657 Chapters
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Medium 9781780646824

4: Using a Vector

Webber, R. CABI PDF

Using a Vector

4

It is natural to think that parasites are setting out to attack humans and cause illness, but life is a competition, and all life forms, including parasites, are seeking to derive benefit for themselves by living off other animals. Many of the infections that afflict us have very simple means of transmission – through poor hygiene, so that organisms on our fingers are swallowed, leading to diarrhoeal disease, or from coughing, during which clouds of organisms are cast into the surrounding air to infect people that are close by. Other organisms have developed more complex life cycles and, at certain stages, depend on an intermediate organism – a vector – to carry the infective form to the host.

Anopheline Mosquitoes

It was Patrick Manson (1844–1922), a Scottish doctor who had gone to

China at the suggestion of his brother, who worked out the life cycle of filariasis in 1877. His gardener, Hin Lo, had an enlarged leg produced by filariasis. Manson found that larvae were present in Hin Lo’s blood during the night but not during the day, so he hypothesised that the infection might be transmitted by mosquitoes. He caught the mosquitoes that fed on Hin Lo while he slept, and then dissected them. He later wrote:

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Medium 9781786392459

4 The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

4

The Fence – the Welfare Implications of the Loss of the True Wild

Adam G. Hart

4.1 Introduction

Territoriality, the occupancy of space, is a trait common to many animals. In some cases, individuals are able to develop, or take advantage of, discrete and defined physical territory that can be relatively easily defended. Mound-building termites, for example, have a well-defined colony boundary provided by their mound perimeter and intruders are vigorously repelled. This type of ‘fortress’ nest is a feature common to other social insects such as the honeybees, ants and paper wasps. Cavity-nesting birds have a similar physical space that can be occupied and defended. Ownership of such space is frequently critical for survival and successful production of offspring. Wider territory, beyond the immediate physical space of a nest, may be required by animals to provide sufficient space for foraging and to find potential mates. Animals typically signal occupancy, and ownership, of such extended territorial space by communication. Territory boundaries are commonly defined by signals such as song in birds and urine spots in mammals and these limits can be defended if they are breached.

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Medium 9781523094905

Chapter 15: Part of the Solution: How the Shift Solves Disagreements

White, Kimberly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

HOW THE SHIFT SOLVES DISAGREEMENTS

The CEO, two regional presidents, and a guy from finance walked into a bar. Well, actually, they were sitting in an office talking about numbers related to a new federal payment scheme and all the implications it would have for the industry; the bar thing was to get you to continue reading this story, even though it starts out kind of boring.

The CEO said, “I don’t think that number’s right.”

One of the presidents, Cole, disagreed. “Yes it is,” he said, “I’m sure of it,” and gave his reasons for thinking that number was accurate. The finance guy also sided with Cole; the number was right—his team had double-checked it.

The CEO, however, was unconvinced; he was sure the number was significantly off and that the calculations were in error. The group went back and forth for a few minutes about the accuracy of this number. The discussion grew not heated, because there was a distinct lack of animosity, but serious, because the approach to an important issue would depend on the accuracy of that number. After a while, the CEO sent the finance guy to “check it again, and see if you can find an error,” and the rest of them started talking about something else.

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Medium 9781786391520

12 Immunological Diagnosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

12 

Immunological Diagnosis

Ray Waters1,* and Martin Vordermeier2

1National

Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States

Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA; 2Tuberculosis Research Group,

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

12.1 Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is generally considered a slowly progressive disease of extended duration (lasting years), and most cattle do not exhibit readily apparent clinical signs of infection until late in the course of disease (Waters,

2015). Currently, agent-based strategies for the detection of tuberculous cattle, such as detection of bacilli within bodily excretions, are generally unreliable for use as ante-mortem tests, possibly due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease resulting in a transient and low level of bacterial shedding (Good and Duignan, 2011).

