upperside: June 26, 2010, Monroe; female, upperside: July 31, 2011, Posey; underside: July 2, 2002, Monroe. Eastern Tiger Swallowtail: female, dark form “glaucus,” upperside: June 19, 2004, Monroe; underside: July 15, 2001, Monroe. Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail: female, dark form, upperside: May 29, 2004, Pendleton [WV] [DMW], ©David Wright. 9: All images are duplicated from 3, 5, 7, and 11 (see listings under those pages for data), except: Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail: female, dark form, underside: May 29, 2004, Pendleton [WV] [DMW], ©David Wright. 11: Red-spotted Purple: (ssp. astyanax), upperside: August 21, 2001, Monroe; ssp. astyanax, form “viridis,” upperside: May 16, 2004, Perry; form “proserpina,” upperside: August 7, 2006, Presque Isle [MI]; ssp. astyanax, underside: August 4, 2001, Perry; form “proserpina,” underside: August 7, 2006, Presque Isle [MI]. White Admiral: upperside: August 1, 2010, Hubbard [MN]; underside: August 4, 2010, Clearwater [MN]. Diana Fritillary: female, upperside: August 31, 2009, Union [GA], ©Phil Kelly; underside: August 31, 2009, Union [GA], ©Phil Kelly. 13: Cabbage White: male, upperside: May 20, 2001, Monroe; female, upperside: July 30, 2000, Posey; spring form, upperside: May 4, 2002, Porter; spring/fall form, underside: November 7, 2005, Posey; summer form, underside: July 10, 2001, Monroe. West Virginia White: upperside: April 16, 2002, Brown; underside: April 11, 2001, Brown. Mustard White: upperside: May 27, 2004, LaGrange; spring form, underside: April 28, 2001, LaGrange; summer form, underside: June 17, 2001, LaGrange. 15: Checkered White: male, summer form, upperside: July 21, 2001, Posey; female, summer form, upperside: July 21, 2001, Posey; male, summer form, underside: July 31, 2011, Posey; female, summer form, underside: July 30, 2000, Posey; female, fall form: October 28, 2000, Posey. Olympia Marble: upperside: May 4, 2005, Porter; underside: May 3, 2009, Porter. Falcate Orangetip: male, upperside: April 4, 2009, Monroe; female, upperside: April 18, 2002, Monroe; underside: April 4, 2009, Monroe. 17: Clouded Sulphur: male, upperside: June 15, 1991, Kalkaska [MI] [JAS]; female, upperside: May 29, 1977, Fulton [KY] [LDG]; male, summer form, underside: July 10, 2001, Monroe; female, summer form, underside: August 25, 2011, Monroe; male, spring/fall form, underside: March 28, 2007, Monroe; female, spring/fall form, underside: June 8, 2001, Monroe. Clouded/Orange Sulphur, female, form “alba:” summer form, upperside: June 5, 1974, Owsley [KY] [LDG]; summer form, underside: August 21, 2001, Monroe; spring/fall form: October 30, 2007, Monroe. Orange Sulphur: male, summer form, upperside: August 6, 1974, Marshall [KY] [LDG]; female, summer form, upperside: September 21, 1972, Boone [KY] [LDG]; male, summer form, underside: August 24, 2001, Monroe; female, summer form, underside: August 11, 2011, Harrsion; male, spring/fall form, underside: April 10, 2007, Monroe; female, spring/fall form, underside: April 10, 2007, Monroe. 19: Cloudless Sulphur: male, upperside: July 27, 1975, Owsley [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: September 14, 1980, Fulton [KY] [LDG]; male, underside: July 17, 2004, Parke; female, underside: August 25, 2002, Posey. Orange-barred Sulphur: male, upperside: May 10, 1978, Okeechobee [FL] [LDG]; female, upperside: May 10, 1978, Okeechobee [FL] [LDG]; male, underside: November 22, 2004, Hidalgo [TX], ©Phil Kelly; female, underside: November 21, 2004, Hidalgo [TX], ©Phil Kelly. Southern Dogface: male, upperside: September 28, 1980, Boone [KY] [LDG]; male, summer form, underside: August 5, 2001, Posey; female, summer form, underside: July 31, 2011, Posey; male, form “rosa,” underside: October 16, 2010, Posey; female, form “rosa,” underside: September 29, 2001, Posey. 