1060 Chapters
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8 A New York Professional

Harvey Phillips Indiana University Press ePub


A New York Professional

AFTER MY DISCHARGE from the Army, Carol and I took an apartment at 42-25 80th Street in Elmhurst, Long Island, one block away from Elmhurst Hospital. A lot of musicians had apartments in that big building. The owner and manager of the building was very musician-friendly. If someone came to complain about musicians practicing at all hours of the night, he’d tell them to move. He said, “I’ve never been stiffed by a musician.”

New York musicians often said, “If you want to learn the art of music, go to Juilliard. If you want to learn the profession and business of music, go to the Manhattan School of Music.” I had the good fortune to attend both schools, but my motivation for enrolling in the Manhattan School of Music was so I could leave the Army in time for the start of the 1956–1957 concert season, which began in mid-September. After completing four years of music studies at Juilliard, I didn’t feel like I was in dire need of academia. By the time I returned to New York, I had more than twenty gigs booked already, including the rodeo, ice show, the New York City Ballet, and the New York Brass Quintet.

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Medium 9781574412499


Edward D. Latham University of North Texas Press PDF

The Completed Background Line With Open-Ended Coda


Treemonisha is set on a plantation deep in a forest somewhere in Arkansas, northeast of the town of Texarkana. Ned, a freed slave who manages the plantation for its white absentee landlords, and his wife Monisha are raising a daughter they found as an infant under a tree outside their cabin (hence her name, Tree-Monisha). Educated by a white woman in exchange for labor from Ned and Monisha, Treemonisha challenges the superstitious beliefs of the community in Act 1 by confronting Zodzetrick, one of the local “conjurors” (“The Bag of Luck”). He refuses to give up conjuring and, threatened by Treemonisha’s pupil Remus, retreats into the forest, vowing vengeance on Treemonisha. After learning the truth from Monisha about her mysterious origin (“The Sacred Tree”), Treemonisha enters the forest with her friend Lucy to gather leaves for a wreath and is kidnapped by Zodzetrick and his accomplice, Luddud (“Confusion”). Remus and some of the other men run off in search of them.

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12. The Viola da Gamba Family

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


The Viola da Gamba Family


In many ways, the seventeenth century marked the zenith of the viol in Europe; the several hundred surviving instruments and tens of thousands of compositions suggest that the instrument may truly have been one of Europe's most popular art instruments.1 While both the physical construction and repertory of the viol in the seventeenth century contain many national features evident since the Renaissance, certain other aspects of the viol became common throughout Europe. We summarize some of these general features before examining the viol by national areas.

A unifying feature of the viol across regions was its characteristic upright playing position, either upon or between the knees, depending on the instrument's size. The bow was usually held underhand, with palm facing up. The viol's frets made intonation simpler than that on violin-family instruments, and its resonant, sustaining character and ability to emulate the voice were other crucial factors in its popularity.

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Medium 9780253356260

4 Lessons in Dramatic Composition II: Harmony and Counterpoint

Nicholas Baragwanath Indiana University Press ePub

At the Lucca Conservatory, typically, students entering the final-year composition class would already have received up to four years of primary courses in musical rudiments and a further three years of secondary courses in the disciplines of harmony and counterpoint.1 These were occupied with a combination of the Neapolitan partimento tradition (mainly Fenaroli and Sala) and the associated Bolognese tradition (Martini and Mattei), which was taught primarily through Michele Puccini’s compilation of earlier materials (1846), and theories of fundamental bass and harmonic inversion derived ultimately from Rameau, which were incorporated into northern Italian traditions and taught primarily through Pacini (1834 and 1844a).2 Had these disciplines not been sufficiently mastered, apprentice composers would not have been allowed to progress to “finishing” classes in professional skills such as orchestration, text-setting, and the subtleties of the accento musicale. A thorough grounding in the practice of harmony and counterpoint was considered the most essential prerequisite for a successful career in composition.

