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3. The Laws Couldn’t Keep Tambú Away.

de Jong, Nanette Indiana University Press ePub


Art should be recognized as a major and integral part of the transaction that engenders political behavior. —MURRAY EDELMAN

As already stated, during the early slavery years Tambú was allowed to evolve without much interference. Early Dutch interests were focused almost entirely on trade and profits, and the personal lives of manquerons were at first of little interest to the slaveholders. As the Jamaican governor of 1694 aptly observed in describing the Hollanders on Curaçao: “Jesus Christ is good, but trade is better” (Hamelberg 1694: 107). This helps to explain how Tambú managed to catch on quickly and spread rapidly among the manqueron community.

Among Tambú’s main purposes during slavery was its role as accompaniment to Montamentu, its rhythms and dances performed as vehicles for conjuring the arrival of ancestors and deities, many of whom found duplication (and triplication) on Curaçao. Montamentu’s propensity for duplicated gods stemmed in part from the religion’s unusual rules of possession. Unlike most other Afro-syncretized Caribbean rituals, Montamentu’s invocation of specific gods and spirits was not limited to performing the specific musical rhythms and dances unique to the individual entity. In Tambú, for example, while events could be performed in honor of a particular deity, “all deities [were] welcome.” According to one respected Tambú leader, “It is the spirit world that makes the decision [regarding] which deities will arrive. [The spirit world] is best qualified to make that decision” (Yuchi, personal communication, November 3, 1995). Which gods arrive, how many gods attend, how long the gods will stay —these are all decisions made at the discretion of the gods themselves.

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Medium 9780253318220

VII Descriptive Music: Op. 81a, Op. 13

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

If a music appreciation class were to listen to the Sonata Op. 81a, without being aware of the programmatic titles, and another class were to listen to the same sonata but after being told the titles of the three movements, the second group would almost certainly remember the piece in greater detail. The historical background alone is like a fabric of fantasy woven of threads of a variety of colors—the Archduke who later became an Archbishop, Beethoven’s gifted student and patron, the relationship of a Hapsburg royal to a composer who once felt the need to insist that the “van” in his name indicated nobility, the approach of the French armies, the flight of the Archduke—making a pattern we know as the Les Adieux Sonata. Descriptive or programmatic music will be taken seriously or not according to the associations established in the mind. If they are too literal, the piece will seem more entertaining than serious. However, imagining the sentiments that were exchanged between these two flesh-and-blood human beings coming from two widely separated levels of society and meeting in a kind of temple of the spirit, musician and nonmusician alike will hear the music as an “immortal sign” of a human experience. Life does lend significance to the act of making music.

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Medium 9781574412505

Part 2: Autumn Winds

Sybil Rosen University of North Texas Press PDF


Miles to Go


wo months after my return from Georgia, I’m on my way to Texas and

Blaze Foley’s grave. It’s the end of January now, and the thermometers in New York have plunged to zero. The Catskills are white and unmoving, the air so cold it glitters with crystals.

The night before I leave, Yukon the monk helps me try to bury Larue’s ashes in the grove of pines behind the house. The ground is frozen, impossible to dig; no resting place there. It will be summer by the time we finally scatter her ashes in the percolating stream beside the cottage where she last lived.

For now, Yukon sends me off with his blessing. In our long friendship, good-byes have been frequent.

“My gypsy queen,” he breathes, passing a hand over the top of my head.

He wears a woolen cap pulled down to just above his eyelids. “It’s a love story through space and time.”

“There’s no such thing as time,” I grouse. “I’m convinced of that now.” I don’t know whether to laugh or cry. “Do you think I’m going crazy?” I ask him.

He peers at me and shrugs. “If something can heal you, let it.”

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Medium 9781574412260


Essays by John James Haynie, Compiled and Edited by Anne Hardin University of North Texas Press PDF


There are many reasons for learning to play a trumpet; however, the most important one should be the preparation to play for others. Like it or not you will play for others and, from the beginning, you should be aware that someone is listening to every note you play. That one person you are playing for is yourself, the most critical of all listeners. If you cannot please yourself, then why should anyone else want to hear you?

When you walk out on the stage to play you are bringing along more than your accompanist, trumpet, music, mutes, and a glass of water. The other baggage you are bringing out of the wings is your reputation as a person, as a musician, and as a technician of the instrument. It is good to play for your friends, and the cultivation of their friendship should be a lifetime goal.

