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8: Anesthesia

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF



Learning Objectives

1. Basic anesthetic protocols.

2. Proper oxygen flow rates and endotracheal tube


3. Safe monitoring of vital signs.

Induction and maintenance of anesthesia in raptors is relatively easy but, as with all species, careful monitoring is always necessary. Gas anesthesia is usually the safest and most convenient method. A nonrebreathing system such as an Ayers T-piece configuration with a high flow rate (Fig. 8.1) should be used.

Isoflurane works very well, is safe, and has a fast duration of onset and recovery. Newer gases such as sevoflurane are also becoming popular and may be advantageous in patients with cardiac arrhythmias.

Induction is carried out by masking the bird down with 3–4% isoflurane in oxygen at a flow rate of at least 1 liter/min/kg.

Pre-oxygenation and premedication/pre-­emptive analgesia with butorphanol are very useful and are highly recommended. Birds appear to have a predominance of kappa opioid receptors so

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Medium 9780253014863

7 Population Aging and the Family: The Southeast Asian Context / Theresa W. Devasahayam

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

7   Population Aging and the Family

The Southeast Asian Context

Theresa W. Devasahayam

Population aging is one of the key demographic drivers of the rise in non-communicable chronic disease in Southeast Asia. The phenomenon of aging raises far-reaching questions about the locus of responsibility for elder care in the context of changing family structures and shifting public priorities. It is likely to present a formidable challenge to health policy in Southeast Asia in the foreseeable future, calling into question both the adequacy of public provision and its financial sustainability. This chapter follows from Peter Boomgaard’s overview of Southeast Asia’s demographic transition in the twentieth century, focusing on the past three decades. It shifts the terrain of this volume’s discussion of health to the family, and it adopts a perspective informed by demography and sociology.

The phenomenon of population aging has been a cause of public concern for several reasons. From the perspective of the state, an aging population suggests pressures on government resources that, in turn, have called for swift and relevant policy responses in the areas of fiscal management, income support, the labor market, health care, housing, and social support services.1 In Southeast Asia, the strategy of states has been to provide minimal or residual support to elder care largely with the aim of ensuring that families continue to undertake the role of primary caregiver to the elderly.2 In light of this, we may ask how, then, have families been able to cope with the role of providing care to the elderly and whether population aging has posed unique challenges to these families.

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Medium 9781855753778

10. Behind the Defence

Susie Orbach Karnac Books ePub

The effectiveness of the work that the therapist and client engage in to understand and reverse the food refusal and to change fundamentally the woman’s physical experience of self depends on restarting developmental processes that have been arrested for a considerable length of time. Anorexia is a psychological symptom and distress pattern that is the outcome of the blocking of arrested developmental processes. These developmental processes are always shaped by the particular set of cultural attitudes prevalent in contemporary Western society. The complex of forces that have resulted in a truncated development in the anorectic need to be understood in order for the attempt to restart the development to be successful. What do I mean by this?

Modern psychoanalytic theory and the contributions of feminist theories have focused attention on the infant’s early relationships, on the formation of personality, and on the implications of gender in the critical ‘mothering’ relationship. They have shifted the terrain of psychological inquiry from the Oedipus complex to the vicissitudes of object relations and to the role of the mother in the psychology of the developing person. These theories have illuminated the difficulties and ambivalences in the mother-daughter relationship that create a particular shape to women’s psychology. Feminist psychoanalytic practice, meanwhile, is detailing the ways in which these difficulties and the vastly important consequences of being mother-reared can be addressed within the therapy relationship.

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Medium 9781855755185

CHAPTER NINE. Inpatient care of a child who does not walk, talk, or eat

Jeanne Magagna Karnac Books ePub

Jo Guiney

Michael lies motionless on the sofa, eyes barely open. He is discreetly watching other young people as they move around the room. He is crying a pained, repetitive, and rhythmic cry that has become an audible backdrop to daily life in the eating disorders unit he was recently admitted to. A nurse comes to gather the young people together as it is time for the evening meal. As the nurse approaches, Michael firmly closes his eyes and turns his head away from the room. His crying becomes louder, and he begins to scratch at his arm with the end of his naso-gastric tube. The nurse gently speaks to Michael, telling him it’s time to go to tea. The crying becomes louder while the scratching becomes furious. The other young people look on with a mixture of expressions: concern, fear, curiosity, irritation, exasperation. Someone brings the hoist that is used to move Michael in and out of his wheelchair, and with its arrival, his body becomes stiff. The nurses struggle as they move Michael into an upright position. Some parents waiting just outside the room look silently on, their alarm barely concealed. As he is hoisted into the chair, Michael jolts violently. Tears run down his face as he shakes his head from side to side, silently signalling: “No! No! No! NO!”

