657 Chapters
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Medium 9780253014429

13 Charitable Donations for Health and Medical Services from Hong Kong to Mainland China

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

David Faure

MEDICAL CHARITIES HAVE historically formed a key component of Chinese philanthropic organizations. Indeed, the linkage between philanthropy and physical well-being predates the advent of modern, scientific medicine; frequently this linkage had a religious cast. Traditional Chinese popular religion posits a spirit world closely integrated with that of the living, with spirits amenable to intercession in the affairs of the living if properly appeased through funeral rites and sacrifices. The exorcism ceremonies that have been held by Buddhist monasteries and village temples for centuries may be interpreted as philanthropy for both living and dead insofar as they ultimately serve the living: when the dead are appeased, the living are sheltered from disease, and appeasing the dead entails charitably satisfying their needs for food, clothing, and money. It is not farfetched to say that beneficence, and especially medical charity, has always been a part of Chinese culture, and recognized as an essential part of social well-being.

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Medium 9781780642994

33 Lessons from Support Given to the Implementation of Food Security Programmes in Over 100 Countries: The Feasibility of Integrated Food and Nutrition Security (F&NS) Approaches

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

33

Lessons from Support Given to the

Implementation of Food Security Programmes in Over 100 Countries: The Feasibility of Integrated Food and Nutrition Security

(F&NS) Approaches

Policy and Programme Development Support Division (TCS),*†

Technical Cooperation Department (TC)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Food security exists when all people, at all times have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

World Food Summit Plan of Action, 13 November 1996.

Summary

FAO launched the Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) in 1994 to assist member countries in their efforts to reduce the prevalence of hunger and malnutrition. Over a period of 14 years (1994–2008), the programme was implemented in 106 countries and mobilized US$890 million. Having learned from the experiences of the pilot phase, since 2001 FAO has been providing technical assistance in support of large-scale National and Regional Programmes for Food Security (NPFS and RPFS) designed, owned and implemented by national governments and regional economic integration organizations (REIOs) that target millions of food-insecure people. After a short description of the evolution of the FAO flagship programme for food and nutrition security (F&NS) in the changing world environment, the chapter highlights eight messages as lessons from past experiences, mainly focusing on: (i) the moral obligation of bringing well-known solutions and good practices to a scale commensurable to needs; (ii–iii) the need to go beyond food production and increased agricultural output and directly target the most marginal communities and vulnerable groups in terms of F&NS; (iv) adopting sustainability as a key principle of

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Medium 9781780644479

12: Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

12 

Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough Community

College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

The conventional forms of oral dosage have significant disadvantages including poor bioavailability in hepatic metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to enzymes and different pH ranges in these tracts. One effective route for drug absorption into the body and then into the systematic circulation to circumvent such issues is the skin. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have emerged, combining high therapeutic efficacy with safety, reducing the number and size of dose administration significantly. TDDS are being pioneered in medical practices as alternatives to hypodermic injections and oral drug delivery systems. The therapeutic agents are introduced through the skin into the systemic circulation through the use of transdermal patches. This chapter presents an overview of TDDS practices, and the use of various biopolymers for drug delivery, and discusses the potential advantages and issues related to them.

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 8 Cat Flaps

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 8

Cat Flaps

Keeping a window slightly open is one way to allow your cat the freedom to come and go as he pleases but this could be a potential security risk. Another option is that you act as doorman, opening and closing the door whenever your cat wants to go out or come back indoors. But as well as being inconvenient for you, this could also be frustrating, even stressful, for your cat, especially if you are not around when he needs to go out to eliminate or to escape from threats or stressors, either within the home or outside. Fitting a cat flap can therefore be a good idea for both you and your cat.

But because cat flaps can potentially allow other cats into the house they can also be a source of stress for your cat. Where a cat flap is located, and the type of cat flap fitted, can make this much less of an issue.

