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Medium 9780253356024

6. Wetlands

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Wetlands include many habitats and some grade one into the other. In this volume, we have divided wetlands into two chapters. In chapter 7, “Aquatic Systems,” are the natural rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds, and also man-made impoundments and reservoirs. Oxbows, backwaters, sloughs, and embayments are also considered in chapter 7. Some overlap with these and the wetlands discussed in this chapter is recognized and speaks to the diversity of wetlands in definition, function, and characteristics.

Wetlands considered in this chapter may be ephemeral or permanent. They consist of swamps, marshes, bogs, fens, potholes, wetlands and ditches of farmed areas, and mudflats. Ephemeral wetlands do not contain permanent populations of fish, although fish may enter them during local flood events. The habitats included in chapter 7 often have submergent vegetation, while those considered in this chapter often have emergent vegetation as well. Swamps are characterized by having trees as their dominant species, although there are also shrub wetlands characterized by such plants as buttonbush. Marshes have abundant emergent herbaceous vegetation such as cattails. Bogs are generally acidic, develop floating masses of vegetation, and have a unique set of plants: sphagnum, cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, pitcher plant, sundew, bog rosemary, and many others. Potholes are usually small ponds in northern Indiana scoured out by glaciers. Many no longer exist, but many that do are surrounded by croplands. As mentioned above, wetland habitats are often not clearly separated from one another. A lake may have extensive marsh or swamp in its shallower areas. Backwaters of streams and rivers may be choked with aquatic vegetation. The various wetlands, especially those without fish, form some of Indiana’s best habitat for many animals, especially amphibians and reptiles.

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Medium 9781603449519

Appendix 4. Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Timothy E. Fulbright Texas A&M University Press ePub

Appendix 4

Planting Summary for Selected Forages

Sources of Information

The follow planting recommendations for selected plant species were compiled from several sources, including Heath, Metcalfe, and Barnes (1973); Vallentine (1980); Koerth and Kroll (1994); Fulbright (1999a); Redmon, Caddel, and Enis (n.d.); Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Stephenville (http://stephenville.tamu.edu/topics/forages/forage-species/); Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Plant Characteristics (http://plants.usda.gov/); Pogue Agri Partners Web site (www.pogueagri.com); and Turner Seed Company Web site (www.turnerseed.com). Information for individual traits was selected from a single source when recommendations varied among sources; local extension specialists should be consulted for recommendations in specific locations. Many different varieties are available for plants such as hairy vetch, oats, wheat, rye, triticale, cowpeas, and soybeans. Extension specialists or seed dealers should be consulted to determine the variety adapted to the locality where food plots will be planted.

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Medium 9780892726301

chapter fifteen SOME NEWCOMERS

Silliker, Bill, Jr. Down East Books ePub

The typical eastern coyote is larger than its western cousin but every bit as clever and adaptable. The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlifte identifies two small subcategories of coyotes in the state. One group has a genetic makeup more similar to that of western coyotes; the other exhibits more wolflike characteristics than do most eastern coyotes.

Talking to moose is a specialized skill. Imitating the vocalization of a cow during the rut requires time spent listening to the real thing and demands a bit of practice. The ability to duplicate it by mouth alone, without the benefit of a manufactured mouth call

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Medium 9781780642109

11: Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

11 

Pastoralism and Kalahari Rangeland Soils

Andrew D. Thomas,1* David R. Elliott,2 Tasmin N.L. Griffith2 and Helen Mairs2

1

Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University,

Aberystwyth, UK; 2School of Science and the Environment, Manchester

Metropolitan University, UK

11.1  Introduction

Grazing lands cover almost half the global land area and an estimated 70% of the world’s poorest billion people rely on income generated from pastoralism (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISS-CAS/JRC, 2009).

In rural dry sub-humid environments such as the Kalahari, pastoral farming is the only viable livelihood for most people, and cattle are central to the Tswana way of life. Cattle not only provide a major source of household income, but confer prestige to families within their communities (Campbell, 1990). The vast majority of livestock are reared on communal land where fences are absent and grazing resources are shared. The absence of surface water in the

Kalahari means that animals are dependent on groundwater from boreholes (Perkins and

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Medium 9781626560246

Chapter 2 The Role of the Individual Purchase

Szaky, Tom Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Chapter 2

© Nat Ulrich/Shutterstock.com

© Bakalusha/Shutterstock.com

When looking at the root cause of garbage, we as consumers bear a large part of the responsibility. Garbage is predicated on our individual consumption. If we don’t buy something, it can never become garbage.

The manufacturers that make our products are here to serve the desires of consumers (you and me). Sure, by marketing to our desires they may influence what we want—or even introduce things we never knew we wanted—but in the end we are the individuals who pull the trigger and trade our money for those goods. No one is forcing us to buy anything. By contrast we voluntarily, and in fact willingly, buy things on a daily basis. We even gain pleasure in the act of buying. Consider the recent emergence of “retail therapy,” a pop-culture concept promoting the act of shopping as a way to beat depression.

