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l6 January-September 1915

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

THE ARRIVAL OF A NEW YEAR brought no relief to the conflict: Germany had intended to finish the war by autumn, and Russia had planned to fight only on foreign territory and was now dealing with a front line moving toward its own borders. In the words of Rech, a popular newspaper in Russian intellectual circles, “to say whether or not the war ends in the coming year, of course, is impossible. Nevertheless, however long the war continues, however much effort it requires, we have enough physical and spiritual strength.”1 Among the artistic elite, some tried to find in the cataclysms of war an opportunity for evolutionary and artistic progress. For example, the composer Alexander Scriabin wrote, “How deeply mistaken are those who see in wars only evil and the results of accidentally formed discord between peoples.”2

Meanwhile, the Heifetzes began the year in a new home—a rented apartment on Yekateringofsky Prospekt, renamed Rimsky-Korsakov Prospekt in the 1920s. The street starts in a residential area and then stretches southwest through a square that is home to the enormous white and blue St. Nicholas Cathedral; from there both the conservatory and the Mariinsky Theater are visible. The street then continues alongside the Yekaterininsky Canal before it ends around Kalinkinskaya Square. The Heifetzes settled at this end ofYekateringofsky Prospekt in building 115. This would become the Heifetz family’s final address in the city. They lived in this apartment for two-and-a-half years up to their departure for the United States. The walk to the conservatory from this new apartment took twenty minutes, which was longer than before, but a tram stopped outside their building. The neighborhood where they settled was not particularly upscale; it joined the quarter between the Fontanka River and the Yekaterininsky Canal, or the “ditch,” as the latter was then unflatteringly called. Apartments in this area were packed together tightly, but unlike the more central streets, the new location was at least quiet and peaceful.

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7. Trombone

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub




In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the trombone consolidated the gains it had made over the course of the previous century. By this time the cornett had generally replaced the shawm in the standard wind ensemble, thus making it more flexible and more suitable for indoor as well as outdoor events. The trombone is a true “switch-hitter”: fully capable of playing loud, outdoor music, when blown more discreetly it also blends nicely with voices and violins, as well as cornetts. This more subtle side of the trombone's personality also made it quite amenable to use in church.

The instrument also embarked on new endeavors. In 1597 Giovanni Gabrieli published in Venice the first compositions to specify trombones (along with other instruments)—the famous Sonata pian’ e forte and two canzonas. During the next thirty years or so, reams of music with parts for trombones, both instrumental and concerted vocal works, rolled off Italian presses. And quite early in the new century, the trombone began to participate in the newly developed practice of basso continuo, sometimes doubling the printed continuo part exactly, at other times simplifying it, and occasionally embellishing it.

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1. Looking for Woody

June Skinner Sawyers Roaring Forties Press PDF

reinvented himself as the reincarnation of his spiritual father, Woody

Guthrie, complete with guitar, harmonica, and faux hayseed accent.

Dylan soon mixed his newfound drawl with the hipster attitude of the Beats, infusing his language with an element of urban sophistication. Still, Guthrie remained his musical mentor. The first significant song he wrote, “Song to Woody,” was composed “in five minutes” at the Mills Tavern on Bleecker Street on February 14, a few weeks after he arrived in New York.

cheap and safe

New York in the early 1960s was perched on the precipice of change, moving from one era—the supposed “innocence” of the

Eisenhower years—to another—the dynamic but short-lived excitement of the Kennedy years. Indeed, the relatively short span between Eisenhower’s election in 1952 and the arrival of the Beatles in America in 1964 ushered in a decade or so of social change that shook American society to its very core on many levels: politically, socially, and economically. From peaceful civil rights demonstrations in the streets to racially tinged riots, the 1960s started with a gentle whimper and ended with an explosive bang.

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Medium 9781574413298

No Place to Fall

Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press PDF


No Place to Fall

SHATTUCK AND surviving summer in the West Texas oil fields, much to his relief, Townes Van

Zandt was accepted at the University of Colorado at Boulder in September 1962, the fall after his sister Donna graduated.