21: Little Yellow: male, upperside: August 27, 1977, Meade [KY] [LDG]; female, yellow form, upperside: September 28, 1975, Owsley [KY] [LDG]; female, white form, upperside: September 5, 1981, Fulton [KY] [LDG]; male, underside: July 21, 2001, Posey; female, yellow form, underside: October 3, 2008, Monroe; female, white form, underside: August 25, 2002, Posey. Sleepy Orange: male, upperside: September 14, 1980, Fulton [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: August 18, 1975, Boone [KY] [LDG]; male, underside, summer form: June 29, 2001, Parke; female, underside, summer form: June 28, 2010, Monroe; underside, spring/fall form: September 15, 2006, Walker [GA]. Dainty Sulphur: male, upperside: July 9, 1975, Boone [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: July 10, 1975, Boone [KY] [LDG]; male, underside: September 13, 2007, Monroe; female, underside: October 16, 2010, Posey; form “viridis”, underside: October 16, 2010, Posey. Mexican Yellow: male, upperside: April 25, 1988, Pima [AZ] [LDG]; female, upperside: April 25, 1988, Pima [AZ] [LDG]; underside (left to right): November 22, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]; September 7, 2004, Cochise [AZ] ©Phil Kelly. 23: Spring Azure: male, upperside: April 16, 2002, Brown; male, close-up of scales: April 12, 1987, Prince George's [MD]: female, upperside: April 26, 1988, Bucks [PA] [DMW], ©David Wright; underside, form “violacea”: March 24, 2009, Brown; underside, form “marginata”: April 22, 1995, Bucks [PA]; underside, form “lucia”: April 29, 1995, Berks [PA] [DMW]. Northern Spring Azure: underside, form “lucia”: June 1, 2005, Presque Isle [MI]; underside, form “marginata”: May 12, 2008, Jackson [WI]. Summer Azure: male, upperside: May 18, 2001, Monroe; male, close-up of scales: September 16, 1987, Montgomery [PA]; female, upperside: May 19, 2001, Monroe; underside, summer flight: May 27, 2001, Perry; underside, spring flight: March 24, 2007, Brown. 25: Dusky Azure: male, upperside: April 19, 1980, Powell [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: April 25, 2005, Brown; underside: April 25, 2005, Brown. Appalachian Azure: male, upperside: May 28, 1992, Bucks [PA] [DMW], ©David Wright; female, upperside: May 24, 1989, Ripley [DMW], ©David Wright; underside: May 7, 2007, Rockcastle [KY]. 27: Eastern Tailed-Blue: male, upperside: May 2, 2009, Monroe; female, summer form, upperside: June 4, 2000, Perry; female, spring form, upperside: May 12, 2004, Perry; underside: April 15, 2001, Monroe. Karner Blue: male, upperside: July 1, 2007, Lake; female, upperside: July 8, 2007, Lake; underside: July 8, 2007; Lake. 29: Silvery Blue: male, ssp. couperi, upperside: May 21, 2006, Waushara [WI]; female, ssp. couperi, upperside: May 28, 2006, Waushara [WI]; underside, ssp. couperi: May 28, 2006, Waushara [WI]; underside, ssp. lygdamus: April 9, 2005, Menifee [KY]. Reakirt's Blue: male, upperside: November 23, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]; female, upperside: March 27, 2005, Hidalgo [TX] ©Phil Kelly; underside, fresh: November 22, 2011, Hidalgo [TX], underside, worn: November 23, 2011, Starr [TX]. Marine Blue: male, upperside: July 20, 2007, Catron [NM] [LDG]; female, upperside: October 15, 2006, Pima [AZ] ©Phil Kelly; underside, fresh: September 12, 2004, Cochise [AZ] ©Phil Kelly; underside, worn: November 22, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]. 31: Henry's Elfin: April 14, 2002, Monroe. Frosted Elfin: May 3, 2009, Starke. Hoary Elfin: May 11, 2008, Jackson [WI]. Brown Elfin: ssp. croesioides: April 2, 2005, McCreary [KY]; ssp. augustinus: May 11, 2008, Jackson [WI]. 33: Eastern Pine Elfin: ssp. niphon, underside: April 16, 2005, Clark; ssp. clarki, underside: June 2, 2005, Presque Isle [MI]. Harvester: upperside: May 29, 2005, Brown, ©Phil Kelly; underside: June 30, 2007, Jackson. 