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9 Welfare Challenges: Feedlot Cattle

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9

Welfare Challenges: Feedlot Cattle

Miriam Martin and Temple Grandin

9.1 Introduction

In many countries, huge numbers of cattle are fattened on feedlots, and, in many countries outside

Europe, beef cattle are housed for fattening in large outdoor pens on a soil surface. On a single site, large outdoor feedlots may contain from 2000 to over 100,000 cattle. Since the 1970s, many outdoor feedlots have been built in low rainfall areas such as the high plains area of the USA, Mexico,

Northern Australia, and South America. In the USA outdoor feedlots are used to fatten (finish) over

75% of the young steers and heifers raised for beef.

Feedlot cattle welfare issues result from a range of challenges and management conditions which are present on feedlots and these are affected by environmental stressors relative to feedlot location

(drainage and climatic effects), housing, genetics, and health problems. Many of the factors outlined in this chapter can overlap in their influence on feedlot cattle welfare. However, it should be noted that the management of facilities and the people that operate them often plays a more significant role in welfare than facility design. The four biggest issues in feedlot welfare are caused by mud and manure, heat stress, lameness, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and we discuss these issues in this order in this chapter. We also look at factors influencing some common diseases seen on feedlots –

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7 Integrating Feeding Programmes into Organic Production Systems

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7

Integrating Feeding Programmes into Organic Production Systems

One of the aims of organic production is to manage poultry in such a way as to mimic as closely as possible the natural state. Thus, the production system is quite different from that used in conventional production, and the practical implication of these differences on organic production techniques needs to be recognized and quantified. The main differences between organic and conventional poultry production relate to housing system, access to outdoor areas, genotype, range of feedstuffs available for dietary use and disease prevention measures. Most of the research relating to this issue has been conducted with chickens (layers and meat birds) and the findings have to be extrapolated to other species when these are lacking.

Denmark is a leader in organic production systems and in organic food sales to consumers, therefore it is useful to review findings from that country. The EU regulations mandate a maximum flock size for layers of 3000 and for growing chickens of 4800. These flock sizes are below those often found in conventional free-range poultry production in some regions but are still much higher than what can be considered as natural flock sizes. The birds have to be kept under free-range conditions, i.e. having access to a hen-yard providing at least

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21 Promises and Challenges of Big Data Associated With Automated Dairy Cow Welfare Assessment

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21

Promises and Challenges of Big

Data Associated With Automated

Dairy Cow Welfare Assessment

Kristof Hermans, Geert Opsomer, Bonny Van Ranst and Miel Hostens

21.1 Introduction

Since the 1950s, computers have been used as a management tool in dairy farming (Lissemore,

1989). Over subsequent decades, dairy herd management software has evolved consistently and the personal computer has emerged as an important management tool to primarily monitor production, reproduction, and health (Gloy and Akridge, 2000).

In the meantime, technologies to collect and store data have been evolving at a quicker pace compared with the speed at which new insights in dairy science have been discovered. The exponentially increased volume and speed at which data is created in the post-dotcom decade is commonly referred to as big data. Despite the fact that ‘big data’ became a new buzzword, there is no consistent definition of big data, nor detailed analysis of this new emerging technology. Most discussions until now have been taking place in the blogosphere, where active contributors have generally converged on the most important features and incentives of the big data.

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11 Vertebrate/Invertebrate – When Do We Start Caring?

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11

Vertebrate/Invertebrate – When

Do We Start Caring?

Michael J. Kuba

11.1 Introduction

Ultimately, our decision what to eat or not to eat, and how we treat our food before it is consumed, is a subjective one. It depends on our cultural background and our system of beliefs. Unlike their many invertebrate relatives, decapod crustaceans (Wiese,

2002) and cephalopods (Gutnick et  al., 2016) are complex animals, that are also sought as a food source throughout the world (Fig. 11.1). Yet their production, harvesting, transport and preparation for consumption are unregulated in most countries.

Perhaps this is why many ‘Westerners’ might be okay with throwing ‘Harry the lobster’ into a pot of boiling water, but will get upset to see a horse or donkey ending up in a sandwich. But in the 21st century should our culture and our emotions be the ones to guide us? Are there objective criteria to make an educated decision? Can science help solve this problem – which animals should be protected?

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22 Animal Welfare: Information in a Changing World

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22

Animal Welfare: Information in a Changing World

Harry J. Blokhuis

22.1  Introduction to Animal Welfare and Society

Animal farming has undergone major changes from the 1950s onwards. Housing conditions, especially for pigs and poultry, changed profoundly where low-density systems (often outdoor) were replaced by housing systems (often indoor) characterized by high animal density with minimal living space for the individual and a very barren environment

(Blokhuis, 1999). These systems allowed a high degree of mechanization, such as automatic manure removal, egg collection, climatic control, etc. thereby decreasing the labour requirement and allowing for larger (and fewer) farms. This mechanization and rationalization resulted in reduction of labour per livestock unit. The latter contributed to an enormous decrease in the workforce employed. For example, in the European Union (EU) (12 member states) labour in agriculture fell from 13.5% to 5.5% between 1970 and 1994 (Grant, 1997). Thus animal, production intensified enormously, both as total production worldwide and in terms of animal units per farm and farmer, production units per animal, and capital investments (Miele et al., 2013). This intensification not only enabled a large increase in production volume but also increased food security/independence in Europe and other industrialized countries.

