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Appendix 2 Play

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 2

Play

Although the frequency of play activity decreases with age, it is an activity that is just as important for adult cats as it is for kittens. Insufficient opportunity for play can lead to behaviour problems such as aggression related to frustration and stress.

Cats and kittens engage in two types of play.

Social Play

This is play with another cat or kitten, or sometimes with another animal with which the cat has become well socialized. The following behaviours are a normal part of social play:

Stand-over and belly up: One cat or kitten lies on its back and ‘fights’ with another cat that stands over it. Claws remain retracted and bites are gentle and inhibited.

Pounce: The cat or kitten crouches and then pounces on or towards another cat or kitten. May be used to initiate play.

Chase: Running after or away from another cat or kitten.

Face-off: Sits near another cat or kitten and bats or swipes at it with retracted claws.

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Chapter 12: Staying Shifted: Why Behavioral Rules Won’t Help Us

White, Kimberly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

WHY BEHAVIORAL RULES WON’T HELP US

The shift to seeing people as people does a lot of the work for us, in terms of erasing resentments and dissolving blame. But we are still “meaty, sweaty humans”1 with personalities and brains that aren’t necessarily the way we want them to be. We fail, we fall into old habits, we return to our self-absorption, where we get to feel more important than others and gloriously blameless. But that’s okay; that’s reality. When I see others truly as people, I see both that they are gorgeously rich in unexpected greatnesses and that they are riddled with weaknesses and failings and hobbled by fears and disappointments. I am the same; we all are. We are towering with greatness and sunken with flaws at the same time. None of us will shift perfectly and completely; not even Doug Coulson sees people as people all the time.

One of our tendencies as meaty humans, when confronted with a powerful idea like the shift, is to come up with rules and lists to follow. Instead of having to think about others’ perspectives and consider their pains, sorrows, and heroism, why not just come up with a list of actions that we should or should not take to see others as people? I mean, if not yelling is an effect of seeing people as people, then why not, for example, ban yelling or gossiping or saying “I hate you”? That seems simpler and far less prone to backsliding.

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Medium 9781786394583

Ontogeny of Selected Behaviours in Piglets of Slovak Large White Improved Swine Breed

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Ontogeny of Selected Behaviours in Piglets of Slovak Large White

Improved Swine Breed

Lenka Lešková*, Andrea Jurková and Jana Kottferová

University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Košice, Slovakia

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, ontogeny, piglets

Introduction

Industrial farming helps meet the growing needs of the population. However, it also leads to numerous concerns regarding animal welfare. Various behaviour problems may be observed due to restricted movement, feeding and lack of stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the behaviour of piglets during their development from birth to weaning under extensive conditions.

Materials and Methods

A litter of five females and four males of Slovak Large White Improved swine breed was evaluated. The sow and piglets were kept in extensive conditions (deep straw bedding and no restriction of movement). The piglets had ad libitum contact with the sow. The behaviour of the piglets was recorded by a video camera and evaluated using the Noldus Observer XT Analysis software. Observations were carried out on a weekly basis in the first 5 weeks post-partum. Events such as feeding, sleeping, rooting, play and agonistic interactions were recorded. The percentage of time spent on each behaviour was noted for each week of age.

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1 The skin in the work of Freud

Jorge Ulnik Karnac Books ePub

Although Freud expressly refers to the skin in several passages throughout his work, and even goes so far as to grant it the status of “erotogenic zone par excellence”, referring to the skin in the Freudian work is not exclusively to speak of the skin as an organ and its eroticism, but also to speak about the functions and diseases of the skin, the drives which are originated in it, the action of touching and its consequences, as well as contact in general and its relationship with contagion, the relationship between the skin and identity, and lastly, about the Ego and the functions of boundary, surface, protection and perception. With this in mind, the references to the skin and its functions will be arranged into the following sections:

•  The skin as an erotogenic zone

•  The skin and its functions with regard to the unconscious

•  The touching drive and the skin as the source and object of the drive

•  Contact as a general idea. Contact and contagion

•  The skin as a cortical layer: its functions of boundary, surface, protection and perception

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Self-assessment Answers

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF

Self-assessment Answers

Chapter 1

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Chapter 2

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (b)

5. (a)

Chapter 3

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (c)