Where to Fit a Cat Flap

●● Make sure that your cat has easy access to the cat flap from both indoors and outdoors. Your cat maybe agile now, but in years to come climbing or leaping up to reach the cat flap might be uncomfortable or difficult for him. Also, your cat might need to get through the flap quickly and easily if he is being chased or is frightened by something outside. If the cat flap can only be fitted somewhere off the ground, provide a ramp or steps for easy access.

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Medium 9781786394583

Keynote Presentation: Use of Psychopharmacology to Reduce Anxiety and Fear in Dogs and Cats: A Practical Approach

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Keynote Presentation: Use of

Psychopharmacology to Reduce

Anxiety and Fear in Dogs and Cats:

A Practical Approach

Barbara L. Sherman*

College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,

North Carolina, USA

Conflict of interest: The author has served on the Behaviour Advisory Boards for Elanco

Animal Health, Lilly Animal Health, Novartis Animal Health, Shearing-Plough Animal

Health, Virbac Animal Health and Zoetis Animal Health.

Funding: National Science Foundation (#557751)

Keywords: anxiety, fear, behavioural drugs, dogs, cats

Abstract

Anxiety and fear responses indicate impaired welfare in dogs and cats and often lead to erosion of the human–animal bond. In combination with simple behaviour modification regimes, psychopharmacologic agents may be given strategically to attenuate anxiety and fear responses (Hart and Cooper, 1996). The purpose of this review is to elucidate pharmacologic regimes that may be used strategically to manage such negative emotional states in dogs and cats, particularly in specific situations, such as travel, confinement and veterinary visits (Gruen et al., in press; Mills and Simpson, 2002). The goal is for dogs and cats to be less anxious, less fearful, to have the capacity to learn new behavioural responses and to improve welfare. The application of specific drugs in a number of categories, including benzodiazepines, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors, and alpha 2 agonists, will be described, the literature briefly summarised, and case examples provided.

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Medium 9781780646824

12: The Animal Connection

Webber, R. CABI PDF

The Animal Connection

12

Animal Origins

In the previous chapter, diseases of animals that affect humans (zoonoses) have been mentioned, but the connection with animals is probably more subtle and long lasting.

Smallpox, measles, mumps, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and scarlet fever were all originally diseases of animals, as can be seen in their DNA sequences, but evolved into exclusively human infections.

This change might have occurred during the agricultural revolution

(around 5000 bc), when animals were first domesticated. It was the parasite’s adaptability to finding new and more successful hosts that led to the transition.

Initially, the organism would have continued to affect both the animal and the human host, but if the purely human cycle conferred advantages, then this would have been selected as the more successful. This could be by two different mechanisms, either the single organism changed host completely or different strains developed to continue in each host. Such a process is more likely to occur in viral diseases as their construction is more malleable than that of bacteria.

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Medium 9781786391599

4: Behavioural Tests of Olfaction

Nielsen, B.L. CABI PDF

4

Behavioural Tests of Olfaction

Markus Fendt1, Raimund Apfelbach2 and Burton

Slotnick3

1

Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany;

University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 3American University, Washington,

DC, USA

2

Introduction

Interest in the olfactory ability of animals from both the general public and research scientists stems from the seemingly amazing abilities many animals have for detecting odours and following odour-trails. Their keen sense of smell also has practical advantages such as detecting drugs or explosive devices, buried bodies, tracking criminals and, as shown more recently, detecting disease states. While the species best known for such exceptional olfactory abilities is the dog, almost all other species including insects, fish, reptiles, most mammals and, yes, even many species of birds have very well-developed olfactory systems with smell playing an important, and in many cases, critical role in their everyday life.

