1060 Chapters
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Medium 9780253010605

4 The Notation, Its Perception, and Rendering

Barthold Kuijken Indiana University Press ePub

In sections 1–13 the most important notation parameters of Early Music will be treated separately. Short texts in italics will point to the frequent overlapping and continual cross-influence between them or will lead from one section to the next in an attempt to see all these parameters not as isolated elements, but rather as interwoven parts of one integral artistic product. In sections 14–18 some aspects will be treated that have a profound impact on the way the notation is read, received, and rendered to the audience.

Tuning and temperament have an immediate impact on the listener’s ears. Research has shown that traditions and standards—and thus also their appreciation—have changed very much over the years. They kept changing until today, though through the introduction of electronic tuning devices, uniformity and repeatability are favored. I am not sure that this must be considered a gain.

(All Hz figures should be understood as “ca.”; especially for the organ, the influence of the church temperature should not be neglected.) Much of the factual information upon which this section is based can be found in Bruce Haynes, A History of Performing Pitch (2002), to which I contributed many pitch data of historical flutes and recorders. Haynes’s conclusions coincide with my own research and experience.

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Medium 9780253007254

3 The Friction on the Floor: Negotiating Nightlife in Accra, 1940–1960

Nathan Plageman Indiana University Press ePub

On Saturday Nights in the mid-1950s, a young Alex Moffatt would sneak out of his family house so that he could go to the Tip-Toe, Seaview, or another of Accra’s many nightclubs. To prepare for these excursions, Moffatt would raid his uncle’s closet, select a suit, tie, and pair of black shoes, and inform the other members of his family that he was retiring to bed. When it was clear that everyone else had fallen asleep, Moffatt got up, changed clothes, and quietly made his exit. When he returned home hours later, he took extreme care to open the front door, replace the borrowed items, and enter his room without alerting his unsuspecting parents, uncle, or grandmother. On Sunday morning, Moffatt awoke to a household that had no idea that he had ever left. For the next few years, Moffatt and his equally devious peers used these secretive methods to gain access to one of the city’s most exciting spheres of musical recreation. At that time, many city residents upheld nightclubs as the place to go on Saturday Nights. Within their walls, large crowds gathered to enjoy the offerings of a new generation of highlife dance bands, such as Accra’s Rhythm Aces, the Black Beats, and E. T. Mensah and the Tempos, that had taken the colony by storm. But nightclubs offered patrons more than an evening of music and dance. Like many other residents, Moffatt and his friends sought out these venues not simply to revel in highlife’s vibrant sound; they did so in order to actively participate in a wider struggle concerning the colony’s social and cultural future.1

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Medium 9780253018335

5 Music and National Identity

Merih Erol Indiana University Press ePub

5    Music and National Identity

THE DISCOURSE ON music and its representation of the nation was, in fact, part of a larger discourse on identity in the Greek Orthodox populations of the Ottoman Empire who, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century, strove to come to terms with the meaning of Greekness and the conceptions of East and West. The Greek Orthodox learned elite presented traditional ecclesiastical chant and anonymous folk music as the two main repositories of the memory and authentic self of the ethnos (ethnic-religious community). The boundaries of the ethnos, of course, encompassed the Orthodox Christian populations living in Ottoman Anatolia and the Balkans and were targeted by the leaders of the Greek Orthodox millet, who pursued the goal of disseminating Greek language and culture as well as Orthodox faith to those communities.

The nationalization of the ethnic-religious community mentioned here is different from nation-state–sponsored nationalism. Large segments of the Ottoman Orthodox Christian populations did not identify themselves with the irredentism of the Hellenic state. Indeed, these communities who lived in Anatolia were generally far from seeing themselves as extensions of the Hellenic nation; nor can they be seen as cohesive communities of coreligionists. In many of them, the uniting and homogenizing role of the common Greek language and Orthodox faith was limited.1 Moreover, particularly among Turkishspeaking Orthodox Christians, locality, birthplace, occupation, and experiences of religious syncretism were more decisive in the everyday lives and choices of individuals rather than their imagined ties to remote political entities and collectivities.

