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1 Podhale

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

Only one major player in this book is not human-made and that is the place itself—the Tatra Mountains. And even this is dramatically altered by human activity. The other topics of interest here are all human-made; they are human inventions. The danger of ethnographic descriptions (including what follows) is that they tend to reify the thing described; they create the culture they purport to analyze and explain. Scholars in the social sciences have long recognized this tendency to invent the traditions they present as ethnographic discoveries (Fabian 1983), and it is with circumspection that I propose to describe Podhale, the people of Podhale, and the music they call their own. Though the mountains—the Tatra, Gorce, and Pieniny mountains—that hem in the small region called Podhale are not human inventions, what it means to be a mountaineer, to be Górale, is a human social, historical, and cultural construct.

Podhale is on the southern border of Poland, one hundred kilometers below the ancient city of Kraków, which was the royal seat of Poland until 1611 when the government was moved to Warsaw, in part to remove it from attacks and threats of attacks from Tartar invaders. Kraków remains, however, a cultural and administrative capital for southern Poland, and for more than a century it has been the most common staging point for recreational and short-term business travel (tourism) to Podhale. Leaving the Gothic and Renaissance splendor of Kraków by horse-drawn wagon (in the nineteenth century), by train (around the turn of the twentieth century), or by bus or automobile today, one traverses increasingly hilly terrain as one moves south to the town of Nowy Targ (New Market). The largest and one of the oldest towns in Podhale, Nowy Targ is on the edge of the Gorce Mountains and overlooks a moderate-sized valley containing the most agriculturally viable land of the region. The Gorce Mountains (part of the Beskid Mountains) define the northern border of Podhale; the southern border is formed by the Tatra Mountains, the tallest peaks of the Carpathian range and the largest mountains in Central Europe. The Polish/Slovak border runs through the Tatras, dividing the mountains in such a way that only about 20 percent of the High Tatras lie within the political borders of Poland. The Białka River marks the eastern boundary of Podhale, and the western boundary runs just outside the Czarny Dunajec River, incorporating the villages of Podczerwone and Czarny Dunajec (fig. 1.1). The entire region is only about thirty-four kilometers north to south and twenty-four kilometers east to west.

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Chapter 7: Ad honorem Passionis: Triduum Music and Rational Piety

Robert L. Kendrick Indiana University Press ePub

Chapter 7

Ad honorem Passionis

Triduum Music and Rational Piety

Tenebrae after 1700 was sung amid new currents of devotion and social life not necessarily favorable to the allegories and emphases of its texts. Despite some recent work, eighteenth-century Catholic piety as a whole is still unclear, and the implications for the heuristic analysis of the century’s sacred music are also only beginning to emerge. In Italy and central Europe, a newly direct spiritual discourse made its appeal to the “reasoned” Catholic, while in France the idea of “natural” religion was a wider attack on traditional practice. But in the same decades as these changes in spirituality, innovative Lamentations and Misereres were created, as much for courts as for cathedrals, with some notable examples in the 1740s discussed below, and the impact of some mid-century works provided a musical counter to the wider crisis of the Office. The renovation of the repertory is epitomized by a tribute to the Passion, the closing inscription at the end of an apparently autograph F6/L1 by Francesco Durante (GB-Lcm 176): “Ad honorem Passionis D[omini] N[ostri] J[esu] C[hristi].” This concept from the fourteenth-century Speculum humanae salvationis received devotional and musical expression in the middle of Enlightenment Europe.1

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6 The Château d’Isaster Tapes and the Album Cover and Lyrics of a Passion Play

Tim Smolko Indiana University Press ePub

During a break in the tour for thick as a brick in the summer of 1972, Jethro Tull began work on the music that would later become A Passion Play. From the start, the band intended on writing another concept album. Anderson comments: “[Thick as a Brick] was a very successful album, and when it came to the next album I guess we all collectively fell into a trap of thinking, ‘Oh shit, maybe we should do this kind of thing again and instead of being silly about it, maybe we should take it seriously.’”1 Anderson worked on the new music in Montreux, Switzerland, and then moved with the band to the Château d’Hérouville, a castle-turned-recording-studio in the Oise valley northwest of Paris. Although Elton John loved the studio and named his 1972 album Honky Château after it, Anderson and the band detested it, referring to it as the “Château d’Isaster.” In contrast to the recording of Thick as a Brick, which was carried out quickly and without interruption, the new album was plagued with technical difficulties. Bad food and homesickness for England made things even worse for the band. As Anderson says of the Château d’Hérouville: “The equipment was extremely dodgy, everything was going wrong technically every day, and we were really struggling to make this album. We did eventually get three sides of a double album recorded with great difficulty, but then we finally became so disenchanted with it we just jumped on a plane and went back to England. We scrapped the whole thing and started again.”2 Before considering the album cover, lyrics, and music of A Passion Play, the lyrics and music from the period at the Château d’Hérouville must be explored. Not only do these recordings contain the origin of some of the ideas on A Passion Play, but they are also captivating in and of themselves.

