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Timothy J. McGee Indiana University Press ePub

By calling upon all the information at our disposal, it is now possible to speculate a bit about the general nature of the dances that were accompanied by the music in this volume.

The very names “round” and “carol” furnish some idea of these two dances. Both were danced in a group and involved a formation in the round for at least part of the dance. In the Siena and Florence frescoes (Plates 1 and 2), the dancers’ feet are shown close to the ground; the artists have suggested graceful motions rather than vigorous leaping steps. In both works the circle is broken, suggesting that the round formation is only a basic position from which other formations proceed. In the Siena fresco the dancers are threading their way under a “bridge” formed by two dancers with hands joined; and in the Florence work there are two formations: a closed circle of four dancers and a line of three, each group holding hands. The music for the dancers in both scenes is provided by a lone tambourine player standing in their midst, her mouth open, presumably singing the carol verse, to which the dancers would join in singing the refrain. This conforms to the passage from Boccaccio quoted earlier, and even more closely to the French practice as described by Maillart:

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5. Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 1: Fields of Musical Study

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub


Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 1: Fields of Musical Study

This chapter begins with lists of basic sources in eight disciplines or broad fields of musical study: general musicology, ethnomusicology, music theory, music education, music therapy, music history, primary sources in music, and performance practice. Following these broad categories are lists of sources in more specialized and, in some cases, newer fields of musical study: American art music; black music; dance music; music and gender-sexuality studies; women in music; American folk and popular music; world music; music technology and media studies; and the music industry and music business.


Musicology, since its early recognition and definition in the late 1800s, has produced an extensive literature concerned with itself as a discipline. The following bibliography is a list of basic discussions of the theory and practice of musicology, intended to serve as an introduction to its content, organization, and history. The emphasis is largely on more recent sources, but selected older classics have also been included.

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3. Disposition

Estelle R. Jorgensen Indiana University Press ePub




People tend to act in particular ways almost habitually, unconsciously, or naturally. Thinking holistically about a teacher’s disposition is important, but it is also crucial to consider some of the specific dispositions that are needed for teaching. By the word disposition, I mean the tendency to act or be in a particular way. In this chapter, I reflect on those that I see as crucial to a teacher’s life and work: namely, tact, compassion, patience, enthusiasm, and integrity. We may show these dispositions in various ways and our differing personalities may predispose us to acquire or possess some of them more naturally than others. Still, irrespective of our natural proclivities and the particular ways in which we reveal them, it is important to cultivate and nurture these dispositions if we are to cope and thrive as teachers.

Dispositions are located at the nexus of our ideas, beliefs, attitudes, commitments, and values and the phenomenal world in which we act.1 They are not only rooted in intellectual assent or intention but evidenced in practical ways. Their presence is demonstrated by what we do and the impact our actions have on others rather than by what we say or intend to do. This is so because of discontinuities between intentions and the realities of how our actions affect others. Since we work with others as music teachers, we need to be concerned primarily with how our actions affect these others in the phenomenal world. Although we may intuitively recognize dispositions when we see them enacted, it is also possible that we may be mistaken and misinterpret what we see and hear. Such ambiguities and possible misinterpretations arise out of the unexpected, unintended, and even undesirable results of our actions and misinterpretations of our best intentions by others in the face of our own and others’ imperfect and limited knowledge.

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11 Compared to What?

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

They never asked Sam Rivers down
to the Vanguard, you know?

Bob Stewart

George Cables

Keystone was such a special place. There was the Both/And. There was the [Jazz] Workshop. The Both/And was probably more hang-friendly; you could hang there with people that you got to know. And Keystone, [when] you got to Keystone, that was sort of like the crown, the jewel of all the places. For me and [musicians of] my era, going into Keystone Korner was something special.

David Williams

Most club owners I’ve encountered and worked for, even the ones who knew something about the music, didn’t have the passion that Todd had. It was kind of rare for a club owner to have that. With a lot of other club owners, there’s separation; with Todd, you almost forgot that he was not part of the band.