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Medium 9781937554385

1 Have Fun with What Technology Has to Offer!

Brittney Wilson Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

When you were in nursing school, you likely had to spend countless hours in the library, researching nursing issues, theorists, and other topics for your papers and care plans. You found your NANDAs (the acronym representing the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, although nurses use this term to refer to nursing diagnosis) and drug information by tediously looking through pages of information to uncover a few relevant details. You painstakingly wrote your papers over and over, first by hand and then meticulously on a typewriter. If you were lucky, the model you used had a memory, and if you weren’t, you were forced to trash hours of work just for misplacing a punctuation mark. To read a nursing journal, you actually had to have a subscription to the publication or access to a hard copy. You might spend

$20 to $30 just making copies of resources to write a single research paper. This process had to be repeated multiple times, costing you money you really didn’t have to spend as a broke college student. But you toughed it out because you needed the information and had no other means to get it. In the end it was all worthwhile—here you sit, a licensed nurse.

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Medium 9781786394040

8 Key Skills for the Veterinary Nurse in Diagnostic Parasitology

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF


Key Skills for the

Veterinary Nurse in

Diagnostic Parasitology

This chapter will firstly explain some simple diagnostic tests, which may be carried out for parasites in practice and include faecal analysis, staining blood smears and examinations for skin ectoparasites, all of which may be carried out without the need for specialist equipment. More complex techniques – serological methods such enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

(ELISA), immunofluoresence antibody tests (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for example, are normally referred to external laboratories as they require technical expertise, expensive reagents and equipment. Some important tests for vector-borne pathogens are summarized here, particularly those relating to pets travelling on the European continent, and tests for emergent infections such as lungworms of dogs and cats are described.

Faecal Analysis

How are samples best acquired and stored?

Faecal sample collection, storage and transportation are all important considerations. Only fresh samples should be examined, and tests done as soon as possible. This is because worm eggs will start to develop quickly at room temperature; and if the sample is left for a day or two, a larva may develop inside the egg. This will happen with hookworm eggs, for example, and in some cases the larvae can even hatch out. This is something the veterinary nurse must be aware of since larvated eggs like this may be confused with eggs of Strongyloides (a nematode of young animals) which already contain a larva when passed by the host (Fig. 8.1a). Furthermore, samples for submission should not be allowed to come into contact with the ground, and with soil in particular, as environmental free-living larvae, notably those of ascarids, quickly invade faeces, thus complicating diagnosis. The samples

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Medium 9781937554675

3 Health Issues and Prevention

Katherine Pakieser-Reed Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Health is the greatest possession.

–Lao Tzu


Cardiovascular events




Stress and depression

Reproductive issues

General tips for healthy living

If the number of studies conducted to ascertain the hazards of working nights—something that’s increasingly common in our 24-hour society—is any indicator, the health consequences of working night shifts are significant indeed. Results of these studies differ with respect to the consequences of working the night shift on health, but despite the contradictions, “Many of the negative health outcomes associated with working nights are considered biologically plausible” (Stokowski, 2012). Specifically, night-shift nurses and other late-night workers may be faced with increased risk for the following:

* Cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke

* Diabetes

* Obesity

* Certain cancers

* Stress and depression

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Medium 9781855754249

CHAPTER SIX: The creation of psychic space, the “nest of babies” fantasy and the emergence of the Oedipus complex