35: Red-banded Hairstreak: underside: May 5, 2011, Monroe. Gray Hairstreak: upperside: June 20, 2002, Monroe; underside: August 12, 2000, Monroe. White M Hairstreak: male, upperside: September 13, 1998, McCracken [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: April 21, 1979, Harlan [KY] [LDG], underside: September 16, 2006, Walker [GA]. Northern Oak Hairstreak: underside: May 16, 2001, Lewis [KY], ©John A. Merkle. 37: Banded Hairstreak: left: June 8, 2011, Monroe; right: June 11, 2000, Monroe. Hickory Hairstreak: left: June 13, 2001, Monroe; right: July 5, 2003, Monroe. Striped Hairstreak: June 8, 2012, Monroe, ©Steve Dunbar. 39: Edwards' Hairstreak: June 25, 2011, Jackson. Acadian Hairstreak: June 30, 2001, Newton. Coral Hairstreak: male: June 23, 2009, Newton; female: June 25, 2009, Monroe. 41: Juniper Hairstreak: May 4, 2008, Harrison. Early Hairstreak: male, upperside: July 10, 1976, Harlan [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: July 7, 1977, Harlan [KY] [LDG]; underside: May 28, 2006, Berkshire [MA] ©Tom Murray. Great Purple Hairstreak: male, upperside: November 6, 2006, Starr [TX] [LDG]; female, upperside: September 13, 1998, McCracken [KY] [LDG]; male, underside: September 16, 2006, Walker [GA]; female, underside: November 19, 2006, Hidalgo [TX], ©Phil Kelly. 43: American Copper: male, upperside: July 5, 2004, Newton; female, upperside: June 20, 2001, Owen; underside: June 20, 2001, Owen. Bronze Copper: male, fresh, upperside: August 28, 2005, Monroe; male, worn, upperside: May 12, 2001, Monroe; female, upperside: May 16, 2001, Monroe; underside: June 5, 2004, Newton. Gray Copper: male, upperside: July 8, 2011, Portage [WI]; female, upperside: June 16, 2010; Mason [IL]; underside: July 3, 2011, Portage [WI]. 45: Purplish Copper: male, fresh, upperside: August 22, 2005, Kane [IL]; male, worn, upperside: August 22, 2005, Kane [IL]; female, upperside: August 22, 2005, Kane [IL]; underside: August 22, 2005, Kane [IL]. Dorcas Copper: male, fresh, upperside: July 15, 2006, Presque Isle [MI]; male, worn, upperside: July 15, 2006, Presque Isle [MI]; female, upperside: August 6, 2005, Presque Isle [MI]; underside: July 9, 2005, Jackson [MI]. Bog Copper: male, upperside: July 24, 2006, Jackson [WI]; female, upperside: July 22, 2009, Becker [MN] ©Susan E. Hengeveld; underside: July 24, 2006, Jackson [WI]. 47: Swamp Metalmark: male, upperside: August 27, 2000, Perry; female, upperside: August 27, 2000, Perry; underside: August 25, 2001, Perry. Northern Metalmark: male, upperside: June 25, 2003, Brown; female, upperside: June 23, 2000, Adams [OH]; underside: June 25, 2003, Brown. 49: Monarch: male, upperside: August 23, 2009, Newton; female, upperside: September 23, 2001, Monroe; male, underside: June 20, 2010, Monroe; female, underside: August 17, 2011, Monroe. Viceroy: upperside: July 21, 2001, Posey; underside: August 9, 2000, Monroe. Queen: male, upperside: November 22, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]; female, upperside: November 24, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]; male, underside: November 20, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]; female, underside: November 24, 2011, Hidalgo [TX]. 51: Great Spangled Fritillary: male, upperside: May 27, 2001, Perry; female, upperside: June 25, 2011, Monroe; underside: June 10, 2001, Monroe; close-up of eye: July 6, 2011, Monroe. Aphrodite Fritillary: male, upperside: June 18, 2005, Newton; female, upperside: July 29, 2001, Newton; underside, ssp, aphrodite: June 16, 2001, Jasper; underside, ssp. alcestis: June 18, 2005, Newton; close-up of eye: July 12, 2009, Newton. Atlantis Fritillary: male, upperside: July 21, 2008, Hubbard [MN], ©Susan E. Hengeveld; female, upperside: July 21, 2008, Hubbard [MN], ©Susan E. Hengeveld; underside: August 4, 2010, Clearwater [MN]; close-up of eye: August 4, 2010, Clearwater [MN]. 