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24 Animal Watching in Tourism

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24

Animal Watching in Tourism

Taryn Glass and David A. Fennell

24.1 Introduction

Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry with global reach. It has impacts on the lives of local people, foreign tourists, land, landscape, and animals. It was not until the 1990s that ethics in tourism started to become a more prominent field

(Fennell, 2006). This emerging field – tourism ethics – is a sign of hope for more ethical practices to become commonplace in the future. Animal welfare theory is commonly used to regulate animals in tourism because it posits that using animals for human enjoyment is acceptable. There is, however, still concern over an animal’s quality of life (Fennell,

2013a). It is generally accepted that animals are sentient beings and thus should not be subjected to unnecessary suffering. This principle probably also serves the tourism sector well if it means that the animals are in good shape because tourists do not like seeing unhealthy animals (Fennell, 2013a).

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4 Approved Ingredients for Organic Diets

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4

Approved Ingredients for Organic Diets

As with pigs and other livestock, the standards of organic poultry farming are based on the principles of enhancement and utilization of the natural biological cycles in soils, crops and livestock. Accordingly, organic poultry production should maintain or improve the natural resources of the farm system, including soil and water quality.

Another aim is to maximize the use of farmgrown feed ingredients in poultry and livestock production.

Feed, including pasture and forage, must be produced organically and health care treatments must fall within the range of accepted organic practices. Organic poultry health and performance should be optimized by application of the basic principles of husbandry, such as selection of appropriate breeds and strains, appropriate management practices and nutrition, and avoidance of overstocking. Rather than being designed to  maximize performance, the feeding programmes should be designed to minimize metabolic and physiological disorders, hence the requirement for some forage in the diet.

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10 Public Opinion and the Retailer: Driving Forces in Animal Welfare?

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10

Public Opinion and the Retailer:

Driving Forces in Animal Welfare?

Henry Buller

The way we treat animals is an important reflection of the values of our society.

(Defra, 2004, p. 11)

10.1 Introduction

As anyone reasonably familiar with contemporary food stores will be aware, whether they are massive hypermarkets or small, local butchers’ shops, the welfare of food animals has become an important component of food marketing. Posters, flyers, pub­ licity material, product labels, brand descriptors, adverts and even the layout of supermarket shelves increasingly draw attention, either directly or indir­ ectly, to various aspects of the quality of life (and sometimes death) of the animals concerned. The discerning consumer can today choose products from animals and production systems variously described as outdoor reared, free-range, grass- or pasture-fed, low stocking density, long life, welfare approved, humanely killed, hormone-free, antibiot­icfree, cage-free, non-GMO (genetically modified organisms), organic, biodynamic, and so on. Less specific claims are made through brand or assur­ ance scheme labelling, signifying that animal prod­ ucts conform to a wider set of welfare standards

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4 The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

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4

The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

Adam G. Hart

4.1 Introduction

Territoriality, the occupancy of space, is a trait common to many animals. In some cases, individuals are able to develop, or take advantage of, discrete and defined physical territory that can be relatively easily defended. Mound-building termites, for example, have a well-defined colony boundary provided by their mound perimeter and intruders are vigorously repelled. This type of ‘fortress’ nest is a feature common to other social insects such as the honeybees, ants and paper wasps. Cavity-nesting birds have a similar physical space that can be occupied and defended. Ownership of such space is frequently critical for survival and successful production of offspring. Wider territory, beyond the immediate physical space of a nest, may be required by animals to provide sufficient space for foraging and to find potential mates. Animals typically signal occupancy, and ownership, of such extended territorial space by communication. Territory boundaries are commonly defined by signals such as song in birds and urine spots in mammals and these limits can be defended if they are breached.

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6 Carry on Carrion: the Fall of the Scavenger

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6

Carry on Carrion: the Fall of the Scavenger

Maria Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Azmanis,

Rigas Tsiakiris and Kalliopi Stara

6.1 Introduction

The Allied troops who occupied Macedonia during the war had a very different method of living to the former inhabitants. The roads, which were strewn with the carcasses of ponies and mules etc. when

British troops arrived in the country were speedily cleared up, and as all refuse was afterwards destroyed with military precision, the country rapidly became cleaner. Egyptian vultures seemed to be most numerous in the direction of the Serbian frontier, where the state of the country must have been more congenial to their wants than the cleaner area occupied by the British forces.