Kate Barrows Karnac Books ePub

Didier Houzel

Translated by David Alcorn and Paul Barrows

In her introduction to The Oedipus Complex Today Hanna Segal (1989) emphasises Melanie Klein's view that it is necessary for the baby to have first established a good relationship to the breast if he or she is to be able to manage and work through the pains of the oedipal situation. She adopts the model proposed by Britton (1989, 1992, 1998) whereby a psychic space is delineated at the heart of the oedipal triangle within which the infant is able to maintain a differentiated relationship with each of his parents, a space that Britton conceives as being an extension of the relationship container-contained as described by Bion. In this space the infant also encounters a good relationship between his parents, a relationship which is one of container-contained but one from which he is excluded, in contrast with the original relationship between the baby and the maternal breast. This leads him to distinguish the nature of the parental relationship from the connection which he has with each of them separately, and involves him in the work of separation and individuation that characterises the depressive position. She adds to Britton's model that room for the new baby is implicit in the space thus delineated:

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Medium 9781855752610

CHAPTER TWO. Eating disorders in adolescence: the function of receiving

Jane Desmarais Karnac Books ePub

Luisa Carbone Tirelli

This chapter is concerned with disorders in eating habits, with particular reference to anorexia. Eating disorders are increasingly being diagnosed and are more frequent in girls than boys. According to epidemiological information, anorexia is most common in those countries with a high standard of living. Anorexia is typical of adolescence and is often linked to psycho-physical developments inherent in puberty. M. and M. E. Laufer (1984) have made a significant contribution in this area with their work on adolescence and their more general interpretation of eating disorders as the adolescent’s failure to achieve integration of a sexual body.

I am interested to explore, particularly with reference to persistent and marked anorexic behaviour in adolescent girls, how the fear of bodily changes and the difficulties in achieving a mature female identity depend on the failure to develop what I call a function of receiving. By function of receiving I mean a psycho-physical function that was underdeveloped or badly structured during the initial relationship between the baby girl and the maternal feeding object.

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Medium 9781780646824

7: The Slave Trade in Parasites

Webber, R. CABI PDF

The Slave Trade in Parasites


Hookworm Disease

Between 1910 and 1914, the Rockefeller Foundation undertook a massive campaign to rid the southern states of the USA from hookworm disease.

There was a reasonably effective treatment and by giving it to as much of the population as possible it was hoped to free the country from this debilitating disease.

The hookworm lives in the intestines where the adult worm invaginates a piece of mucosa from which it extracts blood and nutrients. Eggs are passed in the faeces and they hatch into larvae in the soil after 8–10 days to produce the infective form, which is able to pierce the skin of the foot in the generally unshod individual (Fig. 7.1). Once the larva has managed to penetrate the skin, it migrates to a blood or lymphatic vessel, where it is carried to the lungs, and breaking out through the alveolar wall, it passes up through the trachea and down the oesophagus, back into the intestines.

Despite this extensive journey through the body, the hookworm causes no serious damage and it is only within the gut, where it develops into an adult, that it causes any pathological changes. A few worms are no problem, indeed might even confer benefit (see Chapter 14), but a heavy load can lead to anaemia, and in the young child be the determinant of survival into adult life. Some 60–120 worms will produce slight anaemia, whereas over

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Medium 9781845936839

11: Introduction to Statistical Principles

Sergeant, E. CABI PDF


Introduction to Statistical


11.1  Introduction

Research in animal health typically aims to make inferences about characteristics of a population in which we are interested. For example, we might be interested in the prevalence of a particular disease, or the mean value of a measurement such as body weight. We also want to know how accurate or precise our estimates of these values are. Alternatively, we might want to know if a particular treatment reduces the prevalence of disease, or increases body weight, or if a suspected risk factor increases the likelihood of disease occurrence and by how much.

It is usually impractical to attempt to address these questions by measuring every individual within a population of interest. Instead we enrol a sample of individuals from the target population, measure outcomes of interest on the sample and then use statistics to make inferences about the target population by estimating population characteristics with defined levels of precision. We can also estimate the likelihood that an observed difference between groups has occurred due to chance, or whether it is more likely to be due to the presence of a risk factor or treatment effect.

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Medium 9781937554712

2 Networking Starts With Talking

Lisa Mauri Thomas Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.

–Maya Angelou

Everybody talks to themselves, either as inner dialogue or out loud when no one else is around. How you talk to yourself influences how you talk to others. This concept of self-talk is important and directly applicable to how you approach and reflect upon your job search and career development activities. Therefore, it is essential to assess what you frequently say to yourself about yourself, how, and why. This initial exploration will help you to better understand the ease or difficulty you may find when talking to and networking with others.

