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XI Movement as Energized Color: Op. 53

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

Once the technique to articulate non legato sixteenths has been developed, the keyboard patterns of the “Waldstein” lie well under the hands. Although the writing may lend itself to common virtuoso display, the extended piano and pianissimo writing (the first movement contains roughly twice as many indications of pp or p as f or ff) suggests a virtuosity through which notes shimmer instead of blind.

Ironically, the raw material out of which this quality of sound was created was something quite earthbound: exercises in the form of sequential scale passages in tenths, in contrary motion, and in canon. The sketchbook containing these exercises (and, a few pages later, sketches for Op. 53) was used by Beethoven primarily in the year 1803; it also contains sketches for the Third Symphony, Leonore, the Fifth Symphony, and the Triple Concerto, as well as the opening measures of the Fourth Piano Concerto.

Ex. 11.1.   BEETHOVEN SKETCHES TRANSCRIBED BY NOTTEBOHM.

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Nine: Principles of Expressive Performance

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

Recurring throughout Pressler’s teaching are certain principles of expression that give insight into the multitude of “colors” that permeate his performances and those of his students. These principles of expression deal with all aspects of practice and performance, including integrity to the score, emotional involvement, quality of sound, phrasing, formal structure, pedaling, rhythm, fingering, and color.

Pressler believes that the first and most important consideration when learning a musical score is to follow the composer’s indications. Audiences and music critics often hail Pressler’s performances for their insightful expression, but he says, “All expression is based on the score. What does the composer expect? Let us satisfy him.”

Pressler believes that only through thoroughly studying the score can one know accurately how to interpret a piece of music. “Very often the mistake is made that people think that, by playing the piece, they have the emotions. But what they do is, they just read the notes and repeat them. They have neither digested them nor internalized them. Of course, we are spoiled by some of the great pianists, Horowitz, Martha Argerich, the ones that take immense freedoms. And when they do it, one excuses it, one accepts it by virtue of their enormous ability. But we, as young pianists—like me!—we look at a score as our teacher.” Pressler himself practices almost exclusively with music rather than by memory because, he says, “The score is the Bible. Ninety-nine percent of your effort should be directed toward the score.” As he asked one student in illustrating this point, “Can we be more religious and do what the composer asks for?”

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15 - Thad and Mel Hit the Road, and the Road Hits Back

Chris Smith, John Mosca and John Riley University of North Texas Press ePub

1968 marked the first time that the Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Orchestra took extended tours of the United States and Japan. The tour of the United States began on April 20 with a performance at the second annual Bay Area Jazz Festival in Berkeley, California. Joe Williams was the guest vocalist with the band, which included several new members, including Danny Moore and Randy Brecker on trumpet, and Seldon Powell taking the place of Joe Farrell in the saxophone section. From Berkeley the band traveled to San Francisco to perform on Ralph J. Gleason's television show Jazz Casual.1 The group performed “Just Blues,” “St. Louis Blues,” “Kids Are Pretty People,” and “Don't Git Sassy.” The entire performance, plus on-air interviews with Thad, Mel, and Brookmeyer, has been reissued on DVD and is the earliest commercially available footage of the band.2 After the band taped their afternoon performance, they traveled to Los Angeles for an evening performance at the club Marty's on the Hill. The band performed at the club from Monday, April 22, through Saturday, April 27, before heading back home to New York City.3

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CHAPTER 1: Venerating the Veil: The Madonna of Miracles at Santa Maria presso San Celso

Getz, Christine Indiana University Press PDF

Chapter 1

8

Venerating the Veil

The Madonna of Miracles at Santa Maria presso San Celso

“This most sacred virgin, as the tabernacle of God, was the idea of perpetual virginity, the form of everlasting honesty, the school of every virtue.”

—Paolo Morigia 1

History of the Cult of the Madonna of Miracles

Directly south of the Duomo of Milan on the Corso Italia stands the imposing church of Santa Maria presso San Celso. One of the most popular pilgrimage sites in early modern Milan, Santa Maria presso

San Celso is the home of the Madonna of Miracles, an image credited with healing numerous devotees of their infirmities and relieving the city of the devastating plagues of 1485 and 1576.2 The edifice originated as a small chapel that marked the location where St. Nazarenus, who, along with St. Celsus, was martyred around 395. According to the surviving accounts, the construction of the original chapel was initiated by St. Ambrose, who recovered both bodies and transferred that of St.