Todd Barkan

There have been other environments in the history of the music that have been comparable [to Keystone]. There was a certain era of the Village Vanguard when that was true in New York City, and at Bradley’s in New York City, and there have been other clubs around the world, spots where musicians and the people running the club seem to be on the same page. When the musicians came to that environment, they felt that not only somebody cared but that everybody cared. And that’s part of what made the music happen on the level that it did and with the consistency that it had.

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26. Ornamentation in Sixteenth-Century Music

Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub


Of all the performance practice issues which must be taken into account in performing music of earlier times, perhaps the one with the most potential to radically affect the sound of the music is improvised ornamentation. Sixteenth-century musicians needed not only to be able to play the music as notated, but also to improvise new material: inventing contrapuntal lines over a plainchant or an existing melody such as a dance tune, improvising florid passages over ostinato basses, freely creating preludes, toccatas or ricercare, and so on.1 In addition to these more or less free improvisations, musicians (both singers and instrumentalists) were expected to ornament the written lines of most of the music they played, through both the addition of graces (small standard ornamental figures) and divisions.

Divisions also were known as passaggi, diminutioni (or simply minute) or, in singing, gorgie, since they were articulated in the throat (gorgia = throat, in Italian). The art of division consisted of substituting the long notes of a written melody with passages of rapidly moving ones, maintaining more or less intact the contour of the original line by touching on the main notes of the melody at their beginnings (and usually at their ends). Just as with modern jazz improvisation, the art of division was learned first by memorizing patterns and then combining and recombining them in countless ways. These patterns were normally applied to intervals and cadences. While playing, the performer needed to mentally ignore any passing notes and instead reduce the melody to a series of basic intervals which might then be replaced by the memorized patterns. Just as in jazz, the “improvised” material would thus partly consist of memorized patterns and partly be spontaneously created, according to the ability and experience of the musician.

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9. Dynamics and Nuance

Stanley Ritchie Indiana University Press ePub

Until the second half of the eighteenth century expression marks of any kind were relatively rare. Dynamics were limited mainly to the indication of echoes or the use in cantatas and concertos to alert the accompanying instruments that the solo voice was entering or leaving the texture. In mid-century, in the spirit of Sturm und Drang, composers began experimenting with the addition of unusual and dramatic effects, asking performers to make dynamic contrasts in places and ways that, because of their training, would be unexpected. This was the genesis of dynamic indications as we understand them.

In the Baroque era, though, most expressive clues were contained in the music, and whereas to the untrained modern eye there would seem to be no dynamics, the performer of the day could clearly perceive the composer’s intention. Here are some of the keys to understanding the dynamic structure of music composed prior to the time when expression began to be prescribed:

a. Harmony: Knowledge of the various types of consonances and dissonances and of the relationship of chords to one another.

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11 Evidence from Music-Theoretical Misunderstandings

Steve Larson Indiana University Press ePub

Chapter 10 provided evidence that pieces of tonal music are shaped by musical forces. It found that the distributions of melodic patterns within the compositions and improvisations analyzed can be explained through a simple formula that combines gravity, magnetism, and inertia. But to play “devil’s advocate” for a moment, one could object that chapter 10, by explaining the distributions of patterns within analyses, told us something about analyses – or about the theories behind them – but did not necessarily tell us anything about the experience of music.

Such an objection seems to assume that Schenker’s theories favor the discovery of patterns that give in to the musical forces. Because I am sympathetic to Schenker’s theories (which now provide the dominant paradigm for the analysis of tonal music), and because I feel that musical forces shape my experience of music, I expect Schenker’s theories to favor the discovery of patterns that give in to musical forces. My intuition, in fact, is that any musically sensitive approach to analysis will tend to reflect the importance of musical forces. In other words, because I believe that Schenker’s analyses reflect important aspects of my experience of music, I believe that chapter 10, by telling us something about Schenkerian analyses, also told us something about the experience of music.

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Appendix B: Pay Records for the Singers of the Ave Maria in Duomo

Getz, Christine PDF


Appendix B

R. Prete Vittoriano Sodarini

D. Alvisio Rabastello

D. Pietro Maria Giussani

Alli duoi huomini che espongono li Cilostri






June 1612 for first six months of 1612.

