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1 Introduction

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

With rare exceptions, animals consist of sexually reproducing populations that are roughly half male and half female—at least that is a human perspective that is applied to other mammals, and generalized to all other animals. An observant individual will notice roaches mating rear end to rear end or horseshoe crabs on the beach in springtime mating with the male mounted on a female, reinforcing the idea that the image of human intercourse can be generalized. I can observe fruit flies mating in the same way without use of a microscope, and I can even tell which is male and which is female if I am looking at a solitary fruit fly resting on my finger.

But that idea of universality is undermined if I observe copulating earthworms, which seem to be engaged in some sort of symmetrical mutual engagement. The ambiguity of the earthworm’s hermaphroditism is also present in most flowering plants. Students learn that pollen bearing stamens are present in the same flower with female components—assigned scholarly names like stigma, style, and ovary—but that is also not universal.

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10: The Role of Olfaction in Relation to Stress and Fear

Nielsen, B.L. CABI PDF

10

�The Role of Olfaction in Relation to

Stress and Fear

Vincent Bombail

Neurobiology of Olfaction, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France

Like other sensory functions in animals, olfaction contributes to an understanding of the environment; odours include signals that may be considered as threatening and may induce fear and a stress response. These olfactory cues can originate from conspecifics or predators and constitute a wealth of information that is used to promote survival.

Chemical signals can be used to assess the presence of unknown conspecifics, possibly competitors for precious resources (food or sexual partners), or predators. Interestingly, olfactory perception and its influence on behaviour are affected by the inner state of the animal via hormones. Here, after defining the stress response and fear, I will review evidence that stressed animals might perceive odours differently. Next, we will see how olfactory signals can generate a stress response and induce fear, and look into experimental support for the claim that odours can be used for stress relief.

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Medium 9781855759688

15. New considerations on the concept of the aesthetic conflict

Donald Meltzer Karnac Books ePub

Donald Meltzer

At a year’s distance from the publication of The Apprehension of Beauty [chapter 6, this volume], the author traces a historical reconstruction of the psychoanalytic journey from Freud to Bion via Melanie Klein—a route which reconsiders the relationship between psychoanalysis and art, as well as the important role of beauty in intimate relations, above all between mother and baby. Other concepts appear pertinently in Meltzer’s short essay: the theory of passions, the attack on links, infantile development as “learning from experience” which modifies significantly the attitude to childhood of those who bring up babies. The essay continues allowing the romantic poets to speak directly. The aesthetic conflict is found in the final phase of analysis, when aesthetic feelings arise together with live passions (links L, H, K) and “negative capability” (Keats) is also manifested, “which renders possible the toleration of doubt and uncertainty without irritable reaching after fact and reason”.

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CHAPTER TWELVE: The lateralized brain: right and left hemisphere

Susan Hart Karnac Books ePub

“The distribution of white matter to grey is not even throughout the brain—the right hemisphere has relatively more white matter, while the left has more grey. This microscopic distinction is significant because it means that the axons in the right brain are longer than in the left and this means they connect neurons that are, on average, further away from each other . . . this suggests that the right brain is better equipped than the left to draw on several different brain modules at the same time . . . The left brain, in contrast, is more densely woven. The close-packed, tightly connected neurons are better equipped to do intense, detailed work that depends on close and quick cooperation between similarly dedicated brain cells.

(Carter, 1998, p. 38)

The human brain is not only hierarchical in nature, it is also characterized by functional asymmetry. All motor pathways from the central nervous system that continue down the spinal cord must cross the mid-line in the brainstem, which means that the right brain hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. The hemispheric asymmetry develops at an early foetal stage, long before the differentiation of the neocortex, and the cortical asymmetry between left and right hemisphere springs from the modulation of functions all the way from the reticular activation system, which is similarly lateralized (divided into a left and right hemisphere). All structures (except for the pineal gland) occur in both brain hemispheres. Similarly, as mentioned in the previous chapter, the two hemispheres are connected on different levels by the corpus callosum, which connects the hemispheres on the neocortical level, and the anterior and posterior commissures, which connect the hemispheres on a subcortical level. Even the two hemispheres of the cerebellum are connected (Porges, 1995; Siegel, 1999; Trevarthen, 1990).

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3 - Debating Feminist Futures: Slippery Slopes, Cultural Anxiety, and the Case of the Deaf Lesbians

Alison Kafer Indiana University Press ePub

Slippery Slopes, Cultural Anxiety, and the Case of the Deaf Lesbians

The fear that lesbians and gay men will start to fabricate human beings, exaggerating the biotechnology of reproduction, suggests that these “unnatural” practices will eventuate in a wholesale social engineering of the human…. But it seems a displacement, if not a hallucination, to identify the source of this social threat, if it is a threat, with lesbians who excavate sperm from dry ice on a cold winter day in Iowa when one of them is ovulating.

