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2: Forensic Philosophy

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

2 

Forensic Philosophy

Karl Harrison1* and David Bailey2*

Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy UK,

Shrivenham, Wiltshire,UK; 2Department of Forensic and Crime Science,

Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1

2.1 �One of Us Cannot Be Wrong: The Structure of Knowledge and Reasoning in Forensic Science by Karl Harrison�

2.1.1 Introduction�

2.1.2  Forensics: a plethora of different sciences�

2.1.3  The philosophy of science�

2.1.4 Conclusion�

2.2  Junk Science by David Bailey�

2.2.1 Pseudoscience�

2.2.2  Junk science�

2.2.3  conclusion bias�

2.1  One of Us Cannot Be Wrong:

The Structure of Knowledge and Reasoning in Forensic Science

Karl Harrison

2.1.1  Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to consider how the science in forensics is structured.

Forensics is a crossroads discipline, which encompasses a breadth of skills, from investigative scene examination to analytical chemistry, but despite the vital importance of establishing conclusive facts in a court of law, little has been written about how forensics

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Medium 9780253010544

2 The Cape Coloured Community

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

This Book is about women who face stigma, discrimination, poverty, and violence. It is about women who do care work for children and men, and whose responsibilities sometimes force them to make choices between their own needs and those for whom they are caring. And it is about women who must contend with all of these challenges at the same time they fear for the deterioration of their own physical selves and their lost beauty as a result of HIV. Women all over the world face similar challenges, and in that sense the women in our study represent the experience of women across many borders. The women in this case, however, also represent one particular community on the globe with its own unique history and its own particular expectations about women. This case study is about Coloured women in Cape Town, South Africa. Who are these women?

In the United States the word “colored” is an offensive holdover from the period in American history when apartheid was legal under Jim Crow laws. In South Africa, however, while there is controversy surrounding the language used to describe various groups of people in the country, the term “Coloured” is generally not perceived as a derogatory term. In fact, it is widely used by people who identify themselves as Coloured. The identity of Coloured and the character and experience of the Coloured community is an important feature of South Africa to be explored. And as our research unfolded it became an essential issue for discussion in order to understand the lives of women in the Western Cape who identify themselves as Coloured. This chapter describes a little of the history of Coloured people through slavery, colonialism, apartheid, and the struggle that finally toppled a racially defined government in the 1990s. It also provides some context for understanding contemporary issues in the Coloured community as South Africans continue the fight to depose the deeply entrenched social, economic, and political remnants of that history and as Coloured women face all of these issues in addition to gender injustice.

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CHAPTER TEN. Towards a neuroanatomy of the mental apparatus

Karen Kaplan-Solms Karnac Books ePub

In this chapter, we propose a general model of how the human mental apparatus—as we conceive of it in psychoanalysis— might be represented in the tissues of the brain. Since this is a first approach at something unknown, it goes without saying that our proposals are subject to substantial revision. The hypotheses that we present are based on a small amount of empirical data, derived from psychoanalytic investigations of 35 patients with localized cerebral lesions, 12 of whom we described in part II. In all likelihood, our perspective on these problems will alter radically as we continue to test our hypotheses against clinical reality. However, excessive caution should not prevent from us pausing at this point to gain a first, schematic perspective on what our efforts have yielded thus far. The aim of a preliminary overview of this sort is for us to take our bearings for the research that still needs to be done if we are properly to rejoin psychoanalysis with the neurosciences.

The first problem that we face when we attempt to integrate psychoanalytic observations with neuroscientific knowledge is that of having to decide which conceptual frames of reference to use. For reasons that we outlined in part I, we have chosen to be guided on the one hand by the classical metapsychological concepts of Sigmund Freud, and on the other hand by the dynamic neuropsychological model of Aleksandr Romanovich Luria. We chose these relatively conservative models for the following two reasons: first, in our view, they still represent the most comprehensive models that we have of the two domains we are attempting to correlate, and, second, these two approaches to the human mind are conceptually and methodologically compatible with one another.

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8 Leadership: A Matter of “Refereed” Experience

Christopher Lance Coleman Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Franklin Shaffer, EdD, RN, FAAN
CEO, CGFNS International

When we look for good art, we look for a “juried” art show, where a panel of experts chooses only the best art works. When we need access to the most valid research, we look in “refereed” journals only. All this is well and good, but despite the plethora of literature on the subject of leadership, reading the literature will not help you become a leader. Leadership skills can be acquired a number of ways—through mentorships, training programs, on the job experience, and so forth. However, they are not acquired by reading a book! The reason for this is that leadership skills are primarily learned, tried, and tested through experience (Zelinsky, 1991).

