945 Chapters
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Medium 9781855757288

9. How values are acquired and assigned to oneself, people and other entities

Dorothy Heard Karnac Books ePub

Bowlby made two forays into the processes, still far from understood, whereby individuals sift and identify incoming sensory information so that events that matter for their survival and well-being are recognised, and the behavioural responses that are likely to be helpful are selected. He discusses the appraisal of incoming sensory information and its relation to feelings, affects and emotion in a chapter (Bowlby 1969, 1982) written some years before he discussed information processing in relation to the mechanisms of psychological defence (Bowlby 1980, Chapter 4).

In Chapter 4 we summarised Bowlby’s understanding of feelings as a ‘being felt’ phase of an individual’s intuitive and often unconscious appraisal, either of their own organismic states and urges to act or of the succession of environmental situations in which they find themselves. He sees appraisal as a complex process in which two main steps can be distinguished: the comparison of sensory input with standards that act as comparators and have developed within the lifetime of the organism; and the selection of certain general forms of behaviour in preference to other forms in accordance with the results of previously made comparisons. We would distinguish a preliminary stage (see Chapter 8) which is concerned with identifying the information by the activation of internal working models. Information is recognised as either known and familiar or as something strange. It can also be defensively not perceived or recognised.

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Medium 9780253006455

10 The Discovery of Sex Chromosomes

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

The idea of the continuity of chromosomes arose among German cytologists in the 1880s. At that time, many American biologists would get their PhDs (especially at Johns Hopkins University) and take a trip to Europe to visit the laboratories of German, Belgian, Dutch, French or Italian biologists where much of the work on meiosis, mitosis, and reproductive biology was taking place. They would then return to the United States to begin their own cytological studies. In 1891, the German biologist Herman Henking (1858–1942) studied the fire wasp, Pyrrhochoris,1 which is not actually a wasp, or Hymenopteran, but a true bug, or Hemipteran. He noted that, during the spermatogenesis of the fire wasp, there is an unusual chromosome: a nucleolar object that takes on a very dark stain in the first meiotic division. In the second division, this unit did not divide, and it appeared to remain in only one of the two cells produced. Because it was unusual in its staining, its morphology, and its behavior, Henking called it an X element, using X as a mathematical symbol for an unknown to be solved. The next year, when Henking was given an opportunity to take on an important and more financially rewarding position in German fisheries, he dropped cytology, focusing on fisheries for the rest of his career. Henking made no association between his X element and sex determination.

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Medium 9780253012241

3 Tilting the Ethical Lens: Shame, Disgust, and the Body in Question

Ellen K. Feder Indiana University Press ePub

Whom do you call bad? —One who always wants to put to shame.

What do you consider most humane? —to spare someone shame.

What is the seal of liberation? —No longer being ashamed in front of oneself.

—Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science

Over the Last fifty years, people with atypical sex anatomies have been objects of intense medical scrutiny. The term “intersex” encompasses a wide variety of conditions, the common feature of which involves some expression of sexual ambiguity: an intersex body’s appearance doesn’t match its karyotype or its sex of assignment; external genitalia or gonads are not distinctively male or female; or sex chromosomes are atypical in some fashion—there’s an “extra” or missing X or Y, or even, though more rarely, a mosaic of chromosomes that includes a whole variety of combinations.1

The treatment protocols for infants and children with intersex conditions—which have frequently involved cosmetic genital surgery and sometimes sex reassignment—were originally formalized by psychologist John Money in the 1950s. For Money and his collaborators, “the problem” of intersex was the incongruence between the “biological sex” (which could be a confusing matter in cases of hermaphroditism) and what they called “gender role,” the combination of one’s social presentation and individual identity as masculine or feminine. Surgical intervention and hormone therapy, they argued, could facilitate this congruence. In their view, early intervention was necessary to ensure the consistent socialization—particularly with regard to parents’ certainty about their child’s sex of assignment—that would avert the “psychological disturbance” for which children would otherwise purportedly be at risk (Money 1955; quoted in Karkazis 2008, 55).