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Medium 9781609945176

Six Safety First

Longman, Phillip Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Everyone understands that a good health-care system needs highly trained, committed professionals. They should know a lot about biochemistry, anatomy, cellular and molecular immunology, and other details about how the human body works—and have the academic credentials to prove it. But these days, if you get sick with a serious illness, chances are you’ll see many doctors, including different specialists. Three-quarters of Medicare spending goes to patients with five or more chronic conditions, who see an average of fourteen different physicians annually.1 Therefore, how well these doctors communicate with one another and work as a team becomes critical. “Forgetfulness is such a constant problem in the system,” says Donald Berwick of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. “It doesn’t remember you. Doesn’t remember that you were here and here and then there. It doesn’t remember your story.”

Are all your doctors working from the same medical record and making legible entries? Do they have a system to make sure they don’t collectively wind up prescribing dangerous combinations of drugs? Is any one of them going to take responsibility for coordinating your care so that, for example, you don’t leave the hospital without appropriate follow-up medication and the knowledge of how and when to take it? Just about anyone who’s had a serious illness or tried to be an advocate of a sick loved one knows that all too often the answer is no.

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Medium 9781786390394

1 Discovery, Classification and Functional Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides

Wang, G. CABI PDF

1 

Discovery, Classification and Functional

Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides

Guangshun Wang*

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine,

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495, USA

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides and proteins

(AMPs), first discovered in 1922, have attracted much research attention since the

1980s. These innate immune molecules are universal and over 2700 have been discovered in all life forms, ranging from bacteria to humans. AMPs can have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activities. The term ‘host defence peptide’ emphasizes immune modulatory functions such as chemotactic, apoptotic and wound healing properties. With further expansion in the known AMP functions beyond host defence, a natural and general term, ‘innate immune peptides’, may be used to cover antimicrobial, immune modulation and other functional roles of these molecules.

Efforts have also been made in unifying nomenclature and classification of AMPs.

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 5 Introducing an Additional Cat to your Household

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 5

Introducing an Additional Cat to your Household

Points to Consider Before Getting Another Cat

Although descended from a primarily solitary species, domestic cats have evolved the ability to be social and to enjoy and benefit from the company of other cats that they have a close bonded relationship with. However, not all cats get along well and living in the same house with another cat who may be regarded as a threat or a rival is a common source of feline stress, often resulting in behaviour problems such as fighting and indoor urine marking.

If you already have one or more cats, it is wise to be aware of the following factors that might influence the likelihood of a good or bad relationship developing between the resident cat (or cats) and a potential newcomer.

The age of the cats

The younger the cats are, the more likely it is that they will accept each other. If littermates remain together into adulthood, they will often continue to have the same close relationship they had as kittens. But even unrelated kittens have a better chance of developing and maintaining a good relationship with each other if they stay together than cats that meet for the first time when they are older. As cats become adult there is an increased chance that they will regard each other as rivals rather than as potential companions.

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Medium 9781780643960

25: Non-human Primate Laboratory Models of Tuberculosis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

25 

Non-human Primate Laboratory

Models of Tuberculosis

Sally Sharpe,1 Laura E. Via,2 Frank A.W. Verreck3 and P. Ling Lin4*

Public Health England, Porton Down, UK; 2National Institutes of Health,

Bethesda, USA; 3Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, the Netherlands; 4University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA

1

Introduction

Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically similar to humans and are the logical animal to model human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. NHPs can be divided into Old World (e.g. macaques) and New

World monkeys (e.g. marmosets) and represent a diverse group of animals that have varying susceptibility to Mycobacterium infection.

To the best of our knowledge, there is no established literature describing the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in wild, free-ranging animals, leaving it unclear if macaques are truly natural hosts after Mtb infection. Yet, outbreaks of TB in animals kept in captivity is well documented and has been predominantly characterized by infection from M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. avium and M. kansasii (Benson et al., 1955; Kaufmann et al., 1975; Sesline et al.,

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Medium 9780253014863

1 Krom Luang Wongsa and the House of Snidvongs: Knowledge Transition and the Transformation of Medicine in Early Modern Siam / Nopphanat Anuphongphat and Komatra Chuengsatiansup

