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3 Encounter: Avalogooli and Euro-American Religion, Culture, and Music

Jean Ngoya Kidula Indiana University Press ePub

The introduction of Euro-American Christian music into Logooli society was a direct result of missionary activity in Kenya. Kenya’s first enduring encounter with European Christianity was through Portuguese explorers at the close of the fifteenth century (Were and Wilson 1971, 26; Ogot and Kieran 1968 Barrett et al. 1973 21, 29; Hildebrandt 1981, 63–65). These Catholic Christian attempts, concentrated on Kenya’s coast, were abandoned when the Portuguese withdrew in the mid-eighteenth century due to strong Arab and Muslim opposition and political domination. Neither the Arabs nor the Portuguese ventured inland. Islam was therefore also concentrated along the coast.

Christianity’s modern proliferation in Kenya began with the efforts of John Ludwig Krapf, a German Lutheran initially employed by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) of England.1 Krapf believed that by evangelizing the greatly feared Galla people of Ethiopia, the rest of Eastern Africa would be Christianized. He was denied access into Ethiopia through Egypt; instead he arrived on the east coast of Africa in 1844, hoping to reach the Galla from a new direction. His preliminary efforts on the coast yielded one convert. He returned to England following the death of his wife and son in Africa. While in England he traveled extensively, creating awareness of the need for missionaries through speeches. He returned to Kenya and was joined by German Johann Rebmann. They established a mission station on Kenya’s coast. The inhabitants of the coastal plains, already Islamized, resisted the adoption of yet another new religion. With few converts at the coast, Krapf, Rebmann, and other CMS and British United Methodist missionaries then began the trek to Kenya’s interior. Missionary efforts to penetrate the interior were thwarted by diseases resulting in the death of key members. Additional opposition came from wars and raids by Masai and Somali groups who inhabited the stretches of desert land separating the coast from Kenya’s central highlands. Ideological and personal differences amongst the missionaries resulted in schisms that further decelerated the process of Christianizing Kenya’s interior (Anderson, W. 1977, 1–8).

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Medium 9780253352415

Twenty-Eight: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

Tchaikovsky’s first concerto, which uses the complete armor of a pianist, is one of the grandest in the repertoire. The beautiful melody of the second movement really touches the soul, but it is a different soul than the soul that Beethoven touches. It’s as different as a beautiful novel that inspires and delights you compared to reading a treatise like Goethe’s Faust. Beethoven will ask of you the depths, the penetration, the metaphysical, like those trills in the Op. 111, almost a meditation. In Tchaikovsky it is a direct approach like Verdi is to the opera. It is a wonderful piano concerto, and I’ve learned to love it more and more because the use of the keyboard is magnificent. And what an inspiration that beginning, how powerful! It’s a completely different attitude from Beethoven or Brahms. It’s a different person who plays a great Beethoven from the person who plays a great Tchaikovsky, but the person who plays a great Tchaikovsky will also play a great Prokofiev which comes out of Tchaikovsky.

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Medium 9781574413076


Stephen Gamble and William Lynch University of North Texas Press PDF



The intent of this discography is to give as comprehensive a listing of Brain’s solo and chamber recordings as possible, together with a selection of orchestral recordings, and to reveal newly discovered recordings that have not been featured in any previously published discography. It includes quotations from The Gramophone, Monthly Musical Record, Radio Times, and other sources, but it is not a complete list of every recording that Brain is known to have made.

New works include six solo works for horn and orchestra, two for horn, violin, and piano, three for wind quintet, eight chamber music works for various combinations, fourteen orchestral works, five performances in international archives collections (solo and chamber works), and two of film media. The new items are marked with an asterisk (*).

This list includes commercial recordings (published and unpublished) as well as radio archive recordings and off-the-air recordings. Matrix numbers for recording takes are given only if a recording is unpublished, for example, the British Library Sound Archive takes of the

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Medium 9780253339362

Chapter 10. The Gigue

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

A dizzying variety of styles, metric structures, textures, types of upbeat, affects, and time signatures confronts the one who would understand Bach’s gigues. Forty-two dances have survived, under titles as diverse as “gigue,” “giga,” “jig,” “jigg,” and “gique,” and in time signatures such as C, and . What do these pieces have in common beyond the fact that they bring to a close a suite of dances?