Thus, traditional clinical and microbiological techniques are rarely used for the ante-mortem diagnosis of bovine TB. Fortunately, Mycobacterium bovis is highly immunogenic in cattle, eliciting robust cell-mediated immune (CMI)

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Medium 9781786394583

The Latin Owner: Profiles, Perceptions and Attitudes of Italian Cat and Dog Owners Towards their Pet

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Latin Owner: Profiles,

Perceptions and Attitudes of Italian Cat and Dog Owners

Towards their Pet

Federica Pirrone1*, Ludovica Pierantoni2 and Mariangela Albertini1

1

2

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy;

CAN (Comportamento Animale Napoli) s.s.d.r.l., Naples, Italy

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: pets, ownership, perception

Introduction

Nowadays animal companionship is an integral aspect of life in Europe, with approximately 81 million registered dogs  and 99.2  million cats1. This research aims to identify characteristics of dog and cat-owning households from a large cross-sectional internet-based survey in Italy.

Materials and Methods

Owners over 18 years old were asked information about  themselves,  their dogs, cats  and their relationship with their  pets. Data were  analysed  using  Pearson’s

χ2 tests and logistic regressions (SPSS).

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Medium 9781523094905

Chapter 12: Staying Shifted: Why Behavioral Rules Won’t Help Us

White, Kimberly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

WHY BEHAVIORAL RULES WON’T HELP US

The shift to seeing people as people does a lot of the work for us, in terms of erasing resentments and dissolving blame. But we are still “meaty, sweaty humans”1 with personalities and brains that aren’t necessarily the way we want them to be. We fail, we fall into old habits, we return to our self-absorption, where we get to feel more important than others and gloriously blameless. But that’s okay; that’s reality. When I see others truly as people, I see both that they are gorgeously rich in unexpected greatnesses and that they are riddled with weaknesses and failings and hobbled by fears and disappointments. I am the same; we all are. We are towering with greatness and sunken with flaws at the same time. None of us will shift perfectly and completely; not even Doug Coulson sees people as people all the time.

One of our tendencies as meaty humans, when confronted with a powerful idea like the shift, is to come up with rules and lists to follow. Instead of having to think about others’ perspectives and consider their pains, sorrows, and heroism, why not just come up with a list of actions that we should or should not take to see others as people? I mean, if not yelling is an effect of seeing people as people, then why not, for example, ban yelling or gossiping or saying “I hate you”? That seems simpler and far less prone to backsliding.

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Medium 9780253014429

11 The Red Cross Society of China: Past, Present, and Future

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Caroline Reeves

THE RED CROSS Society of China has operated uninterrupted since 1904, outlasting diverse governments and helping millions of Chinese over a more than one-hundred-year history. The organization began as a civic-run Chinese group building on the Chinese tradition of local charity and expanded into a national-level philanthropic organization with international ties. It provides an historic example of a successful Chinese federated charitable organization of autonomous societies with their own fundraising, decision-making, and personnel capabilities.

At the start of the twentieth century, China’s natural and political landscapes were rocked by disaster and civil violence as China’s last dynasty crumbled and China was pushed into the modern world. Internationally, imperialism and geopolitics encroached on China’s sovereign integrity, worsening the domestic situation. Poverty, increased mortality, political instability, and social conflict became the norm for many Chinese, of whom more than 90 percent were rural peasants. China’s elite—and, increasingly, China’s general populace—wanted better for China domestically and in the world comity. Working together, they drew on China’s past and innovated for China’s future to improve the social welfare environment for their nascent nation.

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Medium 9781786393845

Section 1 The Connections Between Animal and Human Abuse and Neglect

Pinillos, R.G. CABI PDF

Section 1

The Connections Between Animal and

Human Abuse and Neglect

16�

© CAB International 2018. One Welfare: A Framework to Improve Animal Welfare and

Human Welfare (R. García Pinillos)

The Connections Between Animal and Human Abuse and Neglect

17

Introduction to Section 1

Section 1 of the One Welfare framework covers all aspects of the links between people and animal interactions where these may result in abuse, neglect or violence. It supports reduction of incidence of crime and violence, in particular domestic violence and maltreatment of vulnerable populations such as elderly people, children and animals, and increases awareness of these issues.