Consumerism, in a way, is something of an addiction. We almost need to consume; we are constantly chasing after the next new thing (or high, for the sake of this metaphor), and our appetite to consume is never satisfied. One key difference between global consumerism and individual addiction is that this destructive habit doesn’t just harm our individual bodies; it affects our planet in a real way.

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Medium 9781771870801

THE BUSH ON THE GRAVE

Forrie, Allan Thistledown Press ePub
While picking chokecherries from a bush growing over an infant’s grave in “The Bush on the Grave”, Lloyd Ratzlaff reflects on the interconnectedness of everything, invoking a God he had left behind with his fundamentalist childhood.
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Medium 9780253007896

Spring in Duneland

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The first green sprouts.

Tom Dogan

May apples emerge from beneath leaf clutter. Ron Trigg

Spring greenery. (below) Ron Trigg

Chellberg Farm yard in early spring. Jim Rettker

Charlotte and Herb Read on an April walk through the Cowles Bog area. (above) Jon L. Hendricks for The Times of Northwest Indiana

The two-story Bailly log cabin. (facing) Michael Kobe

In the longer days of March and April, with most weeks a bit warmer than the ones before, Duneland awakes from its winter sleep, and bits of green can be found along the forest floor.

At first unrecognizable, the plants soon develop leaves that aid in their identification, and the color of the woods and wetlands begins to change from brown to green.

Soon the grass is green, but the trees are still bare …

… then the treetops begin to show a hint of green

Chellberg Spring. Pete Doherty, Doherty Images

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Medium 9780253357014

Part 5: Dinosaur Evolution in the Mesozoic

Art Consultant Edited by M Bob Walters Indiana University Press ePub

Ralph E. Molnar

The past was different; otherwise there could be no history. It has even been said that the past is a different country. But a derivative quotation (Stross 2006) is more to the point: “not only is the past a foreign country, it’s one that doesn’t issue visas.” We don’t take this seriously, but simply imagine that the world of the past was very much like the present. But our imaginations are weak–the past was a foreign world and a trip into the Mesozoic would take us to a place unrecognizable except to specialists in the evolution and history of the earth.

We are raised on the notion that life has evolved, and so we realize that the creatures and plants of the Mesozoic were different from those now alive. But the climate and geography of the earth have also changed. To understand the distribution and ecology of dinosaurs, we need to understand how these aspects of the environment differed from those familiar today and, more important, how we can discern this from the raggle-taggle remains of ancient organisms and the sedimentary detritus deposited when they lived and died.

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Medium 9780870819247

CHAPTER FOUR Upper Geyser Basin

T. Scott Bryan University Press of Colorado ePub

The Upper Geyser Basin is the first area described for the simple fact that it is the greatest concentration of geysers anywhere in the world. Nearly 300 of its springs have been known to erupt as geysers, a figure that approaches 30 percent of the world’s total. All of these are found within an area of little more than one square mile. The hot springs are scattered among several nearly contiguous groups (Map 4.1). Most of them lie within a few hundred feet of Firehole River or along Iron Spring Creek, and nowhere is the basin more than half a mile wide.

The Upper Geyser Basin understandably attracted the greatest attention of the early Yellowstone explorers. Many of the names given the geysers and pools here were applied during the 1870s. While it was recognized that all of Yellowstone was worth preserving, it was the Upper Basin above all else that provided the greatest wonders and led to the establishment of the world’s first national park.

Map 4.1. Index map to the Upper Geyser Basin

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Medium 9781771870849

The Salvation of Harvey Nicotine

Ratzlaff, Lloyd Thistledown Press ePub

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HARVEY NICOTINE WAS IN TROUBLE because he didn’t want to attend Mass. The vice-principal had heard him out and said he’d be allowed to skip this time, but would have to undergo counselling for his problem, and would be expected at Mass next time, as usual.

Harvey came to my office and repeated his story. A terrible thing had happened at his reserve during the summer holidays, just shortly after his fourteenth birthday. He’d been out riding his bicycle near a large pasture, when he saw two men in a far corner standing over the carcass of a cow. It made him curious, and he left his bike in the ditch and headed over to see what had happened. But as he arrived, the men whirled around, and he saw inverted crosses on their foreheads and cultish emblems on their clothes. He was terrified — he knew they had just sacrificed this animal and he’d caught them by surprise; and they seized him and threw him headlong onto the body, and as he fell, he passed out.

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Medium 9781607321934

GOBI MAGIC

Don Hunter University Press of Colorado ePub

D O N   H U N T E R

MONGOLIA As foretold, a journey to the desert delivers lively mental and physical stimulation . . . and a touch of magic.

