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2 The Rhetoric of al-Andalus in Modern Syria, or, There and Back Again

Jonathan Holt Shannon Indiana University Press ePub

We thread our way through the crowd of evening shoppers in the Souq al-Buzuriyya, passing the rows of barrels of aromatic spices and nuts, as well as Ghraoui’s, my favorite chocolate shop, which dates to the late nineteenth century. There’s no time to stop tonight, however, for Hussein and I are headed to Khan As‘ad Pasha to hear a concert of Andalusian music. Hussein is a well-known ‘ud player from Hama who had relocated to Damascus to pursue teaching and performance opportunities. We arrive a little late, and the Ottoman khan, or caravanserai, the largest in Damascus, has already filled up. With intricate domes soaring over the halls surrounding its expansive courtyard, the eighteenth-century structure is a good venue for a musical performance: acoustically rich and capable of hosting a large audience. Tonight’s concert is part of the Andalusian Music Festival, sponsored by the Instituto Cervantes (a Spanish cultural center) in Damascus, and it features ensembles from Morocco and Spain. The Moroccan group, Ensemble Ibn ‘Arabi (named after the Andalusian sage), directed by Tangier-based qanun player and scholar Ahmed El Khaligh, features performers of the ‘ud, kamanja, nay, and percussion, as well as a vocalist.1 They specialize in Islamic chant (inshad) and Sufi songs (sama‘), as well as instrumental music from North Africa. Wearing flowing white gowns in the stately khan, they are the very picture of authenticity.

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19. Tuning and Temperament

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


Tuning and Temperament


Imagine a world in which the units used for linear measurement were not quite commensurate—one in which, by some quirky royal decree, let us say, twelve official inches did not quite make an official foot, or three feet exactly a yard. Most citizens, presumably, would be aware of a problem only rarely, but anyone whose profession depended upon precise measurement would long since have become expert at making fine distinctions; we can be sure that architects and carpenters, for instance, would have come to distinguish unabashedly between “inches” and “twelfths of a foot.” The units of our musical world—those we call “intervals”—are, in fact, of a similarly incommensurate nature, although unlike the units of our metaphorical example, their size is not determined arbitrarily; their mathematical ratios reflect basic acoustical phenomena. And unlike the professionals in our metaphor, musicians—those who must deal constantly with the problem—are for the most part unaccustomed to discussing it intellectually, generally preferring an intuitive approach. In fact, so out of favor is a “scientific” approach to intonation that to mention it may arouse suspicion among other musicians as to one's musical sensibilities.

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3. Disposition

Estelle R. Jorgensen Indiana University Press ePub




People tend to act in particular ways almost habitually, unconsciously, or naturally. Thinking holistically about a teacher’s disposition is important, but it is also crucial to consider some of the specific dispositions that are needed for teaching. By the word disposition, I mean the tendency to act or be in a particular way. In this chapter, I reflect on those that I see as crucial to a teacher’s life and work: namely, tact, compassion, patience, enthusiasm, and integrity. We may show these dispositions in various ways and our differing personalities may predispose us to acquire or possess some of them more naturally than others. Still, irrespective of our natural proclivities and the particular ways in which we reveal them, it is important to cultivate and nurture these dispositions if we are to cope and thrive as teachers.

Dispositions are located at the nexus of our ideas, beliefs, attitudes, commitments, and values and the phenomenal world in which we act.1 They are not only rooted in intellectual assent or intention but evidenced in practical ways. Their presence is demonstrated by what we do and the impact our actions have on others rather than by what we say or intend to do. This is so because of discontinuities between intentions and the realities of how our actions affect others. Since we work with others as music teachers, we need to be concerned primarily with how our actions affect these others in the phenomenal world. Although we may intuitively recognize dispositions when we see them enacted, it is also possible that we may be mistaken and misinterpret what we see and hear. Such ambiguities and possible misinterpretations arise out of the unexpected, unintended, and even undesirable results of our actions and misinterpretations of our best intentions by others in the face of our own and others’ imperfect and limited knowledge.

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Appendix C: Contents of Selected Collections

Getz, Christine Indiana University Press PDF

Contents of Selected Collections 173



(with continuo)

Liturgical Usage or

Text Source

Exaudi Domine


Psalm 26: 7, 9; Pro

Defunctis (Lauds Antiphon)

Surge propera, ded. D.

Paola Ortensia Serbellona in S. Vincenzo

2C in Ecco or T

Song of Songs 2: 10, 14;

Visitation (Antiphon or

Responsory Verse, Matins)

O sacrum convivium, ded. D. Paola Ortensia

Serbellona in S. Vincenzo

2C in Ecco or T

Corpus Christi (Antiphon,

2nd Vespers)

Cantate Domino, ded. D.

Matteo Ferrari, basso in S.

Maria presso S. Celso


Psalm 97: 1–2; Eastertide

Iustus ut palma, ded. Sigr.

Pietro Paolo Maderno


Psalm 91: 13–14

O Domine


Adoration of the Cross?

O vos omnes


Lamentations of Jeremiah

1: 12; Holy Saturday

(Matins Responsory)

Beati qui habitat in domo


Psalm 83:5; Dedication of the Church (Matins Versus or Antiphon)

Ad te desiderat


Marian votive

Gio. Andrea Cima Voce mea


Comm. Martyrs (Matins


Gio. Andrea Cima

Quam pluchrae sunt


Song of Songs 4: 10–11

Cor mundum, ded. S.

Battista Corrado, sop. in Duomo


Psalm 50: 12–13; Dom.

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4 1910: St. Petersburg Conservatory and Nalbandian

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

BY 1910, RUSSIA BOASTED TWO conservatories, one in St. Petersburg, then the capital, and one in Moscow. The St. Petersburg Conservatory was founded in 1862 by Anton Rubinstein and was the first and oldest Russian center of academic musical education. Notable graduates included Tchaikovsky, Lyadov, Fyodor Stravinsky (the composer Igor’s father), Ivan Yershov, Vasily Safonov, and Anna Yesipova. A number of significant pedagogical schools developed at the conservatory, including the violin school of Leopold Auer, Anna Yesipova’s piano school, and Aleksandr Verzhbilovich’s cello school. In June 1908, a year and a halfbefore the Heifetzes arrived in St. Petersburg, the conservatory’s influential head of composition, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, passed away. The memory of the composer lived on at the institution, however, and it is said that Rimsky-Korsakov’s coat hook remained vacant for many years.

From December 1905 onward, the post of conservatory director was occupied by a former student of Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Glazunov (1865–1936). The conservatory generally kept a distance from social and political issues, but the 1905 Russian Revolution led to a struggle for autonomy from the main board of the IRMO. This new autonomy crystallized in the unanimous vote for Glazunov; earlier, directors had been appointed by the leadership of the IRMO. In 1909, the conservatory’s artistic council voted to give Glazunov a second term and conferred upon him the title of Distinguished Professor. Glazunov’s reign at the conservatory lasted more than twenty years.

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