(Chasen, F.N. (1921), Officer of the British Army,

Norfolk Regiment, Salonica front, World War I)

Hundreds of scavenger species, ranging from microbes to insects, fish, mammals and birds, perform a vital task for the function of life on earth, by consuming decomposing dead meat. Among them, vultures are unique obligate scavengers that first appeared 50 million years ago (mya) (Campbell,

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3 Elements of Poultry Nutrition

Blair, R. CABI PDF

3

Elements of Poultry Nutrition

Like all other animals, poultry require five components in their diet as a source of nutrients: energy, protein, minerals, vitamins and water. A  nutrient shortage or imbalance in relation to other nutrients will affect performance adversely. Poultry need a well-­ balanced and easily digested diet for optimal production of eggs and meat and are very sensitive to dietary quality because they grow quickly and make relatively little use of fibrous, bulky feeds such as lucerne hay or pasture, since they are non-­ ruminants and do not possess a complicated digestive system that allows efficient digestion of forage-­based diets.

Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients

Digestion is the preparation of feed for absorption, i.e. reduction of feed particles in size and solubility by mechanical and chemical means. A  summary outline of digestion and absorption in poultry follows. This provides a basic understanding of how the feed is digested and the nutrients absorbed. Readers interested in a more detailed explanation of this topic should consult a recent text on poultry nutrition or physiology.

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17 If Fishes Feel Pain, What Should We Do?

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17

If Fishes Feel Pain, What Should

We Do?

Victoria A. Braithwaite

17.1 Introduction

If we accept that fishes feel pain, and have a capacity for experiencing negative emotional and mood states, then, just as with other vertebrates, there is a need to consider when and how our interactions with fishes might have a negative effect on their well-being. A survey of how we use and interact with fishes and how we consider their welfare in different contexts reveals a number of inconsistencies. For example, fishes used in empirical research are typically protected because they are vertebrates, and experiments involving fishes require that licences and permits be approved before the fishes can be become part of research projects. However, when we capture fishes at sea, remarkably little consideration is generally given to their welfare. So, for some human–fish interactions there is a reasonable degree of interest given to fish welfare, whereas for others, the concept of fish welfare seems to be largely absent.

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8 Conclusions and Recommendations for the Future

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8

Conclusions and Recommendations for the Future

The organic poultry industry is small at present but is likely to expand in the future due to a strong demand from consumers for organic foods. Fortunately, poultry can be integrated more easily into many farming systems than other livestock can. Another attractive feature of organic poultry production is that its global warming potential is low. For instance, Herrero et  al. (2013) showed that on a global basis pork produced 24 kg carbon per kilogram edible protein, and poultry only 3.7 kg carbon/kg protein, compared with around 58–1000 kg carbon/kg protein from ruminant meat.

It is hoped that the information presented in this volume will assist that expansion. Until recently poultry producers lacked advisory aids to assist them in developing successful organic systems.

Organic eggs and poultry meat sell at a premium over their conventional products, which helps to offset the higher costs of organic production. As pointed out earlier in this volume, the two main reasons for the higher costs of organic production are:

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1 Habitat Loss: Changing How Animals Think?

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1

Habitat Loss: Changing

How Animals Think?

Paul C. Paquet and Shelley M. Alexander

1.1 Introduction

What if ecologists, conservationists, animal advocates, and decision makers conceived of habitat as an

‘experience’ comprising more than suitable patches of land and water where animals live, find food, shelter, protection, and mates for reproduction?

How might we view the effects of habitat loss and degradation if scientists and others considered that habitat for animals mirrors how we, as humans, experience our own environment: giving rise to language, emotion, feeling, morality, and culture?

We might then understand habitat to be the fabric of being, extending beyond the physical and numerical aspects that have traditionally limited the concept when applied to wild animals. Accordingly, we would recognize that the destruction of habitat means more as well; likely resulting in the impoverishment of community and individual well-being, and dramatically changing the way animals perceive and experience their environment. This ghettoization of experience in these otherwise vital ‘places’ is not unlike what homeless people who have been forced to live a marginal existence might suffer.

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7 Restoring What We Have Destroyed: Animal Welfare Aspects of Wildlife Conservation, Reintroduction and Rewilding Programmes

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7

Restoring What We Have Destroyed:

Animal Welfare Aspects of Wildlife

Conservation, Reintroduction and

Rewilding Programmes

Charlotte Berg

7.1 Introduction

For a long period of time, domestic animals and wildlife were seen as two completely separate entities. Animals were either domesticated or possibly wild, but were kept in enclosures in zoos, and were then under the responsibility of an owner or caretaker, or they were wild and roaming free in the wilderness. In the latter case, they were perceived as

‘nobody’s responsibility’ from an animal welfare perspective. Animal welfare and animal ethics have not always been prioritized issues within conservation practice, and this chapter aims at highlighting a number of aspects which may need to be taken into consideration.

7.1.1  Human-induced habitat changes and loss of biodiversity

Humans are increasingly influencing the welfare of wild animals. Human population growth and the general expansion of human-initiated activities, including food production, are taking place at the expense of wildlife and their habitat. A habitat can be described as the combination of physical and biological features preferred by a particular species.

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