D. Hippolito Canova maestro di cappella

All’istesso Hippolito canova per tanto ha detto il s. Aurelio facino esserci speso in libri de Canti

R. Prete Agostino Costa

R. Prete Alessio Briosco

D. Giovanni Battista Bonomo

D. Giovanni Battista Crespi

R. Prete Vittoriano Sodarini

D. Alvisio Robastello

D. Giovanni Maria Giussani

Alli duo huomini che espongono li cilostri












2 January 1613 for six months.

D. Hippolito Canova

R. Prete Alessio Briosco

R. Prete Cesare Cappi

Aurelio Mazani

D. Giovanni Battista Crespi

D. Antonio Pizinardi

D. Alvisio Rabastelli m. Battista Angosciola et Paolino Molatore

Alli doi huomini che espongono li cilostri











8 July 1613 for six months.

D. Hippolito Canova

R. Prete Alessio Briosco

R. Prete Cesare Cappi Pavese per tre mesi

D. Giovanni Battista Bononio

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Medium 9780253010261

Appendix 3. Analysis of the Instrumental Passages

Tim Smolko Indiana University Press ePub

The following is a detailed description of all the primary musical events in the nineteen instrumental passages of Thick as a Brick.



Organ solo in C Dorian over ostinato
(Motive 2) on bass and electric guitar


Electric guitar solo over bass, which leaves the ostinato behind in favor of more melodic, sequential lines


Shift to meter and a short acoustic guitar interlude


Staccato rhythms by entire band in , ending on a diminished chord


Shift to meter and G Aeolian


Introduction to the harmonic and melodic material of Vocal 3

INSTR. 2 (7:15–9:20 SIDE 1) SOLOING


Electric guitar and flute play Motive 3


Electric guitar solo in the left channel and another in the right channel (starting at 7:45) playing related material

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Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press ePub


Where I Lead Me

WITHIN A FEW YEARS, THE guitar became for Townes Van Zandt the key to the form of expression that was to become his life’s work. Learning the instrument and playing and singing along with the radio and with records quickly became for him something more than just entertainment. Once he’d learned “Fraulein” for his father, he began diligently soaking up the music around him and seeking out more.

“My musical influences were Elvis, Ricky Nelson, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, and the Everly Brothers … it started off with country, then Elvis and those guys …” Van Zandt said.1 Later, he started listening to jazz and blues, then to folk music. But his grounding was in the great, vital melting pot of country and western and early rock’n’roll that bubbled with such creative fervor in America in the 1950s and early ’60s. Townes had been absorbing it all with great interest and enthusiasm since he was a child and would ride with his father as he drove across the countryside visiting the oil fields, listening to Lefty Frizzell, Ernest Tubb, Hank Williams, and Roy Acuff on the car radio. According to Van Zandt, while Elvis had inspired him to take up the guitar, “In the long run, Hank Williams and Lefty Frizzell probably inspired me more, they probably went in deeper to my consciousness.”2

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4 Village on Stage

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

Some words are invested with particular power. “Village” is one such word. On the one hand, a village is conceived of as a major accomplishment of civilization. One might reasonably expect to find all that is necessary for human life and socialization within a village. The words “country,” “hills,” “outback,” and “mountains” evoke isolation and removal, but “village” suggests commerce, the exchange of ideas, a place to seek a mate, and perhaps even a place to experience good music. All but the most determined recluse will venture to the village on occasion to fulfill social and material needs. On the other hand, a village does not offer the amenities of a town, has none of the urban intensity of a city, and is hardly evocative of sophistication or cosmopolitanism. We prefer the village doctor for some ailments, but we rush to the big city hospital for others. Stepping over the village drunk, switching to the other side of the street to avoid the village idiot, and averting one’s gaze from the beckoning of the village harlot, we note that the village is pure, good, an extension of all the fine things we hope for in family life. As Hillary Clinton (1996) famously declared, “It takes a village” (to raise a child . . . to heal a society).

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Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

Chinese Contemporary Piano Pieces (Karlsen Publishers, Hong Kong 1979). Vol.I, 88pp. Ah Ping: The Moon Mirrored in the Pool. Wang Chien Chung: Plum Blossom Melody; Sakura. Yip Wai Hong: Memories of Childhood (6 miniatures). Kwo Chi Hung: 2 Yi Li Folk Songs. Chu Wang Hua: Sinkiang Capriccio. Lui Shi Kuen and Kuo Chi Hung: Battling the Typhoon. Post-Romantic pianistic figurations, much pentatonic usage, some charming and interesting moments. This collection is a good example of the type of piano writing going on in this area of the world today. Int. to M-D.

