302 Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

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Medium 9781786394583

Observing the Results of Reducing the Stress of Dogs During Training by the Help of Dog-appeasing Pheromone on Learning and Problem-solving Behaviours

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Observing the Results of Reducing the Stress of

Dogs During Training by the Help of Dog-appeasing

Pheromone on Learning and

Problem-solving Behaviours

Etkin Safak* and Nesrin Sulu

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University,

Ankara, Turkey

Funding: Ankara University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit have supported this research. Project Number: 15L0239002, 2015. This research was confirmed with ethical approval (Protocol No: 2014-16-96) by Ethical Committee of Ankara

University.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: dog training, Dog Appeasing Pheromone, problem solving, working dogs, stress

Introduction

Working dogs are subjected to a strict training in order to be able to fulfil their future duties in real life. This study aims to investigate the effects of the Dog

Appeasing Pheromone (DAP; Adaptil®) on reducing stress during training as well as on learning and problem-solving abilities of dogs.

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Medium 9781786394583

The Personality of Dogs and Cats Living in the Same Household: A Multivariate Model Study

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Personality of Dogs and Cats

Living in the Same Household:

A Multivariate Model Study

Laura Menchetti, Silvia Calipari and Silvana Diverio*

Laboratory of Ethology and Animal Welfare (LEBA) Department of

Veterinary Medicine, Perugia University, Italy

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: personality traits, Five-Factor model, multi-pet households, multivariate analysis

Introduction

Personality is the result of interactions between genes, environmental and experiential factors. Dogs and cats living in the same household are a valuable experimental model to evaluate the effect of factors affecting personality traits.

Material and Methods

A total of 1270 owners of dogs and cats in the same household answered to a multiple-choice questionnaire, collecting data on their pets’ personality, demographic features and management habits. Principal component analysis and multivariable regression models were used.

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Medium 9781786394583

Avalanche Dogs Can Locate ‘Buried Victims’ by Perceiving the Human Breath Under the Snow

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Avalanche Dogs Can Locate

‘Buried Victims’ by Perceiving the

Human Breath Under the Snow

Silvana Diverio1*, Laura Menchetti1, Martina Iaboni1,

Giacomo Riggio2, Costanza Azzari3, Anselmo Cagnati4,

Walter Di Mari5 and Michele Matteo Santoro6

Laboratory of Ethology and Animal Welfare (LEBA) Department of

Veterinary Medicine, Perugia University, Italy; 2Veterinary Consultant, Rome,

Italy; 3Veterinary Consultant, Turin, Italy; 4ARPA (Veneto Regional Agency for the Environment Protection), Arabba, Italy; 5GdF (Military Force of Guardia di Finanza), Direzione Veterinaria e Cinofili, Rome, Italy; 6SAGF - Alpine

Rescue of Guardia di Finanza, Predazzo, Italy

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, working dog, human scent, body postures, avalanche

Introduction

Which components of the human scent steer dogs in finding a buried victim? The aim of this study was to evaluate if rescue dogs can locate a ‘buried victim’ only by perceiving the human’s breath under a layer of snow in an avalanche simulation context, and which dog’s body postures are associated with a successful search.

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Medium 9781786394583

Keynote Presentation: The Importance of the Welfare of Research Animals to Maximise the Quality of Behavioural Research: Do We Measure True Behaviours?

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Keynote Presentation:

The Importance of the Welfare of

Research Animals to Maximise the

Quality of Behavioural Research:

Do We Measure True Behaviours?

Patrick Pageat*

IRSEA and E.I. Purpan, Quartier Salignan, France

Conflict of interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.

Keywords: welfare, ethology, research, development, socialisation

Despite the remarkable development of ethology, welfare science and behavioural medicine, our understanding of many behaviours is still limited. This lack of knowledge is much deeper when we try to discuss underlying mechanisms, development and functionality. The access to such information requires studying the target species in controlled conditions, which do not represent the actual environment of pet, farm or wild species. Moreover, the versatility of behaviours, as well as the inter-individual variability, lead the researchers to develop protocols that associate physiological and behavioural parameters. The resulting risk is that researchers describe behaviours and physiological variation that are based on the unnatural environment to that species. Additionally, it is possible that these environments may limit the animal and reduce its welfare, thus affecting our knowledge and results of the study. The purpose of this lecture is to discuss possible ethical strategies to prevent or limit such bias.

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