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Appendix 15 First Aid Advice for Common Feline Behaviour Problems

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 15

First Aid Advice for Common Feline

Behaviour Problems

The following advice is designed to do no more than help manage the cat’s behaviour problem in the short term and to help prevent the current problem from getting any worse. Specific advice aimed at resolving the problem cannot be given until a good understanding has been reached as to why the cat is behaving as he is, which can only be achieved through a combination of both behavioural and veterinary investigation.

General Advice for all Problems

Do not attempt to physically punish or reprimand the cat. This includes actions such as squirting the cat with water or shouting at the cat. A cat will not understand why you are angry and attempting to punish him is unlikely to be successful and more likely to make him frightened of you. If the attempt at punishment or reprimand causes the cat pain or fear the problem may escalate, or other more serious behaviour problems may develop (Fig. A15.1).

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6 Contribution of Epidemiological Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Munir, M. CABI PDF

6 

Contribution of Epidemiological

Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Anke Brüning-Richardson1, Satya Parida2 and Ashley C. Banyard3

1

Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Leeds, UK;

2

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK; 3Animal and

Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK

Abstract

Rinderpest was one of the most devastating veterinary diseases affecting even-toed ungulates until it was eradicated globally in 2011. Caused by the rinderpest virus (RPV), at its height rinderpest was prevalent in many parts of Europe, Africa and Asia. An ancient disease documented first by Roman and Greek authors, with more recent descriptions relating to the disease and its spread among susceptible hosts in the 16th and 17th centuries, it became the focus of a global rinderpest eradication programme

(GREP). In the first stages of the GREP, this was feasible due to the development of a vaccine giving lifelong immunity and the establishment of zoosanitary measures, which originated in the 18th century. Advances in the knowledge of RPV biology and virus transmission enabled scientists to identify susceptible hosts among livestock and wildlife and to predict virus spread, which supported the eradication efforts. In addition, improvements in diagnostics and disease surveillance and the application of control strategies based on the epidemiological understanding of viral spread drove the latter parts of the GREP to its final conclusion. This included the application of ELISA and pen-side strip test technologies, and genetic characterization of the virus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, which allowed the establishment of distinct virus lineages and the identification of virus reservoirs in the field. Lessons learnt from the GREP may be applicable to the rinderpest-related disease peste des petits ruminants and its causative agent, peste des petits ruminants virus, with global eradication of this virus also a possibility.

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15: Spatial Epidemiology

Sergeant, E.; Perkins, N. CABI PDF

15

Spatial Epidemiology

15.1  Introduction

Proximity can influence the occurrence of both infectious and non-infectious diseases

(Pfeiffer et al., 2008). For example, spatial or temporal proximity may increase the probability of contact between infectious and naive individuals resulting in an increased probability of infectious disease transmission. Likewise spatial proximity to an environmental risk factor may increase the local occurrence of a non-communicable disease. Hence consideration of spatial and temporal information during assessment of disease (or infection) is often important to avoid errors (confounded inferences) about risk factors for disease. Fortunately, the development of powerful computers, suitable software and readily accessible spatial data has led to the rapid uptake and development of spatial methods in epidemiology.

Spatial epidemiology is the description and analysis of geographic variations in disease with respect to demographic, environmental, behavioural, socio-economic, genetic and infectious risk factors (Elliott and Wartenberg, 2004). This definition could be expanded to include temporal factors because temporal considerations are often a critical and interlinked part of spatial epidemiology, especially in infectious disease transmission

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21 Promises and Challenges of Big Data Associated With Automated Dairy Cow Welfare Assessment

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

21

Promises and Challenges of Big

Data Associated With Automated

Dairy Cow Welfare Assessment

Kristof Hermans, Geert Opsomer, Bonny Van Ranst and Miel Hostens

21.1 Introduction

Since the 1950s, computers have been used as a management tool in dairy farming (Lissemore,

1989). Over subsequent decades, dairy herd management software has evolved consistently and the personal computer has emerged as an important management tool to primarily monitor production, reproduction, and health (Gloy and Akridge, 2000).

In the meantime, technologies to collect and store data have been evolving at a quicker pace compared with the speed at which new insights in dairy science have been discovered. The exponentially increased volume and speed at which data is created in the post-dotcom decade is commonly referred to as big data. Despite the fact that ‘big data’ became a new buzzword, there is no consistent definition of big data, nor detailed analysis of this new emerging technology. Most discussions until now have been taking place in the blogosphere, where active contributors have generally converged on the most important features and incentives of the big data.

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11 Elephants and Tourism

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

11

Elephants and Tourism

Jan Schmidt-Burbach*

World Animal Protection

*  Corresponding author: JanSchmidt-Burbach@worldanimalprotection.org

112

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Elephants and Tourism

Revered, celebrated, exploited, feared: the relationship between people and elephants has been diverse throughout history. Once present in large numbers in the wild, relentless destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, hunting and capture has led to a steep decline of wild elephant numbers. The fate of the endangered Asian elephant is especially worrying: there are approximately one-tenth the number of animals remaining in the wild compared to their African relative. With the decline of the wild populations and the spread of industrialization throughout the elephant-range countries, the traditional uses for captive elephants have changed, too. As the largest land-based animal, elephants have always posed a special attraction to people. Elephants’ awe-inspiring stature and unrivalled strength inspired the development of practices to capture elephants for spiritual, religious and practical applications. Used to transport goods, participate in ceremonies, as war animals, as diplomatic gifts or for logging timber, they have been used to serve people for approximately 3000 years, with the earliest hints for capturing elephants dating back 4000 years (Kurt, 1992), approximately the same time that horses were first domesticated by people. Yet, unlike horses, elephants never underwent a domestication process (Roots, 2007).

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