Understanding the links between animal abuse, interpersonal violence

(IPV) and neglect can help to identify and therefore possibly prevent abuse or neglect by recognizing low, medium or high risk conditions in various socio-economic environments. Raising awareness that animal abuse and neglect has an influence that goes beyond just the impact on the animal is crucial. Animals presented for non-accidental injury may be indicators of human abuse in a household animal. This can help prevent individual, family and community violence, and may allow early intervention to avert further interpersonal violence.

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Medium 9780253014856

10 John B. Grant: Public Health and State Medicine

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

JOHN B. GRANT (1890–1962) was the “spirit of public health” for modern China, said Franklin Ho (1895–1975) when he was interviewed by Mary Bullock on July 22, 1970 (Bullock 1980, 134n2). Ho, former director of the Nankai Institute of Economics, shared with Grant an interest in analyzing statistics and economics of public health.1 Ho’s view was further supported by those who worked with Grant at the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). Marion Yang (1891–1983) recalled in her memoirs that Grant would talk to anybody and everybody about public health when few paid attention to it during his early days in China (Yan 1990, 143–153). For almost twenty years (1921–1939), Grant worked tirelessly with his Chinese colleagues in training a cadre of public health professionals and in creating a modern public health administrative system under the Nationalist government. His enormous work had a profound impact on China’s modern health system. Recent publications on Grant indicate that his ideas on public health have valuable relevance to the current debate on the efficient delivery of health care (Litsios 2011; Bu 2012a).

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Medium 9781780647463

Appendix E: Laws and Regulations

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

Appendix E:

Laws and Regulations

The following laws and treaties are relevant to the process of rehabilitation and for obtaining a permit. Each country may have similar laws and regulations so it is important to familiarize yourself with the local laws.

USA

Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)

Established in 1918 and expanded over the years in cooperation with other nations. The law makes it illegal for people to “take” migratory birds, their eggs, feathers, or nests. In effect, it is illegal to possess any part of a live or dead migratory bird without a permit. All birds of prey are protected under this law.

Bald and Golden Eagle

Protection Act

This law provides additional protections for eagles.

In the USA, federal and state laws require individuals to be licenced in order to rehabilitate wildlife.

Federal permits are granted by the US Fish and

Wildlife Service (USFWS) and each state also has a Department of Natural Resources that performs a similar function.

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Medium 9780253006455

1 Introduction

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

With rare exceptions, animals consist of sexually reproducing populations that are roughly half male and half female—at least that is a human perspective that is applied to other mammals, and generalized to all other animals. An observant individual will notice roaches mating rear end to rear end or horseshoe crabs on the beach in springtime mating with the male mounted on a female, reinforcing the idea that the image of human intercourse can be generalized. I can observe fruit flies mating in the same way without use of a microscope, and I can even tell which is male and which is female if I am looking at a solitary fruit fly resting on my finger.

But that idea of universality is undermined if I observe copulating earthworms, which seem to be engaged in some sort of symmetrical mutual engagement. The ambiguity of the earthworm’s hermaphroditism is also present in most flowering plants. Students learn that pollen bearing stamens are present in the same flower with female components—assigned scholarly names like stigma, style, and ovary—but that is also not universal.

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Medium 9781786391520

14 Vaccination of Domestic and Wild Animals Against Tuberculosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

14 

Vaccination of Domestic and Wild

Animals Against Tuberculosis

Bryce M. Buddle,1,* Natalie A. Parlane,1 Mark A. Chambers2,3 and

Christian Gortázar4

1AgResearch,

Hopkirk Research Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand; and Plant Health Agency – Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK; 3School of

Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, UK;

4SaBio – Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, Universidad de

Castilla-La Mancha & CSIC, Ciudad Real, Spain

2Animal

14.1 Introduction

Mycobacterium bovis has a very wide host range and is the predominant cause of tuberculosis

(TB) affecting domestic and wild animals, although tuberculosis in animals can also be caused by other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The disease in cattle, defined as bovine TB, continues to be a major economic animal health problem worldwide

(Waters et al., 2012). The test-and-slaughter bovine TB control programmes introduced in many countries in the mid-20th century achieved dramatic results and a number of countries were able to eradicate this disease.

