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17: Białowieza Primeval Forest: A 2000-year Interplay of Environmental and Cultural Forces in Europe’s Best Preserved Temperate Woodland

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF


Białowiez˙a Primeval Forest:

A 2000-year Interplay of Environmental and Cultural Forces in Europe’s Best

Preserved Temperate Woodland

Małgorzata Latałowa,1* Marcelina Zimny,1

Bogumiła Je˛ drzejewska2 and Tomasz Samojlik2


Department of Plant Ecology, University of Gdan´sk, Poland;


Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowiez˙a, Poland

17 .1  Introduction

Białowiez˙  a Forest covers about 1500 km2 along the border between Poland and B

­ elarus in central eastern Europe (Fig. 17.1) (­Falin´ski,

1986). The unique preservation of the forest ecosystem and rich historical documents describing use of the forest resources during the last several 100 years, make Białowiez˙ a ­Primeval

Forest (BPF) of special value as a ­subject for long-­term ecological studies. The history of this forest can be used to explore ideas arising from the ongoing discussion on the natural openness of European primeval forests and the role of game in shaping landscape structure (Vera,

2000; Birks, 2005; Mitchell, 2005; Holl and

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Medium 9780253007896

Ongoing Restoration: More Dreams Coming True

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Environmental restoration activities in Duneland are ongoing and have been active for many decades. Restoration takes many forms, from simple cleanups, removal of invasive species, planting, and care of native species to removing ditches and drain tiles from previously drained wetlands.

The state of Indiana began a major restoration process at Dunes State Park when it was created in the 1920s. The National Park Service did the same when the National Lakeshore was established. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources, especially through its Heritage Trust license plate program, has raised and used voluntary contributions for hundreds of restoration purposes—many of them in Duneland.

Non-governmental organizations have done a vast amount of restoration work in Duneland. Organizations such as the Nature Conservancy, the Izaak Walton League, Save the Dunes, the Shirley Heinze Land Trust, Wildlife Habitat Council, and many others have restored or supported the restoration of thousands of acres of woodland, wetland, and prairie.

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Medium 9780874217094

Chapter Four. How to Install Native Landscapes

Susan E. Meyer Utah State University Press ePub

Mountain ash

Throughout the process of designing your native landscape, it has been necessary to keep referring back to the realities of your site. Now it is time to go outside and make those changes that need to be made in order to prepare your site for its new inhabitants, and then to plant them in a way that guarantees that they will prosper. This will require planning. Much of this process will probably be familiar to you from other landscaping and gardening projects you have undertaken, but there are some things that are unique about native plant landscaping, and these require careful attention. Just how complex the process will be depends on several factors. First, you probably need to deal with removing at least some of the existing vegetation on your site, whether it is lawn, foundation plantings, new weeds that inevitably show up uninvited in recently-spread topsoil, or longstanding infestations of perennial weeds. Second, depending on the nature of your soil, you may need to do some soil replacement or terracing/ berming, or both, to create the drainage that your plants will need. These kinds of modifications may also be necessary even if you do not have drainage issues, for example, if you are trying to create a congenial place for plants from much drier water zones. And, as discussed in the design section, terracing or berming can also be used to create topographic relief solely for design purposes, not specifically to meet the cultural requirements of plants. You may also need to make some grade modifications in order to implement the water harvesting system you have designed. These two steps can be relatively simple or quite complex, depending on the magnitude of the changes you need to make.

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Medium 9781771870801


Forrie, Allan Thistledown Press ePub
A weed infestation prompts Don Gayton to muse that “the ideal gardening personality is probably a mix of hippie, planner, and military strategist” in “Weeds ‘R’ Us”, and he goes on to compare such infiltrations to an alien invasion.
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Medium 9780253356024

9. Subterranean Systems

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Caves in Indiana (Figure 9.1) are confined for the most part to the Escarpment section of the Shawnee Hills Natural Region and the Mitchell Karst Plain section of the Highland Rim Natural Region, with a small area in the Muscatatuck Flats and Canyons section of the Bluegrass Natural Region (see Map 1.7; Map 9.1). Outside of the karst areas, the groundwater that occurs throughout Indiana in glacial and alluvial plains is also significant. The saturated interstices of the associated soils comprise significant subterranean habitats with simple, but interesting, communities of obligate species. Overall, Indiana is inhabited by a diverse and highly endemic assemblage of obligate subterranean invertebrates (Table I-1). Even greater diversity is exhibited by the group of animals that are non-obligate cavernicoles (cave inhabitants). Peck and Lewis (1978) authored the axiom that the cave fauna of a region potentially include the entire surface fauna, since anything can fall into a hole. That notwithstanding, a list of some of the more significant facultative cavernicoles of Indiana is presented in Table I-2.