He loved Colorado, loved the Boulder area, and, short of following in his parents’ footsteps to the University of Texas, CU was an obvious choice for Townes. The Van Zandts had just moved back to Texas, to Houston, where Harris had accepted a position as vice president of the Transwestern Pipeline Company— something less stressful, hopefully, than his work with the giant

Pure Oil—and Townes naturally liked the idea of staying far from home. He signed up for a general liberal arts schedule at Colorado. “I hit that place like a saddle bronc hits the arena—coming right out of military school and all,” Townes later said.1

His dramatic description is only partially misleading. Before hitting CU “like a saddle bronc,” Townes had a false start and quietly withdrew from school on October 8, after barely a month of classes. He had first phoned his parents and told them that he was uncomfortable, and that he was sure he just wasn’t ready

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20. Brass Chamber Music

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

20  Brass Chamber Music

When compared to other genres, chamber music was truly the final frontier of artistic brass playing in terms of repertoire and status. The trumpet and the cornet had succeeded as solo instruments since the late nineteenth century and had become leading voices in bands, orchestras, and jazz ensembles, but there was no mainstream brass equivalent to the piano trio, the string quartet, or the woodwind quintet until the mid-twentieth century. The slow and winding development of chromatic brass instruments outlined in earlier chapters understandably delayed the formation of brass trios, quartets, and quintets; however, other factors concerning playing technique, endurance demands, social norms, and suitable repertoire also played a role.

Chamber music, as a genre, developed during the Classical era, when wind bands were in their infancy and brass instruments mostly traveled in packs rather than as groups of mixed instruments. There were horns for the hunt (trompes du chasse), trumpets for the military, and trombones in church, but only the horn (using hand-stopping technique) and the keyed trumpet participated in genuine chamber music during the Classical era. Although the repertoire of cornetto and sackbut ensembles was adapted for modern brass quintets in the twentieth century, Renaissance wind bands precede the notion of chamber music under consideration here, but they did of course play a form of chamber music in their day.

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6. Cumulative Composition: Ives’s Emerson Music

Matthew McDonald Indiana University Press ePub

The Concord Sonata is an exceptional work of Ives’s in many respects. Its composition dates from the tail end of Ives’s most active period as a composer, the years leading up to his debilitating health problems in the fall of 1918, when Ives composed many of his most enduring works. The sonata was the most important piece in establishing Ives’s stature as a composer, beginning with Ives’s publication of the score, along with the Essays, in 1920, and culminating in John Kirkpatrick’s performance of the sonata at Town Hall in New York in 1939 and Lawrence Gilman’s glowing review that famously heralded the Concord as “the greatest music composed by an American” (1939: 9). The Essays demonstrate Ives’s special regard for the sonata and his intense desire for its underlying ideas to be understood; they also provide an extensive interpretive context for the music that has played an important role in the sonata’s enduring attractiveness to listeners, performers, and scholars.

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Appendix 4. Recordings of J. S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos with Recorders, 1941–1993

Geoffrey Burgess Indiana University Press ePub

Versions Using Modern Instruments and Recorders


Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, dir. Paul Schmitz (Lied der Zeit/Polydor 68191/93)


Curtis Institute Ensemble, dir. Ezra Rachlin (Hargail 105-107)


Alfred Mann, Anton Winkler, recorders (Dolmetsch)


Wiener Kammerorkester, dir. Josef Merten (Re-release: ORF CD 379 2000)


Elisabeth Harnoncourt, Jürg Schaeftlein, recorders


London Baroque Ensemble, dir. Karl Haas (Whitehall WH200070-1, Westminster WG-W-18033)


Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, dir. August Wenzinger (DG Archiv APM 14011-12)


Adam Zeyer, Gustav Scheck, recorders


Instrumental Ensemble, dir. Jasha Horenstein (Vox; rereleased CDX2-5519 Vox, 2009)


Paul Angerer, 2nd recorder


Chamber Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera, dir. Felix Prohaska (NIXA PVL 7016)


Karl Trötzmuller, Paul Angerer, recorders (Concerto IV); flute used in II

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20 Coda

Harvey Phillips Indiana University Press ePub



ALLOWING MYSELF to be put in positions for which I had not been prepared forced me to work an insane schedule when it came to balancing family time, personal time, and professional maintenance as a performer. By that, I simply mean if I had kept my initial priorities, I was first and foremost a player. By 1960–1965, I was at the crest of my playing. The years 1957–1967 had to be the high point of my career as a performer simply because that’s all I was doing. I was performing and teaching in my Carnegie Hall studio, accepting only the few students I chose to teach. At times, convenient to my schedule, I didn’t work—I played, words of double meaning for any musician.