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Medium 9780253018151

Appendix 1. Reed Notes: Don Christlieb (1945)

Christin Schillinger Indiana University Press ePub



Playing Characteristics:

Tone (describe for each octave):



Light, reedy





With Edge



Intonation (describe for each octave):








Flexibility (describe for each octave):





Volume (describe for each octave):



With Effort




Quality Change

Tone Collapses

Attack (describe for each octave):






Vibrato (describe for each octave):







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Medium 9780253338198

Feminist Aesthetics

Edited by Karin Pendle Indiana University Press ePub


Renée Cox Lorraine



Adherents of feminism seek to discover ways that women or the feminine are undermined in various cultures and to identify ways to raise the status of women. Broadly speaking, aesthetics is the philosophy of art. A feminist aesthetician, then, would philosophize about art in ways that would serve feminist ends. An aesthetic experience has traditionally been described as an intense concentration on formal or sensuous properties in art, nature, and beyond. Yet aestheticians have always been concerned to some extent, and are particularly concerned of late, with relationships of aesthetic properties or processes to those of life. In music there is a current interest in relating musical processes to personal, social, or political processes, including gender and sexual practices. These tendencies serve the interests of feminism. While there is at present relatively little work in philosophy that could qualify as feminist musical aesthetics, there is an increasing body of work on women or gender in musicology, music theory, or music criticism that is relevant to this area of study.

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Medium 9780253011589

6 — Eleven Easy Pieces

Joan Benson Indiana University Press ePub

The following miniature pieces are included for your enjoyment as you advance from exercises to music. In order to apply and perfect what you have learned, proceed slowly and attentively.

1. Begin by playing a single voice, one phrase at a time, omitting the ornaments. Aim for clear, singing sounds that stay on pitch.

2. For pieces of two parts, play one voice and sing the other. Then play both parts, noting how they combine.

3. Later, you may add ornaments, first playing them alone and then listening to how they can enhance the music.

4. Feel free from the first to respond to the music’s mood.

You already know of Türk as a clavichord master and follower of Emanuel Bach. His delightful, much appreciated Little Pieces for Future Clavichordists (Kleine Handstücke für angehende Klavierspieler) appeared in two volumes in 1792.

EXAMPLE 6.1 Daniel Gottlob Türk, “Die beyden Siechen” (Two languishing ones)

EXAMPLE 6.2 Daniel Gottlob Türk, “Leise nur, wie Zephrs Hauch” (Gentle, like Zephyr’s breath)

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Medium 9780253021342

2. Once upon a Spider: Ananse and the Counterhegemonic Trickster Ethos

David Afriyie Donkor Indiana University Press ePub

Poor painted Queen, vain flourish of my fortune,

Why strew’st thou sugar on that bottled spider

Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about?

Queen Margaret (to Queen Elizabeth) in Shakespeare’s Richard III

WHEN CONTEMPORARY GHANAIAN performers navigate the web of tensions among public needs, political pressures, and cultural traditions, they have a long-standing reservoir of counterhegemonic maneuvers to fall back upon. This chapter discusses the time-honored trickster ethos of Ghanaian folklore, which is centered around tales of the crafty spider-spirit Ananse. The folkloric stories reveal Ananse’s propensity for misdirection and “double maneuvers”—antics that can simultaneously confirm and undermine the sanctity of established beliefs, values, rules, and authorities. In an Ananse story, we are never quite sure if the trickster is endorsing the status quo or critiquing it. We will also see that Anansesεm (the practice of telling Ananse stories) is a tradition in which the trickster’s deceptive ethos is seen as a defining quality of performance itself. Ananse is not merely the topic of these stories; he becomes an integral part of the storyteller’s persona, and the trickster’s unreliable craftiness becomes a part of storyteller-audience interactions. In the spirit of Ananse, storytellers are seen as ambivalent and deceptive figures who appear to be undermining social mores, while endorsing them at the same time (and vice versa). Anansesεm practitioners thus often use their performances to challenge distinctions between what is true and false, what is real and imagined, and what is authoritative and questionable. This form of storytelling has long served as a counterhegemonic influence in West Africa and beyond, allowing performers to surreptitiously call into question the legitimacy of socially dominant groups and their ideologies. This chapter describes how Anansesεm practitioners maintain their agency in politicized performance spaces by obscuring the relationships among their stories, themselves, and their audiences—by cannily confusing the distinction between trickster representations and trickster embodiments.