We divide Bach’s gigues into three types—the French gigue, giga I, and giga II—based on an analysis of metric structure. Ex. X-1 shows the beginnings of three gigues from Bach’s French Suites, each illustrating one of these three types. Giga I (11–2–3) is different from the other types in that its tripleness is on the tap, or lowest, rhythmic level. It also has the slowest harmonic rhythm, giving it an illusion of great speed and a very fast tempo. The French gigue (1–3–2) and giga II (II-3–2) share a similar metric structure but are different because the French gigue has numerous dotted rhythms (as opposed to the predominantly even eighth notes in giga II), a simpler texture, and slightly faster tempo (as opposed to the more-complex textures and slightly slower tempo in giga II).

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7 The Efficacy of Performance: Musical Events in The Years

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Elicia Clements

THE YEARS (1937) IS WOOLFS MOST OVERTLY POLITICAL NOVEL; it reveals her growing concern in the 1930s to illuminate the social cost of what she will call “subconscious Hitlerism” in her 1940 essay “Thoughts on Peace in an Air Raid.” Simultaneously, the novel “turns up the volume,” so to speak, by foregrounding aurality in new and ubiquitous ways. In this essay, I argue that the two foci converge in the subject matter of The Years. In the thirties, Woolf searched for new ways not just to comment on social and political issues but also to produce writings that might break down the art/life dichotomy and actively engage in political critique. As Jessica Berman reminds us concerning Orlando and The Waves, “Woolf creates an alternative discourse of feminist action and power, one which seeks to intervene directly in the political life of Britain [during the period from 1929 to 1931]” (116). I would suggest further, for different but related reasons, that Woolf was equally concerned with generating “real” change through efficacious methods and means in The Years (especially as Hitler’s voice thundered over the wireless). By analyzing representations of musical performance in the novel, I demonstrate that Woolf deftly integrates aspects from the art forms of music, drama, and literature to elaborate practices of aesthetic efficacy.

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Medium 9780253318220

XI Movement as Energized Color: Op. 53

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

Once the technique to articulate non legato sixteenths has been developed, the keyboard patterns of the “Waldstein” lie well under the hands. Although the writing may lend itself to common virtuoso display, the extended piano and pianissimo writing (the first movement contains roughly twice as many indications of pp or p as f or ff) suggests a virtuosity through which notes shimmer instead of blind.

Ironically, the raw material out of which this quality of sound was created was something quite earthbound: exercises in the form of sequential scale passages in tenths, in contrary motion, and in canon. The sketchbook containing these exercises (and, a few pages later, sketches for Op. 53) was used by Beethoven primarily in the year 1803; it also contains sketches for the Third Symphony, Leonore, the Fifth Symphony, and the Triple Concerto, as well as the opening measures of the Fourth Piano Concerto.


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Medium 9780253011046

8 Vocal Changes: Marlon Brando, Innokenty Smoktunovsky, and the Sound of the 1950s

Lilya Kaganovsky Indiana University Press ePub

Oksana Bulgakowa

Translated from the German by Katrina Sark

THE BEST STUDIES of voice in film—by Michel Chion or Kaja Silverman—have examined disembodied, formless voices, voices as phantoms.1 However, signs of social and temporal anchoring of the electric voice—as part of the medial body—have been neglected by film theory. One does not have to be Professor Higgins to distinguish film voices of the 1930s from those of the 1990s, since the manner of speech depends not only on the quality of an individual voice that reveals the age, gender, appearance, and mood of the speaker but also on the historically, culturally, and socially determined speech patterns, on technical conditions of recording practices, and on artistic conventions. Norms, conventions, and parameters change at certain points in time. The history of technology is concerned with microphones and tape recorders, amplifiers and filters; linguistic studies conduct phonetic and prosodic analyses of speech patterns. Can film studies indicate traces of time in the electric voices and merge the historicity of the voice with the history of recording technology?