53: Regal Fritillary: male, upperside: June 23, 2009, Newton; female, upperside: June 23, 2004, Newton; underside: July 29, 2001, Newton. Gulf Fritillary: male, upperside: July 17, 1990, Adams [OH] ©Pete Whan; female, upperside: November 7, 2005, Posey; underside: July 17, 1990, Adams [OH] ©Pete Whan. 55: Variegated Fritillary: upperside: August 23, 2001, Monroe; underside: June 26, 2010, Jackson. Diana Fritillary, male: upperside: July 14, 2007, Harlan [KY]; male, underside: June 17, 2006, Warren [TN], ©Bill Bouton. 57: Meadow Fritillary: upperside: September 4, 2001, Monroe; underside: September 10, 2001, Monroe. Silver-bordered Fritillary: upperside: June 23, 2004, Newton; underside, ssp. nebraskensis: June 23, 2004, Newton; underside, ssp. myrina: July 20, 1978, LaGrange, [MCL], ©Andrew D. Warren. 59: Pearl Crescent: male, form “morpheus,” upperside: July 31, 2000, Monroe; male, form “morpheus,” underside: July 10, 2010, Greene; male, form “morpheus,” underside (with crescent): August 10, 2000, Monroe; female, form “morpheus,” upperside: June 10, 2008, Monroe; female, form “morpheus,” underside: June 17, 2006, Monroe; male, form “marcia,” upperside: April 29, 2011, Brown; female, form “marcia,” upperside: April 8, 2012, Brown; male, form “marcia,” underside: April 29, 2011, Brown; female, form “marcia,” underside: April 26, 2003, Lawrence. Northern Crescent: male, upperside: June 24, 2006, Wood [WI]; male, underside: July 2, 2011, Wood [WI]; Tawny Crescent: upperside: May 26, 2006, Roscommon [MI], ©Bill Bouton; male, underside: May 10, 1993, Otsego [MI] [MCL], ©James L. Monroe; female, underside: July 10, 2004, Otsego [MI], ©Bill Bouton. Silvery Checkerspot: upperside, fresh: May 21, 2001, Monroe; upperside, worn: June 12, 2011, Mason [IL]; underside: May 28, 2001, Perry. 61: Harris' Checkerspot: male, upperside: June 10, 2006, Wood [WI]; underside: June 10, 2006, Wood [WI]. Gorgone Checkerspot: upperside: May 12, 2007, Jackson [WI]; underside: May 20, 2006, Jackson [WI]. Baltimore Checkerspot: male, upperside: June 19, 2005, Steuben; female, upperside: June 4, 2011, Morgan; underside: June 22, 2005, Steuben. 63: Question Mark: upperside, summer form “umbrosa”: May 24, 2003, Perry; male, underside, summer form: May 28, 2001, Perry; female, underside, summer form: July 3, 2009, Newton; upperside, spring/fall form: September 2, 2001, Monroe; male, underside, spring/fall form: August 24, 2001, Monroe; female, underside, spring/fall form: August 27, 2001, Monroe. Eastern Comma: upperside, summer form “dryas”: June 3, 2001, Perry; male, underside, summer form: May 28, 2001, Perry; female, underside, summer form: May 27, 2001, Perry; upperside, spring/fall form: October 20, 2001, Posey; male, underside, spring/fall form: August 24, 2001, Monroe; female, underside, spring/fall form: October 20, 2001, Posey. 65: Gray Comma: upperside: August 3, 2010, Clearwater [MN]; underside: August 3, 2010, Clearwater [MN]. Satyr Comma: upperside: August 4, 2006, Florence [WI], ©Mike Reese; underside: April 10, 2010, Bayfield [WI], ©Mike Reese. Goatweed Leafwing: male, upperside, spring/fall form: April 29, 2004, Perry; female, upperside, spring/fall form: June 2, 2002, Perry; underside, spring/fall form: April 29, 2004; underside, summer form “andriaesta”: August 2, 2009, Harrison. 67: Mourning Cloak: upperside: June 3, 2001, Perry; underside: May 20, 2001, Monroe. Milbert's Tortoiseshell: upperside: August 2, 2010, Hubbard [MN]; underside: August 1, 2010, Hubbard [MN]. Compton Tortoiseshell: upperside: July 8, 2011, Wood [WI]; underside: July 8, 2011, Wood [WI]. 69: American Lady: upperside: June 21, 2000, Adams [OH]; underside: June 21, 2000, Adams [OH]. Painted Lady: upperside: July 29, 2001, Newton; underside: August 21, 2000, Monroe; Red Admiral: upperside: August 26, 2001, Monroe; underside: August 27, 2001, Monroe. Common Buckeye: upperside: September 1, 2001, Monroe; underside (left to right): July 10, 2010, Greene; June 28, 2011, Monroe; July 10, 2010, Greene; underside; form “rosa”: September 9, 2010, Monroe. 