True friends will want you to play well. That is why they came, to cheer you on. When Maurice André walked onto the stage in the old Main Auditorium at North Texas in 1970, he received an immediate standing ovation. It was spontaneous, as everyone stood as one, not one here and there. It was electric. How we all would like to carry that “baggage” on stage! Monsieur André told me afterward that it was one of his finest recitals. Was there a connection?

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Medium 9780253016416

9 The von Huene Legacy

Geoffrey Burgess Indiana University Press ePub

In the latter part of his career, von Huene’s achievements gained official recognition from numerous institutions and organizations (a full list is given as appendix 3). One of the first to be conferred was an honorary doctorate from his alma mater, Bowdoin College. The presentation speaker referred to von Huene’s pioneering work in the “reproduction and appreciation of historical woodwind instruments,” and commented that, “in honoring you, Bowdoin honors its own concern that the best in the past give shape and sound to the present.”1 When he was granted the title of Living Treasure of New England in 1985, reference was made to Michael Praetorius’s definition from the early seventeenth century of the quintessential instrument builder as a fitting allusion to von Huene’s skill and achievements (reproduced in the preface).2 Von Huene was the first recipient of a distinguished achievement award from the American Recorder Society, presented by his long-standing friend Shelley Gruskin at a ceremony at the 1987 Boston Early Music Festival (BEMF) (see figure 9.1). By 1996 von Huene was considered enough of a “native informant” for Professor Thomas Kelly to invite him to give the initial address to a class of Harvard University students preparing an ethnographic study of early music in Boston.3 At the presentation of the Arion Award in 1992, the flutist Christopher Krueger named von Huene “The Charles Darwin of Early Music.”4 Friedrich also received the Curt Sachs Award from the American Musical Instrument Society in 2003, not only in recognition of his personal achievements, but for the inspiration he provided “to the generations of performers, instrument makers, and researchers who have benefited from his knowledge, friendship, and teaching.”5

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Medium 9780253014481

6. Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 2: Musicians, Instruments, and Repertories

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub


Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 2: Musicians, Instruments, and Repertories

This chapter includes lists of basic sources for biographies of musicians, musical instruments and their repertories, and musical genres and forms.


The first section lists sources of biographies, primarily bibliographies and indexes of biographies, organized primarily by type of musician (composer, conductor, performer, etc.). Many are annotated—some lightly and others extensively. They are useful particularly for locating titles published prior to the beginning coverage year of online databases. The following section contains a selected list of biographies of Western European art music composers in English. The last section begins with the two primary series of composer biographies and research materials, the Bio-Bibliographies in Music and the Routledge Music Bibliographies, and concludes with other series of composer biographies of various types.

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Medium 9780253357199

2: Learning My Trade

Vaughan, Umi Indiana University Press ePub


Learning my trade

*  Umi  *

The important Lucumí institution of the sacred batá drums, with its specialized bodies of technical, herbal, and musical knowledge, and its guilds of drummers “sworn” (jurado) to the drum spirit, Añá, did not arrive in Cuba as an intact “tradition.” On the contrary, the batá complex was recreated, disseminated through the urban cabildo networks of Havana, Regla, and Matanzas, and transmitted intergenerationally through descending ritual lineages of drummers. Cuban ethnologist Fernando Ortiz writes that, although the drums were known before this, the first set of “orthodox” drums, constructed and prepared according to ritual protocol from Nigeria, was made in 1830 in the town of Regla (across the bay from Havana) by two slaves, Atandá (No Juan el Cojo) and Añabí (No Filomeno García), now famous as founding fathers among devotees of the batá.1 According to this history, these men were the first to establish batá de fundamento in Cuba. As Santería and the batá developed and took root, important individuals emerged to shape and codify the tradition.2 Among the drummers mentioned as central architects of the Havana lineage we find Andrés Roche and his son Pablo Roche, who represented the second and third generations of sacred batá drummers in Cuba.