I took on administrative positions for which I was not trained and so I had to “burn the candle at both ends” to learn the responsibilities which came as a trust from others I admired. Each leap—working for Gunther Schuller at the New England Conservatory, taking on the responsibilities of executive editor at The Instrumentalist—was like going into a war zone without a weapon. It’s one hell of a job to gain the respect that’s necessary to administer important tasks for which you’ve had no training. It is like an actor who has never played anything but cowboy roles suddenly finding himself playing Hamlet without ever having heard of William Shakespeare.

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Part II. Perfecting Techniques through Employing Scales, Exercises, and Orchestral Excerpts

Murray Grodner Indiana University Press ePub


Perfecting Techniques through Employing Scales, Exercises, and Orchestral Excerpts


Approach each bowing in a slow tempo concentrating on controlling tonal quality and accurate intonation. Do use and practice vibrato in the slower tempos. Strive to achieve a continuous vibrato as described in the section on vibrato. Play with a full but relaxed sound. Your effort for perfection in this section will carry over to your performance in most other musical challenges. In brief, play everything with a goal of doing it to the best of your ability, constantly working to improve that ability.

Use only one major or minor 2- or 3-octave scale with bowings per day. Include representation of several examples of bowings from Sustained Bowings, Slurred Bowings, Alternating Patterns, Hooked Bowings, and Spiccato. In addition concentrate on several examples of problematic bowings from 27–53. Also include the practice of arpeggios and the chromatic scale in the same tonality as the major or minor scale used for that day. Suggested scale and arpeggio fingerings can be found in Section II

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XXXVII. Live in Texas

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Live in Texas


he success of a good piece was its importance to those who cared to listen in the first place. Nonetheless, writing was pushing the envelope for the adventuresome of us. It was as much unanticipated discovery as it was knowing calculation. Thus the attraction for someone with a leaky ballpoint pen in a shirt pocket and nothing but a table napkin, or a matchbook cover, on which to illustrate before the ink runs out. I counted on discerning others to find their own truths in the scenarios I created. My work was designed to provoke your thinking, not tell you what to think. But I confess, when a listener followed the truth that I told, my feet never touched the ground.

Songs were yet a chatty flock in the air above my desk. Sometimes they’d end up in someone else’s hair. At that point they weren’t my problem. If I’d written them well, they’d fly under all sorts of conditions and would return to any handler, experience notwithstanding.

But the writer in me had to push away from the rolltop desk and turn back into a guitar player again. I could feel the ends of my fingers.

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Ten: Back to the Field: Indigenous Folkloric Dance

Matthew Krystal University Press of Colorado ePub

Back to the Field: Indigenous Folkloric Dance

How I came to appreciate and better understand the role of baile folklórico in Totonicapán is an example of the way that my consultants helped me see what is important. I was never directly told that I ought to expand my focus or pay attention to this or that or to ask different and better questions. This would have impinged on my autonomy in a way (as I would come to recognize) that does not square with K’iche’ notions of personhood or norms of social interaction.

Members of Totonicapán’s Vanguardia Indígena occasionally invited me to attend their performances during fieldwork in 1994 and 1995. Through la Vanguardia, K’iche’ Maya indígenas represented Maya indigenous life by performing folkloric dances. Rather than concede the domain of folkloric dance to the nonindigenous, la Vanguardia began to control and share images of Highland Maya life and culture on their own K’iche’ terms. Employing equipment from the regalia shop where I was an apprentice, la Vanguardia’s repertoire included portrayals of central traditional dances. Their performance was infused with ethnic and community pride. Without directly saying that my field research needed adjustment, dancers of la Vanguardia helped me recognize that I must more directly consider indigenous participation in folkloric dance.

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Chapter 1. The Dance of Prophecy (Missouri and Illinois)

Kenneth W. Hart University of North Texas Press PDF
The Dance of Prophecy(Missouri and Illinois)On October 2, 1827, Joseph Pfautsch, a successful, thirty-twoyear-old master barrel-maker from Austria, was betrothed toMargaretha Hoermann, a twenty-seven-year-old farmer’s daughter from Altmuenster, Bavaria.