71: Hackberry Emperor: male, upperside: May 28, 2001, Perry; male, underside: August 1, 2001, Monroe; female, upperside: June 11, 2010, Monroe; female, underside: June 11, 2010, Monroe. Tawny Emperor: male, upperside: September 1, 2001, Monroe; male, underside: August 29, 2009, Clark; female, upperside: August 29, 2002, Monroe; female, underside: August 29, 2002, Monroe. American Snout: upperside: September 6, 2004, Posey; underside, pale: July 21, 2001, Posey; underside, dark: August 25, 2002, Posey; underside, form “kirtlandi”: September 18, 2010, Brown. White Admiral: see 11. 73: Northern Pearly-eye: upperside: August 10, 1980, Powell [KY] [LDG]; underside: May 25, 2000, Brown; underside (with fifth eyespot): August 24, 2008, Christian [KY]; antenna detail: August 24, 2008, Christian [KY]. Creole Pearly-eye: male, upperside: August 10, 1980, Powell [KY] [LDG]; female, upperside: August 18, 1978, Fulton [KY]; male, underside: August 24, 2008, Christian [KY]; female, underside: August 4, 2007, Fulton [KY]. Southern Pearly-eye: male, upperside: August 27, 1983, Fulton [KY] [LDG]; male, underside: August 30, 2008, Christian [KY]; female, underside: August 30, 2008, Christian [KY]; antenna detail: August 30, 2008, Christian [KY]. 75: Eyed Brown: upperside, ssp. eurydice: June 19, 2005, Steuben; underside, ssp. eurydice: June 22, 2005, Steuben; underside, ssp. fumosus: July 1, 2008, White; Appalachian Brown: upperside, ssp. leeuwi: June 23, 2007, LaGrange; underside, ssp. leeuwi: June 20, 2004, LaGrange; underside, ssp. appalachia: August 9, 2003, Posey. 77: Common Wood-Nymph: upperside, form “alope”: July 3, 1984, Pendleton [KY] [LDG]; upperside, intergrade: July 18, 1985, Lucas [OH] [JAS]; upperside, form “nephele”: July 31, 1981, Otsego [MI] [LDG]; underside, form “alope”: July 15, 2001, Monroe; underside, intergrade: July 15, 2001, Monroe; underside, form “nephele”: July 29, 2001, Newton. Little Wood-Satyr: male, upperside: June 1, 2003, Jackson; female, upperside: June 1, 2003, Jackson; underside, late spring flight: May 24, 2003, Perry; underside, summer flight: June 25, 2011, Jackson. 79: Carolina Satyr: upperside: May 16, 2004, Perry; underside: May 5, 2002, Perry. Gemmed Satyr: upperside: April 15, 1982, Laurel [KY] [LDG]; underside: July 31, 2004, Posey. Mitchell's Satyr: upperside: July 9, 1983, Jackson [MI] [LDG]; underside: July 9, 2005, Jackson [MI].

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28 • The Mocker Takes a Sparrow

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

The Mocker Takes a Sparrow • 131

mocker continued to care for her newly hatched twins, but then one was found dead on the ground. A few days later, the other baby bird followed. Finally, late one afternoon, the couple's cat caught and mauled the mama. WRR became involved when the couple brought us the injured, widowed and now childless mockingbird. She was depressed, had a severely bruised wing and one leg that was broken almost in two.

The very same day, we also received what seemed to me the world's tiniest, most naked baby sparrow. He still had bits of eggshell on his minuscule head. He must have spent only hours in his parents' care. I held out little hope for his survival.

This hatchling sparrow arrived cold and damp. He showed little interest in eating. Our first challenge was to warm him and provide small portions of fresh formula every half hour.

His thin neck would barely support his head. He sat in his makeshift nest, drooping and tired, ready to give up. There was only one option left for saving the sparrow's life. I knew it was a long shot, but it was worth a try. If my plan worked, we had little to lose and so much to gain.

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