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11 The Beginning of 1913

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

A NUMBER OF EXCITING musical experiences for the residents of St. Petersburg ushered in the New Year, starting on January 7 with a performance by the violinist Jan Kubelík at the Hall of the Assembly of the Nobility. Despite the audience’s enthusiastic response, the critics reacted with restraint to Kubelík’s playing, noting a lack of inspiration only partially masked by his confidence and impressive technique. For Jascha, Kubelík’s performance presented the chance to hear the Ernst Concerto pathétique in F-sharp Minor, a piece he had begun to study with Auer in preparation for a spring performance. Later in January, the violinist Henri Marteau arrived from Berlin to perform the Beethoven Concerto, a piece Jascha had yet to learn, but one that would become integral to his adult repertoire. On January 23, Fritz Kreisler performed the Elgar Concerto at the Hall of the Assembly of the Nobility under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky. Although Jascha performed Elgar’s miniature piece La Capricieuse in Russia, he did not perform the composer’s beautiful and demanding concerto until after he left for the United States. Following the symphony concert with Koussevitzky, Kreisler gave three successful recitals in the same venue on January 29, February 5, and February 7, all accompanied by Rudolph Merwolf, who in the near future would also accompany Jascha.

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XV. Room 933

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Room 933  �  75

I love Vince. Me too. You were asleep. Nice room! Catch ya next time.

Stephen and Franci

Dear Vinco,

I was so sorry to hear about your accident. We are all so glad to hear that you are on the road to recovery. Do what the doctors tell you.


Western Union Telegram

Alexandria, Virginia

Vince, get off your ass. We love you and are talking to God and anyone else who will listen and get you well. Do what the doctors tell you unless it’s unethical.

Much love and more later,

Lucinda, Clyde, and Hobart

Dear Vince,

Knowing that wishes have power, take heart! All will be well.

Providence and Donn Billings

Dear Vince,

Was very distressed to hear of the accident. I sincerely hope you are bearing up well under it all. I know how really awful it can get sometimes when it feels like you’ve lost so much. I know there just isn’t much anyone can say. You were a really good friend to us when we needed it, would like to think we could return it. Don’t know if there’s anything we can do from this distance, but we’re here and extend whatever support we can.

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Conclusion: The Drum Speaks Again

Vaughan, Umi ePub


The Drum Speaks Again

Ga dum, ga dum, dum…
And we rode the rhythms as one, from Nigeria to Mississippi, and back…

Etheridge Knight (from the poem “Oba Ilu, The Talking Drum”)

We began this book with the understanding that the batá drum is a vessel, a vehicle, and a teaching tool. The drum holds on to various kinds of information, including sonic patterns, stories, family and ritual lineages, herbal medicine, and magic. It keeps the beat to and through which humans live. At times we “imitate and repeat the timeless acts of the oricha, approaching and aligning [our]selves with the real world of aché.”1 At other times, drum beats salute various members of the community and acknowledge their various identities and relationships to one another as servants of this or that oricha. Sometimes the drums invite and incite trance possession, becoming “cables upon which man cross[es] that chasm” between the profane and the spirit worlds. To play is to “force open the door to the source.”2

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4. Journals and Periodicals and Their Indexes

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub


Journals and Periodicals and Their Indexes

This chapter begins with a representative listing of scholarly research journals in music that are currently being published. The oldest is the durable Musical Times; among the newest are several journals (e.g., Journal of Music History Pedagogy) that began publication in the last few years. It is in journals of this sort that new research is most likely to be reported, rather than in the host of periodicals concerned with current musical events, individual instruments, the opera scene, etc.

The list is by no means complete, but a fairly broad selection has been made. The most thorough is in the area of musicology, but other types of research journals are included, as indicated by the subdivisions of this listing. These subdivisions, however, are not rigid; e.g., a general musicological journal may carry an article of a more theoretical or ethnomusicological nature. Furthermore, among the musicology journals listed as being of a general nature, some are more so than others, in which, for example, a period or national emphasis is apparent.