Nazarenus to the Chiesa degli Apostoli in the Porta Romana (now San

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8 - Webster and Mulligan

Chris Smith, John Mosca and John Riley University of North Texas Press ePub

Mel's suddenly high profile work with Terry Gibbs introduced his playing to an increasing number of network contractors in Los Angeles. As a result, he joined the staff of ABC Studios Hollywood.1 His 1959 studio work included playing on the Eddie Fischer Show, performing live dates with Frank Sinatra (subbing for Irv Cottler), and performing on numerous radio and television commercials.2

Mel was also involved with the motion picture The Gene Krupa Story. The movie was loosely based on the story of Gene Krupa's life, but while the movie was entertaining to audiences, it didn't succeed in portraying much reality. Krupa himself recorded most, but not all, of the drumming sequences for the movie. Mel was brought in to record the drumming audio for several scenes, including a montage from low periods in Krupa's career. The scenes depicted Krupa playing with bad groups, awkwardly forcing Mel to try and sound like Krupa on his bad nights. In the end, the opportunity for Mel to be a part of a movie about his lifelong drumming idol and friend was a nerve-racking, but enjoyable, experience.

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Act 2

Robert K. Wallace University of North Texas Press PDF

Act 2

Prelude

Day 1

to the world of the ship. As the music slows, wisps of melody

Day 1 of Act 2 is so seamless, its action is so continuous,

float forth under flashes of light in the darkness. Sliding

that its division into three scenes is needed only for those

scrims and looming sails rise in the light of a new day.

An orchestral Prelude marked “fast and brutal” returns us

who may wish to stage the opera or write about it. The audience in the theater experiences one continuous flow of shipboard motion and gyrating emotion from the moment Queequeg sights the storm at the beginning of scene

1 through to Ahab’s “defiant” worship of the storm at the end of scene 3.

Heggie: “The way Lenny used sails as scrims was re-

ally interesting. You get the sense of being up high and

then they would bring it all the way down to the deck.

He just loved playing with all the things that give you a change of perspective, a different picture.”

Scene 1

Since the creative team had gone back and forth about whether Act 2 should begin with the storm scene or a second masthead duet, it’s perfect that Queequeg announces

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Songs 16–21

Richard D. Sylvester Indiana University Press ePub

16

Речная лилея

Water lily

Op. 8, No. 1

For the first song in the set, Rachmaninoff chose Heine’s lyric “Die schlanke Wasserlilie” (The slender water lily). A shy maiden and her lovesick swain are figured in images of a water lily looking up at the silvery moon, and then looking down at his pale reflection mirrored in the water. The nouns for lily and moon are feminine and masculine in both the German and Russian texts.

The song is a miniature that works very well. As frame there is a piano introduction and conclusion which are nearly identical. In these two brief sections, marked Vivo and leggiero e grazioso, drops of water are suggested with expressive little rising, then falling, ornamental appoggiaturas. An arpeggio in the second line of text announces the entrance of moonlight onto the scene.

In the voice part, the song slows down to Moderato. The vocal line has been criticized for lacking simplicity (Norris, 140), but the lyric describes a scene that is itself restive, looking up, looking down, with changing points of view, a sense of things coming into focus unexpectedly: reflections in water by moonlight. The declamatory voice part conveys this very well in its moves up and down the scale, embodying the lily at the high end up to G, and the moon at the low end down to B; the sudden coming into focus of the moonlight is rendered by the chromatic passage from A to dotted A sharp to B in the last word of the first stanza. A “mirror” effect (with variations) is at work in the voice part too, as points of view go back and forth every two lines.

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Synopsis

Edward D. Latham University of North Texas Press PDF

The Multi-Movement Anstieg or Initial Ascent

and Clive Barnes of the New York Times claimed that Porgy and Bess could truly be assessed as an opera.41 Yet, if the issue of the opera’s genre seemed resolved, its status in the African-American community remained uncertain.