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Medium 9780253007247

4 Juilliard, Studying with William J. Bell

Harvey Phillips Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

Juilliard, Studying with William J. Bell

I ARRIVED IN NEW YORK CITY by train during Labor Day weekend 1950 and took a taxi to Mr. Bell’s uptown teaching studio. Tante Lena was still there, as was Eric Hauser, with whom I would share the back bedroom while attending Juilliard. It was a utilitarian apartment/studio. I took one good look at the back bedroom and immediately started considering plans for making it more comfortable.

The morning after I moved in, I spoke to Eric about doing some minor redecorating, at my expense, of course. Eric cordially allowed that I could do whatever I wanted to do, as the room had needed redecorating for too long. I went to Tante Lena about my proposal. As expected, she was delighted, especially when she heard I would paint the walls and install new linoleum and custom-made venetian blinds to replace the dirty old window shades. She was even more delighted when I paid two months’ rent in advance. I went right to work, scrubbing the walls and floor and measuring everything. Over the telephone I ordered the linoleum and the custom-made blinds, to be delivered in one week. I visited the local hardware store and bought paint, paintbrushes, spackle, putty, several grades of sandpaper, and the minimum tools I expected to need as a bona fide resident of Apartment 1-E. When visitors smelled fresh paint, they wanted to see the room. They were surprised to see burgundy walls and a white ceiling along with matching yellow-green venetian blinds and linoleum. OK, so it wasn’t stylish, but it had character to spare! I was finished with decorating our room.

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Medium 9780253006622

10 Emily Doolittle

Denise Von Glahn Indiana University Press ePub

 

Of the composers considered in this project, Emily Doolittle is the youngest by nearly a generation. Born in 1972 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to American parents, Doolittle enjoys both Canadian and U.S. citizenship; she thinks of herself as North American. Like Pauline Oliveros and Libby Larsen most especially, Doolittle is extremely uncomfortable with categories that might confine her. Where Oliveros speaks often of valuing freedom, and has consciously tacked a professional (and personal) course that some consider to lie outside traditional boundaries, Doolittle simply is a free spirit. She doesn’t talk about it much. There is little that is self-conscious about this young composer. As will become clear, dual citizenship is just one manifestation of Doolittle’s boundary-crossing being. Where Oliveros appears almost uncomfortable with the word “nature” and uses a large repertoire of expressions to speak about the natural environment, Doolittle acknowledges the complexity of the concept it represents but embraces the term as long as she can define it. With characteristic openness, Doolittle actualizes her understanding of nature as a wholly unified entity with human beings one species among many, and she does this without romanticizing nature or taking herself too seriously. Positioning herself within nature means she maintains a healthy, light grasp. Doolittle and her music substantiate the ecological condition; environmental mindfulness is part of her DNA.

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Medium 9781574412109

Chapter 10. Meanwhile Back in LA: November 1983-August 1984

Ron Forbes-Roberts University of North Texas Press PDF

Meanwhile Back in LA

house many residents from the upper crust of Los Angeles society over the next few decades. But by the time the Breau family took up residence there, the apartment and the area around it had deteriorated so precipitously that Rhea Langham would likely have been horrified to have her name associated with the building. The Breaus’ tiny studio apartment with its hot plate and few sticks of fourthgeneration furniture was as far down the residential ladder as they had ever stepped: “a crummy, small, dumpy place,” as Kirk Sand describes it. The building’s one saving grace was its rooftop swimming pool—the world’s first at the time the building was constructed.

Lenny did not swim well and was not comfortable in deep water, but he loved to sit by the pool, high above the turbulent city life below, and play his guitar in the warm California sunshine.