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Chapter 12. The Polonaise

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

BWV 817

The passion and fierce nationalism of Chopin’s sixteen polonaises have colored our perception of this type of music ever since the early nineteenth century, when they began to be composed. However, Polish dances appeared in European music at least two hundred years earlier, attested to by pieces entitled “polnischer Tanz” and “polacca” in several late sixteenth-century keyboard tablatures. In the seventeenth century the French term “polonaise” came to designate pieces which embodied some aspects of “Polish style” or which were reminiscent of authentic Polish music; most of these pieces were by composers living outside of Poland. By the eighteenth century numerous polonaises were composed as instrumental pieces characterized by strong rhythms, which emphasize a certain beat or pulse, often the downbeat of a measure.1 These rhythms include and ; in addition, the thesis or cadence measure may be specially accented with a feminine cadence using the rhythm .

The absence of upbeats in polonaises of this type further intensifies the overall affect of strength and virility. Johann Mattheson wrote:

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Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

Chinese Contemporary Piano Pieces (Karlsen Publishers, Hong Kong 1979). Vol.I, 88pp. Ah Ping: The Moon Mirrored in the Pool. Wang Chien Chung: Plum Blossom Melody; Sakura. Yip Wai Hong: Memories of Childhood (6 miniatures). Kwo Chi Hung: 2 Yi Li Folk Songs. Chu Wang Hua: Sinkiang Capriccio. Lui Shi Kuen and Kuo Chi Hung: Battling the Typhoon. Post-Romantic pianistic figurations, much pentatonic usage, some charming and interesting moments. This collection is a good example of the type of piano writing going on in this area of the world today. Int. to M-D.

Chinese Piano Music for Children (N. Liao—Schott 7652 1990) 55pp. Written between 1973 and 1986 when Chinese music “increasingly absorbed the influences and ideas current in the new music of the West, without sacrificing its own tradition and national style” (from the score). Luting He (1903–1999): The Young Shepherd with his little Flute 1934; tender, artistic simplicity, national style. Shande Ding (1911–1995): Suite for Children (five pieces) 1953: folk-like but no folk songs are quoted. Tong Shang (1923– ): Seven Little Pieces after Folk Songs from Inner Mongolia 1953: a charming suite of folk song arrangements. Lisan Wang (1953– ): Sonatine 1957: three titled movements, cheerful, displays spirited humor. Int. to M-D.

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7 The Music of a Passion Play

Tim Smolko Indiana University Press ePub

Like thick as a brick, a passion play takes the listener on a spacious musical journey, although the journey is a bit gloomy because of the subject matter of the lyrics. Yet because of Anderson’s wry vocal delivery and the droll and inane “The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles,” the gloominess is not overbearing. The music is rich, layered, and diverse, and a close look at some its features allows one to discover something new with every listen. I begin this chapter by analyzing A Passion Play’s overture, explaining how it encapsulates the work as a whole, introduces two of its primary musical motives (Motives 1 and 2), shows the influence of Baroque-era music, and resembles the Danse Macabre, the medieval dance of death. I then analyze the work’s form, thematic development, instrumental passages, and instrumentation. After this, I discuss the music of “The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles,” and the chapter concludes with some observations on A Passion Play’s metrical and harmonic complexities.

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Medium 9780253011008

4. Musico-Poetic Associations: Principles of Analysis

Suurpää, Lauri Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter charts methodological issues of musico-poetic analysis, and I will begin by briefly explaining some basic ideas of Greimassian semiotics that I will use later in examining the poetic structure. A. J. Greimas (1917–92) was the leading figure of the so-called Paris School of semiotics. His work is characterized by an attempt to describe textual structure on a purely functional level. He shows such structures as sets of relations between binary oppositions, often applying quite complex formalizations partly derived from formal logic. In this manner, he is able to describe functional relations and tensions on a purely abstract level without directly referring to the semantic content of the text from which the structure has been abstracted.

The formal apparatus of Greimassian semiotics has clear advantages in musico-poetic analysis. Above all, it provides a means to describe textual structure without direct reference to the semantic content of the text. This may help to form a solid basis for describing text-music aspects; musico-poetic associations can thus be described on the level of abstract structures without suggesting that the music represents the content of the text in a straightforward manner. This is important, I believe, if one wants to avoid the impression that the music in some sense directly reflects the semantic content of the poem, an assertion whose problematic nature was discussed in proposition 1 in chapter 3. Once this kind of abstract relationship has been established, the text-music relations can then be extended to a more concrete level where the actual semantic content of the text is also taken into consideration. But this examination may be based on the underlying abstract structures as well.