Whether they are male or female, many nursing leaders believe that all leaders need the same characteristics; that people excel owing to these characteristics; and that neither intelligence nor “caring” are gender specific. The differences in how individual nurses actualize the nursing role account for varying levels of success. Indeed, this might be so, but gender plays a significant part in who you are and how you actualize your potential. If gender bias exists as an unrecognized, unaddressed component of nursing education programs, the outcomes degrade the profession and limit our ability to recruit and retain a robust workforce (Anthony, 2006).

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9 Ploidy Levels and Sex Determination

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

We tend to think of all animals as being diploid, represented as 2N, and their gametes as haploid, represented as N. Exceptions are rare: this is not true for only about 18 of the many thousands of taxonomic groups of animals. In plants like mosses and liverworts, an alternation of haploid and diploid states is common and among a category of insects called the Hymenoptera, which includes bees, ants, and wasps the presence of both haploid and diploid organisms is virtually the rule. These insects share a common mode of sex determination and also a social structure, called eusociality, in which there is usually one egg-laying queen, a huge number of sterile female workers or helpers, and a small number of drones that inseminate the queen (in some species just a single male for just a single encounter serves that role). Bees have immense commercial value, fertilizing one third of the plants we consume and having been used for honey production since antiquity. They cannot be domesticated, however, and experiments to mate specific males with specific females failed until the 1940s, when people started using artificial insemination to initiate bee genetics.

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CHAPTER NINE: TEMPORAL LOBE SYNDROMES

Christopher M. Filley University Press of Colorado ePub

It has been quipped that the Sylvian fissure, below which lies the temporal lobe and its various emotional functions, separates neurology from psychiatry Although the position of this book is that any distinction between neurology and psychiatry will ultimately prove artificial (Chapter 1), it is true that a wide spectrum of emotional states, normal and otherwise, have been specifically linked with the temporal lobe and the limbic system to which it is intimately related. These regions therefore present a unique opportunity for exploration of emotional phenomena mediated by the brain. The cognitive domains of memory (Chapter 4) and language (Chapter 5) are closely linked with the temporal lobe and can be considered together with this chapter, which will concentrate on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This illness is not only a common type of seizure disorder with a host of neurologic and psychiatric implications, but it also opens a particularly revealing window into brain-behavior relationships. TLE has long been postulated to produce a plethora of emotional changes that remain controversial today, and considering this disorder illuminates the challenge as well as the potential utility of examining emotional functions in the context of disturbed brain activity.

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Medium 9781855753365

CHAPTER EIGHT. Psychoanalytic observations on five cases of right perisylvian damage: failure of mourning

Karen Kaplan-Solms Karnac Books ePub

In the previous three chapters, we considered psychoanalytic observations on patients who sustained damage to different parts of the left perisylvian region of the brain. In this chapter, we summarize the very different presentations of patients who sustained equivalent damage on the opposite side of the brain: in the perisylvian region of the right cerebral hemisphere (Fig. 8-1). In all of the cases to be described in this chapter, the damage in question was caused by cerebrovascular accidents in the distribution of the right middle cerebral artery.

In analysing these cases, we will proceed somewhat deeper beneath the surface of conscious awareness than was necessary in our analyses of the previous three cases (chapters five, six, and seven). This is because, as the reader will soon see, damage to the right perisylvian region of the brain produces far more profound disturbances of personality, emotion, and motivation than does equivalent damage on the left-hand side of the brain. This, in turn, reveals that the metapsychological functions of the right perisylvian convexity involve somewhat deeper levels of ego organization than did those of the equivalent region of the left hemisphere. We hope in this chapter to begin to demonstrate how the method that we are recommending in this book can be used, not only to gain an understanding of the neural correlates of our psychoanalytic model of the mind, but also to make a psychoanalytic contribution to contemporary neuropsychology. If the fundamental mental mechanisms that underlie the surface phenomenology of human personality, motivation, and emotion are indeed inaccessible to simple behavioural observation due to the dynamic resistances that Freud described, then it certainly follows that these mechanisms cannot be adequately characterized and understood by conventional neuropsychological research techniques, which do not take account of the mental processes that occur beneath those resistances.