—Judith Butler, Undoing Gender

THE PERVASIVENESS OF prenatal testing, and especially its acceptance as part of the standard of care for pregnant women, casts women as responsible for their future children's able-bodiedness/able-mindedness; prospective parents are urged to take advantage of these services so as to avoid burdening their future children with any disabilities.1 This notion of “burdening” children finds an echo in the debate over same-sex marriage, with LGBT couples cast as selfish parents, placing their own desires over the physical and mental health of their children (and, by extension, of all children). Moreover, according to Timothy Dailey of the Family Research Council, homosexual parents often “‘recruit’ children into the homosexual lifestyle” by modeling “abnormal sexuality.”2 The possibility that same-sex parents might produce queer children is one of the most common reasons given for opposing such families, a reasoning that takes for granted the homophobic worldview that queerness must be avoided at all costs.

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3 Making Tanzanian Traditional Medicine

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

In 1968, a research officer in the Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Development attended the first Symposium on African Medicinal Plants, which was held in Senegal. Upon his return, he claimed for scientists the role of transforming “the old or indigenous ways of curing diseases” into “new” forms of modern treatment (see first epigraph to Part 1). His argument for transforming “primitive medicaments” through scientific investigation reflected the broader recommendations crafted during this gathering of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) member states (Kasembe 1968). The symposium marked a shift in emphasis from the colonial prohibition against some healing practices to the funding, research, and legalization of traditional medicine in postcolonial Africa.

The ontological implications of the colonial separation of belief and knowledge, spirit and substance, and harming and healing have structured the postcolonial search for the scientific truth of traditional medicine. The newly independent Tanzanian government focused its attention on the commodification of plant, animal, and mineral products that might enable Africa to better position itself in a variety of global relationships. The idea that science might convert plant, animal, and mineral products into desperately needed pharmaceuticals found purchase in the highest levels of the first post-independence administration, led by Julius Nyerere. Stocking the new network of clinics and dispensaries that comprised the fledgling national health care service with pharmaceutical drugs ate up a significant proportion of the nation’s hard currency reserves. Tanzanian leaders hoped that scientific research into medicinal plants would offer a solution to the economic challenges cash-strapped African countries faced. By recasting plant material as a resource for an indigenous pharmaceutical industry, traditional medicine held out the promise of greater economic independence.

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Chapter Ten - Emotions, Words, and Mentalization

Marianne Bentzen Karnac Books ePub

“If we as therapists cannot use words in a way that links experiences with symbols, we will have words that are not words; they are dead words. And we have societies that are full of dead words. A word without emotion is not a word. It does not connect”

(Haldor Øvreeide)

Interventions in child therapy aim to address certain specific levels in the child's nervous system and, thus, reorganise the child's sensing, feeling, or mentalizing nervous system. Through synchronisation with the child's autonomic nervous system and through limbically attuned contact with the child, the therapist has to “challenge” the child's relational patterns in a supportive relationship in order to develop more adaptive relational strategies. The autonomic and limbic exchanges and the non-verbal dialogue shape a creative process where the child's capacity for engaging in the dialogue can develop, and where the child expresses the communication patterns that have been established through previous experiences. From the age of two years, language plays an important role for the child's ability to convey experiences. Although the child expresses emotions and bodily impulses through play and other behaviour, he or she also uses language to engage in dialogues. The better the child is at articulating experiences through language, the better he or she is able to share nuanced experiences and be met with understanding on a mentalizing level.

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5 Epidemics and Public Health in Twentieth-Century China: Plague, Smallpox, and AIDS

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

WHILE EPIDEMICS HAVE occurred throughout Chinese history, the contemporary understanding of public health is a recent import from the West, and these two topics are not necessarily related. But due to the fact that public health and the prevention of epidemics are so closely linked in our modern understanding, it has become common to discuss the two subjects as one in contemporary academic research. Chinese public health came into existence during the intensely rapid changes of the twentieth century, which was also a time rife with epidemics.

This chapter will focus on the relationships between epidemics and the evolution of public health in China, with particular attention to the plague, smallpox, and HIV epidemics. It asserts that the public health and hygienic movements often served the political purposes of the state rather than necessarily addressing the most critical medical problems.