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Medium 9978193883527

Chapter 8: Patient Care from a Domination and Partnership Perspective

Riane Eisler and Teddie M. Potter Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Care is the essence and the central unifying domain to characterize nursing.”

–Leininger, 1988, p. 3

While most nurses acknowledge that care is the essence of nursing, the delivery of care can differ depending on whether it comes from a domination or partnership paradigm. This chapter provides concrete examples of these two different ways of relating to help nurses recognize domination when they see or hear it—in themselves, others, or institutional policies. Only in recognizing domination can you avoid it. If you do not see it, you can unintentionally promote systems that keep domination alive.

In the prologue to her book Tomorrow’s Children, Eisler (2000) writes:

The partnership and dominator models not only describe individual relationships … they describe systems of belief and social structures that either nurture and support—or inhibit and undermine—equitable, democratic, nonviolent, and caring relations. Without an understanding of these configurations—and the kind of education that creates and replicates each—we unwittingly reinforce structures and beliefs that maintain the inequitable, undemocratic, violent, and uncaring relations which breed pathologies that afflict and distort the human spirit and are today decimating our natural habitat. (Prologue)

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Medium 9781780642949

4: Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

4 

Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

Lloyd Reeve-Johnson1* and David Bailey2*

Institute of Health and BioMedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,

Brisbane, Australia and Principal Research Fellow, Translational Research Institute,

Brisbane, Australia; 2Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1

4.1 Introduction�

4.2  The Need for Translational Research and One Health Collaborations�

4.3  Why Interest in One Health Now?�

4.4 �Macro-economic Issues of the 21st Century Where Animal Health-based

Innovation is Integral to Human Survival�

4.4.1  Food production and security�

4.4.2  Energy demands�

4.4.3 Poverty�

4.4.4  Zoonotic disease�

4.4.5  Environmental disaster relief�

4.4.5.1  Ethical use of animals�

4.4.6  Mental health�

4.4.7  Cloning, embryo research and genetic manipulation�

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Medium 9781855753723

CHAPTER SIX: Conclusions

Roger Kennedy Karnac Books ePub

The many examples given throughout the text have, I hope, demonstrated that the issues concerned with making decisions about a child’s future in a disturbed or conflict-ridden family situation are often highly complex and emotionally charged. Time and again one has to face the fact that there are no perfect solutions in this field. Each situation requires a thorough assessment and a good deal of discussion to resolve issues, either just before going into court or in meetings planned prior to court. Unfortunately, the nature of the conflicts in the family often mean that professionals are left trying to pick up the pieces, as it were, rather than attempting to put the family together again.

Sometimes, it feels as if a bomb has hit a family, producing such fragmentation and disruption that all one can do is to try to find a place where the children are no longer in acute danger. However, it can be distressing to come across situations where there has been no attempt to address the family’s problems at the first crisis situation, when the “bomb” first hit them. For example, I recently saw a mother of four children who had had an acute depressive breakdown some three years previously. This had occurred after she was beaten up by her new partner. The beating brought up early memories of her childhood abuse. These overwhelmed her to such an extent that she quickly de-compensated and became acutely depressed, at one point threatening to kill the children. The latter were accommodated with a relative while the mother was admitted to a psychiatric ward where she received antidepressant medication.

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Medium 9781786394583

The Effect of Paw Preference on Problem-solving Ability in Cats: Preliminary Results

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Effect of Paw Preference on

Problem-solving Ability in Cats:

Preliminary Results

Sevim Isparta1*, Yasemin Salgirli Demirbas2 and Gonçalo

Da Graça Pereira3

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University,

Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Centro para o Conhecimento Animal,

Algés, Portugal

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: cat, paw preference, problem solving, laterality

Introduction

Many authors have suggested that behavioural lateralisation increases neural capacity to carry out simultaneous processing (Vallortigara and Rogers, 2005).