© CAB International 2018. Parasites and Pets (Elsheikha, Wright & McGarry)�

147

Self-assessment Answers

Chapter 4

1. (d)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Chapter 5

Fleas

1. (c)

2. (a)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (b)

Lice

1. (b)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (a)

Mites

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Ticks

1. (d)

2. (a)

148

Self-assessment Answers

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Leishmaniosis

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Chapter 6

1. (a)

2. (d)

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Medium 9780253014863

10 Modernizing Yet Marginal: Hospitals and Asylums in Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century / Loh Kah Seng

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

10 Modernizing Yet Marginal

Hospitals and Asylums in Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century

Loh Kah Seng

In my interview with Kuang Wee Kee, a former leprosy patient, he spoke of the “three brothers” of illnesses that not only drastically affected his life but also caused great anxiety among the public in Singapore since the colonial era. The “little brother,” he said, was mental illness, which was “quite light” in its impact; followed by the “second brother,” tuberculosis; and finally leprosy, the “big brother.” Kuang had suffered from isolation and painful treatment while confined for a long time in a leprosarium under the law of compulsory segregation. Even after his cure and discharge, he and his wife, Ow Ah Mui, also a leprosy sufferer, found that society refused to accept them. Kuang’s comments on the three “big brothers” underline the role of institutional treatment and confinement in Southeast Asia, namely, the tuberculosis clinic, the leprosarium, and the mental asylum.1

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11: Bitemark Analysis

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

11 

Bitemark Analysis

David Bailey,1 Jennifer Hamilton-Ible,2* Lucy Leicester,3

Louise MacLeod4 and Adele Wharton5

1

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stroke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Highcroft Veterinary Group, Bristol, UK; 3School of Veterinary

­Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 4Hills

­Veterinary Surgery, ­London, UK; 5Saphinia Veterinary Forensics, Bottesford,

Nottinghamshire, UK

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks – Pathology and Outcomes�

11.2  Risks and Relative Incidence�

11.3 �Comparison between Human Bitemarks, Dog Bitemarks and Bitemarks from Other Species of Forensic Relevance�

11.4  Overview of Forensic Techniques and Methods Used�

11.5  Literature Review�

11.6  Strategies for Prevention and Risk Mitigation�

11.7 Conclusion�

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks –

Pathology and Outcomes

Dogs are often referred to as ‘man’s best friend’, but conflicts between the two species are common with potentially catastrophic consequences for both parties.

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Medium 9781935476504

9 Ethics in Long-Term Care

Connie M. Ulrich Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

–Michele Mathes, JD

Education Director Center for Advocacy for the Rights and Interests of the Elderly

• The nature of long-term care presents nurses with unique ethical challenges.

• The particular nature and challenges of long-term care call for the application of a distinctive ethical framework.

• An ethical framework based upon commitment to the care recipient best captures the responsibilities of nurses working in long-term care settings.

• The responsibilities of long-term care providers are comprised within five overarching commitments to care recipients.

• The IDEAS decision-making process offers a pathway for resolving ethical dilemmas when they arise.

History reflects our evolving understanding about the proper goals of long-term care and the kind of care to which frail older adults are entitled. Today, possibly more than at any time in our past, the purposes of long-term care are being deeply examined, debated, and discussed. Resulting changes in policy and practice, though generally welcomed, pose new ethical challenges for practitioners in the field. This chapter presents an ethics of responsibility approach to addressing ethical issues that arise in the course of providing long-term care.

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9 Self-help and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Care: a Preliminary Review of Existing Models in Low-and Middleincome Countries

Aikins, A.de-C.; Agyemang, C. CABI PDF

9

Self-help and Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Care: a Preliminary Review of

Existing Models in Low- and

Middle-income Countries

AMA DE-GRAFT AIKINS1*, PASCALE ALLOTEY2 AND LILIAN

LEM ATANGA3

1Regional

Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana; 2Monash

University, Malaysia; 3University of Bamenda, Cameroon

9.1 Introduction

Individuals living with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in many lowand middle-income countries (LMICs) experience multiple challenges. The quality of medical care is poor, as health systems resources focus on a complex burden of infectious and chronic conditions, and minimal investments are made in chronic disease management [1, 2]. Continuity of medical care is affected by the existence of traditional and complementary medical systems, which are more readily accessible and have cultural legitimacy for a number of populations [3–5]. Public health education about NCDs is limited: as a result there is poor knowledge of the common NCDs, their risk factors, and their medical and psychosocial impact among lay society, patients and non-specialist healthcare providers. NCDs present major financial and psychosocial challenges for affected individuals, families, households and communities (hereafter referred to as NCD-affected communities) [1, 2]. This has implications for the quality and sustainability of social support for individuals living with NCDs and their caregivers. Discrimination, stigma and related psychosocial problems emerge for individuals living with conditions that are negatively perceived and/or lead to culturally devalued disabilities such as blindness, loss of limbs and sexual dysfunction [4, 6].