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IV Dynamic Nuance and Musical Line

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

The worn faces and figures dressed in black in family photo albums from past generations, when placed next to the glamorous model in the cigarette ad who has “come a long way,” illustrate how far the reality of the one world lay from the illusions of the other. There was little to distract the one from the fact of tomorrow’s labor: no thoughts of “overnight to London” or “live via satellite from Tokyo,” no cars, no radio, no labor-saving appliances, and no wonder drugs. However, the figure in black and the model, each in her time, had in common the biological capability to pass on to the next generation life and physical characteristics.

A Bach fugue subject is for a fugue what human genes are for heredity. If the subject moves stepwise, the writing of the fugue will be smooth; if leaps predominate, the fugue will sound more instrumental than vocal. Like the average person living in the year 1722, who accepted more readily than we the social and occupational boundaries inherited through birth, a Bach fugue subject is less important in and for itself than as the genetic blueprint for the piece.

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5 First Performances in St. Petersburg

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

JUDGING BY THE ABSENCE of a certificate of leave, without which conservatory students were unable to leave the capital, Ruvin and Jascha must have remained in St. Petersburg for the rest of December and into 1911. The cost of a return trip to Vilnius was likely prohibitive; thus, for the first time, Jascha spent the New Year’s holiday far from his family and friends, but they did not forget about him. Marusya Malkina wrote, “Dear darling Jaschenka! I congratulate you on the New Year and wish you all the best.”1 Each new semester, however, brought another round of bureaucratic hurdles. On January 2, for instance, Jascha and Ruvin received their residency permit from the conservatory for the period up to June 1, 1911, and had to present their documents at the police station in order to receive a stamp for their apartment on Bolshaya Masterskaya Street.2 On January 20, Jascha turned ten, and for the second time in his young life, spent his birthday away from home and extended family.

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Modern Music around the Globe

Edited by Karin Pendle Indiana University Press ePub

the Globe

Catherine Roma

During the early years of the twentieth century an unusual number of British women composers were born. The first decade alone saw the births of Priaulx Rainier, Elizabeth Poston, Grace Williams, Elisabeth Lutyens, Elizabeth Maconchy, Imogen Holst, and Phyllis Tate. Most of these composers attended the Royal College of Music (RCM) in the twenties, and many were students of Ralph Vaughan Williams or Gustav Holst. They reacted to and were affected by the English Musical Renaissance and seemed more open than many in their generation to musical currents from the Continent. All struggled with their careers, not only because they were forward-looking composers but also because they were women. None felt she had experienced discrimination at the RCM. However, once out in the professional world, many felt the need to band together and to organize performances where their works could be heard. Anne Macnaghten, in collaboration with conductor Iris Lemare and composer Elisabeth Lutyens, established the recently disbanded Macnaghten-Lemare series as a platform for performances of modern British music.1 Distinguished soloists were approached for help; voices were solicited for a chorus; and Lemare conducted a chamber orchestra made up of amateurs and students.2 By the 1960s, when a favorable musical climate in London and the momentum of their past efforts and successes came together, these women had become well known. In fact, the Society of Women Musicians, an organization founded in 1911 to deal with the problems of invisibility among women composers and performers, disbanded in the early 1970s, believing it had met its objectives.

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4 1910: St. Petersburg Conservatory and Nalbandian

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

BY 1910, RUSSIA BOASTED TWO conservatories, one in St. Petersburg, then the capital, and one in Moscow. The St. Petersburg Conservatory was founded in 1862 by Anton Rubinstein and was the first and oldest Russian center of academic musical education. Notable graduates included Tchaikovsky, Lyadov, Fyodor Stravinsky (the composer Igor’s father), Ivan Yershov, Vasily Safonov, and Anna Yesipova. A number of significant pedagogical schools developed at the conservatory, including the violin school of Leopold Auer, Anna Yesipova’s piano school, and Aleksandr Verzhbilovich’s cello school. In June 1908, a year and a halfbefore the Heifetzes arrived in St. Petersburg, the conservatory’s influential head of composition, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, passed away. The memory of the composer lived on at the institution, however, and it is said that Rimsky-Korsakov’s coat hook remained vacant for many years.

From December 1905 onward, the post of conservatory director was occupied by a former student of Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Glazunov (1865–1936). The conservatory generally kept a distance from social and political issues, but the 1905 Russian Revolution led to a struggle for autonomy from the main board of the IRMO. This new autonomy crystallized in the unanimous vote for Glazunov; earlier, directors had been appointed by the leadership of the IRMO. In 1909, the conservatory’s artistic council voted to give Glazunov a second term and conferred upon him the title of Distinguished Professor. Glazunov’s reign at the conservatory lasted more than twenty years.