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1905 LaPorte County Beach Communities

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Sheridan Beach, to the east of Michigan City’s Washington Park, was one of the first residential communities in Indiana established on Indiana’s Lake Michigan shoreline. Oscar Wellnitz, a Michigan City baker, built the first house by 1905. The Sheridan Beach Land Company, established in 1907 by William Manny and Isidore Spiro, platted the subdivision and put lots up for sale. Recognizing that some folks would just like to rent a place near the beach for a week or so, Manny and Spiro built “The Pioneer” for vacation rentals. It was a small frame house—the first built on Sheridan Beach Drive.

According to historian Gladys Bull Nicewarner, initial sales were slow because people “could not yet see the sense of building summer homes on what, to them, seemed like a wasteland of worthless sand.” People warmed up to the idea as streets and houses were built. Sheridan Beach was finally considered a good investment, and additions to the area were platted. The Sheridan Beach Hotel opened its doors in 1920, by which time Sheridan Beach had become a highly desirable place to live or spend a few days.

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Medium 9781603444668

2. Impounded on the Rolling Plains

Margie Crisp Texas A&M University Press ePub

Destiny proudly poses for my camera, a grinning gap-toothed eight-year-old with wind-tangled black hair. Behind her, the orange waters of Lake J. B. Thomas whip themselves into small brown waves. She squints in the sun. The shutter clicks, and with a quick wave she scrambles down the steep rocks returning to her sister and their game of throwing rocks into the water. Her father uncaps a jar of the newest and best stinkbait for catching catfish. The girls squeal and hold their noses while the sleek muscular dog in the back of the pickup sniffs the air appreciatively. The two girls, their dad, and his best friend drove over from Big Spring for a day of fishing but even with the pungent bait, the catfish aren’t biting. I bring over my road map, and together we trace the path of the Colorado River from our position at Lake J. B. Thomas, down to the E. V. Spence Reservoir, and then to the O. H. Ivie Reservoir. The river runs through the Rolling Plains ecoregion,1 the southern end of the Great Plains, a land of deep clays, dry former prairies, and woods. It is bordered on the west by the Caprock Escarpment and the High Plains, on the south by the Edwards Plateau, and on the east by the Cross Timbers and Prairies ecoregion. With an annual rainfall of 20 inches, most of the area is desert-like rangeland locked in an unrelenting battle with woody brush, struggling croplands, and the ubiquitous oil industry.

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Medium 9780874212341

17 Changing Faces and Changing Rules, 1972-1975

Richard Westwood Utah State University Press ePub

By 1972 a multi-million dollar commercial industry had been built up to accommodate tourists who wished to boat on the wild rivers of the nation. On the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon alone tourism had increased from 70 users in 1955 to 16,432 in 1972.1 Campsites on the Colorado were usually narrow sand beaches, and in many parts of the canyon they were very limited. The large number of people visiting scenic spots and heavily used beaches posed problems of congestion, disappearing firewood, and disposal of human waste and kitchen refuse. Furthermore, fluctuating clearwater releases from Glen Canyon Dam were eroding these beaches. In order to determine what effect this increase in use was having on the resource and visitors’ experiences, the Park Service decided to limit 1973 and subsequent use to the 1972 level.