Goldman, in attempting to sell his idea for a production of the complete work with Houston Grand Opera, ran into black resentment of the work as “Uncle

Tom,” old-fashioned and demeaning in its portrayal of African-Americans.

Prominent artistic figures such as choreographer Alvin Ailey and bandleader

Duke Ellington both voiced their reservations to Goldman about the work, but by the time the opera opened in 1976 such concerns were far outweighed by the artistic success of the production.42

Synopsis

Porgy and Bess is set in “Catfish Row,” an imaginary Charleston, South

Carolina, riverfront community, peopled with African-Americans down on their luck. The curtain opens on an evening in late summer, in the early

1920s or ’30s; the men of Catfish Row have gathered to play craps (I/i).

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Song 46, Without Opus (1900)

Richard D. Sylvester Indiana University Press ePub

46

Ночь

Night

Unlike Songs 1 through 9, which Rachmaninoff chose not to publish, he did approve the publication of the present song in a charity anthology to benefit widows and orphans of musicians in Moscow. The paper on which the fair copy was made was used by the composer in the second half of 1900, and the manuscript bears that date, but the song was probably composed earlier in 1899. In the fall of that year, Vera Skalon decided to marry her childhood friend Sergei Tolbuzin, burning more than a hundred of Rachmaninoff’s letters to her. They remained friends, and she was a matron of honor in Rachmaninoff’s wedding in 1902, but she never stopped loving him, according to her sister Lyudmila’s memoir (VOR 1, 247). Rachmaninoff’s own tender feelings for Vera are thought to be behind this text which he presumably chose at about this time. The third stanza is an intimate appeal to her in the present, and he wisely decided to remove it.

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Finalis: The Project of al-Andalus and Nostalgic Dwelling in the Twenty-First Century

Jonathan Holt Shannon Indiana University Press ePub

Omar Metioui, whom we met in Morocco, is both a pharmacist and a skilled interpreter of Morocco’s Andalusian musical heritage. Having grown up in multilingual Tangier and studied in Brussels, Metioui is comfortable in Arabic, French, and Spanish, as well as in the varied roles of pharmacist, ensemble director, cultural translator, researcher, and social entrepreneur, having founded in 2007 the association Confluences musicales (Rawafid musiqiyya) dedicated to preserving and performing the Andalusian musical legacy. While his pharmacy and the cultural center are in Tangier, he and his family reside in a spacious villa near Cape Malabata looking across the Strait of Gibraltar to Spain. A plaque near the front door reads “Las Dos Orillas” (the two banks), evoking the medieval concept of al-‘udwatan, the two banks of al-Andalus—the African and the European. Metioui straddles these two banks as a performer and as a person.

On a fine spring day in Fez in 2004, I attended a concert that Metioui gave with Begoña Olavide, the Spanish artist who is also the founder of Ensemble Mudéjar. At the time, Olavide and her husband, Carlos Paniagua, were considering relocating to Tangier to work with Metioui on Confluences musicales. They in fact would later relocate there for some six years, performing regularly with Metioui’s Tangier-based ensembles, both in Morocco and internationally, and conducting master classes on music and lutherie at Confluences musicales’ headquarters in the Tangier medina.

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8. Reflecting Lost Hope: “Im Dorfe,” “Der stürmische Morgen,” and “Täuschung”

Suurpää, Lauri Indiana University Press ePub

In the next three songs, “Im Dorfe,” “Der stürmische Morgen,” and “Täuschung,” the protagonist reflects on the situation he faced at the end of “Letzte Hoffnung.” As he considers abandoning the hope for happiness and embracing the possibility of death, the wanderer goes through a range of emotions, from nostalgia to rage. This chapter treats the three songs as a unit whose coherence is suggested by textual rather than musical factors.