This was not the Langham’s selling point for the Breaus, however. The cramped room in the crumbling building was simply all they were able to afford. During their first two months in Los Angeles, the family lived largely on Jewel’s earnings as a part-time teacher at a local Sunday school while Lenny scuffled to find work. Despite the resurgence of interest in jazz that had begun in the late 1970s, there were few jobs for Los Angeles musicians who were not involved in pop music or the movie/jingle session scene. Straight ahead jazz musicians were relegated to three small clubs: Carmelo’s, the

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Medium 9780253357069

Appendix B. A Performer's Guide to Medieval Music: Contents

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub

APPENDIX B

A Performer's Guide to Medieval Music

Ross W. Duffin, editor

Contents

PREFACE ROSS W. DUFFIN

PART 1 REPERTOIRE

I. Sacred Music

1. Chant WILLIAM P. MAHRT

2. Organum ALEJANDRO ENRIQUE PLANCHART

3. Motet & Cantilena JULIE E. CUMMING

4. Polyphonic Mass Ordinary ALEJANDRO ENRIQUE PLANCHART

II. Non-Liturgical Monophony

5. Introduction ELIZABETH AUBREY

6. Latin CHARLES E. BREWER

7. Occitan ELIZABETH AUBREY

8. French ELIZABETH AUBREY

9. Iberian MANUEL PEDRO FERREIRA

10. Sephardic JUDITH R. COHEN

11. Italian BLAKE WILSON

12. German HURBERT HEINEN

13. English PAUL HILLIER

III. Lyric Forms post 1300

14. French Ars Nova CHARLES E. BREWER

15. Italian Ars Nova ALEXANDER BLACHLY

16. Ars Subtilior LUCY E. CROSS

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Medium 9780253356574

1 Indiana Avenue and Crispus Attucks High School

Monika Herzig Indiana University Press ePub

1   Indiana Avenue and Crispus Attucks High School

The story of David Baker’s life began in 1931 in Indianapolis, Indiana. At that time, nearly 45,000 African Americans lived in the city of approximately 365,000 people.1 Neighborhoods, parks, businesses, and schools were segregated, yet African American children – for the most part – were insulated from the harsh political and racial tensions that marked the times. The eastside neighborhood of Baker’s childhood was a close-knit community in which black children had little contact with white people. A sense of innocence prevailed, with little notion that there was any other way of life. It was a time of strong extended families and neighbors who shared the responsibility of raising children. There was a spirit of hope, optimism, and pride among African Americans, despite the racial indignities of everyday life. As in many communities across the United States in the 1930s and ’40s, life revolved around the local business district, neighborhood schools, and churches.

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Medium 9780253356826

6 Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Forces

Steve Larson Indiana University Press ePub

Chapters 1–5 presented a theory of musical forces, including a model of melodic expectation (and key determination) based on gravity, magnetism, and inertia. Chapter 6 expands upon that theory by showing how it can illuminate aspects of rhythm and meter. In doing so, this chapter notes what is rhythmic about musical forces, describes “rhythmic forces” that are analogous to musical forces, explains analogies between pitch and durational patterns, and shows how the same embodied knowledge of physical forces that informs our understanding of melodic expectation also shapes our experience of musical rhythm. It appears that the theory of musical forces can deeply enhance our ideas about meter and rhythm.

Many published studies of rhythm begin with the observation that a series of identical, equally spaced, un-pitched clicks (like the ticks of a clock or metronome, for example) tend to be heard in groups, usually in twos or threes. Different listeners may hear different groupings, or they may hear the groups beginning and ending with different clicks. But once they hear a given grouping, they tend to hear the remaining clicks as continuing in that same grouping. Beginning with this observation allows theorists to start with what seem like the most basic rhythmic phenomena, allows them to introduce and define terms through an uncomplicated example, and allows them to remind us that rhythmic phenomena are mental.

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Medium 9780253021236

Chapter Eight Continuo

David Dolata Indiana University Press ePub

PERHAPS THE MOST COMMON OCCASION in which fretted instrument players must understand how meantone temperaments function is when realizing a bass line. Because continuo realization requires attention to the mi/fa identity of each chord tone, you must know your fingerboard thoroughly and mind your mis and fas. To be sure, this is an advanced skill but essential for archlute and theorbo players who hope to play in professional or high-caliber amateur ensembles.

