75 Chapters
Medium 9781609945176

Five The Kizer Revolution

Longman, Phillip Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Thanks to the triumph of the Hardhats, the veterans healthcare system was emerging in the mid-1990s as a world leader in the use of information technology to improve the practice of medicine. But the system was in deep political crisis—a quarter of its hospital beds were empty.1 One government audit in 1994 found that 21 out of 153 VA surgeons had gone a year or more without picking up a scalpel.2

It looked like what would finally undo the veterans healthcare system was the rapidly declining population of veterans. By the mid-1990s, World War II veterans were passing away at a rate of 1,000 per day. Moreover, those who survived in retirement tended to migrate from the Northeast and the Midwest to the Sunbelt, leaving veterans hospitals in places like Pittsburgh or on the Colorado plains with wards of empty beds and idle staff. Meanwhile, in places like Tampa and St. Petersburg, veterans hospitals were overwhelmed with new patients, who, facing overcrowded conditions and overworked staff, found plenty to complain about.

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Medium 9781780646824

1: The Sexual Revolution

Webber, R. CABI PDF

The Sexual Revolution


Origin of Life

The general consensus is that life originated in the oceans some 4 billion years before present from the heat and nutrients of hydrothermal vents.

Although the heat originated from volcanic processes and was intense, it was cooled by the surrounding ocean and a gradient of temperature was created that provided the ideal conditions for life to start. This first life was very simple, just a cell wall containing cytoplasm, and could quite easily have happened, as shown by Wagner in his book Arrival of the Fittest; it was termed a prokaryote.

All cell walls are made from amphiphilic lipids, which are so called because one end likes water and the other likes oils and not water. This property enables lipid molecules to be directionally arranged, a phenomenon that is seen if a thin film of oil is spread on to water, in which it naturally forms into globules, thereby separating the oily components from the water outside. This is thought to be how simple cell walls originated, to be subsequently improved upon by random mutations of their organic contents.

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Medium 9781786394583

Survey on Shock Collar Use in France: Providing Practical Results for Regulatory Guidelines Development

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Survey of Shock Collar Use in France: Providing Practical

Results for Regulatory Guidelines


Sylvia Masson1*, Isabelle Nigron2 and Emmanuel Gaultier3

Clinique de la Tivollière, Voreppe, France; 2Clinique vétérinaire Nigron

André, Roanne, France; 3FERCEA, Cabrieres d’Avignon, France


Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: e-collar, dog training, punishment, shock, dog welfare


Electronic collar training is controversial and current legislation regarding e-collars varies from no regulation to a complete ban across Europe. The main goal of this study is to characterise the practical use of such tools in France, where no regulation exists, and to compare it to theoretical experimental data, to provide accurate information for a potential future regulation. Additionally, a study on the differences between types of collars was conducted to investigate potential nuances.

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Medium 9780253012241

5 A Question of Ethics as/or a Question of Culture: The Problem of What Is and What Ought to Be

Ellen K. Feder Indiana University Press ePub

Trying to Understand and to describe the nature of the ethical violation entailed by the standard of care for the treatment of atypical sex anatomies has been the focus of my analysis thus far. The aim of my project up to this point is much like those of others working in the humanities and social sciences who have criticized the practices associated with this standard. For all the power and cogency of that body of work, and for all the change that has occurred, the standard of care that makes normalization of the bodies of children with DSD the first and best option remains largely intact. The individual and collaborative work that has laid out ethical problems entailed by the standard of care—by Suzanne Kessler, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Cheryl Chase, and Alice Dreger, and then by those working in their wake—has not resulted in making cosmetic normalization a problem of another time. Trying to understand how it can be that the revelation of ethical violation has not resulted in change equal to that revelation is the focus of this chapter and the one that follows.

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12 The Discovery of Sex in Microorganisms

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

When Anthony van Leeuenhoek observed the animalcules, as he called them, from different dips of water or from his own body, he did not discuss how they formed. Most of his contemporaries would have said that they formed from spontaneous generation. The idea is as old as written thought. Aristotle believed in spontaneous generation, and so did anyone watching rotting food or meat swarming with maggots. Before Rudolph Virchow and Robert Remak’s cell doctrine, biologists did not think of life coming from preexisting life. At least they conceived the process as far back as life goes: Genesis for the pious; after Charles Darwin, some sort of event that led to the formation of the first living cell; or after H. J. Muller, the formation of the gene, the first replicating molecule that could copy its errors.

Microscopy flourished in the last half of the nineteenth century. It spun off the field of histology in medical schools and the field of cytology that led to inquiries about heredity. It was a necessary tool for the field of microbiology that flowed from germ theory. Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) and Robert Koch (1843–1910) introduced the germ theory of infectious diseases in the 1870s and 1880s. It revealed even smaller organisms than those seen by Robert Hooke and Leeuenhoek. Pasteur and Koch’s theory brought microscopy back to the medical school to study infectious diseases caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. By the end of the nineteenth century, scientists inferred the existence of even smaller organisms, which slipped through filters that barred passage of bacteria. In 1892, the first virus, tobacco mosaic virus, was identified.1

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