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strength of paw preference and problem-solving ability in domestic cats.

Materials and Methods

Fourteen cats were tested in a kennel environment, at a cattery. Informed consents were obtained from the cat owners prior the study. A cat toy on a wand was presented to each cat to determine the paw preference. A problem-solving test, which included three different steps (T1, T2, T3), was administered to each cat.

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Medium 9781780644172

13 Sea Mammal Morbilliviruses

Munir, M. CABI PDF

13 

Sea Mammal Morbilliviruses

Consuelo Rubio-Guerri and Jose Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Abstract

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused thousands of deaths in cetaceans worldwide. The first known outbreak happened in 1988 on the USA’s Atlantic coast. Since then, different outbreaks have affected cetacean populations in the northern hemisphere, especially in the Mediterranean and on the

Atlantic coast of the USA. Three strains of CeMV have been recognized officially: dolphin morbillivirus, porpoise morbillivirus and pilot whale morbillivirus. However, recently there have been reports of CeMV infections in the Pacific and southern hemisphere, where the ­obtained sequences seem to be new strains because they differ from the three known strains of CeMV. In this chapter, we review the current state of knowledge on CeMV, with a particular focus on molecular ­epidemiology, phylogenetics and control of the disease.

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Medium 9781855750180

1. The Problem of the Traditional Handover

Barry Mason Karnac Books ePub

From contact with a number of people in different parts of the world, in particular Australia, Sweden and the USA, it seems that there is a model of handovers for shift systems which is shared across many countries. Whafs more, people involved in shift systems in these countries all seem to acknowledge that, although their handover system has been more or less the same for many years, it has been a profoundly unsatisfying system. Dissatisfaction arises from the emphasis beingplaced on contentrather than process, which hasoften contributed to staff becoming insular, with a tendency to dwell on the minutiaeoflivingratherthandevelopinganunderstandingof patterns which lead to a more effective form of intervention around the minutiae. It is also easier to unintentionally adopt a ‘blaming’ stance when concentrating on content. For example, if a 15- year old is rude to one of the staff the incident can be addressed all too easily at the content level and lead the member of staff to feel that the only explanation for the young person’s behaviour lies within that young person. Whitehead and Russell (1910) said that every communication has within it a statement and a statement about that statement. (Put another way - what’s the message behind the message) All too often the latter gets forgotten when issues are addressed with residents or patients. Staff can then get caught up in ‘blaming’, not out of any malice, but because they get involved in a ‘cause and effecf pattern and this gets carried across into other shifts at handover.

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Medium 9781855755888

Copyright

Susan Hart Karnac Books ePub
Medium 9781591203193

10. Steve: Year Two After Starting Coconut Oil

Mary T. Newport Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

A

year after starting coconut oil, Steve still seemed to be heading in the right direction with continued gradual improvements, especially in his short-term and recent memory. He found work that was quite meaningful to him as a volunteer two days a week in the warehouse at Spring Hill Regional Hospital.

We were, however, about to enter a period of ups and downs.

SETBACK AND RECOVERY

Just when everything was going very well, I came down with bronchitis in June 2009, and, as hard as I tried not to pass it on, Steve caught it from me. Neither of us had had any significant cold or flu for several years up to that point, which I attributed to our healthy diet.

Steve was sick with constant coughing for several weeks. He took a product to suppress it that was a concentrated form of dextromethorphan, one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. Normally, I give him all his medications, but one day when I was working, he filled a 2-ounce cup, normally used for NyQuil, with this other product, instead of the two-teaspoon recommended dose. It was hours later before I knew he had taken it and discovered it when I noticed that a newly opened bottle was more than half gone. He then told me what he had done, but he seemed fine, so I didnt worry too much about it. I did tell him that he better not give himself any medication, but he should leave that up to me or our daughter.