Each journey to the unknown begins by leaving the known. The familiar. The comfortable. Such thoughts filled my mind as I worked through my checklist for a field project in Mongolia. The last two items brought back the uneasy feeling in my stomach: #62—photos of my wife and three small sons, from whom I would be away for several weeks. I culled pictures from family albums to a handful that made me smile and turned to #63: phone my family in Tennessee to check on my father. On my last visit a few months back, Alzheimer’s disease had stolen his memory of me. His condition had not changed; I was wished safe travels.

At leaving time, our little “ranch” swirled with mixed emotions. My sons, ages six, three, and one, sensed the change in the normal rhythm of a peaceful world. “Daddy, where is Mongolia?” Daddy, how long will you be gone?” “Daddy, we will miss you.” My wife Annie’s assurance that she and the boys would be fine didn’t assuage the heaviness on my heart. I was averaging one or two fieldtrips a year, having just returned from Pakistan a few months back. It seems everything in life comes with a price, even the good things. When I first began working internationally there were no kids; ten years later, my family owned my heart but competed with a rare cat for my time. When the kids came along, Annie and I agreed to a three-week limit on my trips, the minimum time to accomplish fieldwork but not the months some colleagues spend away from family. I wasn’t resentful, but, in fact, each trip became harder as I missed seeing my sons grow.

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Medium 9780253013958

13 Meditations on Natural Worlds, Disabled Bodies, and a Politics of Cure

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Eli Clare

You and I walk in the summer rain through a thirty-acre pocket of tallgrass prairie that was, not so long ago, one big cornfield. We follow the path mowed as a fire-break. You carry a big pink umbrella. Water droplets hang on the grasses. Spider-webs glint. The bee balm hasn’t blossomed yet. You point to numerous patches of birch and goldenrod; they belong here but not in this plenty. The thistle, on the other hand, simply shouldn’t be here. The Canada wild rye waves, the big bluestem almost open. Sunflowers cluster, spots of yellow orange amid the gray green of a rainy day. The songbirds and butterflies have taken shelter. For the moment the prairie is quiet. Soon my jeans are sopping wet from the knees down. Not an ocean of grasses but a start, this little piece of prairie is utterly different from row upon row of corn.

With the help of the Department of Natural Resources, you mowed and burned the corn, broadcast the seed—bluestem, wild rye, bee balm, cornflower, sunflower, aster—sack upon sack of just the right mix that might replicate the tallgrass prairie that was once here. Only remnants of the original ecosystem remain in the Midwest, isolated pockets of leadplants, milkweed, burr oaks, and switchgrass growing in cemeteries, along railroad beds, on remote bluffs, somehow miraculously surviving.

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Chapter 7 The Science of Recycling

Szaky, Tom Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Chapter 7

© TerraCycle

© TerraCycle

Because the waste problem represents more than 11 billion tons per year on a global basis,1 the fundamental solution to all that waste needs to be on an industrial scale. On such a monumental scale, it is hard to leverage the intention and the form of an object. Reuse and recycling would really have their work cut out for them, and it is much easier to focus just on composition. That is where recycling comes in.

Recycling has been in full force since the dawn of the Bronze Age (3300 BCE). Metals have always been difficult commodities to come by, and there is evidence of bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse.2 This behavior was tied entirely to the economics of waste. It was very expensive to harvest new bronze from rock and significantly easier to just melt down a broken bronze object and make something new.

During the Industrial Revolution, the need for metals was enormous, and metal recycling was in full force. Just imagine how much metal it took to build the railroads that crisscross Europe and North America. During World War II, the US government urged citizens to conserve as much as they could in terms of energy, food, materials, and other essentials. Citizens were encouraged to donate metals to the war effort—helping forge everything from bullets to tanks. The culture of recycling, unlike conservation, stayed in effect after the war.

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Medium 9780892727834

MAINE LAKES AND MOUNTAINS

Duchesne, Bob Down East Books ePub

From civilized Sebago Lake in the south to wild Richardson Lake in the north, the cry of the loon is taken for granted. Between these two lakes lie several mountain ranges, exceptional state parks, and 47,000 acres of the White Mountain National Forest. The Androscoggin and Saco Rivers drain the heavy snows of the White Mountains through this region, gathering the flow of their tributaries along the way.

In Androscoggin County, the twin cities of Lewiston and Auburn make up Maine

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Medium 9780892726301

chapter three BIRD ISLANDS

Silliker, Bill, Jr. Down East Books ePub

Circling, calling terns protect their nesting area at Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge.

There are great colonies of seabirds on many of these islands that lie scattered variously from the Bay of Fundy, whose tides are the greatest in the world, to the calmer waters off the serene and sandy shores of southern Maine. And it is here in these wild colonies that bird enthusiasts are given opportunity to observe closely the home life of many of our most fascinating birds, providing living proof that, if intelligently protected by man, birds will once more fill our ears with natural music and our eyes with wild beauty.

HELEN GERE CRUICKSHANK

Bird Islands Down East, 1941

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