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Medium 9780253014221

3. The Masterpiece

Sofia Moshevich Indiana University Press ePub

The period from 1946 to 1953 (the year of Stalin’s death) saw a new terror, in which repression of the arts reached an apogee. Shostakovich was among the composers condemned in the Communist Party’s 1948 “antiformalism” decree. Following the publication of this decree, he was removed from his teaching positions, and a number of his works were banned. Through these years, Shostakovich had to write mostly “for the drawer” and published only his weaker but politically correct pieces. With one notable exception—the Twenty-Four Preludes and Fugues—his best compositions of the period, including the Violin Concerto No. 1, op. 77 (1947–48), the song cycle From Jewish Folk Poetry, op. 79 (1948), and the String Quartet No. 4, op. 83 (1949), were premiered only after Stalin’s death.

In July 1950, Shostakovich served as a juror for the piano competition at the Bach Bicentennial Festival in Leipzig. It was this festival, which included a performance of the complete Well-Tempered Clavier by Tatiana Nikolayeva (the eventual winner of the competition), that inspired Shostakovich to compose his own cycle of twenty-four preludes and fugues. Yet, in addition to this external inspiration and a desire to sharpen his compositional technique, Shostakovich may have had another deeply personal reason for embarking on the cycle. Lawrence Cosentino writes that against the “backdrop of an unremitting siege, the twenty-four preludes and fugues emerged as a highly improbable, extraordinarily bold, and shockingly profound act of self-healing.”1

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Medium 9781607320968

Seven: Powwow, Self-Representation, and Multiplicity of Identity

Matthew Krystal University Press of Colorado ePub

Powwow, Self-Representation, and Multiplicity of Identity

Warren and Jackson (2002) identify self-representation as both a goal and a strategy of indigenous movements in Latin America. The same is true in Native North America as well. In the United States, protection and enhancement of tribal sovereignty—that is, power to self-govern—are a constant theme in Native American politics and political action (Wilkins 2002). In other words, more than other issues, collective self-representation, the ability of a Native nation to speak for itself in matters of governance and to determine education policy, land-use regulation, taxation, and so forth, is identified by Native Americans as important across time and space. However, self-representation carries other meanings as well. In this media-saturated world, representing self in image is also a common goal across indigenous societies. It is, however, more than a superficial problem. For example, Victor Montejo identifies the destructive impact of racism on contemporary Maya and argues that combating negative stereotypes is crucial to individual and group self-image and health (2002:123–124). The connection between mental health and image is recognized in the United States as well. Moreover, Native dance is specifically identified as part of the solution. Native American leaders have promoted participation in “traditional song and dance activities as building healthy pride and self-esteem” (Thiesz 2005:88). One of the primary functions of powwow dance is the “positive embodiment of what it means ‘to be Indian’” (Axtmann 2001:13).

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Medium 9781574412666

XI. Elastic Plastic Fork and Pitiable Paper Plate

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Elastic Plastic Fork and

Pitiable Paper Plate


n those days, one of the places you would always be welcome to play was the place that couldn’t, or wouldn’t, pay you any money. Money so that maybe you and that 28 could do it tomorrow. And there were the occasions where you teed it up for your buddies. The buddies remained the preeminent reason you started talking that talk with a dread on your hip in the first place. Sometimes you got a girlfriend, a place to stay, or something to eat. Bravo.

Cooking for sport, Texas style. In dear old Tejas they call it the

Thanksgiving Rehearsal. It began in the 1970s and has been held every year, over three days, the weekend before the traditional Thursday in November, at a summer cabin on a lake in East Texas. After the rooms inside are spoken for, acres of people camp out on the large wooded property.

