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12 Health or Tobacco: Competing Perspectives in Modern Southeast Asia / Loh Wei Leng

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

12 Health or Tobacco

Competing Perspectives in Modern Southeast Asia

Loh Wei Leng

In spite of the wide acceptance of tobacco since its introduction from the New World of the Americas to Europe in the mid-sixteenth century, and thereafter disseminated farther afield to other continents by the seventeenth century, there have been those who have been very critical of its use.1

As early as 1604, King James I of England, in his now well-known “Counterblaste to Tobacco,” a diatribe against “this vile custome of Tobacco taking,” which he felt was “a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lung”; and even as the smoking habit became popular in the twentieth century, dubbed the “cigarette century,” the negative effects of addiction on the consumer have long been recognized.2 What accounts then for the “deadly persistence” of this product when nicotine, the primary addictive agent in cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars and pipe tobacco, has been said to be “the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death”?3

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Medium 9781786391520

8 Molecular Virulence Mechanisms of Mycobacterium bovis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

8 

Molecular Virulence Mechanisms of

Mycobacterium bovis

Alicia Smyth and Stephen V. Gordon*

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

8.1 Introduction

Infection with Mycobacterium bovis is an ongoing problem both to human and animal health, costing billions annually in economic losses

(Skuce et al., 2011; Muller et al., 2013). While eradication in some countries has met with success, infection of animals and humans with

M. bovis is still reported globally. Understanding the virulence mechanisms that allow M. bovis to survive in vivo, cause disease and transmit to new (and diverse) hosts will be key to the ultimate eradication of M. bovis infection.

M. bovis is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the grouping of genetically related mycobacterial species that cause tuberculosis in mammals (Frothingham et al., 1994; Smith et al., 2006). Theobald Smith was the first to demonstrate that the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle, and indeed other animal hosts, was not the same as the human bacillus, a finding that ultimately led to the description of the bovine-adapted species

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Medium 9781780642994

3 Enhancing the Performance of Food-based Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

3

Enhancing the Performance of Food-based

Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young

Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

Rosalind S. Gibson*

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Summary

Sustainable food-based micronutrient interventions are needed in poor-resource settings, where the prevalence of coexisting micronutrient deficiencies and infection is high, especially during childhood. Food-based interventions include fortification, dietary diversification and modification (DDM) and biofortification. This review focuses on DDM strategies that aim to improve the availability, access and utilization of foods with a high content and bioavailability of micronutrients throughout the year. The strategies include: increasing the production and consumption of micronutrient-dense foods through agriculture, small animal production or aquaculture and, in the future, biofortification; incorporating enhancers of micronutrient absorption; and reducing absorption inhibitors. Such strategies must be designed using formative research to ensure that they are culturally acceptable, economically feasible and sustainable. DDM has the potential to prevent coexisting micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously for the entire household and across generations without risk of antagonistic interactions. To maximize the impact of DDM, especially among children in poor-resource settings, DDM should be integrated with public health interventions designed to reduce the risk of infections.

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Medium 9781780644172

3 Hendra and Nipah Viruses

Munir, M. CABI PDF

3 

Hendra and Nipah Viruses

Bronwyn A. Clayton, Ina L. Smith and Glenn A. Marsh

CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia

Abstract

Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses, in the genus Henipavirus, cause severe, often fatal, disease in people as well as in a broad range of mammalian species. These zoonotic paramyxoviruses are harboured by flying foxes in Australia, the Pacific region and southern and South-east Asia, although there is growing evidence that related henipaviruses infect diverse bat species throughout the world. HeV has caused outbreaks of disease in horses, with horse-to-human transmission in seven cases resulting in four human fatalities. NiV has caused an outbreak of widespread disease in pigs and people in Malaysia and Singapore, and human infections in India and Bangladesh; in the latter countries, zoonotic transmission occurs with nearly annual frequency and human-to-human transmission has been observed.

A recent outbreak of disease in horses and people in the Philippines, attributed to henipavirus infection, highlights the ongoing threat to human and livestock health posed by this group of viruses. In this chapter, we discuss the distribution of henipaviruses in bat species in the context of documented human and animal disease outbreaks, as well as the continuing threat of zoonotic spillover. The recent release of an equine HeV vaccine represented a momentous advance in henipavirus infection control, and a promising post-exposure monoclonal antibody has also been developed. Despite these developments, challenges to the control of zoonotic henipavirus transmission, case management of people with persistent central nervous system infection and mitigation of disease outbreaks in resource-poor settings remain, as does the largely undefined threat of the emergence of related, novel viruses from bats.