Though there is no law against refingering to suit your needs, for intabulated solo and accompanied music such as lute songs, the realization of your chosen temperament is mostly a matter of prearranging the frets the best you can and working within and occasionally around those confines. While providing continuo, however, you have many more options because you can realize a bass line however you choose. Once the frets are set, your decisions pertain to where on the fingerboard you elect to realize the harmony at hand. Here is where your fingerboard knowledge earns its keep—there is simply no substitute for knowing where the notes are. If you do not already know where all the notes can be found for your particular open string tuning, I suggest that you memorize the standard mi/fa fret locations for instruments in G and A in meantone temperaments as shown in diagram 7.5. Be particularly conscious of the identity of the pitches at the 4th and 6th frets, but also their alternate mi/fa positions, as these are the frets you are most likely to have to move depending on the key you’re in. In both open string tunings, you will be best served by a tastino covering the 1st fret mi position on the lower three courses or a double or split fret, and in the case of instruments with a fretted seventh course, by a tastino that covers four courses to also provide a mi on the seventh course.

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Medium 9780253012463

11 Chiming the Hours: A Philip Glass Soundtrack

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Roger Hillman and Deborah Crisp

MUSIC ACCOMPANYING THE PROCESS OF ARTISTIC CREATION IS to be found in many films, primarily, of course, in those whose stories concern the composition of music. This can most straightforwardly involve a great composer (Mozart in Milos Forman’s Amadeus);1 a fictitious composer figure whose work nonetheless has cultural resonances (the “Concerto for the Unification of Europe” in Krzysztof Kieslowski’s Three Colours: Blue [Hillman 325]); or a fusion of the two (Luchino Visconti’s character Aschenbach, based closely on Gustav Mahler, composing a contemplative section from the Third Symphony, very different from the lush Adagietto from the Fifth Symphony, which so dominates this film). In this last example, Visconti provides a musical parallel to the page and a half of perfect prose produced by the writer Aschenbach in Thomas Mann’s novella. The transposition of a writer into a composer is a wise choice in seeking cinematic equivalents for a literary text, and therein lies the rub. Via the convention of music accompanying the action, a given in all but the most experimental films, it is dramatically more convincing for a viewer to feel privy to the evolving of a musical creation rather than a literary one. The gestation process behind the written word is more akin to prose (unless exposed to the vagaries of voice-over in film) and hence more at home in prose. The soundtrack, by contrast, is unique to film and transcends direct equivalences in adapting a novel into a film. Films about leading composers can naturalistically feature their music and the formative stages of its composition. A comparable biopic subgenre of prominent writers and their creative processes is likely to be sparse, even with a director who uses rich soundtracks, such as Jane Campion (Sweetie, The Piano). When engaging with the biography of a writer (Janet Frame, in An Angel at My Table), she reduces the narrative presence of creative writing in favor of other details that are less related to the inner life and hence more readily realizable in a medium with images as concrete as those of film.

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2 Virginia Woolf and Musical Culture

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Mihály Szegedy-Maszák

ALTHOUGH VIRGINIA WOOLF WAS SKEPTICAL OF THE MERITS of any verbal approach to music, she was fascinated by the ideal of ut musica poesis. As she listened to a concert in 1915, she decided that “all descriptions of music are quite worthless” (D1: 33), yet she constantly drew inspiration from music. There is good reason to believe that as early as 1905 (PA 251) she became familiar with Walter Pater’s celebrated statement “All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music” (86), echoed by Oscar Wilde’s declaration in the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray: “From the point of view of form, the type of all the arts is the art of the musician” (17). “Its odd, for I’m not regularly musical, but I always think of my books as music before I write them,” she remarked toward the end of her life. “I want to investigate the influence of music on literature,” she added a few months before her death (L6: 426, 450).

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Medium 9781574412840

28. Kenton Goes Rock (1973-1974)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF

28.

Kenton Goes Rock

(1973–1974)

Bob Curnow was 31 when he joined the Kenton organization, ten years older than his first stint with the mellophonium orchestra in

1963, but still a young man. He was certainly young enough to have been influenced by the fusion music that had actually worked both ways, with a few of the rock bands like Chicago and Blood, Sweat and

Tears injecting a little from the jazz idiom into their arrangements. Much as Bob might have preferred to get straight into writing for the band himself, his first, full-time task was to ensure the survival of Creative

World Records.