Examined merely on the basis of extant historical records, the frequency of China’s epidemics has seen a constant increase (Zhang 2008, 32–33). Based on statistics from available historical records through the year 1949, the Republican era (1912–1949) experienced the greatest frequency of epidemic outbreaks (Li 2004, 1). Our own statistical analysis of the modern period (1573–1949) also shows that the frequency of epidemics in the Republican era was much greater than in previous times, with 3.08 occurrences per year, while that number was only 1.09 for previous eras (Yu et al. 2004, 24–25). After 1949, owing to the increasing details and completeness of relevant medical records and statistics, there are no years without any reported epidemics. The emergence of this phenomenon in the modern period is certainly related to the fact that the occurrence and spread of disease was facilitated by such aspects of modernity as rapid increases in population, social mobility, and ever-increasing internationalization (Yu 2003, 340–344). More importantly, however, I fear that this apparent trend may also reflect the degree to which there now exists an interest in recording, maintaining, and preserving the most complete possible data. It is only from the twentieth century onward, after the creation of the Public Health Administration, that the practice of recording public health and mortality statistics became one of its key programs. Since then, statistics regarding epidemic diseases have obviously seen a steady increase in both quantity and detail, to the point where it has become impossible to separate the gradual increase in records on epidemics from the increasingly detailed statistics on health and life produced by public health administrations and research departments (Liu 1996 [1937], 441–446).1 In the twentieth century, epidemic diseases—and acute infectious diseases in particular—have been an important factor in threatening the lives of the Chinese people and in influencing both the Chinese psyche and the social order. Both the epidemics themselves and the fact that their danger was ceaselessly recorded and emphasized also hastened and promoted the establishment of public health measures.

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8. Vertices: Evolution

Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

Some psycho-analytic tensions appear in a simpler, less disguised form if we use as a model the impact of the thought of Jesus on the Jewish group and on later religious institutions. The stress on miracles of healing represented an urge to ‘medicalize’ the institution intended to serve the teaching of Jesus. Healing retains its dominance in Christian Science, Lourdes, faith-healing. An example in the early Christian group of a problem of institutionalizing is the query put to Jesus by the disciples who wanted to have a ruling on recognition of those who cast out devils in Jesus’ name. His attitude appears to have been against rigid qualification for membership of the group - ‘those that are not against me are for me\ Although this reply cannot now be interpreted with sureness and may have been referable to the favourable (for Christianity) effect of turpitude in the opponents of Christianity, it shows the recurrent configuration of the problem of selection (lay versus professional, or outgroup versus ingroup). These conjectures illustrate the configuration to which I want to draw attention.

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5: Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Kharkwal, H. CABI PDF

5 

Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Srinivas Janaswamy*

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota

State University, South Dakota, USA

Abstract

Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, there is a clear need for a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects, and in this regard food-grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Organized polysaccharide networks in particular and the available water pockets are effective in encapsulating and protecting the drug molecules as well as releasing them in a sustained manner.

Overall, human compatible carbohydrate polymers possessing stable architectures will indeed cause a paradigm shift in the design of effective drug delivery systems.

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5. Circular and Reflexive Questions

Barry Mason Karnac Books ePub

The handover interview can use different styles of questioning but the one which has been practised most by the author and colleagues relies heavily on the use of circular and reflexive questioning. These types of question help the interviewer retain a neutral position and introduce new information into the conversation, which introduces possibilities of new kinds of feedback. This makes a difference to the way beliefs about action and behaviours can change, and thus contribute to more effective and constructive kinds of relationships.

Circular questioning helps those being interviewed to move more to an observer position in relation to themselves so they might achieve a way of perceiving themselves differently. The questions use feedback (verbal and non-verbal) from the interviewee and re-introduce it in a way which challenges beliefs held by the interviewee(s). Thiscontinual ‘to-ing and fro-ing’ of feedback is a co-evolving process, which helps the interviewer and interviewee to start to reframe the problem, to have a different perception of reality, and to move towards finding a difference which may make a difference. However, it is important, as Andersen has pointed out, that the interviewer does not introduce too much difference or too little difference. Too much difference - and this is obviously determined by the way the interviewer perceives the way the interview is going - ‘may have a disorganising effect on the system. In such cases, the system often closes itself to those who have tried to implant such a difference’ (Andersen, 1987). A difference too small to be noticed by the recipient will also make no difference to the problem being addressed. The aim is to introduce a difference which is appreciable enough to make recipients less certain of their position, while at the same time remaining engaged with the recipients.

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Medium 9781855759152

CHAPTER FIVE. Working with adolescents who want to kill themselves

Lynn Greenwood Karnac Books ePub

Emily Cooney & Lynn Greenwood

Exam stress, bullying, abuse … it is not unusual to read newspaper reports of adolescents whose experiences have driven them to suicide. While the “successful” cases may hit the headlines, less often reported are those young people whose attempts to overdose, cut their wrists, hang themselves, or end their lives in other ways have “failed”.

