302 Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

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Medium 9781786394583

Keynote Presentation: The Importance of the Welfare of Research Animals to Maximise the Quality of Behavioural Research: Do We Measure True Behaviours?

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Keynote Presentation:

The Importance of the Welfare of

Research Animals to Maximise the

Quality of Behavioural Research:

Do We Measure True Behaviours?

Patrick Pageat*

IRSEA and E.I. Purpan, Quartier Salignan, France

Conflict of interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.

Keywords: welfare, ethology, research, development, socialisation

Despite the remarkable development of ethology, welfare science and behavioural medicine, our understanding of many behaviours is still limited. This lack of knowledge is much deeper when we try to discuss underlying mechanisms, development and functionality. The access to such information requires studying the target species in controlled conditions, which do not represent the actual environment of pet, farm or wild species. Moreover, the versatility of behaviours, as well as the inter-individual variability, lead the researchers to develop protocols that associate physiological and behavioural parameters. The resulting risk is that researchers describe behaviours and physiological variation that are based on the unnatural environment to that species. Additionally, it is possible that these environments may limit the animal and reduce its welfare, thus affecting our knowledge and results of the study. The purpose of this lecture is to discuss possible ethical strategies to prevent or limit such bias.

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Medium 9781786394583

Association Between Puppy Classes and Adult Behaviour of the Dog

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Association Between Puppy

Classes and Adult Behaviour of the Dog

Ángela González-Martínez1*, María Fuencisla

Martínez1, Maruska Suárez2, Germán Santamarina2,

Belén Rosado3, Isabel Luño3, Sylvia García-Belenguer3,

Jorge Palacio3, Ainara Villegas3, Luis Felipe de la

Cruz4 and Francisco Javier Diéguez Casalta2

Hospital Veterinario Universitario Rof Codina, Universidad de Santiago de

Compostela, Lugo, Spain; 2Departamento de Anatomía, Producción Animal y Ciencias Clínicas Veterinarias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela,

Lugo, Spain; 3Departamento de Patología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria,

Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Departamento de Fisiología,

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: dogs, puppy class, behaviour problems, behaviour

Introduction

A puppy’s early environment may have a profound effect on its future behaviour, making appropriate socialization and habituation during the early weeks of life essential for lifelong well-being (Sforzini et al., 2009). Nevertheless, the literature shows opposite effects between puppy classes and adulthood behaviour (Seksel et al., 1999; Batt et al., 2008; Blackwell et al., 2013; Kutsumi et al., 2013; Howell et al., 2015). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of puppies’ attendance at dog-training programmes on their behaviour later in adulthood.

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Medium 9781786394583

The Importance of Pain as a Differential Diagnosis During a Behaviour Consultation

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Importance of Pain as a Differential Diagnosis During a Behaviour Consultation

Lynn Hewison1*, Dave Ellson2, Alex Hamilton3 and Kevin McPeake1

Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Group, School of Life Sciences,

University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2WildboreVETStop Ltd, Worksop, UK;

3

Willows Veterinary Centre & Referral Service, Solihull, UK

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: pain, behaviour, dog, anxiety, fear, investigations

History and Presenting Signs

A 5-year-old neutered male Greyhound was referred to the Animal Behaviour

Referral Clinic, University of Lincoln, for pulling backwards and bolting on walks. Prior to referral, the dog had not responded to treatment with a neutraceutical (Nutracalm®). At the time of the consultation, the dog’s behaviour had worsened to the extent he was often refusing daily walks. During the consultation, the dog was observed to be stiff in his hind quarters and described by his owners as ‘lacking stamina’, ‘less active after longer walks’ and ‘squatting to urinate’.

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Living with and Loving a Pet with Behaviour Problems: The Impact on Caregivers

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Living with and Loving a Pet with

Behaviour Problems: The Impact on Caregivers

Kristin Buller1 and Kelly C. Ballantyne2*

Clinical Social Worker, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

1

Conflict of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, companion animals, human–animal bond

Introduction

Many studies have investigated the impacts of behaviour problems on companion animals but few have investigated the impacts of these problems on their caregivers. Studies in human medicine show that caring for mentally ill family members has several impacts on the caregiver’s life, and caregivers of mentally ill companion animals may experience similar challenges. The objectives of this study were to provide a detailed and impartial view of the caregiver’s experience as well as to inform further research and support.

Materials and Methods

A convenience sample of 63 pet owners took part in a survey. Responses were analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method used for identifying, analysing and reporting patterns within data.

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