It’s lasted as long as any music festival or flea market. It’s attracted as many people from as many places as a political party. And it’s as important to those who are lucky enough to be there as football is to

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Medium 9780253333537

The Repertory of Textless Dances

Timothy J. McGee Indiana University Press ePub

We can begin our discussion of the dances by attempting to match the surviving repertory with the names and descriptions that have come down to us.

Estampie is the only dance for which we have both description and named repertory from the Middle Ages. Sixteen textless compositions from two different sources are identified as estampies: eight from the thirteenth-century French source Paris BN fonds français 844, labelled “estampies” (Nos.3–10 in this edition), and eight from the late fourteenth-century Italian manuscript London, BL Additional 29987, following the heading “Istanpitta” (Nos.14–21). The description of the form by Grocheio is ambiguous and has been the subject of a number of interpretations.21 He makes two statements relevant to the estampie:22

The parts of a ductia and stantipes are commonly called puncta. A punctum is a systematic joining together of concords making harmony in ascending and descending, having two sections alike in their beginning, differing in their end, which are usually called the close and open.23

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Medium 9780253010186

Appendix C. Texts of Arias Analyzed in Chapters 10–12

LAWRENCE BENNETT Indiana University Press ePub

Antonio Bononcini

Cantata 98/II

Al tuo bel volto amante


morrà fido e costante


il povero mio cor;


l’andrà dicendo poi


che sol per gl’occhi tuoi


fu martire d’amor.

Cantata 8/I

Amore ingannatore,


più non ti credo, no.


I lacci tuoi già frango


e libero rimango


da chi m’incatenò.

Cantata 91/II

Benché m’abbia la cruda saetta


di Cupido quest’alma ferita,


su quel campo la tenera erbetta


col suo verde a sperare m’invita.

Cantata 56/I

Men crudele e men severo


fate voi che più non tanto


mi tormenti il mio dolor.


0 pietoso il nume arciero


per virtù del vostro pianto


dia la pace a questo cor.

Cantata 56/II

Per non arder più d’amor


dimmi, o dimmi o cor,


che far dovrò?


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Medium 9780253357069

Appendix B. A Performer's Guide to Medieval Music: Contents

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


A Performer's Guide to Medieval Music

Ross W. Duffin, editor




I. Sacred Music



3. Motet & Cantilena JULIE E. CUMMING


II. Non-Liturgical Monophony

5. Introduction ELIZABETH AUBREY





10. Sephardic JUDITH R. COHEN

11. Italian BLAKE WILSON


13. English PAUL HILLIER

III. Lyric Forms post 1300

14. French Ars Nova CHARLES E. BREWER

15. Italian Ars Nova ALEXANDER BLACHLY

16. Ars Subtilior LUCY E. CROSS

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Medium 9780253339362

Chapter 10. The Gigue

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

A dizzying variety of styles, metric structures, textures, types of upbeat, affects, and time signatures confronts the one who would understand Bach’s gigues. Forty-two dances have survived, under titles as diverse as “gigue,” “giga,” “jig,” “jigg,” and “gique,” and in time signatures such as C, and . What do these pieces have in common beyond the fact that they bring to a close a suite of dances?

We divide Bach’s gigues into three types—the French gigue, giga I, and giga II—based on an analysis of metric structure. Ex. X-1 shows the beginnings of three gigues from Bach’s French Suites, each illustrating one of these three types. Giga I (11–2–3) is different from the other types in that its tripleness is on the tap, or lowest, rhythmic level. It also has the slowest harmonic rhythm, giving it an illusion of great speed and a very fast tempo. The French gigue (1–3–2) and giga II (II-3–2) share a similar metric structure but are different because the French gigue has numerous dotted rhythms (as opposed to the predominantly even eighth notes in giga II), a simpler texture, and slightly faster tempo (as opposed to the more-complex textures and slightly slower tempo in giga II).

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