927 Slices
Medium 9780253012241

7 Practicing Virtue: A Parental Duty

Ellen K. Feder Indiana University Press ePub

Recall the Pair of studies presented by Suzanne Kessler in her 1998 book, Lessons from the Intersexed, discussed in chapter 2. In one study, college students were asked to imagine that they had been born with an atypical sex anatomy and to consider what they would want their parents to decide on their behalf. In the other study, students were asked to imagine that they had a child born with atypical sex and to consider what they would decide for their children. In their responses to the first study, students strongly opposed surgery on their own behalf while nearly 100 percent of students participating in the second study would support normalizing surgery for their own children.

On the one hand, it is easy to make sense of these studies. Responses to the question posed in the first study confirm how unappealing the prospect of compromising erotic response for the sake of cosmetic enhancement appears to be. Responses to the question in the second study support the idea that as parents we want what is best for our children and, if it is possible, to spare children stigma, particularly that associated with atypical sex. Certainly, this study seems to say, we parents should do what we can to defend our children against any harm we imagine could result from such a difference. But, on the other hand, even if we can understand the students’ responses to the individual studies, bringing them together demands, once more, that we ask how it can be that parents would consent to procedures on behalf of their children that they would decline for themselves.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855757288

3. Human non-verbal and symbolic communication and two alternative patterns of relating

Dorothy Heard Karnac Books ePub

In the last chapter we mentioned that MacLean’s studies considered alongside those of Stern (1985) and of Trevarthen (1979) suggested that humans have two distinct patterns of relating: one carried over from their primate ancestry and one which evolved at the time when the human brain took on human characteristics, and the development to adult status became much slower and required prolonged caregiving. We note that humans have additional limbic-based and neocortically potentiated, non-verbal patterns of relating that non-human primates show in more rudimentary forms. In this chapter we discuss evidence for this hypothesis, beginning with Trevarthen’s concept of primary intersubjectivity.

A high level of affective mutuality is achieved between mothers and their eight-week-old infants when they are in separate rooms but can see and hear one another through a television circuit (Murray and Trevarthen 1985). There is no opportunity for touch or smell but the infants are in a state in which they have no immediate physiological needs. When asked to talk to their babies in these circumstances, non-depressed mothers use intonations and rhythms that give their voices a pitch contour that is the same across cultures, despite differences in maternal speech. Mothers speak to their babies in ‘motherese’ (Fernald 1985, Murray and Trevarthen 1985), a form of communication which has a warm, unanxious ‘I am interested in what you are doing’ quality. Mothers appear to enjoy making sense of what the baby is ‘saying’ or doing, and enjoy the infant doing something which has not previously been a part of his repertoire. ‘Aren’t you a clever boy/girl’ is one of the commonest remarks made by mothers across cultures. Infants pay attention to their mothers and express themselves with a wide range of facial expressions and gestures and an extensive repertoire of babbles. Both mother and baby smile at each other frequently, each taking turns to ‘talk’, with matching gestures and facial expressions that bring a conversational element into the exchange of body language, adult speech and infant vocalisation. Anecdotal evidence shows that this kind of interaction is also seen between infants and fathers and other caregivers. Trevarthen (1979) has described these ‘motherese’ interactions as ‘primary intersubjectivity’. Observers enjoy watching them, and have no hesitation in declaring that both partners show a high level of arousal, and delight in the way in which each reciprocates and validates what the other has done. The two could be described as mutually facilitating a sense of shared well-being. It should be emphasised that motherese exchanges are only possible when the infant is not fatigued and has no immediate physiological need.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780946439089

2. Medicine as a Model

Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

Most people think of psycho-analysis, as Freud did, as a method of treatment for a complaint. The complaint was regarded as similar to a physical ailment which, when you know what it is, has to be treated in accordance with the rules of medicine. The parallel with medicine was, and still is, useful. But as psycho-analysis has grown so it has been seen to differ from physical medicine until the gap between them has passed from the obvious to the unbridgeable. For most purposes the similarity yields illuminating comparisons and models that facilitate discussion. But the more we see of psycho-analysis the more the models become inadequate to define, report, or apply psycho-analysis. Differentiation has meant that models which were illuminating have become opaque and often misleading even to psychoanalysts. Let us see why. We may start by discussing the obvious and simple reasons, though they will not remain either for long.

In physical medicine the patient may have a pain in his chest for which he can go to his doctor. To him he can explain its nature and its history and from him he can receive instructions to undergo further examination, say, by X-rays or microscopy, or certain forms of treatment. Or so it appears; later we may have reason to question this account. For the present it will serve to point the divergence of physical medicine and psycho-analysis.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647463

Appendix E: Laws and Regulations

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

Appendix E:

Laws and Regulations

The following laws and treaties are relevant to the process of rehabilitation and for obtaining a permit. Each country may have similar laws and regulations so it is important to familiarize yourself with the local laws.


Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)

Established in 1918 and expanded over the years in cooperation with other nations. The law makes it illegal for people to “take” migratory birds, their eggs, feathers, or nests. In effect, it is illegal to possess any part of a live or dead migratory bird without a permit. All birds of prey are protected under this law.

Bald and Golden Eagle

Protection Act

This law provides additional protections for eagles.

In the USA, federal and state laws require individuals to be licenced in order to rehabilitate wildlife.

Federal permits are granted by the US Fish and

Wildlife Service (USFWS) and each state also has a Department of Natural Resources that performs a similar function.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644554

13: Mass Casualty Incidents

Wapling, A. CABI PDF


Mass Casualty Incidents

M. Shanahan

Head of Special Operations, Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK

Key Questions 

• What is a mass casualty incident?

• Why is it different from a major incident?

• What are the challenges for the NHS in managing this type of incident?

13.1  Introduction

This chapter largely considers the preparedness for and response to mass casualty incidents (MCIs) in the UK; however, principles can be extrapolated to other settings. The emergency services are well versed in planning and preparing for large-scale incidents. It is commonplace for events hosting in excess of 100,000 people to be planned for and safely managed. In the UK this is achieved through coordinated planning and management of the events using guidance such as the Purple Guide to Health, Safety and Welfare at Music and Other Events or The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds (see Further Reading).

Apart from the planned events, the day-to-day business of the emergency services is to respond to the unplanned, no-notice incidents. In 2015 the police and ambulance services across England responded to over 22,000 emergency calls in any 24-hour period, with the fire and rescue services responding to approximately 1700 calls in the same period. A number of the calls related to multiple casualty incidents, arising from events such as road traffic collisions or relocating people who became displaced from their homes because of

See All Chapters

See All Slices