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Medium 9780253010223

Part I: Individual Composers: Their Solo Piano Works in Various Editions and Facsimile Reproductions

Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

Their Solo Piano Works in Various Editions and Facsimile Reproductions

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Medium 9780253009098

1 Beginnings: 1921–1938

Billy Taylor Indiana University Press ePub

The seductive power of jazz resides in its distinctive sway, its particular saunter, its gait, its swing. The genealogy of that swing begins in West Africa, where a primal pulse spawned the ritual drumming, call-and-response singing, and orisha-possessed dancing that were the musical and spiritual life’s blood of its people. Like an endless vine with roots planted firmly in the soil of its African origin, that dynamic Mother Pulse stretched the length of the Atlantic Ocean and was carried as precious cargo in the musical memories and bodies of the enslaved and scattered people who became the Diaspora. Wherever these enslaved people landed, their African heartbeat, their fertile musical Mother Pulse, generated seedlings, new musical forms specific to their new environments but still identifiably African. In the Caribbean, these seedlings matured in forms like junkanoo, mambo, mento, and reggae. In the United States, the transplanted Africans injected the creative pulse of their homeland into their field hollers, work songs, spirituals, blues, and jazz. When the slave law silenced their drumming, the Mother Pulse persisted nonetheless, emerging as the body rhythms of the ring shout and the juba-pattin’ on the plantations, the handclaps of the black church, the vocal percussion of the quartet, the syncopation of ragtime, jazz, the backbeat of R & B, and the beat-boxing of the South Bronx. Songs from their African homeland emerged in new African American melodies that essentially use the five notes of the pentatonic scale; the hollers, guttural tones, and bent notes of the blues and black gospel; the flatted thirds and sevenths of jazz.

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5 California

Sylvia Angelique Alajaji Indiana University Press ePub

“I will never forget what he said. As we were dancing, my friend turned to me and with a smile on his face, he said, ‘This music. . . . It isn’t Armenian, but it kept us Armenian.’”1 Emphasizing that last part, she implored: “Please, write that down. Yes, it may not be Armenian, but it did—it kept us Armenian.” I looked up from my notes to make sure I had heard correctly. This was not the first time I was hearing such a sentiment, but the context and what was being referred to were quite different. I was in Fresno, California, speaking with John and Barbara Chookasian, two U.S.-born Armenians who, as professional musicians, had made it their mission to bridge the divide between eastern (that is, Armenia-born) and western Armenians by bringing together the musical traditions of both. Barbara was recounting a recent wedding reception she had attended, where the kef-time music being performed inspired in the attendees both joy and nostalgia. With tears in her eyes, Barbara continued: “And, you know, he was right. He was right. Yes, maybe some will say that this music isn’t ‘Armenian,’ but it’s ours. It was our parents’ music, our grandparents’ music. It connects us to them. It connects us to each other. Really, you must write this down.”

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Medium 9781574413298

No Place to Fall

Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press PDF


No Place to Fall

SHATTUCK AND surviving summer in the West Texas oil fields, much to his relief, Townes Van

Zandt was accepted at the University of Colorado at Boulder in September 1962, the fall after his sister Donna graduated.

He loved Colorado, loved the Boulder area, and, short of following in his parents’ footsteps to the University of Texas, CU was an obvious choice for Townes. The Van Zandts had just moved back to Texas, to Houston, where Harris had accepted a position as vice president of the Transwestern Pipeline Company— something less stressful, hopefully, than his work with the giant

Pure Oil—and Townes naturally liked the idea of staying far from home. He signed up for a general liberal arts schedule at Colorado. “I hit that place like a saddle bronc hits the arena—coming right out of military school and all,” Townes later said.1

His dramatic description is only partially misleading. Before hitting CU “like a saddle bronc,” Townes had a false start and quietly withdrew from school on October 8, after barely a month of classes. He had first phoned his parents and told them that he was uncomfortable, and that he was sure he just wasn’t ready

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Medium 9780253021236

Chapter Three Fretting Pattern Iconography

David Dolata Indiana University Press ePub

AT ITS SIMPLEST, “applied” iconography is “the study of historical depictions for their documentary content and value,” according to guitarist, university librarian, and iconographer Thomas Heck.1 M. A. Katritzky refines this definition even further: “performing-arts iconography focuses on effective ways in which information of significance to the history of the performing arts can be gained from visual material, in order to facilitate investigation of the history of the performing arts from a visual perspective.”2 For instruments with movable frets, the only visual evidence we have that shows rather than tells us how the frets were arranged is iconography such as paintings, drawings, and book illustrations.