What provokes such a severe crisis in an adolescent? While there is no quick and easy answer to such a question, perhaps it is about facing intolerable experiences at a time when the world feels an uncertain place. After all, adolescents find themselves negotiating dramatic physiological and emotional changes at the same time as they are being encouraged to re-negotiate the oedipal experience and step further outside the (sometimes questionable) security of the family and into a broader social environment. Where that environment feels threatening and where the home may be—at best—unsupportive and—at worst—neglectful or abusive, this transition can feel painfully impossible to achieve.

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CHAPTER ONE. The theory of the archetypes and the self

Michael Fordham Karnac Books ePub

In “The origins of the ego in childhood’ I published some ideas on the ego in the first two years of life. My intention was to develop a thesis implied in Jung’s formulations as follows: consciousness, of which the ego is the centre, grows out of the self and its deintegrates—the archetypes and the ego. This contrasted with the earlier notion that the ego grew out of the impact of instinctual drives with the environment. The two propositions do not contradict each other, however, for each process can go on concurrently with the other.

In this volume I shall concentrate on the archetypes and the self as part of die exploration of the child’s ‘inner’ world; this develops concurrently with the continuous building up of a picture of the outer world, closely tied to reality, and a growing capacity for organized thought, for perception of reality and reality testing.

The maturation processes alter a child greatly as development proceeds, and so confusion can result from thinking of childhood as a single state between birth and adolescence. While it is common usage to talk of a child in this way, it creates difficulties when more detailed studies of growth processes are being pursued. Even a baby, though essentially the same person, goes through many states of mind, very difficult to define in the first months, before he attains unit status at about two years of age. It may also seem arbitrary to say that all these states can be lumped together as infancy, since during the first two years greater changes take place than during any other period of life, yet that is what I and others have found it useful to do. From then on to about seven years of age may be called childhood proper. It ends with the passing of the oedipal conflicts, which then ushers in a period of sexual latency that persists until adolescence. During this period, development may be described as horizontal, for consciousness expands rather than deepens. Adolescence is a separate study and will not be included here. This preliminary statement is necessary to clarify the terms that will subsequently be used.

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Medium 9781937554675

1 Advantages, Challenges, and Risks of Night Work

Katherine Pakieser-Reed Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

I often think that the night is more alive and more richly colored than the day.

–Vincent van Gogh

IN THIS CHAPTER

Advantages of working nights

Challenges of working nights

Patient and staff safety

Pros and cons: a summary

The world revolves around the sun—in more ways than one! As the sun rises, so do the majority of people of the world. During the day, the world is busy. People go to work. Students go to school. Stores are open. Cars, buses, and bikes fill the road. Noise and activity are everywhere.

As the sun goes down, the world quiets down. Fewer people are working. Many return home to prepare for bed. At the same time, others get ready for night-shift work. Among these workers are nurses, who use this twilight time to prepare to go to work caring for patients.

In 2010, there were more than 2.7 million registered nurse positions in the United States. The workplace settings reflected the diversity of opportunities within nursing, including general medical and surgical hospitals (private and local), physicians’ (providers’) offices, home health care services, nursing-care facilities, government agencies, administrative and support services, and educational services. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, approximately 60%, or 1.6 million, of these positions are in settings that provide continuous nursing care (2012).

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Appendix B: Formulary

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

Appendix B: Formulary

Drug dosages were derived from several sources, including those listed in the Bibliography. Many have been used by the author at the Carolina Raptor Center.

Drug

Dosage

Acid citrate dextrose

(ACD)

0.15 ml/ml blood for transfusions

Activated charcoal

10–20 ml/kg PO

Adequan

5 mg/kg IM q7d × 4, then monthly as needed

Albon

(sulfadimethoxine 12.5%)

25–50 mg/kg PO SID × 3–5d

Allopurinol

For hyperuricemia/gout: 10 mg/kg PO BID

Toxic in RTHAs at 50 mg/kg

Aminophylline

4 mg/kg PO BID/QID. Prepare suspension with a compounding syrup

10 mg/kg IV/IM TID

May have diuretic effects but may not be an effective bronchodilator in birds

Ampicillin

150 mg/kg IM QID

Amoxicillin

150 mg/kg PO BID

Amoxicillin with clavulinic acid

125–150 mg/kg PO BID

Not metabolized by liver. Good for anaerobes and penetrates lungs well

Amphotericin B

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