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19 The History of Behavioral Gender Assignment

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Identifying genes for homosexuality is difficult, but it is even more difficult to assign a genetic or innate basis for gender roles. Why should this be so difficult? Because gender roles are notoriously variable. At the time of this writing, I am 79 years old. Almost three generations ago, when I was a child, my father was known as a breadwinner and my mother was known as a housewife. Most males were expected to earn a living for the family. If you mentioned the word “doctor,” I thought of a male. If you mentioned the word “nurse,” I thought of a female. In those days the police were policemen. Firefighters were firemen. Job assignments were sometimes genderized with suffixes—an actor was a male and an actress was a female. It was also widely believed that women were nurturing, emotional, and not as cerebral as men. Men were the thinkers, deciders, and protectors. Women cried, and men were supposed to tough it out. I remember my surprise when in June of 1940 I came home and saw my father crying. He told us Paris had fallen to the Nazis. It was so unusual I have never forgotten it.

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Medium 9781937554996

6 Self-Compassion, Self-Care, and Self-Healing

Lucia Thornton Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“The moment you see how important it is to love yourself, you will stop making others suffer.”

–Thich Nhat Hanh

Self-compassion, self-care, and self-healing are key concepts in the model of whole-person caring. Self-care and self-healing cannot be practiced without an attitude of self-compassion.

In facilitating a shift toward healing and wellness, it is important to become aware of the underlying dynamics that keep us from changing. Why are some behaviors so hard to change? What keeps us stuck in unhealthy patterns of living? As mentioned, some of the reasons people resist change include the following (Oreg, 2003):

People are reluctant to give up old habits.

Change is perceived as a stressor.

Change involves more work in the short term.

People have rigid and closed mindsets.

Frequently, however, a deeper dynamic is at work, which keeps us from creating healthier ways of being. Often, we have a fundamental attitude—either conscious or unconscious—that we are not worthy of treating ourselves well or being loved.

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Medium 9781855754324

Depression

Jan Abram Karnac Books ePub

1   Depression and its value

2   Healthy depression

3   Weaning in relation to illusion and disillusion

4   The depressed mood

5   Waiting, not curing

T he degrees of the depressive mood are negotiated in each individual depending on what occurs between mother and infant, particularly during the time of weaning, when the infant is beginning the journey of differentiating between Me and Not-me.

Winnicott sees depression as a sign of achievement and therefore a normal part of emotional development. A pathological depression associated with a blockage in emotional development is usually caused by something having gone wrong in early development.

1   Depression and its value

Throughout Winnicott's work, his use of the word “depression” emerges in many contexts, with varying emphases. Essentially, he designates the word “depression” to indicate a mood or state of mind. However, he can very easily appear to be using the term in contradictory ways. For example, in his 1954 paper, “The Depressive Position in Normal Emotional Development”, he states very clearly that the term “depressive position” is misleading, because “depressive” implies that healthy development involves a “mood illness”, which, he states, is not part of normal development (see CONCERN: 2). Yet in 1958, in his paper “The Family Affected by Depressive Illness in One or Both Parents”, Winnicott implies that depression is normal and something experienced by “valuable” people (by using the term “valuable”, he implies the value of depression).

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Medium 9781605099798

Chapter 21: A Place to Practice Truth

Pavithra Mehta Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

As Dr. Nam and the other founders announced plans to step back from active leadership, it became obvious that a new executive head for the Aravind Eye Care System had to be named and a new structure designed for upper management. But there was no clear plan for how to do so.

Dr. Kim Ramaswamy is the eldest doctor in the second generation of the family. As the question of succession moved to the fore, he had a discomfiting sense that if an answer was not found soon, Aravind would fall into a period of gradual indifference and disintegration. So in 2009, he wrote to the one person he was confident could help: Fred Munson, Aravind’s longtime friend and advisor. He requested Munson to make a special trip to Madurai to facilitate the family’s transition plan. Kim knew this transition would be a major inflection point for the organization, and he wanted the process to inform the family’s shared understanding and to reinforce its sense of collective stewardship.

“Are you sure you want me to come?” Munson asked, unsure if his facilitation at such a sensitive period would be useful. “Yes, we absolutely do,” Kim responded.1 “The founding team and all of the second generation are in unanimous agreement.” The Munsons are in their 80s. The long transatlantic flight that they had made with ease so many times over the decades had become increasingly taxing. “We’re getting business-class tickets for you and Mary,” Kim said. “You can’t do that for both of us,” Munson objected. “In that case, we’re just flying Mary over,” came Kim’s response. Munson chuckled and eventually gave in. Sometimes you just do not argue with family.