Georgie was just getting used to being regulated by the National Park Service after having had a free run of the river for so many years when:

In December 1972, the NPS announced without warning its plan: the number of persons allowed to float the river would be reduced until the total dropped to almost one-half of what the allocation was in 1971 (96,000 passenger days); and there would be a 25 percent cutback of outboard motors on the river in 1974 and each subsequent year until 1977, when all motors would be eliminated. Only oar-powered floats would be allowed.2

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Medium 9780253007896

1822 The Bailly Homestead

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Joseph Bailly was a French Canadian born in Quebec in 1774. His wife, Marie, was of French and Ottawa Indian parentage. In 1822 they and their children moved to Potawatomi country in Duneland. They established their home and trading post on the north bank of the Little Calumet River near where the north branch of the Sauk Trail crossed both the river and the Calumet Beach Trail (now the Dunes Highway). In this strategic location, their home could be reached by canoe and by foot. After the home was badly damaged by floodwaters, they moved to higher ground but remained close to the river.

Bailly had a successful business with the Indians. He received furs from them, which he traded for items from Mackinac and Detroit. Marie, who always dressed in Indian clothing, was as familiar with Indian ways as she was with the French. This undoubtedly helped them in their dealings with the Potawatomi. Within ten years, Bailly had six to eight cabins for his French employees. For those years, the Baillys were the only settlers in the Calumet Area. Their home was the center of culture and civilization in the Calumet Area wilderness. The Baillys welcomed all travelers, missionaries, and Indians.

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Medium 9781603444750

14. Bobwhites and Other Wildlife

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 14.1. Brush is an important component of white-tailed deer habitat. It provides not only a dependable source of food but also important thermal and escape cover. (Photograph by David G. Hewitt)

THOUGH A NOBLE and valuable bird, the bobwhite is not the only important wild animal in cattle country. Sportsmen and sportswomen spend thousands of hours hunting whitetails, a species that raises hundreds of millions of dollars for landowners and merchants and increases the value of Texas real estate by millions. Wild turkeys provide countless hours of recreation in fall and spring. The opening of mourning dove season is no less important than spring break or Super Bowl weekend to many people. Likewise, Texas is blessed with untold numbers of nongame animals that enrich our lives and attract tourist dollars. Ecotourism such as birding and nature photography has become a billion-dollar industry.

Many people want to manage for several species of wildlife. Indeed, hunting leases are more valuable to lessor and lessee alike if there are high populations of more than one game species. People practicing “broad-spectrum” management will surely have questions about the recommendations in this book. How does bobwhite management affect deer? Turkeys? Doves? Nongame species? How does the management of these species affect bobwhites? This chapter addresses these questions.

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Medium 9781780647128

5: Potential of Two Bacillus Antagonists for Biocontrol of Grey Mould

Compant, S. CABI PDF


Potential of Two Bacillus

Antagonists for Biocontrol of

Grey Mould

S. Ben-Maachia,1,2 R. Errakhi,1,3,4* F. Mathieu1 and A. Lebrihi1

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France;


Centre Régional des Recherches en Agriculture Oasienne à Dégache,

Tozeur, Tunisia; 3Plateforme de Biotechnologie, AGRONUTRITION,

Carbonne, France; 4Laboratoire d’Électrophysiologies des Membranes,

Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Université Paris Diderot, Orsay, France



Grapes are one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Most of the grapevine cultivars used for wine production are highly sensitive to pathogen attack and require many fungicidal treatments seasonally (Girault et al., 2008). Currently, grey mould, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea, is controlled by preventive fungicides. The use of these chemicals has its limitations, and this has promoted consideration of the strategies of biological disease control and induction of plant resistance using non-pathogenic plant-associated microorganisms (Van Loon, 1997; Bargabus et al., 2003; Tjamos et al., 2005; Errakhi et al., 2007). In this chapter, we describe a preliminary characterization of two bacterial strains isolated from the south of Tunisia and evaluate induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism of biological control of B. cinerea by these two bacterial strains. Additionally, molecular identification of the two Bacillus strains investigated is demonstrated.

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Medium 9781607320074

5. Keystone of the Shortgrass Prairie

Ellen Wohl University Press of Colorado ePub

For every atom lost to the sea, the prairie pulls another out of the decaying rocks. The only certain truth is that its creatures must suck hard, live fast, and die often, lest its losses exceed its gains.