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Chapter 5: Confidentiality

Michele Mathes Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

As a nurse, you have many professional responsibilities that are spelled out in the standards and guidelines for practice. So far, this book has compared and contrasted your legal duties and your ethical duties, which are equally important pillars in professional practice. Issues related to patient confidentiality and privacy, like most areas of healthcare practice, involve legal and ethical obligations.

This chapter explores your ethical and legal duties with respect to confidentiality and privacy. The ethical obligation to not disclose information about patients reaches back nearly 2,500 years, to the time of Hippocrates, whose oath requires the physician to pledge that “what I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself holding such things shameful to be spoken about” (Tyson, 2001).

NOTE Hippocrates, a Greek physician born in 460 B.C., still influences healthcare worldwide because of the ethical standards he espoused. Much of what we know about Hippocrates is derived from others’ writings.

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CHAPTER THREE: DISORDERS OF AROUSAL AND ATTENTION

Christopher M. Filley University Press of Colorado ePub

Disturbances of arousal and attention compose a heterogeneous and challenging group of neurobehavioral syndromes (Geschwind 1982; Mesulam 2000; Posner et al. 2007). Ranging in severity from coma after brainstem infarction to subtle acute confusional states related to drug intoxication, these disorders are not only common clinically but provide many insights into the brain’s capacity to enable uniquely human mental life. Moreover, they bear directly upon the fundamental question of the nature of consciousness, a perennial philosophical conundrum that can now be meaningfully addressed in a neuroscientific context. This chapter will jointly consider the arousal and attentional disorders in some detail, as they are closely linked in the mental status examination and have several clinical and neuroanatomic similarities. First, however, some general background related to these topics merits consideration.

For any higher mental function to occur, the human brain must possess a mechanism that can maintain the waking state and another that permits the ability to focus awareness on behaviorally relevant external and internal stimuli. Both of these systems are indeed present, and it is useful and widely accepted to refer to them respectively as the arousal system and the attentional system. In everyday terms, the simple observation that one can be awake without being attentive suggests that arousal and attention are indeed separable. In a neurologic context, individuals who are in a vegetative state provide a dramatic clinical example of this distinction: in these unfortunate individuals, there is massive bilateral cerebral hemispheric damage, with sparing of the brainstem, leaving a patient with intact arousal but absent attention (Multi-Society Task Force on PVS 1994).

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1 Introduction

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

With rare exceptions, animals consist of sexually reproducing populations that are roughly half male and half female—at least that is a human perspective that is applied to other mammals, and generalized to all other animals. An observant individual will notice roaches mating rear end to rear end or horseshoe crabs on the beach in springtime mating with the male mounted on a female, reinforcing the idea that the image of human intercourse can be generalized. I can observe fruit flies mating in the same way without use of a microscope, and I can even tell which is male and which is female if I am looking at a solitary fruit fly resting on my finger.

But that idea of universality is undermined if I observe copulating earthworms, which seem to be engaged in some sort of symmetrical mutual engagement. The ambiguity of the earthworm’s hermaphroditism is also present in most flowering plants. Students learn that pollen bearing stamens are present in the same flower with female components—assigned scholarly names like stigma, style, and ovary—but that is also not universal.

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Chapter 2: Missing the Gorilla: Why We See People as Objects

White, Kimberly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

WHY WE SEE PEOPLE AS OBJECTS

I returned home from my third research trip with tremendous reluctance; I knew what I was going back to, and I didn’t think I could face it again. I sat in the car, looking at our tiny apartment through a dreary, unenthusiastic rain. I did not want to go in to my unappreciative, feckless husband or my quarrelsome children, who whined and complained through the homework and chores I had to make them do. I did not want to go in and pretend that I was happy to be home, when in reality I had been far happier away.