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CHAPTER SEVEN. Psychoanalytic observations on a case of left parietal damage: a man with a shattered world

Karen Kaplan-Solms Karnac Books ePub

Case L

Mr “L” was a research chemist. He was 26 years old and unmarried. Five months prior to his admission to our neurological rehabilitation unit, he had sustained a focal head injury in a motor-vehicle accident. He was initially admitted to the high-care unit of another hospital. On admission, his level of consciousness on the Glasgow Coma Scale was 7/15. A right-sided hemiparesis was noted. A CT scan of his brain showed left parietal haemorrhagic contusion. He recovered well initially (and began to move both arms spontaneously). However, he subsequently developed respiratory failure, and he required ventilation for 25 days. Thereafter, it was apparent that he had developed a spastic right hemiplegia. When he began responding to verbal commands and attempting to speak, 39 days after the accident, he was considered to be globally aphasic.

A follow-up CT scan demonstrated a discrete area of damage in the left parietal lobe of the brain, localized mainly to the supramar-ginal gyrus, but also extending anteriorly to include the primary sensorimotor cortex (Fig. 7-1). Following a three-month period of intensive speech therapy and physiotherapy at another hospital, he was transferred to our neurological rehabilitation unit, with a final diagnosis of mixed transcortical aphasia. At this point he was still hemiplegic. The hemiplegia affected both limbs on the right, but primarily his arm. He was wheelchair-bound.

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7. Container and Contained

Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

An advantage of believing that observations are the foundation of scientific method is that the conditions in which they are made can be stated and then produced. The simplicity of this has its appeal for the psycho-analyst: an analytic situation is presumed to exist and interpretations of the observations made in that situation are then reported. It is possible to believe that the analysis has a location in time and space: for example, the hours arranged for the sessions and the four walls of the consulting-room; that at such times and in such a place the analyst can make observations which he cannot do if the domain has not these limitations, or if ‘psychoanalytic observations’ do not conform to the conventional view of an observation. If I pictorialize the statement ‘the conventional view of an observation’ to be a container, like a sphere, and the ‘psycho-analytic observation’ as something that cannot be contained within it, I have a model that will do very well not only for the ‘conventional view’, to represent my feelings about a ‘psycho-analytic situation’, but also for the ‘psycho-analysis’ that it cannot contain. It will also serve as a model for my feelings about certain patients: I cannot observe Mr X because he will not remain ‘inside’ the analytic situation or even ‘within’ Mr X himself.

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PART II: THE POST-FREUDIAN REDUCTION OF A FIELD AND THE FRUITS OF A CONFRONTATION

Rik Loose Karnac Books ePub

Despite the lack of a substantial psychoanalytic theory on addiction, an enormous amount of articles and books have been written about addiction from a psychoanalytic perspective. So many in fact that an exhaustive review of them would exceed the capacity of this work. The aim is not to give an exhaustive account of everything that has been written in the area of psychoanalysis and addiction, but to analyse in detail a number of articles which have been selected on the basis of two criteria: (a) their importance in terms of an historical, theoretical and clinical understanding of this area and; (b) their relevance to the ideas developed in this work. Surveys and reviews of the literature have been written by Crowley (1939), Rosenfeld (1964), Yorke (1970), de Mijolla and Shentoub (1973), Limentani (1986) and Magoudi (1986). A compilation and review of the (post-Freudian) psychoanalytic material on addiction is rather problematic. Yorke gives the following three reasons for this, reasons that seem to be inherent to the problem area of addiction:

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Medium 9781780647876

3: Interpretation of Thermographic Images and the Normal Superficial Temperature Distribution of the Horse

Soroko, M. CABI PDF

3   

Interpretation of Thermographic

Images and the Normal

Superficial Temperature

Distribution of the Horse

3.1  Thermography Analysis for Veterinary or Prophylactic

Purposes

Thermographic image analysis is carried out by specialized computer software invariably purchased with the thermographic camera. The program also enables modifications to be made to the thermogram, including changes to the colour palette and temperature range. The software can also be used to calculate the temperature of selected body areas on each thermogram, and to add comments. The type of image analysis depends on the manner and goal of the thermographic examination.

3.2  Analysis of Symmetry and Repeatability of Body Surface

Temperature Distribution in Contralateral Body Areas of the Horse

As the horse is bilaterally symmetrical, there is normally a high degree of right and left symmetry of temperature distribution on the horse. A number of studies have reported repeatable body surface temperature distribution on different horses (Purohit and McCoy, 1980; Palmer, 1981). This allows the creation of a map of the normal temperature distribution of the symmetrical parts of the body of a horse at rest under controlled environmental conditions against which abnormalities can be assessed. The symmetry of temperature distribution and the repeatability of temperature maps are, however, very strongly influenced by the anatomy, breed and training of a horse. Thermogram analysis based only on repeatable temperature maps may therefore be misleading due to changing environmental conditions, as well as variations such as hair coat. A good example is the different body surface temperature distribution in summer and

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