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Medium 9978193883527

Chapter 6: Transforming Nursing Education With Partnership

Riane Eisler and Teddie M. Potter Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Classroom teachers must step out from behind the screen full of slides and engage students in clinic-like learning experiences that ask them to learn to use knowledge and practice thinking in changing situations, always for the good of the patient.”

–Benner, Sutphen, Leonard, and Day, 2010, p. 14

The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2010) acknowledges that nurses are positioned to be both leaders of change and advocates for advancing health. Three factors suggest that we are today in a unique position to do this:

• Nursing has over 19 million members worldwide, outnumbering physicians two to one, thereby being the largest health care profession worldwide (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011).

• By definition, the nursing profession is focused on both prevention and quality care, and nurses have steadily advocated for safe environments and effective health care policy (International Council of Nurses [ICN], 2010).

• In the United States, for the 11th year in a row, nurses have topped the list when the Gallup poll asked citizens to rate the honesty and ethical standards of people in different fields (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012).

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Medium 9781780644479

5: Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

5 

Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Srinivas Janaswamy*

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota

State University, South Dakota, USA

Abstract

Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, there is a clear need for a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects, and in this regard food-grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Organized polysaccharide networks in particular and the available water pockets are effective in encapsulating and protecting the drug molecules as well as releasing them in a sustained manner.

Overall, human compatible carbohydrate polymers possessing stable architectures will indeed cause a paradigm shift in the design of effective drug delivery systems.

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Medium 9781786391858

14 Cats and Dogs International

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

14

Cats and Dogs

International

Darci Galati*

President/CEO of CANDi

*  Corresponding author: dgalati08@gmail.com

132

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Cats and Dogs International

The idea for CANDi – Cats and Dogs International – was born when my three young daughters and I were on a family vacation in Mexico in 2006. We were literally astounded by the staggering number of stray cats and dogs in the vicinity. There did not seem to be any animal welfare laws in place to protect them, let alone humane shelters or even veterinary care. Most of the animals were emaciated and in desperate need of medical attention. This had a profound effect on my children, who were distraught at the notion that they would soon be flying back home and leaving behind the cats and dogs they had fed and helped to fend for themselves. I knew I had to do something and I promised my daughters that I would make a difference. That was the impetus behind the creation of CANDi, a non-profit global organization with a mission to save the lives of stray animals at tourist destinations.

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Medium 9781780644554

15: CBRN Incidents

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

15 

CBRN Incidents

R.P. Chilcott1 and S.M. Wyke2

Head of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire,

Hatfield, UK

2

Principal Public Health Scientist, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and

Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, UK

1

Key Questions 

What is a CBRN incident?

What are the common causes?

What are the key response elements for dealing with casualties during a CBRN incident?

Are there specific considerations for fatality management?

15.1  Introduction

The threat from global terrorism has increased over the last decade. In particular, it has become apparent that certain organizations may wish to seek injury or death to unprotected civilians through the deliberate release of hazardous substances such as chemical warfare agents or toxic industrial chemicals. Indeed, such events have already occurred, most notably during the

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Medium 9781786392077

17 Lyme Disease: The Great Controversy

Halperin, J.J. CABI PDF

17 

Lyme Disease: The Great Controversy

John J. Halperin,1 Phillip Baker2 and Gary P. Wormser3

Overlook Medical Center, Summit, New Jersey and Sidney Kimmel Medical

College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 2American

Lyme Disease Foundation, Lyme, Connecticut, USA; 3New York Medical College,

Valhalla, New York, USA

1

17.1 Background

Once upon a time, a little understood spirochetal infection, known in some circles as ‘the French disease’ – but more commonly as syphilis – was felt to be responsible for everything from what we now know to be Alzheimer’s dementia to myocardial infarctions. In a curious parallel, another spirochetal neuroinfectious disease, regarded by some as first described in France in 1922, is now blamed for everything from dementia to psychiatric disease. The 1922 report, describing a patient who developed a large skin rash, meningitis and painful radiculoneuritis following a tick bite, clearly had features similar to neurologic Lyme disease, although there were several highly atypical features, including a predominance of granulocytes in cerebrospinal fluid