1. They were married at the Catholic church in the tiny town of Maineck (population 200) in the upperFranconia district. The Pfautsches were married for eleven years before Margaretha gave birth to a son, Johann, in 1838.

2. Soon after, they decided to move to Missouri, along with Joseph’s brother and his family. Like many Germans the couples had been charmed by the writings of Gottfried Duden, a German who lived in that part of theNew World in the late 1820s and wrote to his friends and relatives back in Europe about the beauty of the Missouri Valley.

3. Its similarities to the Rhineland and its opportunities for prosperity made it attractive to many German immigrants. The Pfautsches settled in the largely German community of Hermann, about sixty miles west See All Chapters
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8 Cause to Celebrate

Geoffrey Burgess Indiana University Press ePub

By the 1980s, early music was emerging from the sidelines and inching its way slowly but perceptibly into mainstream concert life. It was a time of almost euphoric excitement. The beliefs, passions, and enthusiasms of its contributors gave the movement such momentum that those watching from the workshop, museum, or auditorium often stood dazed by its giddying progress.1 Although there was still plenty of active debate on questions of historical authenticity, early music had graduated from being a dry, musicological exercise to an inspirational enhancement to the classical music scene. As Boston harpsichordist Martin Pearlman affirmed, “what is important . . . is that we are not trying to be antiquarians: we are just trying to make music and to attract an audience that comes to hear a concert and not some kind of specialist event.”2 Recorders, harpsichords, and viols were no longer interlopers in modern-instrument ensembles; they could now be heard in international opera houses, and the fully equipped early-instrument orchestras that were proliferating around the world and progressively achieving technical proficiency alongside their mainstream counterparts.

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14 Summary and Prospects

Steve Larson Indiana University Press ePub

This final chapter of the book summarizes its findings and suggests directions for further research.

The book begins by asking two questions: “Why do we talk about music as if it actually moved?” and “Why does music actually move us?” Our sense that common-practice tonal music actually does move (that it accelerates or decelerates, that it ascends or descends, that it goes by steps or leaps) is so strong that it is necessary to remind ourselves that this visceral, immediate sense of motion is a metaphor. Nevertheless, that metaphor is experienced so deeply by members of our musical culture that we not only think about music as if it were shaped by musical analogs of physical gravity, magnetism, and inertia, but we also actually think in music in terms of “melodic gravity” (the tendency of notes heard as above a stable platform to descend), “melodic magnetism” (the tendency of an unstable note to move to the closest stable pitch, a tendency that grows stronger as the goal gets closer), and “musical inertia” (the tendency of motion to continue in the pattern perceived) – as well as “metric magnetism” (the pull of a note on a metrically unstable attack point to a subsequent and more metrically stable attack point, a pull that grows stronger as the attracting attack point grows closer) and “rhythmic gravity” (that quality we attribute to a rhythm, when we map its flow onto a physical gesture, that reflects the impact physical gravity has on that physical gesture).

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6. Performers Onscreen

David P. Neumeyer Indiana University Press ePub

Opening a chapter on the paradoxical notion of a text-centered contingency, Robert Scholes asks a rhetorical question, “Why won’t the text stand still so that one could indeed be true to it or false to it and know which is which?” (1985, 149). This image of an unstable text is particularly well suited to reception studies. Bach’s C Major Prelude has a specific, definite textual history (as a written score), but it did not “stand still,” in Bach’s own hands or in anyone else’s. It is by no means unique in The Well-Tempered Clavier in that there are preliminary versions that were expanded and polished for inclusion in the published volume, and it is well known that Bach continually returned to his own (and occasionally others’) work as sources for new compositions. David Schulenberg refers this practice of “composition by variation” to a broader tradition of composition and pedagogy that embraces not only figural and ground-bass variations but also improvisations on figured basses and reworkings of existing pieces. The training that “Bach apparently received as a child from his brother Johann Christoph must have included not only figured bass realization but also score notation.” In his own teaching, Bach used the same method, avoiding altogether the abstractions of species counterpoint: “In this approach to composition, melodic material was understood as . . . a variation of simple three- or four-part counterpoint that could be represented by figured bass (as it was in [Friedrich Erhardt] Niedt’s treatise [of 1706]).” The fundamental conception of composition linked it inextricably to improvisation, then, and both were understood to be “in essence nothing more than a very elaborate variety of figured bass realization” (1995, 24).1

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