778 Chapters
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10 Evidence from Compositions and Improvisations

Steve Larson Indiana University Press ePub

Chapter 8 noted that musical forces shape musical discourse. That (by itself), however, does not guarantee that music will reflect the operation of the musical forces. In other words, chapter 8 tells us that musical forces inform our thinking about music, but it does not prove that musical forces shape our thinking in music. Thus this chapter will focus on the content of individual pieces of music by summarizing three studies of patterns in musical compositions and improvisations.

All three studies tested predictions of the theory of musical forces by looking at a well-defined body of pieces and asking how well the distribution of patterns in those pieces agrees with distributions predicted by the theory. The first study (Larson 1997–98a) looked at all the pieces that had been analyzed in published articles on “hidden repetition” in tonal music. The second study (Larson 2002) looked at all published jazz transcriptions that had been analyzed according to a particular type of Schenkerian analysis (that type of analysis, explained earlier, is called “strict use” and is further described in Larson 1996c). The third study (Larson and VanHandel 2005) looked at all the pieces analyzed in Schenker’s ([1932] 1969) Five Graphic Music Analyses.

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11 Compared to What?

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

They never asked Sam Rivers down
to the Vanguard, you know?

Bob Stewart

George Cables

Keystone was such a special place. There was the Both/And. There was the [Jazz] Workshop. The Both/And was probably more hang-friendly; you could hang there with people that you got to know. And Keystone, [when] you got to Keystone, that was sort of like the crown, the jewel of all the places. For me and [musicians of] my era, going into Keystone Korner was something special.

David Williams

Most club owners I’ve encountered and worked for, even the ones who knew something about the music, didn’t have the passion that Todd had. It was kind of rare for a club owner to have that. With a lot of other club owners, there’s separation; with Todd, you almost forgot that he was not part of the band.

Todd Barkan

There have been other environments in the history of the music that have been comparable [to Keystone]. There was a certain era of the Village Vanguard when that was true in New York City, and at Bradley’s in New York City, and there have been other clubs around the world, spots where musicians and the people running the club seem to be on the same page. When the musicians came to that environment, they felt that not only somebody cared but that everybody cared. And that’s part of what made the music happen on the level that it did and with the consistency that it had.

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4. Identity, Diaspora, and Resistance in Palestinian Hip-Hop

MOSLIH KANAANEH Indiana University Press ePub

Since the late 1990s Palestinian hip-hop has developed as a national and cultural phenomenon. Politically charged hip-hop, with its spirit of resistance, has become the soundtrack for pro-democracy movements around the Arab world, from the streets of Palestine and Tunisia to Cairo. Palestinian hip-hop artists today are recounting the Palestinian cause and struggle via their art, telling the story of a people whose existence and history has long been denied and neglected. Many Palestinian artists today are creating politically charged music as a significant factor in the construction, preservation, and assertion of their identity and as a tool for resistance against Israeli oppression, while also paying respect to, and drawing upon, traditional Palestinian musical influences. This essay investigates the role of hip-hop in the assertion of a Palestinian cultural identity among artists within Palestine and the diaspora, through a study of their themes and messages emerging in their music.1

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4 The Notation, Its Perception, and Rendering

Barthold Kuijken Indiana University Press ePub

In sections 1–13 the most important notation parameters of Early Music will be treated separately. Short texts in italics will point to the frequent overlapping and continual cross-influence between them or will lead from one section to the next in an attempt to see all these parameters not as isolated elements, but rather as interwoven parts of one integral artistic product. In sections 14–18 some aspects will be treated that have a profound impact on the way the notation is read, received, and rendered to the audience.

Tuning and temperament have an immediate impact on the listener’s ears. Research has shown that traditions and standards—and thus also their appreciation—have changed very much over the years. They kept changing until today, though through the introduction of electronic tuning devices, uniformity and repeatability are favored. I am not sure that this must be considered a gain.

(All Hz figures should be understood as “ca.”; especially for the organ, the influence of the church temperature should not be neglected.) Much of the factual information upon which this section is based can be found in Bruce Haynes, A History of Performing Pitch (2002), to which I contributed many pitch data of historical flutes and recorders. Haynes’s conclusions coincide with my own research and experience.

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10. Palestinian Music: Between Artistry and Political Resistance

MOSLIH KANAANEH Indiana University Press ePub

In this essay Palestinian music is used as a case study in an attempt to understand the use of music as resistance. The discussion and the cultural production that I met during recent travels in the country revealed to me richness not only in the music but also in the discussion about the music. I realized that the study of this specific case could be beneficial to a more general discussion. I think that everyone can learn from the informed statements and cultural praxis manifested by Palestinians. The country is subjected to specific cultural and political circumstances that make issues concerning cultural resistance more explicit—more on the edge. As human rights activist Omar Barghouti told me:

Artists cannot be neutral or apathetic. Under conditions of colonial oppression particularly, neutrality is not an option, basically. Even artists who pretend to work under the concept of l’art pour l’art cannot do it. Because as Palestinians they are subject to the same conditions as the rest of the population. (Barghouti, interview)

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