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Medium 9781855750203

9. Staff stress and internal consultation

Robert Bor Karnac Books ePub

Work in a hospital can be pleasurable, challenging and, at times, stressful. Work related stress is managed increasingly by providing for staff discussion and consultation groups. In these instances, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, psychotherapists and hospital chaplains are most likely to be involved in consultations to staff groups because of their training and experience in the management of interpersonal problems. Stress is most likely to arise from the following sources:

1. Unanticipated and stressful tasks, such as caring for young, dying patients; feeling unable to reassure patients about their condition; not having the skills to carry out a special task and having to counsel relatives of a patient in the context of confidentiality rules.

2. Management and organizational difficulties, such as poor communication between managers and staff when decisions that affect one or the other are being made; pressure at work to undertake more clinical or research work; insufficient and inadequate resources, and poor supervision and support.

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Medium 9781780646824

16: Cancer

Webber, R. CABI PDF

Cancer

16

The daughter of one of the five illegitimate children of Juan Duarte and

Juana Ibarguren fortunately had sufficient charisma and good looks to become an actress. As well as being on the stage, she was a well-known voice on the radio, abilities that brought her to the attention of Colonel

Juan Perón in 1944, to become his second wife in the following year. Juan

Perón became the president of Argentina in 1946, but Eva, or Evita, as she was more popularly known, never forgot her humble roots. In 1948, she formed the Eva Perón foundation, with which she built hospitals, schools, orphanages and homes for the aged, endearing herself to the masses, who she called ‘los descamisados’ (the shirtless ones). She was also a prominent feminist, largely responsible for getting the women’s suffrage law passed, but at the height of her popularity and only 33 years of age, she died from breast cancer.

Even after death she remained a symbol of the working classes, and when Perón was deposed in 1955 her body was taken to Italy, where it remained for 16 years. When Perón died in 1974 it was brought back to be placed in a crypt next to him, but 2 years later the military junta, keen to try to extinguish all traces of Peronism, removed the bodies. After further years of wandering, the much travelled remains of Evita were eventually laid to rest in the Duarte family crypt in Rocoleta cemetery in

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Medium 9780253014429

4 Medicine with a Mission: Chinese Roots and Foreign Engagement in Health Philanthropy

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Zhang Xiulan and Zhang Lu

THE EARLIEST SUSTAINED foreign philanthropic involvement in China came from a wide array of church-sponsored philanthropies. Although such philanthropies are no longer prominent in China, their legacy has been considerable. Drawing on a range of archival sources, this chapter first briefly sketches the Chinese charitable landscape in which Western church-sponsored initiatives arrived. It then provides examples of the wide variety of projects that developed, considering both how these ventures were funded and their relationship with the state. Finally, it considers their legacy: paving the way for other foreign philanthropic engagement, establishing medical institutions that continue to thrive today (although they are no longer linked to their original church heritage), and, most significantly, acting as an initial point of contact for Western and Chinese health care practices, influencing medical education and management models that have carried through to the present day.

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Medium 9780253014429

2 The Shifting Balance of Philanthropic Policies and Regulations in China

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Mark Sidel

AS OTHER CHAPTERS in this volume show clearly, the philanthropic arena is developing with extraordinary speed in China. There are now several thousand Chinese foundations, both private foundations and the so-called public fundraising foundations (most more closely associated with the government than the newer private foundations), and a rapidly increasing community of wealthy and middle-class donors. Health care and medicine are one of the interests of these new donors and their institutions, and a strong interest of the growing community of foreign foundations and other donors in China. At the same time, philanthropy and giving have received a great deal of the media’s attention as well, for both positive and negative reasons. Philanthropy and charitable giving played a major role in the public response to the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan in 2008, while recent scandals in the charitable sector have brought negative attention as well to problems of accountability, transparency, and disclosure. And as this volume is being completed in December 2013, charitable giving—now primarily to nonstate nonprofit organizations directly—has been playing a significant role in relief from yet other Chinese natural disasters as well.1

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