“Im Dorfe,” composed in ternary form, is mostly governed by the joyful emotion, with occasional passing shades of the tragic in the A sections and the introduction (example 8.1). The fleeting tragic emotion primarily results from the occurrence of two chromatically altered pitches borrowed from the parallel minor: B and F. The present analysis will largely concentrate on the function of these pitches and the different contexts in which they appear. B is introduced as part of a modally inflected predominant harmony in the introduction (m. 3) and heard again in the A1 section when the same material is repeated (mm. 9–10). The entire A1 section consists of one extended cadential progression (I–II–V–I), and the predominant of mm. 9–10 (with the tragic B) continues in m. 12 to the cadential six-four chord. The resolution of this V is considerably delayed, and the tonic finally arrives in m. 18.1 Within this prolonged dominant, the tragic B is heard again in m. 17 as a local neighbor note in the accompaniment’s sixteenth-note figuration.2 The tragic expression of m. 17 is emphasized by the F of the preceding measure, which transforms the cadential six-four chord prolonged from m. 12 onward into a minor sonority. When the tonic finally arrives in m. 18, it is a major chord.

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Austrian

Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

 

This section is divided into multiple groupings, each arranged alphabetically by title. Anthologies and collections grouped into historical periods include music from different countries written over one to three centuries. The “Tombeaux, Hommages” section catalogs those collections written in honor of a composer. The last and largest category consists of collections of various nationalities, sometimes divided into pre-twentieth century and twentieth century. The “Bach” section (under “German”) lists collections which include music by more than one member of the Bach family. Single-composer collections are listed under the composer's name in the main part of the book.

Initial articles and Arabic numerals (A, An, Das, Der, I, Le, Les, The, 15, 24, 30) are ignored in alphabetization. Composers’ names are given in the spelling used in the collection being described. The Title Index of Anthologies and Collections at the end of the volume lists all the collections in one alphabetic sequence. Only dates for composers not included earlier are included here.

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3. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias of Music

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER THREE

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias of Music

The dictionaries and encyclopedias of music listed in this chapter have been divided by type into (1) the recent large sources and selected concise ones that contain articles on people as well as on terms, (2) selected sources, international and North American, that contain only biographical articles, (3) the chief sources that contain only articles on terms, and (4) selected specialized dictionaries—those treating specific areas or subjects, regardless of approach. In all but one category, the names of certain older sources of historical interest are also included.

3.1 GENERAL DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS

These sources are “general” dictionaries and encyclopedias of music in that most of them include articles on both biographical and nonbiographical subjects, on people as well as terms, forms, genres, countries, etc. Beyond that, however, there are considerable differences among them in size, comprehensiveness, and recentness. There are sometimes specified limitations (e.g., Dictionary of Contemporary Music, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, and New Grove Dictionary of American Music). Less obvious in the international sources is that there are often differences of emphasis, e.g., more detailed coverage of subjects pertaining to the country in which the work originated.

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Appendix A: Titled Dances by J. S. Bach

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

Inclusive dates, e.g., “1715–25,” indicate that the work was written during that period; “?1714” means possibly in that year; and a year in parentheses, e.g., “1735 (24),” indicates an earlier copy of the same work. When two cities are separated by a slash, e.g., “Weimar/Köthen,” it is not certain where the work was written; when there is a dash between them, e.g., “Weimar-Leipzig,” the work was written some time during the entire period. Capital letters indicate major keys, lower-case letters minor keys.

Bourées

Gavottes

Minuets

Passepieds

Sarabandes

Courantes

Courantes

French Gigues

Giga I

Giga II

Loures

Forlana

Polonaises

Chaconnes and Passacaglia

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American

Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

 

This section is divided into multiple groupings, each arranged alphabetically by title. Anthologies and collections grouped into historical periods include music from different countries written over one to three centuries. The “Tombeaux, Hommages” section catalogs those collections written in honor of a composer. The last and largest category consists of collections of various nationalities, sometimes divided into pre-twentieth century and twentieth century. The “Bach” section (under “German”) lists collections which include music by more than one member of the Bach family. Single-composer collections are listed under the composer's name in the main part of the book.

Initial articles and Arabic numerals (A, An, Das, Der, I, Le, Les, The, 15, 24, 30) are ignored in alphabetization. Composers’ names are given in the spelling used in the collection being described. The Title Index of Anthologies and Collections at the end of the volume lists all the collections in one alphabetic sequence. Only dates for composers not included earlier are included here.

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