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4 ARRK and the Soviet Transition to Sound

Edited by Lilya Kaganovsky and Masha Sal Indiana University Press ePub

Natalie Ryabchikova

IN THE MIDDLE of 1931, four years after The Jazz Singer (dir. Crosland, 1927) premiered in New York and three years after the first public demonstration of Soviet experiments with sound film, an editorial of the Soviet journal Proletarskoe kino (Proletarian Cinema) reproduced a dialogue with an imaginary reader:

Sound cinema is a powerful weapon of the socialist construction. . . .

We have learned this a long time ago—a reader will reasonably say—they’ve talked about this and written about this a thousand times, but we do not feel it; we have not been able to verify the force of sound cinema in practice, because for us, tens of millions of Soviet citizens, sound cinema is a nonexistent thing.

The situation with sound cinema in the Soviet Union is highly unfavorable. We are at least three years behind the capitalist West in this area; we have not been fast enough. . . .

And this we have also heard a thousand times—the reader says—but what is the matter, why have we been going around in circles?1

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8. Rock

S. Kay Hoke INshort ePub


Since the end of World War I the history of popular music in America has been one of interplay between musical styles and technological advances in sound reproduction. Of the many influences affecting the popular music scene, two are especially noteworthy: the introduction of microphones and amplifiers, allowing performers to project their sound without mastering the same techniques used by performers of art music; and the movement of mainstream popular music from a European-inspired written tradition to a vernacular style derived from oral tradition.

Until the 1920s the primary consumers of popular music were the literate middle and working classes, who had both the ability to read music and the means to buy a piano on which to reproduce it in the home. The emergence of affordable electronic sound reproduction made popular music accessible to a broad audience unconstrained by geography or the necessity for formal musical training. By 1925, control of the popular music industry had begun to shift from publishing houses to radio stations, record companies, and manufacturers of sound reproduction equipment. Popular music in the United States has always been dominated by styles directed toward and listened to by the so-called mainstream audience: urban, middle-class whites. In the first half of the century that music was the product of Tin Pan Alley; in the second half it has been rock. But styles particular to other groups in the population have sometimes attracted broad-based audiences as well—for example, the music of rural whites, first known as hillbilly and later as country, and the music of African Americans, which includes blues, jazz, and gospel.

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Chapter 5 • Beginning Bass to Buddy and Baker

Helene LaFaro-Fernandez University of North Texas Press PDF


Chapter 5  •

Beginning Bass to

Buddy and Baker

In the fall of 1954, when Scotty was preparing to leave for college, Dad bought him his first bass, a light-colored Kaye, at

Levi’s, a shop across the street from the Eastman Theater in Rochester, and arranged for him to take a few bass lessons from Nick

D’Angelo.1 Nick was in the Air Force and leading the jazz ensemble at nearby Sampson Air Base. He was also gigging around the area, which is how he and Dad met. One night at Belhurst, shortly after Scotty had played a clarinet concerto with the Finger

Lakes Symphony, Dad told Nick that Scotty was feeling frustrated because he couldn’t find his niche improvising on the clarinet.

Dad also mentioned to Nick that Scotty liked the sound of the bass, and since he had to study a stringed instrument as part of his college curriculum, he should begin private study with Nick.

From that point on Scotty made the trip back home almost every week to study with Nick. Nick used the Franz Simandl books 1 and 2, Etudes for Double Bass and Piano, which Nick called the “Bible of Bass Study” at that time.

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1 Azerbaijani Musical Nationalism during the Pre-Soviet and Soviet Eras

Aida Huseynova Indiana University Press ePub

At the intersection of new and old in the early twentieth century Azerbaijanian composed music was born.

INNA NARODITSKAYA, Song from the Land of Fire

A great geopolitical transformation occurred in Transcaucasia between 1813 and 1828. As a result of the Russo-Persian wars, Russia annexed Persia’s (Iran’s) northern territories populated by ethnic Azerbaijanis. Subjugation to Russia profoundly altered the history of the Azerbaijani people. For centuries, all Azerbaijanis had been a part of the Eastern hemisphere, had predominantly practiced Shia Islam, and had spoken vernacular Azerbaijani Turkic. Now the southern part of the Azerbaijani ethnos remained in the Persian Empire, while the northern part belonged to the Russian Empire, in which Orthodox Christianity was the prevailing religion and Russian, a Slavic tongue, the official language. Just as tectonic plates move and realign during an earthquake, so too did the geopolitical ties that shaped the development of Azerbaijani music and culture find a new balance in the face of vast historical change.

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