Musical instruments appear in the fine art of earlier eras much more frequently than they do in our own for a number of reasons, not the least of which is that, in the absence of the entertainments facilitated by the stunning array of technology we enjoy today, playing musical instruments was much more a part of the daily lives of our ancestors than our own. Instruments also symbolized the sense of hearing, but also sensibility and sensuality in all their guises, and depending how they were depicted, musical instruments could represent a lively present, pleasures past, or even death itself as in the countless works in the vanitas tradition. The lute, for instance, is so ubiquitous in the iconography of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries not only because it was the most widespread instrument of its time but also for its iconic value as a symbol of sophistication and culture. It stood in for the ancient Greek lyre as the ideal instrument for the accompaniment of poetry and was associated with the privileged classes and the court. The lute’s high cost and the level of skill required to master its complexities further enhanced its value as a status symbol.3

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Medium 9780253002334

1 How Can The Subaltern Speak? Musical Style, Value, and the Historical Process of (Re)indigenization of Tamil Christian Music

Zoe C. Sherinian Indiana University Press ePub

Musical Style, Value, and the Historical Process of (Re)indigenization of Tamil Christian Music

People perform social identity through music. Thus musical value can encode both powerful and degraded social value. Over the last four hundred years, through multiple waves of culture contact and local internal negotiations, Tamil Christians have (re)indigenized Christian music, making conscious style changes in performance practice to encode shifts of power and social identity. Understanding the historical indigenization process of Tamil Christian music provides insight into how and why Theophilus Appavoo turned to folk music as his chosen medium for liberating theological production. It clarifies how he re-indigenized Christianity to the cultural resources of Dalit Christians in a context in which the devaluation of folk music paralleled the devaluation of outcaste people. The indigenization of Christian music in the Tamil context provides a model of the subaltern, re-sounding empowerment through theology in the church and greater society. Re-indigenization of Christianity to a Dalit theological identity through music is subaltern practice and praxis.

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Medium 9780253348661

7. Capped Double Reeds: Crumhorn—Kortholt—Schreierpfeif

Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub


If we were to give the crumhorn a name in English that most aptly describes its appearance, we would probably call it “the curved horn,” as did the Germans (Krummhorn, Krumbhorn), the Italians (storto/storti or storta/storte), and the French (tournebout—first used by Mersenne in 1636). Rather than refer to the instrument in such a descriptive manner, the Spanish word orlo may simply be a translation of the German word for horn, but it could also be a general name for a double reed instrument.

Not only does the curved lower end of the crumhorn give it an unusual appearance, but the sound produced by the instrument is quite striking as well—rather like that of a kazoo to the uninitiated listener. It is referred to as a capped double reed instrument, because the reed is enclosed in a small chamber by a windcap and is never placed directly into the mouth or touched by the lips. There is a small slit in the end of the windcap through which the player blows, sending the air through the reed and causing it to vibrate. This technique of setting the reed in motion is most likely derived from the bagpipe and bladder pipe tradition beginning in the thirteenth century.

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Medium 9780253356826

13 Evidence from Comparing Computer Models with Production-Experiment Results

Steve Larson Indiana University Press ePub

The theory of melodic expectation presented in Chapter 5 claimed that experienced listeners of tonal music have expectations about how melodic beginnings will be completed, and also claimed that important aspects of those expectations are captured in the following summary statement:

Experienced listeners of tonal music expect melodic completions in which the musical forces of gravity, magnetism, and inertia control operations on alphabets in hierarchies of elaboration whose stepwise displacements of auralized traces create simple closed shapes.

Chapter 13 describes two computer models that implement aspects of that theory, and shows that a comparison of the results of that model with the results of psychological experiments offers strong support for that theory.

Some aspects of this theory have been implemented in what I shall call a “single-level” computer model.1 The model is a simple one – every aspect of it is described in the pages below – no additional assumptions or mechanisms are “hidden” in the code. This model, when given a cue in a specified key, returns a rated list of predicted completions. For example, if we ask it to assume the key of C and give it the beginning G–A, it predicts that roughly half the participants will respond with G–A–G (giving in to gravity and magnetism), that roughly half will respond with G–A–B–C (giving in to inertia), and that none will respond with anything else. To calculate the ratings that it gives to each completion it generates, it uses the algorithm given in chapter 4, with a factor added for the stability of the final note.

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