1122 Slices
Medium 9781607320739

CHAPTER THREE The Element of Caring in Nursing Administration*

Jan J. Nyberg University Press of Colorado ePub

The term “caring” is commonly used among nurses to describe interactions between patients and other nurses. Can caring be defined, measured, or evaluated? Is it something that a person has naturally, or can it be developed? Is it a purely subjective experience, or can it have objective aspects as well? Surely everybody cares about others and about their work. Is caring more than the natural response to life? Can it be enhanced to make a difference in how nurses and administrators actually behave in daily life?

In this chapter we will explore the meaning as it has been defined in literature and as it can be experienced as a growing force in professional life. In particular, we will define caring as it can affect the emerging discipline of nursing administration.

In defining the term “caring” one can identify three different uses of the word. “Care” can be defined as a burden: “I have many cares in life”; as responsibility: “I will care for you”; and as a feeling toward another: “I care deeply for you.” In medicine, caring for a patient primarily involves taking responsibility to cure illness or solve health problems. Nurses are involved in the responsibility of the curing part of care, but they also practice caring in the emotional sense. On the whole, nurses care for and about patients. They provide technical and physical care, but they also establish relationships with their patients as individual human beings. In nursing, caring for patients is sometimes a burden, sometimes a responsibility, and sometimes a feeling toward the patient.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855755185

CHAPTER SIX. Evolving patterns of parental containment of a young child communicating through not eating or speaking

Jeanne Magagna Karnac Books ePub

Jeanne Magagna

The development of symbolic functioning, the development of language, and the capacity for play are all influenced by the way in which the child’s caregivers, usually the parents, respond to the child’s needs. Obviously the young child’s way of interacting with the parents influences the arousal of tender feelings in them, and elicits their benign and attentive care-giving responses. My philosophy incorporates the notion that parental work should accompany all individual therapeutic work with a child. Parents are with a young child at least 17 hours daily and potentially can be very well placed to effect deeper and more lasting transformation in the child’s personality. For this reason, it is important that they be helped to do so via family therapy or parental therapy, accompanying individual psychotherapy, and perhaps speech therapy for the child. This chapter describes family and parental psychotherapy when a child has difficulty with both speaking and eating. (Feeding/eating difficulties often accompany difficulties in speaking.) I shall examine three types of parental containment of a child’s anxieties and show how psychotherapy can facilitate a transition to a type of parental containment that aids the development of the young child’s psychological capacities to speak and to eat. This therapy represents the type of therapy that can accompany individual child psychotherapy in the presence of the mother, as described in Chapter Seven.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

7: Polymer Nanocomposite-based Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF


Polymer Nanocomposite-based

Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Monika Joshi*

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India


Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have received much attention in various disciplines due to their high specific surface area, good compatibility, low density, high flexibility and improved functional properties. Recently, they have been explored as an emerging class of material in the biosensors due to their excellent sensitivity, selectivity, portability and lower cost. This chapter explores the properties and application of PNC material as a novel carrier in a drug delivery system. In this respect, the integration of biosensor and drug delivery systems is discussed in order to assess the challenges and future prospects. Different biosensors for drug delivery applications are also discussed.


A sensor is a device that converts and displays a physical quantity in the form of an electrical

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782201588

Chapter Eight - Enacting the Child's Feelings in the Psychotherapeutic Process

Marianne Bentzen Karnac Books ePub

“When we give the child self-organising agency we have to expect the situation to be outside the adult's control. We have to expect a different outcome than we had originally intended, because we have given agency to the other, in this case the child”

(Haldor Øvreeide)

In a chapter on regulation in the relationship between infant and carer, Sander (1977) describes his systemic perspective and points out how there is always a natural polarity between rhythms that ensure adaptation and attachment and states that disrupt rhythms and produce uncertainty, variation, and differences, and which require reorganisation after a painful disruption and disorganisation. Instead of avoidance, protection, and withdrawal, it is the ability to meet uncertainty and disruption that ensures the continuation of the creative process in the development of the nervous system. Thus, as humans, we strive with all our might for safety and security, yet it is our ability to tolerate and endure uncertainty and disruption that enables us to continue our development. This confronts us with an apparent paradox: out of random occurrences must come order; out of uncertainty must come knowledge; out of chaos must come a creative capacity. Sander concludes that being close to development means being close to the stress, anxiety, loss, and loneliness that are caused by the painful childhood moments characterised by recurrent disruption. This, according to Sander, frames the creative process in life.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855758094

CHAPTER EIGHT: Guilt, dread, and heroism

W.M. Bernstein Karnac Books ePub

The relative dynamics of approach and avoidance tendencies illustrate nature's method for promoting both the security and development of animals (see Figure 3). That is, avoidance tendencies are activated more quickly, and increase more sharply with decreasing distance from areas expected to be injurious, than are tendencies to approach areas of expected pleasure. This system puts “safety first in an emergency”, helping the individual quickly avoid close, looming threats. And, it promotes healthy curiosity, aroused at distances from which situations and objects are unlikely to be injurious or deadly. Self-concepts and executive functions work more or less competently at all levels of stress to prevent conscious awareness from being overwhelmed by anxiety (see Chapter Four).

The impact on consciousness of both intense pain and high fear of intense pain is considerable. Pain and fear are maximal in situations such as intentional torture performed on a person by another. In mental illness, the self more or less tortures itself for experiencing sensations, thoughts, and feelings that are associated with cultural taboos. An insightful description of terrible pain comes from a New York Times reporter who had endured many serious medical conditions and surgeries:

See All Chapters

See All Slices