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11. Pitch, Temperament, and Transposition

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

11  Pitch, Temperament, and Transposition

Because the trumpet’s family tree is populated by numerous instruments of differing size and design, the music written for them over the past five hundred years reflects this diversity. The most obvious concern that affects musicians today is the key of older instruments: trumpets in D, E-flat, and A, for example, which require modern trumpeters to transpose at sight when performing music on a trumpet pitched in a different key (usually B-flat or C). But other factors are not so obvious; historic pitch levels and temperament (the tuning of intervals within a scale), as well as which instruments and repertoire are most affected, require a bit of explanation.

When performing on period instruments, it is vitally important to clarify issues of pitch and temperament. It’s a terrible thing to show up to the first rehearsal with an instrument in the wrong key or pitch level.1 There are several historic pitch levels. The most common standards are known as Baroque pitch (A4 = 415 Hertz), Classical pitch (A4 = 430 Hz), high pitch or Chorton (A4 = 466 Hz), often used for ensembles of cornettos and sackbuts, and high pitch or Old Philharmonic pitch (A4 = 452.5 Hz) for nineteenth-century wind bands. It should be emphasized that singers (especially sopranos) and string players are far more affected by historic pitch standards than wind and brass players.

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Nineteen: Frédéric Chopin

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

I always loved how Chopin was so personified by the touch of Rubinstein, how he entered the key fully and deeply with such beautiful tone and the piano just soared. And I will always remember studying Chopin with Vengerova because she showed that very beautifully. I love the way that the harmonies are often very original, like in the Fantasie-Polonaise and the marvelous way in which the harmony supports a melody. I was in Warsaw and I passed by the church where Chopin’s heart is, and I passed by it a few times because, after all, he’s a composer who touches all of our hearts and who has given us some of the most beautiful things that are written for the piano. And there is no other composer for whom the piano opens up in the way it does for Chopin.

Mvt. 1. Allegro maestoso

M. 1. A daring descent to the F. Crescendo the chords to m. 2. Left-hand legato.

M. 2. Listen to the rests. Start the chords piano and pedal each one.

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5. Transgressing Borders with Palestinian Hip-Hop

Kanaaneh, Moslih ePub

As fifteen-year-old rapper Hussam Ikbarey enters the studio Taht al-Ard (Underground) in Nazareth, he looks all teenager—tall, skinny, and shy. “Hussam, spit the Tech N9ne [pronounced Tech Nine] track you memorized,” his producer, Anan Kseem, says, referring to the American rapper from Kansas City—one of Hussam’s favorites.

Hussam’s blue eyes focus and he starts rapping. There are no pauses, no hesitation; he knows the lyrics by heart—or he has memorized the sound of the words, because Hussam’s English is very limited, and in reality most of it is gibberish to him. But his flow and delivery are incredibly tight. Anan watches his novice with eyes full of acknowledgment and affection. “There are twenty guys like Hussam, but none as dedicated,” he says.

Hussam’s journey into hip-hop brings Anan back to his own when he was Hussam’s age. More specifically, it brings him back to a mild October night in 2001 in downtown Nazareth. The hip-hop group DAM is performing its first show on an outdoor stage in the city center—and the place is packed.

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Applying the System to the Analysis of Opera

Edward D. Latham University of North Texas Press PDF

Dramatic Closure

Let me stress that an intellectual approach to the play, a thorough analysis of it, is and always has been the director’s responsibility, not the actor’s. However, if we want to claim the right to be creative participants in bringing it to life, we must be armed with more than our technical skills. We should be able to make an intelligent evaluation of the play’s purpose: first, in order to be able to follow the director’s analysis when he shares his intentions with us, and, perhaps more importantly, so that we don’t go interpretively astray in the initial stages of our homework on the role.90

Consequently, in the analyses that are included in the subsequent chapters, the scoring of individual roles will always be undertaken with an eye toward how the analyses may be applied in a performance context. As Stanislavsky puts it, an objective “must have the power to attract and excite the actor”; units and objectives are “merely a technical method of arousing inner, living desires and aspirations.”91

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9: Kelvin High School (Year Two): The Classics, The Squires

Sharry Wilson ECW Press ePub

ó 9 ó

KELVIN HIGH SCHOOL (YEAR TWO): The Classics, The Squires

THE FALL OF 1962 WAS a busy time for Neil. As well as juggling the incessant demands and irritations of school, he was carefully assembling his third band, the Classics.

The lineup seemed solid. Neil himself would play rhythm guitar. Ken Koblun had already been groomed to fill the slot as bass player — when Neil formally asked Ken if he’d like to join, he had jumped at the chance — and Linda Fowler agreed to lend her talents on piano once again. Neil was looking for a drummer, and Linda suggested Buddy Taylor, who lived seven houses down the street from Linda’s family. She often heard him practising when she walked past his house, and she could tell he was a skilled drummer. Neil agreed, and asked Buddy to join the band. Rounding out the band were Jack Gowenlock on lead guitar and John Copsey85 on vocals. (Neil and Jack occasionally switched positions, Neil playing lead and Jack playing rhythm.) Jack and John had met at River Heights Junior High and were already friends. Jack, now enrolled at Kelvin, became musically acquainted with Neil in the early fall. He recalls that on one occasion — prior to the formation of the Classics — he, Neil and Jim Atkin played together in a park. John Copsey’s bio in the River Heights Junior High yearbook describes him as “a guitar player,” although he specialized in his vocal talents while attending Kelvin.

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