Chinese Piano Music for Children (N. Liao—Schott 7652 1990) 55pp. Written between 1973 and 1986 when Chinese music “increasingly absorbed the influences and ideas current in the new music of the West, without sacrificing its own tradition and national style” (from the score). Luting He (1903–1999): The Young Shepherd with his little Flute 1934; tender, artistic simplicity, national style. Shande Ding (1911–1995): Suite for Children (five pieces) 1953: folk-like but no folk songs are quoted. Tong Shang (1923– ): Seven Little Pieces after Folk Songs from Inner Mongolia 1953: a charming suite of folk song arrangements. Lisan Wang (1953– ): Sonatine 1957: three titled movements, cheerful, displays spirited humor. Int. to M-D.

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Chapter 8 • Kenton, Goodman, and Monk 1959

Helene LaFaro-Fernandez University of North Texas Press PDF


Chapter 8  •

Kenton, Goodman, and Monk


Scotty was readying to leave for the East Coast in the fall of 1958. Maggie had recently taken a job at 20th Century Fox as secretary to the associate producer of the TV show Dobie Gillis.

Scotty asked Maggie to consider coming along with him. When she questioned if there was ever going to be anything more for her than being the girlfriend of a jazz musician, he said that he felt he “wasn’t going to be around that long.” She said she decided she wanted to get away from the jazz scene and modeling, and thought this straight job would be a good way to change her life.

This separation actually ended their relationship. Early in 1959,

Scotty called from New York and asked her once again to come to New York, telling her it would probably be hard financially, but that he loved her and wanted them to be together. She told him she was looking for a different life, and soon thereafter married

Bob Denver. Later Maggie said it was very, very painful for her when in 1961 her friend Miki Shapiro, one of the owners of the

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Appendix I • Remembering Scott LaFaro

Helene LaFaro-Fernandez University of North Texas Press PDF


Appendix I  •


Scott LaFaro by Robert Wooley

Scott LaFaro and I went to school in Geneva, New York, a small city of about 15,000 in the heart of the Finger Lakes. Although small, the school had a very strong music program. The high school band director, Godfrey Brown, had worked hard, particularly in the elementary levels, to build his program. The lead trombonist when Scott was a sophomore went directly from high school to the Tommy Dorsey Band. It was possible to graduate from Geneva High School well prepared to go to music school, and many did.

Scott and I first met in 1950, and because of our musical interests became friends.The band director, who was Scotty’s private teacher for clarinet and saxophone, recognized Scott’s talent and made him a student band director. This meant Scott conducted rehearsals for the concert and jazz bands, and directed certain numbers in concerts. His rehearsals were very intense. Scotty was a perfectionist with perfect pitch. He was also a stickler on rhythm—I accused him of having a metronome built into his head. Whenever I listen to Scott’s recordings, I’m certain of it.

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7. Capped Double Reeds: Crumhorn—Kortholt—Schreierpfeif

Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub


If we were to give the crumhorn a name in English that most aptly describes its appearance, we would probably call it “the curved horn,” as did the Germans (Krummhorn, Krumbhorn), the Italians (storto/storti or storta/storte), and the French (tournebout—first used by Mersenne in 1636). Rather than refer to the instrument in such a descriptive manner, the Spanish word orlo may simply be a translation of the German word for horn, but it could also be a general name for a double reed instrument.

Not only does the curved lower end of the crumhorn give it an unusual appearance, but the sound produced by the instrument is quite striking as well—rather like that of a kazoo to the uninitiated listener. It is referred to as a capped double reed instrument, because the reed is enclosed in a small chamber by a windcap and is never placed directly into the mouth or touched by the lips. There is a small slit in the end of the windcap through which the player blows, sending the air through the reed and causing it to vibrate. This technique of setting the reed in motion is most likely derived from the bagpipe and bladder pipe tradition beginning in the thirteenth century.

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