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10. The Violin: Technique and Style

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


The Violin: Technique and Style


The seventeenth century was a period in which profound changes in style bridged the musical aesthetics of the Renaissance and the Baroque. As a result, seventeenth-century styles include elements of both periods. The complex nature of seventeenth-century music offers a wealth of musical expression to violinists who attempt to understand it. Since an in-depth analysis of the numerous musical styles that developed during the seventeenth century is beyond the scope of this paper, my intention is to identify the major stylistic trends which motivated the musicians of the era, and to explain how these trends affected both the violin and the violinist.

Any discussion of style will eventually address issues of technique. Inasmuch as the seventeenth century was a volatile period of stylistic change, techniques had to adapt rapidly in order to communicate those changes more effectively. I shall explain the stylistic connection to those changes in technique.

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XXI. Edge of the World

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Edge of the World


don’t know the physiology of traumatic brain injury,” Stephen Jarrard says, “but the difficulty seemed to be not that Vince was not the same person but that he couldn’t remember who he had been, what he liked or didn’t like, wanted or didn’t want. If he’d done something, or thought something, or felt something, he didn’t remember it. In other words, he was himself, but he didn’t remember himself.”

Bob Sturtevant says, “Vince talked for a long time like there were two of him. He would refer to himself as ‘we.’ ‘This is what “we’re” doing today.’ There was Vince, and there was Vince the watcher. I’d ask him, ‘What have you been doing today?’ He’d say, ‘Well, we’ve been working in Music School.’”

The early part of 1984 found me feeling battle-fatigued and solemn.

Memories were filtering in piecemeal, while it remained beyond me in large part to master my emotions. Lost abilities to taste, walk, talk, balance, and recall, coupled with the pain in my arm, taunted me. But the animals were there with plenty of love to go around between old

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3. Hanging On (1942-1943)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


Hanging On


New Jersey’s Meadowbrook was one of America’s more popular dance spots, so when the band was shunted out of there halfway through the engagement, Kenton knew the outlook was rough.

He would have to play pop songs and accept whatever bookings GAC offered. Actually, a lot of the “pops” that entered the book, like “Skylark,” “Serenade in Blue,” “Don’t Sit Under the Apple Tree,” and “I

Had the Craziest Dream” were considerably better than the second-rate schmaltz that Red Dorris had been featuring.

Stan’s first theatre date (a combination of vaudeville and featured movie) actually brought him back to NYC in March 1942, but to Brooklyn rather than Manhattan, and at the somewhat less than illustrious

Flatbush Theatre. Whatever, the audience sat and listened during the band spot, so in that respect it resembled a concert setting, and Kenton premiered a new work he had written in different tempos and symphonic style indicative of the direction Stan eventually wanted the band to take. Titled “Concerto to End All Concertos,” the strong melody was one of Kenton’s most enduring compositions, first recorded in 1946, and played regularly for a further decade. Stan explained, “I wrote ‘Concerto’ because I wanted people to hear a little of the trumpets and trombones, as well as the soloists. We used it as a showpiece, and made kind of a production out of it.”1

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XXV. Fate Worse Than Death

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Fate Worse Than Death


or five years I had not been able to remember where anything was unless I put it someplace where I would routinely go every day to rediscover the things I would need. I had introduced a support system that allowed me to keep track of everything I valued or needed. Consequently, my life was arranged into a rotation of stations. There was a bowl for my wallet and keys at the front door. In the piano room, the top of the dresser and the desk served the same function for all music-related items: strings, tuners, the Black Book, metronomes. In the kitchen there was a countertop for cutlery, a favorite plate, and a glass. All things that related to school, including my driver’s license and keys to “The Hotel,” were left on the drafting table or in the art bag I carried.

But I forgot to put things where they belonged so many times.

The indignity of losing something yet again drove me to fail-safe my fragmented, piecemeal world as best I could. It’s hard to describe the disappointment I felt when I would turn around for the umpteenth time and realize that I didn’t know where my wallet and car keys were.

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8. Trumpet and Horn

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


Trumpet and Horn



In writing about seventeenth-century music, commentators have often underscored its foundations in the idea of affective response. This central goal of arousing the passions of the soul brought into play a large vocabulary of musical figures, keys, and instrumental timbres, each powerfully evocative of particular emotional concepts. Few, if any, instruments were as closely tied to associative meanings as the trumpet, whose sound, sight, and number were invariably manifestations of majesty, heroism, and kingly might. At the court of Louis XIV, for instance, where the external displays of pomp were unrivaled (though often imitated), thirty-six trumpets (four trompettes ordinaires, eight trompettes non servants, and twenty-four trompettes de la garde du corps) were employed to herald and represent the king's majesty.