The simple truth is that I was miserable at home. Miserable and disappointed and trapped in a way that I think is familiar to many people: I felt oppressed and restricted because I was surrounded by people who, one way or another, had let me down. Acknowledging this feeling is important because it is precisely what we want to shift out of.

For me, it wasn’t that I didn’t love my family—all of them. It was just that I didn’t feel happy around them. I felt burdened and overwhelmed. And I realized, sitting there, that much of the burden came from the feeling that I was under a microscope. If I got cranky (because I saw how much laundry had piled up or my flight got in very late) and snapped at my husband, he would immediately fight back with something hurtful. If I raised my voice at my son who never put his dishes away, he would roll his eyes scornfully and say “Don’t freak out,” and no one would take my side.

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CHAPTER FOUR: Contact issues

Roger Kennedy Karnac Books ePub

General points

Contact between children and the parent who is not their primary carer is desirable in principle but often fraught with complex issues that may have to be addressed before such contact can take place. The decisions that have to be made about such contact include its frequency and whether or not it is direct, that is face to face, or indirect, through letter or telephone contact; whether or not it is supervised or unsupervised, and where it should take place. Such decisions can usually be taken by social services in consultation with the parents. However, there are occasionally times when an expert is called in to give advice, particularly when there is some dispute between the various parties about aspects of the contact, whether or not it should be direct or indirect, supervised or unsupervised, or whether or not is should take place at all.

In principle, any decisions about contact should be flexible, as situations involving contact disputes change over time. A parent who is initially intransigent about contact arrangements, particularly soon after a decision affecting their care of their child has been taken, may be full of anger and bitterness about the decision, making it difficult for them to see what is in the child’s best interest rather than their own. However, their attitude may change once the dust has settled. A parent who is mentally ill and unable to care for their child may be able to keep up contact when they are well, but not when they are ill again. Another parent who may be unstable and unreliable over keeping up regular contact may eventually settle down. From the child’s point of view, they may wish to change any contact arrangements as they grow up and can decide for themselves whether or not they wish to see an absent parent and for how long. Setting up contact arrangements in stone is to be done only as a last resort, when all possibility of negotiation has broken down. In addition, there is the basic principle that must also be taken into account: that any contact should not jeopardize the child’s new placement, should not cause the placement undue disruption. Making a decision about whether or not there should be contact and what kind and at what level must also take into account the effect on the child’s new home. How much weight one attaches to this factor will depend on the age of the child and the reasons for their removal from the parent’s care. While the absent parent should in principle be able to see their child reasonably frequently, this may not be in the child’s best interests, at least in the early stages of a new placement.

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2 “In Their Best Interests”: Parents’ Experience of Atypical Sex Anatomy in Children

Ellen K. Feder Indiana University Press ePub

For Ruby, in memoriam

In a Study conducted by psychologist Suzanne Kessler, college students were broken into two groups by gender. The women were asked to imagine that they had been born with “clitoromegaly,” a condition defined as having a clitoris larger than one centimeter at birth. In response to a question regarding whether they would have wanted their parents to sanction clitoral surgery if the condition were not life-threatening, an overwhelming 93 percent of the students reported that they would not have wanted their parents to agree to surgery. Kessler reports, “Women predicted that having a large clitoris would not have had much of an impact on their peer relations and almost no impact on their relations with their parents . . . they were more likely to want surgery to reduce a large nose, large ears, or large breasts than surgery to reduce a large clitoris” (1998, 101).1 These findings, Kessler reflects, are not surprising given that the respondents characterized genital sensation and the capacity for orgasm as “very important to the average woman, and the size of the clitoris as being not even ‘somewhat important’” (101–102). Men in the study were faced with a different dilemma, the one facing parents of boys with “micropenis,” a penis smaller than the putative standard of 2.5 centimeters stretched length at birth. Their question was whether to stay as male with a small penis or to be reassigned as female. More than half rejected the prospect of gender reassignment. But according to Kessler, “That percentage increases to almost all men if the surgery was described as reducing pleasurable sensitivity or orgasmic capability. Contrary to beliefs about male sexuality, the college men in this study did not think that having a micropenis would have had a major impact on their sexual relations, peer or parental relations, or self-esteem” (103).

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