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Medium 9780253010179

16 - Transformations in Tuareg Tende Singing: Women's Voices and Local Feminisms

Edited by Thomas A Hale and Aissata G Indiana University Press ePub


Susan J. Rasmussen

Recently, feminist anthropologists have grappled with representing “other modernities” and “other feminisms” (Mohanty 1991; Collins 1993; Brenner 1998; Rofel 1999; Abu-Lughod 2002). One approach has been to analyze the role of affective and expressive culture—for example, women's songs—in resistance and accommodation to these processes (Abu-Lughod 1986; Trawick 1988). The present essay contributes to these studies by exploring changing meanings of women's song performance in relation to gendered experience of social upheavals among the semi-nomadic, Muslim, and traditionally stratified Tuareg of Niger and Mali.1 The focus is upon a genre called tende, a body of songs performed by women in a variety of performance contexts, accompanied by a drum called by that name. Most tende performances traditionally occur at weddings, namedays, spirit possession rituals, and festivals. They are also organized, along with men's camel races, to greet important visitors. Sometimes, they are spontaneously performed, organized at the spur of the moment in late afternoon or evening for young people's gatherings featuring dancing and courtship, or in less structured situations, just for fun. Nowadays, some performances take place at political rallies and on national holidays.

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Medium 9780253348661

25. Pitch and Transposition

Edited by Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub


One well-known “fact” is that pitch in olden times was lower than our present international standard of a′ = 440. This “fact” (often repeated in the popular press, usually in connection with the danger it poses for our priceless heritage of Stradivarius violins, and invariably calling for an invidious comparison of our “high-strung” era with a supposedly more relaxed past) is, of course, only half correct, since the truth is that pitch in earlier times was also higher than modern pitch. In fact, recorded standards of pitch have varied over a range of at least a fifth, from about a major third below modern to about a minor third above. Attempts to achieve an international standard—only a fond hope for musicians writing in the eighteenth century—were first begun in earnest in the nineteenth century; they first became a reality in 1939. Although we are all aware that adherence to this modern standard varies and that it is thus absolute only on paper, we still depend on it as a fixed point of reference from which the departures tend to be (on a grand scale) rather minute. Its establishment strongly colors our perception of the meaning of musical notation from earlier times, when composers may have had a much different standard—or none at all—in mind.

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Medium 9780253021342

2. Once upon a Spider: Ananse and the Counterhegemonic Trickster Ethos

David Afriyie Donkor Indiana University Press ePub

Poor painted Queen, vain flourish of my fortune,

Why strew’st thou sugar on that bottled spider

Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about?

Queen Margaret (to Queen Elizabeth) in Shakespeare’s Richard III

WHEN CONTEMPORARY GHANAIAN performers navigate the web of tensions among public needs, political pressures, and cultural traditions, they have a long-standing reservoir of counterhegemonic maneuvers to fall back upon. This chapter discusses the time-honored trickster ethos of Ghanaian folklore, which is centered around tales of the crafty spider-spirit Ananse. The folkloric stories reveal Ananse’s propensity for misdirection and “double maneuvers”—antics that can simultaneously confirm and undermine the sanctity of established beliefs, values, rules, and authorities. In an Ananse story, we are never quite sure if the trickster is endorsing the status quo or critiquing it. We will also see that Anansesεm (the practice of telling Ananse stories) is a tradition in which the trickster’s deceptive ethos is seen as a defining quality of performance itself. Ananse is not merely the topic of these stories; he becomes an integral part of the storyteller’s persona, and the trickster’s unreliable craftiness becomes a part of storyteller-audience interactions. In the spirit of Ananse, storytellers are seen as ambivalent and deceptive figures who appear to be undermining social mores, while endorsing them at the same time (and vice versa). Anansesεm practitioners thus often use their performances to challenge distinctions between what is true and false, what is real and imagined, and what is authoritative and questionable. This form of storytelling has long served as a counterhegemonic influence in West Africa and beyond, allowing performers to surreptitiously call into question the legitimacy of socially dominant groups and their ideologies. This chapter describes how Anansesεm practitioners maintain their agency in politicized performance spaces by obscuring the relationships among their stories, themselves, and their audiences—by cannily confusing the distinction between trickster representations and trickster embodiments.

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Medium 9781574412499

Applying the System to the Analysis of Opera

Edward D. Latham University of North Texas Press PDF

Dramatic Closure

Let me stress that an intellectual approach to the play, a thorough analysis of it, is and always has been the director’s responsibility, not the actor’s. However, if we want to claim the right to be creative participants in bringing it to life, we must be armed with more than our technical skills. We should be able to make an intelligent evaluation of the play’s purpose: first, in order to be able to follow the director’s analysis when he shares his intentions with us, and, perhaps more importantly, so that we don’t go interpretively astray in the initial stages of our homework on the role.90

Consequently, in the analyses that are included in the subsequent chapters, the scoring of individual roles will always be undertaken with an eye toward how the analyses may be applied in a performance context. As Stanislavsky puts it, an objective “must have the power to attract and excite the actor”; units and objectives are “merely a technical method of arousing inner, living desires and aspirations.”91

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Medium 9781574413298

No Place to Fall

Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press PDF


No Place to Fall

SHATTUCK AND surviving summer in the West Texas oil fields, much to his relief, Townes Van

Zandt was accepted at the University of Colorado at Boulder in September 1962, the fall after his sister Donna graduated.