The link between the trumpet and majesty is a direct outgrowth of the trumpet's highly practical military use as a signal instrument. Standard trumpet calls of “saddle up,” “to horse,” “to watch,” “gather up the tents,” and so on often guided troop action.1 Moreover, the field trumpeter, assuming some of the rights of an ambassador, could be sent behind enemy lines as an emissary, a dangerous function that Johann Ernst Altenburg in the eighteenth century called the field trumpeter's “most important duty.”2 The calls themselves could also be used “strategically.” Altenburg again notes how on one occasion the enemy was tricked into thinking reinforcements were on the way by having trumpets sound from various directions.3

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6. The Arrival of Rugolo (1946)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


The Arrival of Rugolo


Not all long engagements were as welcome as the Hollywood

Palladium. There, the band might get day-calls for rehearsals, recording, filming or benefits, but mostly the work was at night. Theatre dates were another matter. In a routine exclusive to the USA, at theatres the band performances alternated with a film throughout the day, as Stan recalled: “The theatres were awfully hard work. We used to do between

5 and 7 shows a day, and the pay was good, but it was just too difficult physically. We worked the Paramount several times, and the first show went on before 9, and the last show got off at 1 a.m., so it was less than

8 hours between the time we finished and the time we had to be back on stage blowing again.”1

The sheer monotony of waiting around between shows, with no opportunity to leave the theatre for any length of time, did have one positive result for Ray Wetzel, who came up with an idea for a catchy tune that he appropriately called “Intermission Riff.” Many writers have pointed out that the theme is identical to a riff used just once near the start of “Yard Dog Mazurka,” a 1941 Gerald Wilson composition for Jimmie Lunceford. I have no knowledge of Wetzel ever being queried about this, but in any case, Wilson discards it after a single statement, so that in “Mazurka” it remains undeveloped. Al Anthony recalled, “Between shows at the Paramount Theatre in New York, Wetzel and the guys would blow to get their chops in shape. Wetzel got a riff going, and a few days later a few trombones joined in. Boots came up with a reed counter-melody, and over the weeks we kept adding and adding, all head stuff, and voila! We had a great chart that we played on shows and finally recorded.”2 Readily recognizable, and a great vehicle for ever-changing solo improvisations, “Intermission

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Twenty-One: Joseph Haydn

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

Haydn, I think, was the most original of his time, a gigantic figure in music, and is still a very much unexplored treasure, the master of the last movement. No one could write last movements like that; he always has a surprise for you. While the others—Brahms, Schumann, Beethoven included—were struggling with the last movement from the formal point of view, Haydn never did. I’m glad that the Trio learned the forty-three trios and recorded them all.

In Haydn you are very sparse with pedal, although you don’t think of the harpsichord when you play him. You think of what he sounds like to you, and of course you often have to adjust to the acoustics of a big hall. What you give when you play Haydn is his character—noble, grand, and more sophisticated than young Beethoven was at that time.

Mvt. 1. Allegro

M. 1. A special sound. The theme has inflection. Come down from the C.

M. 9. Left hand decrescendo with the first sixteenth notes. Then crescendo with the second group.

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I. Piano Concerti

David Itkin University of North Texas Press PDF

I. Piano Concerti

Frederick Chopin

Piano Concerto No. 1 in E Minor, Op. 11

1st movement.


he considerable orchestral exposition of this movement presents some interesting musical challenges. First, and perhaps most important, is the subject of Chopin’s orchestrating, which is an issue throughout his works for orchestra. In this exposition, as well as many other places in his concerti, his elegant and charming musical ideas are somewhat undermined by his less than expert skills in orchestration. This subject cannot help but lead us to consider the more immediate question: how do we keep this lengthy exposition engaging and musically relevant in spite of a certain orchestral “lumpiness.”

