869 Chapters
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10 Innate Immune Response in Bovine Tuberculosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

10 

Innate Immune Response in

Bovine Tuberculosis

Jacobo Carrisoza-Urbina,1 Xiangmei Zhou2 and

José A. Gutiérrez-Pabello1,*

1Departamento

de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina

Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,

México; 2Veterinary Pathology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine,

China Agricultural University, P. R. China

10.1 Introduction

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens, of which some of its functions include participation in activation and direction of adaptive immunity, as well as maintaining the integrity and tissue repair (Kumar et al., 2011). The innate system is integrated by macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells. These cells use pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) for their activity, which are responsible for identifying the presence of conserved structures between microorganisms known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs); similarly, they recognize molecules from damaged cells known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMs).

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Medium 9781780642949

11: Bitemark Analysis

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

11 

Bitemark Analysis

David Bailey,1 Jennifer Hamilton-Ible,2* Lucy Leicester,3

Louise MacLeod4 and Adele Wharton5

1

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stroke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Highcroft Veterinary Group, Bristol, UK; 3School of Veterinary

­Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 4Hills

­Veterinary Surgery, ­London, UK; 5Saphinia Veterinary Forensics, Bottesford,

Nottinghamshire, UK

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks – Pathology and Outcomes�

11.2  Risks and Relative Incidence�

11.3 �Comparison between Human Bitemarks, Dog Bitemarks and Bitemarks from Other Species of Forensic Relevance�

11.4  Overview of Forensic Techniques and Methods Used�

11.5  Literature Review�

11.6  Strategies for Prevention and Risk Mitigation�

11.7 Conclusion�

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks –

Pathology and Outcomes

Dogs are often referred to as ‘man’s best friend’, but conflicts between the two species are common with potentially catastrophic consequences for both parties.

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Medium 9781786392459

4 The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

4

The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

Adam G. Hart

4.1 Introduction

Territoriality, the occupancy of space, is a trait common to many animals. In some cases, individuals are able to develop, or take advantage of, discrete and defined physical territory that can be relatively easily defended. Mound-building termites, for example, have a well-defined colony boundary provided by their mound perimeter and intruders are vigorously repelled. This type of ‘fortress’ nest is a feature common to other social insects such as the honeybees, ants and paper wasps. Cavity-nesting birds have a similar physical space that can be occupied and defended. Ownership of such space is frequently critical for survival and successful production of offspring. Wider territory, beyond the immediate physical space of a nest, may be required by animals to provide sufficient space for foraging and to find potential mates. Animals typically signal occupancy, and ownership, of such extended territorial space by communication. Territory boundaries are commonly defined by signals such as song in birds and urine spots in mammals and these limits can be defended if they are breached.

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5 Exercise Benefits

Katherine Pakieser-Reed Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while movement and methodical physical exercise save it and preserve it.

–Plato

IN THIS CHAPTER

The benefits of exercise

Exercise options

Getting started

Exercising at work

Night-shift nurses spend their work lives caring for others—often at the expense of their own health. Many blogs, surveys, and websites delve into the reasons why night-shift nurses ignore their own health in this manner. Some of the explanations include:

* “[The] night shift is fatiguing even if you get 6-8 hours of sleep.”

* “On my days off, all I want to do is sleep and eat.”

* “I am awake all night and then awake all day with my baby.”

Although there are many reasons for not exercising, we know there are many benefits to including exercise each day or night! Indeed, exercise can go a long way toward helping night-shift nurses maintain their health and, in particular, their energy levels. As noted by Eberly and Feldman (2010) of night-shift workers:

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Chapter 12: Patterns of Partnership and Domination in the Nursing-Nature Relationship

Riane Eisler and Teddie M. Potter Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Nature alone cures. Surgery removes the bullet out of the limb, which is an obstruction to cure, but nature heals the wound. So it is with medicine; the function of an organ becomes obstructed; medicine, so far as we know, assists nature to remove the obstruction, but does nothing more. And what nursing has to do in either case is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him.”

–Florence Nightingale, 1860 (1969, p. 133)

Eisler partnered with Daniel S. Levine, a professor in the field of psychology and neuroscience, to explore the science behind a possible genetic link between genes, cultural environments, and caring or uncaring behaviors. In their article “Nurture, Nature, and Caring: We Are Not Prisoners of our Genes” (2002), the authors describe the interplay of biology (genetics) and social environments (experiences), and offer this challenge:

The yearning by both men and women for caring connections, for peace rather than war, for equality rather than inequality, for freedom rather than oppression, can be seen as part of the human genetic equipment. The degree to which this yearning can be realized is not a matter of changing our genes, but of building social structures and systems of belief that support rather than inhibit the human capacity for caring. (Eisler & Levine, 2002, p. 46)

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