He loved Colorado, loved the Boulder area, and, short of following in his parents’ footsteps to the University of Texas, CU was an obvious choice for Townes. The Van Zandts had just moved back to Texas, to Houston, where Harris had accepted a position as vice president of the Transwestern Pipeline Company— something less stressful, hopefully, than his work with the giant

Pure Oil—and Townes naturally liked the idea of staying far from home. He signed up for a general liberal arts schedule at Colorado. “I hit that place like a saddle bronc hits the arena—coming right out of military school and all,” Townes later said.1

His dramatic description is only partially misleading. Before hitting CU “like a saddle bronc,” Townes had a false start and quietly withdrew from school on October 8, after barely a month of classes. He had first phoned his parents and told them that he was uncomfortable, and that he was sure he just wasn’t ready

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Medium 9780253003072

2. A Genre Coming of Age: Transformation, Difference, and Authenticity in the Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture of South Africa

ERIC CHARRY Indiana University Press ePub


As dominant elements in rap music are often attributed to Africa (e.g., Keyes 1996), I see South African rap music and hip hop as a diasporic genre at home—in Africa—but also as a genre having many homes.1 Within these many homes claims to authenticity are expressively mobilized and contested. African Americans claim the genre as an authentic expression of their roots and routes, and as such it reflects their place within the racialized economic and political system of the United States. Adherents in other parts of the globe explain that their marginal statuses are reasons enough for identification with and participation in hip hop. The cross border associations facilitated through hip hop and rap music speak to a global consciousness, which is articulated substantially within a local discourse. This form of global consciousness is not only both real and imagined but also increasingly virtual, thereby rendering the notion of diaspora through hip hop performance even less secure in its moorings. If anything, this genre reveals that the notion of roots in the modern world is negotiable, changing, and subject to the tenuous nature of contemporary life.

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Medium 9780253011589

6 — Eleven Easy Pieces

Joan Benson Indiana University Press ePub

The following miniature pieces are included for your enjoyment as you advance from exercises to music. In order to apply and perfect what you have learned, proceed slowly and attentively.

1. Begin by playing a single voice, one phrase at a time, omitting the ornaments. Aim for clear, singing sounds that stay on pitch.

2. For pieces of two parts, play one voice and sing the other. Then play both parts, noting how they combine.

3. Later, you may add ornaments, first playing them alone and then listening to how they can enhance the music.

4. Feel free from the first to respond to the music’s mood.

You already know of Türk as a clavichord master and follower of Emanuel Bach. His delightful, much appreciated Little Pieces for Future Clavichordists (Kleine Handstücke für angehende Klavierspieler) appeared in two volumes in 1792.

EXAMPLE 6.1 Daniel Gottlob Türk, “Die beyden Siechen” (Two languishing ones)

EXAMPLE 6.2 Daniel Gottlob Türk, “Leise nur, wie Zephrs Hauch” (Gentle, like Zephyr’s breath)

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Medium 9780253356574

2 A Star Is Born

Monika Herzig Indiana University Press ePub

2    A Star Is Born

While Jazz Singer Janet Lawson was on tour in Latvia in the 1990s, she was given a book to read by a friend. It was A Woman in Amber, a memoir about the destruction of Agate Nesaule’s home in Latvia during World War II and her subsequent immigration to Indianapolis. While reminiscing with her mother about washing dishes and working in the cannery in order to support their graduate studies at Indiana University, they mention a busboy named David at LaRue’s Supper Club, who was so crazy about music. During the early 1950s attitudes toward the black and immigrant populations were similar, and Nesaule was expected to be grateful for any job and assumed to have little potential for higher achievements. Despite such humiliating conditions, Nesaule and busboy David excelled in their academic careers, encouraging each other in the kitchen at LaRue’s in 1950. She recalls, “He had to hear every day about Negroes and natural rhythm, and they laughed that a black man talked about music theory and wanted to be a professor.”1

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