The prairie dog is a youngster, one of four born that spring to a mature, two-year-old female Cynomys ludovicianus. Early French explorers called the animals petit chien, or “little dog.” Meriwether Lewis, though aware of this name, referred to them as “barking squirrels” or “burrowing squirrels” in his journal, although other members of his expedition used the phrase “prairie dog.”1 European American naturalists named the prairie dogs Cynomys, literally mouse-dog in Greek. The New Latin phrase ludovician indicated that the mouse-dog was of Louisiana, as in the Louisiana Purchase the naturalists were busily describing when they named the species.

Black-tailed prairie dog at an entrance to its burrow on the fromme Prairie.

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Medium 9781771870825

Little Bluestem and the Geography of Fascination

Virgo, Seán Thistledown Press ePub


Don Gayton

IT ONCE WAS A PART OF A GREAT AMBER SEA, this grass. The sea was drained and ploughed long before the invention of the airplane. Hawks and falcons may carry the memory, but no human has ever seen it from the air. But just to imagine looking down on that tallgrass sea, the grassy ocean that stretched from Winnipeg to Texas, and knowing that Schizachyrium was a part, is perhaps enough.

Schizachyrium, it is called. Sky za ky ri um. Skyzakyrium. It is a word so rarely said, you may put the accent on whichever syllable you like. Not sure why it so took me, really. It could have been the strange and haunting name of this prairie icon, this delicate bunchgrass. Or that it is the poster child of a different metabolism, and therefore fascinating by its minority, its ethnicity. Why should it matter, really, that I found it growing quietly hundreds of kilometers outside its range?

Schizachyrium; some assembly required. It is of course a Latin name, but one that takes on meanings of its own. Our nomenclature is based on a dead language because we don’t want connotations, we don’t want the evolution of meaning, but I wonder. What if the Latin roots of this particular word are so obscure we are forced to invent their meaning? I would have my own legend about the name Schizachyrium, that it doesn’t really mean that the seed has a split awn, (schizein=to split, achuron=chaff) but rather that it refers to the grave and rumpled god Schizachyrio, a lesser light among the Greek deities, one whose particular mojo was Obscure Complexity.

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Medium 9781574411751

CHAPTER I Introduction

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF




hen the first European pioneers landed on the North American coast, they were greeted by a primeval forest of seemingly limitless proportions. To many, the prospects of living in such a wilderness were frightening beyond comprehension. These would return to the safety of the Old World. Those who remained set about the task of carving a new life in this great forest. There were occasional openings in the woods where settlers could travel with relative ease.

But elsewhere the earth was covered with a thick tangle of berries and shrubs . . . saplings and ferns, and the debris of trees that had fallen to rot. . . . Grape trunks as thick as a man’s thigh flung themselves from the ground to grip the treetops. . . . and the interlocking branches in beech or hemlock woods shut out the sun by day and the stars by night.1

From the very beginning of settlement through the twentieth century, this immense forest—which stretched from the Atlantic seacoast to the second tier of states west of the Great River—has been under a sustained assault by man. The forest, the settlers believed, was an obstruction to civilization, an enemy to man. Where it existed, farms could not. It hid

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The Transformative Power of Art: An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams Michael Toms, New Dimensions Radio Show, 2000

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

We live in the midst of the sacred and the profane, light and darkness, conscious and unconscious, life and death, visible and invisible worlds sometimes meshing, sometimes colliding, always moving us towards the mystery, ever deeper. And we wonder as we wander. This is our journey on this edition of New Dimensions, as we explore the relevance of a 15th-century artistic masterpiece to the world and time we presently inhabit with our guest, Terry Tempest Williams.

Terry Tempest Williams, former Naturalist-in-Residence of the Utah Museum of Natural History, is the recipient of a Lannan Literary Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship. She’s the author of Refuge, An Unspoken Hunger, Desert Quartet, and Leap. Join us for the next hour as we explore the wilderness world and the wondrous world of Terry Tempest Williams. My name is Michael Toms; I’ll be your host. Welcome to New Dimensions.


Michael Toms, “The Transformative Power of Art,” New Dimensions radio interview, June 29, 2000, program 2821. Produced by New Dimensions World Broadcasting Network. Used by permission.

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