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Medium 9781780644554

6: Interprofessional Working: Understanding Some Emotional Barriers and Unconscious Processes That Might Influence Practice in Group and Team Work

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

6 

Interprofessional Working:

Understanding Some Emotional

Barriers and Unconscious

Processes That Might Influence

Practice in Group and Team Work

P. Sully

Honorary Visiting Researcher, Department of Psychology, University of

Westminster, London, UK

Key Questions 

• H

� ow can effective interagency team working be influenced by the nature of the emergencies to which the team attends?

• �What group processes might influence effective team functioning?

• �How might effective interagency teams develop further their best practice and thus learn from their shared working?

6.1  Introduction

The focus of this chapter is the exploration of some group processes that can influence effective interprofessional practice when working with colleagues from different agencies and disciplines in order to develop resilience strategies. It is also relevant when responding to civil emergencies and major incidents as interprofessional teams can be considered in four domains: relational, processual, organizational and contextual (Reeves et al., 2010).

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22 The Quest for a Unified Theory of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

I have attempted to explore the history of sex determination. As a biologist, my outlook is comparative, because the human story was largely built from findings about other mammals, insects, plants, and even viruses. Although there are a scattered few species that have resisted the most common mode of exchanging genetic information, the term “sexuality” applies across all of life (Table 22.1). We think of that common mode when we use the term sex determination. It implies a two-sex system, although, as we saw in paramecia, there can be several more than two mating types. There are also non-sexual (or more accurately, female-only) species of rotifers, such as Philodina roseola, that use horizontal transfer of DNA to supply an influx of new genes, either by ingesting other rotifers or from other things that they eat.1 When we apply sexuality to humans, the nuances increase because we invoke cognate terms like “gender” which is not applied to bacteria, or even fruit flies. We can speak of “feminism” as a human academic study, but the term has no meaning when applied to most of the animal and plant kingdoms. Among many animals, there are atypical hermaphrodites or intersexes, some arising as accidents of cell division, like “gynandromorphic” fruit flies. We do not use that biological term for chromosomal chimeras that are XX/XY, or for mosaics, like XY/X, in humans. The older literature calls them hermaphrodites or “true hermaphrodites,” defining such individuals as having both testicular and ovarian tissue. We do not apply the term “freemartin” to our offspring. That is an intersex associated with twinning in cattle. Instead we use the term “female pseudohermaphrodites” (XX or ovarian DSD) to describe the androgen-stressed embryo in its first and second trimester of development.

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Appendix G: Resources

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

Appendix G: Resources

Books

• Altman, R.B., Clubb, S.L., Dorrestein, G.M. and Quesenberry, K. (1997) Avian Medicine and Surgery. W.B. Saunders Company,

Philadelphia, PA, USA.

• Arent, L. (2007) Raptors in Captivity:

Guidelines for Care and Management.

Hancock House Publishing, Surrey, BC,

Canada.

Campbell, T.W. and Ellis, C.K. (2007) Avian and Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA.

• Carpenter, J., Mashima, T. and Rupiper, D.

(2001) Exotic Animal Formulary, 2nd edn.

W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA,

USA.

• Chitty, L. (2008) BSAVA Manual of Raptors, Pigeons and Passerine Birds. BSAVA,

Gloucester, UK.

© D.E. Scott 2016. Raptor Medicine, Surgery, and Rehabilitation (D.E. Scott)

313

Appendix G

Harrison, G.J. and Lightfoot, T. (2006) Clinical Avian Medicine. Vols I & II. Spix Publishing, Palm Beach, FL, USA.

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