Most conductors, of whom I am certainly one, shy away from exhibiting such hubris as to re-orchestrate the works of great composers. However, this exposition may be a place for some delicate helpful touches. One of the “fixes” that can be beneficial is to reinforce the first violins with a portion of the second violin section during the first twelve bars. The same technique can also be employed in other similar passages that are heavily orchestrated but have left only

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1 From the History of Graphic Sound in the Soviet Union; or, Media without a Medium

Lilya Kaganovsky Indiana University Press ePub

Nikolai Izvolov

Translated from the Russian by Sergei Levchin

TYPICALLY, THE TERM cinema is reserved exclusively for moving images captured on a filmstrip by means of a photographic (i.e., positive-negative) process, capable of reproducing physical reality. Until now very little has been written about another, equally expressive and significant cinematic technique of the “optical period,” designed to synthesize a new and wholly novel audiovisual environment.1 Perhaps the most widely recognized name in this field of drawn animation is that of Canadian animator Norman McLaren, though he was neither the originator of this technique nor its sole practitioner.2

Notably, the possibility of this technique was never discussed in early theoretical writings on cinema. In 1945, one of the most insightful theorists of film, Béla Balázs, wrote: “Sound cannot be represented. We see an actor’s likeness on the screen, but never his voice. Sound is reproduced, rather than represented; it may be manipulated in some manner, but even then it retains the same reality.”3 Thus, the ontology of sound was equated with that of the voice or of music; no distinction was made between its acoustic and communicative aspects. One wonders whether Balázs’s actor was actually represented on film or merely reproduced there. This attitude seems especially perplexing when we take into account that Balázs collaborated on at least two films that made use of drawn sound.

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Appendix B. Lineage of Pressler’s Piano Teachers

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

The following outline illustrates a more complete lineage of Pressler’s musical ancestry than the chart found in Appendix A. Thus we can see that influences coming from Germany, Austria, Italy, France, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Israel, and many other countries became part of Pressler’s musical background and influence.

  I. Kitzl

 II. Rossi

III. Eliahu Rudiakov

A. Max Pauer

1. Ernst Pauer

a) Franz Xaver Mozart

(1) Franz Xaver Niemetschek

(2) Sigismund Ritter von Neukomm

(a) Franz Xaver Weissauer

(b) Michael Haydn

(c) Franz Joseph Haydn

(3) Andreas Steicher

(4) Johann Nepomuk Hummel

(a) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

(b) Franz Joseph Haydn

(5) Antonio Salieri

(6) Georg Joseph Vogler

(a) Giovanni Battista Martini

(i) Angelo Predieri

(ii) Giovanni Antonio Ricieri

(iii) Francesco Antonio Pistacchi

(b) Francesco Antonio Vallotti

(i) Ignazio Donati

(7) Johann Georg Albrechtsberger

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14 - Muslim Hausa Women's Songs

Thomas A Hale Indiana University Press ePub

Beverly B. Mack

The study of songs by Hausa women in northern Nigeria raises a major question for Western scholars. Since these performers both sing and compose poetry in writing, where is the line between the two genres, vocal and written? For Hausa listeners, there is no line between them as the two forms exist in a porous continuum of performance and communication. This study offers perspectives on the wide-ranging platform of Hausa performance communication through analysis of Hausa women's song and poetry,1 both of which are marked by the Islamic influence that is integral to all aspects of Hausa culture.

Part of the problem for the researcher is Hausa terminology for the two genres. Waa (pl. waoi,) is the Hausa term for a broad range of works from poetry to declamation, all of which is normally sung or chanted. The term is not readily translated, but comprises a range of meanings in English from song to written verse. To the Hausa, however, it is all “song.” Thus the plural term waoi is used here to refer collectively to both orally composed and written songs. The songs themselves are as varied in style and theme as the circumstances in which they are performed, and their content is gauged to the situation in which they are delivered. They are sung at naming ceremonies, at wedding celebrations, in praise of important people, as commentary on social behavior, as announcements of changes in social practices, as work songs, and as mnemonic teaching aids. That they occur in such a wide range of social situations is testimony to the genre's pervasive role in Hausa culture. The works analyzed here are popular pieces by contemporary Hausa women who use waoi as entertainment that is alternately didactic, informative, ritual-oriented, paced to domestic tasks, and celebratory.

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