At the same time, Bob’s impossible instructions from Stan were to expand the label by recording other artists, so that CW was not dependent solely upon the Kenton orchestra. But Curnow had neither the experience, nor (more importantly) the finances to groom the better pop artists who helped subsidize the jazz and classical catalogs of the major companies; and popular jazz stars were not only expensive, but generally contracted to other labels. Curnow had little option but to feature new jazz talent, but if anything sells slower than established jazz groups it is little-known names, and after some few releases by such as Les Hooper and John Von Ohlen, this part of the project was abandoned, leaving Bob free to concentrate on obtaining a “hit” record by Kenton himself.

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Medium 9780253011046

12 The Music of Landscape: Eisenstein, Prokofiev, and the Uses of Music in Ivan the Terrible

Edited by Lilya Kaganovsky and Masha Sal Indiana University Press ePub

Joan Neuberger

SERGEI EISENSTEIN WROTE repeatedly about sound and music in cinema, from his contribution to the collective “Statement on Sound,” co-authored with Vsevolod Pudovkin and Grigori Alexandrov in 1928, through his discussion of audiovisual cinema and “vertical montage” in the montage essays of 1938 to 1940, to his late-1940s articles on Sergei Prokofiev, and color and sound.1 Each of these built on the earlier work and confirmed his original commitment to sound as an active element in film art rather than a naturalistic underpinning for realism or affect. From his initial insistence on sound “as a new element of montage,” Eisenstein developed increasingly complex multimedia, multisensory ideas about the ways sound contributed to producing meaning and experience for film viewers.

In this regard, it is surprising that more attention has not been paid to his eponymous chapter in Nonindifferent Nature, subtitled “The Music of Landscape and the Fate of Montage Counterpoint at a New Stage.”2 In that chapter, music is less a subject for analysis than it is the reigning metaphor for his current understanding of the structures of artistic composition. Written in 1944 and 1945, while editing part 1 of Ivan Groznyi (Ivan the Terrible, part 1, 1944; part 2, 1958] and finishing part 2, Eisenstein developed his earlier thoughts on montage and the “montage image,” incorporating many of the insights he gained through work on the film.3 The subject matter expanded far beyond the role of film sound and montage counterpoint, however, to explore the structures of artistic composition that make it possible to communicate thought and feeling in art and elicit responses from the audience. In short, Eisenstein argued that for a work of art to achieve universality and immortality, its composition must, first of all, correspond to our physical and psychological structures of feeling and cognition.4 The artist must be able to break down a subject or idea into constitutive parts that are resonant with one another in multiple ways that then allow the viewer to reconstitute the parts into a new, higher, unified emotional and intellectual experience. That synthetic unity, which he called the “montage image,” contained an abstract understanding of the subject at hand that derives from the process of joining disparate elements:

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Medium 9781574412666

X. The Songwriter

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

  X 

The Songwriter

T

hroughout all the luck, good and bad, I wrote songs. I wrote them in the kitchen, in the car, in the evening, on holidays, but mostly when it was inconvenient. A lot of the work I put into a new tune was done when trying to sleep, before I would wake for the day and put my thoughts to the test. I have always had collections of ideas and tunes penned in an “idea cache” of Black Books. They were the enduring, final resting place for all kinds of recollections, reflections, and the thoughts that occurred day-to-day. By my observation, it took eight pages of cross-outs to be able to settle on three four-line verses and a refrain.

Writing is not writing at all. It’s editing windy cliché and dogtrot verse. It’s taking what you so loved the day before and, with a fastballthrowing motion, tossing the miserable piece of trash into the can in the corner. Sometimes songs take 60 minutes. Sometimes songs take six years. Further, when you finally get down to it, it’s not what you write, it’s what you don’t write. It’s as important to know what you don’t want as it is to know what you do. Lastly, when you learn to write the pause, the spaces between the words become as influential

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