To get a better handle on this concept and how it applies to you, grab a pen and paper or jot your ideas in the margins of this book. Take time to reflect on the following questions:

What do you say to yourself about what you want in life, for your career?

What are the most common topics or themes that run through your mind about yourself? Is the tone of those ideas more positive or more negative in nature?

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Medium 9781607320739

CHAPTER THREE The Element of Caring in Nursing Administration*

Jan J. Nyberg University Press of Colorado ePub

The term “caring” is commonly used among nurses to describe interactions between patients and other nurses. Can caring be defined, measured, or evaluated? Is it something that a person has naturally, or can it be developed? Is it a purely subjective experience, or can it have objective aspects as well? Surely everybody cares about others and about their work. Is caring more than the natural response to life? Can it be enhanced to make a difference in how nurses and administrators actually behave in daily life?

In this chapter we will explore the meaning as it has been defined in literature and as it can be experienced as a growing force in professional life. In particular, we will define caring as it can affect the emerging discipline of nursing administration.

In defining the term “caring” one can identify three different uses of the word. “Care” can be defined as a burden: “I have many cares in life”; as responsibility: “I will care for you”; and as a feeling toward another: “I care deeply for you.” In medicine, caring for a patient primarily involves taking responsibility to cure illness or solve health problems. Nurses are involved in the responsibility of the curing part of care, but they also practice caring in the emotional sense. On the whole, nurses care for and about patients. They provide technical and physical care, but they also establish relationships with their patients as individual human beings. In nursing, caring for patients is sometimes a burden, sometimes a responsibility, and sometimes a feeling toward the patient.

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Medium 9781786390394

7 Antimicrobial Peptides: Multiple Mechanisms against a Variety of Targets



Antimicrobial Peptides: Multiple

Mechanisms against a Variety of Targets

Li-av Segev-Zarko1, Maria Luisa Mangoni2 and Yechiel Shai1,*


of Biomolecular Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot,

76100 Israel; 2Department of Biochemical Sciences, La Sapienza University,

Via degli Apuli, 9-00185 Rome, Italy


Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules that are produced by all life forms ranging from prokaryotes to humans.

They are an essential part of the innate immune system and serve as the first line of defence mainly against pathogenic bacteria.

Although Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are the most studied targets for

AMPs, other targets have been investigated, such as fungi, viruses, cancer or the prevention of undesirable inflammatory responses.

There is no common specific structure, nor length that AMPs share. They exhibit different lengths, charges and secondary structures. All the above allow diversity in their mechanism of activity and it is not uncommon to find peptides that act with more than one mechanism. During the past few decades, numerous studies have been dedicated to identify new natural AMPs,

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Medium 9781855757301

CHAPTER ONE: Questioning and assumptions

Chris Scalzo Karnac Books ePub

Questioning and assumptions

“The real is a closely woven fabric … Perception is not a science of the world, it is not even an act, a deliberate taking up of a position; it is the background from which all acts stand out, and is presupposed by them”

(Merleau-Ponty, 2002, p. xi)

“Science manipulates things and gives up living in them. It makes its own limited models of things; operating upon these indices or variables to effect whatever transformations are permitted by their definition, it comes face to face with the real world only at rare intervals”

(Merleau-Ponty, 1992, p. 159)

Much psychotherapy practised with children today seeks to objectify. Attempts to interpret what happens in a therapeutic relationship effectively close down possibilities and narrow the dialogue created towards a sense of “truth”. Existential psychotherapy does not do this. It aims to understand, not interpret. It does not seek an objective truth, or a quality of essential truth—a truth of essence. Instead, it uses the discourse of phenomenology to create awareness, and possibility. Analysis, as Heidegger tells us (in the “Zollikon Seminars”, Heidegger, 2001), is rooted in a definition of “breaking free”, not restricting, and it is the child who can be offered an opportunity to break free of, or transcend, their (family) history to become an individual. This is not an easy task, and not always immediately desirable by the family and professionals alike, but it is, I believe, the responsibility of the therapist to work towards this process.

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