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

1   Krom Luang Wongsa and the House of Snidvongs

Knowledge Transition and the Transformation of Medicine in Early Modern Siam

Nopphanat Anuphongphat and Komatra Chuengsatiansup

By the end of the seventeenth century, Ayutthaya, the Siamese capital, along with Melaka and Hoi An, had already become regional centers of trade and commercial exchange.1 Located on an expansive Chao Phraya River with its maze of interconnecting waterways, the entrepôt of Ayutthaya, known to the European as the “Venice of the East,” spawned barges and ships from the high seas as well as sampans from local canals. During its glorious days in the reign of King Narai, the Court of Siam at Ayutthaya was frequented by Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French visitors. They were traders, missionaries, and diplomats who brought along not only new commodities, new religions, and new contracts, but more importantly new knowledge. It was the time for new learning as the new episteme had called into question not only the modus vivendi that the Siamese had long held sway, but also the modus operandi in the technical domains of architecture, engineering, astronomy, and medicine.2

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Medium 9781786394583

Cortisol Content in Hair Measured by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Non-invasive Marker of Chronic Stress in Companion Animals

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Cortisol Content in Hair Measured by Liquid Chromatography–Tandem

Mass Spectrometry: A Non-invasive

Marker of Chronic Stress in Companion Animals

Isabelle Mougeot1*, Julie Fish2, Ines de Lannoy3,

Anja Grujic3 and Gary Landsberg1

CanCog Technologies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Vivocore, Fergus, Ontario,

Canada; 3Intervivo Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: chronic stress, dogs, cortisol hair content, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

Introduction

Serum and saliva cortisol levels are often reliable measures of the acute stress response in companion animals. However, there is limited knowledge regarding cortisol hair content as a measure of chronic stress in pets (Park et al., 2016).

This study investigated baseline hair cortisol levels from healthy dogs, atopic dogs, healthy cats, or cats suffering from feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). Hair cortisol measures could help to better monitor stress-related chronic illnesses such as atopy in dogs and FIC in cats. Measuring the cortisol hair content using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique could offer such a non-invasive method.

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Medium 9781786392077

16 Chronic Lyme Disease

Halperin, J.J. CABI PDF

16 

Chronic Lyme Disease

Adriana Marques

Clinical Studies Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology,

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health,

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

The real purpose of the scientific method is to make sure that Nature hasn’t misled you into thinking you know something you actually don’t know.

Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle

Maintenance

16.1 Introduction

Despite being widely used by both the lay and medical communities, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) is a very complicated term (Marques, 2008), used as a label for quite different patient groups. These include patients with late Lyme disease (e.g. arthritis and late neuroborreliosis, addressed in detail in other chapters), as well as patients described as having post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), and, especially, patients with non-specific complaints of unclear etiology who received this diagnosis based on unproven and non-validated clinical and laboratory criteria.

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Medium 9781780644394

6 Antimicrobial Resistance: Selection vs. Induction

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

6

Antimicrobial Resistance:

Selection vs. Induction

Rafael Araos,1 Jose M. Munita,1,2 and Cesar A.

Arias2,3*

1

Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana—Universidad del Desarrollo,

Santiago, Chile; 2University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Texas, US;

3

Universidad El Bosque, Bogota, Colombia

Introduction

I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of natural selection.

Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species,

Chapter 3: Struggle for Existence

The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria is a well-recognized worldwide public health threat. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are associated with higher mortality (up to fivefold) than those caused by susceptible organisms (Schwaber et al., 2006), causing an enormous financial burden to healthcare systems (Howell, 2013). Furthermore, the emergence of MDROs in clinical settings is complicated by the lack of new antimicrobials. Indeed, the development of novel antimicrobial compounds has slowed down since major pharmaceutical companies made the decision to stop their anti-infective development programs. This worrisome situation results in clinicians having to deal with few—if any—alternatives to treat infections due to MDROs

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