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Medium 9781780642949

8: Blood and Blood Pattern Analysis

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

8 

Blood and Blood Pattern Analysis

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

8.1   Introduction – Analysis versus Observation�

8.2  Definition�

8.3  Blood�

8.4   Analysis versus Interpretation�

8.5   Presumptive Screening of Blood�

8.6   What Is Blood?�

8.7   Blood Spatter – Overview�

8.8   Record: Mnemonic – CAPSS�

8.9   Forces Acting in Blood�

8.9.1 Cohesion�

8.9.2  Surface tension�

8.9.3 Viscosity�

8.9.4 Adhesion�

8.10  Forces Acting on Blood�

8.10.1 �Biological forces acting in blood serum�

8.11  Photography and Analysis�

8.11.1  Close-up of bloodstains�

8.12  Blood Patterns�

8.12.1  Categories of bloodstains�

8.12.2  Directionality of bloodstains�

8.12.3  Point of convergence�

8.12.4 �Number of bloodstains required to make an observation?�

8.13 Bruises�

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Medium 9781780646824

20: Conclusions

Webber, R. CABI PDF

Conclusions

20

It has been a long passage from single-celled organisms, the incorporation of virus-like material and the fortuitous capture and disarming of a pathogenic bacteria to produce eukaryotic cells, to the multicelled beings that we now are. We could have been all of the same sex but the drive to outwit disease and produce variety so that individuals were better able to survive has made us male and female. Think of what we would have missed, none of those dreams of a fantasy world as teenagers, falling in love and all the romanticism that went with it, sex and the great pleasures it brings, the joy of procreation and parenthood, and a continual companionship throughout life with those of the opposite sex. None of this would have happened if it had not been for the pressure of disease on evolution. Were diseases such a bad thing?

Strangely, as well as capturing bacteria to fuel all of our cells we have also allowed retroviruses to be part of our genome to assist in our rapid development. With their greater capacity to produce mutations this has speeded up our progress. We are, therefore, not only part bacteria but also part virus as well. We have used disease-producing organisms, or they have used us, to help and develop our species into what it is.

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Medium 9781780642994

7 The Underestimated Impact of Food-based Interventions

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

7

The Underestimated Impact of Food-based Interventions

Ian Darnton-Hill*

Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and

University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Summary

With the exception of iodine in certain ecological settings, micronutrients are found abundantly in plant and animal foods. Nevertheless, the diets of families in low-income environments are frequently of poor micronutrient quality. Foods rich in vitamins and minerals and other health-protecting dietary components are usually both more expensive and less accessible, aggravated by a bioavailability that is often low. Sufficiently diversified diets are adequate for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in very young children and in pregnancy, but can be a challenge for correcting some deficiencies, especially in the face of repeated infectious disease or prematurity. Food-based approaches to address micronutrient deficiencies have long experience and documented success, but have often been inadequately evaluated and thus have failed to gain scientific acceptance and adequate funding. They have acquired more urgency for adoption and proper evaluation in recent years due to environmental considerations, increasing disparities, the global financial crises and severe rises in food prices. Programmes such as home gardening in Bangladesh, now scaled up to over 800,000 households, and expanded into African and other Asian countries, have demonstrated successful impact on micronutrient deficiencies, and biofortification is looking promising. However, measuring the effectiveness of food-based programmes should use indicators of outcomes that go beyond biological levels of micronutrients to clinical outcomes (e.g. reduction in night blindness) and social outcomes, and to longer term more indirect benefits, such as likely increased women’s empowerment and strengthening of local capacity and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), all of which have been documented. Any evaluation of interventions and their cost-effectiveness needs to attempt to capture these outcomes.

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Medium 9781786394583

Efficacy of a Therapeutic Diet on Dogs with Signs of Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Efficacy of a Therapeutic Diet on

Dogs with Signs of Cognitive

Dysfunction Syndrome

Gary Landsberg1*, Yuanlong (Gary) Pan2, Isabelle

Mougeot1, Stephanie Kelly3, Hui Xu2, Sandeep

Bhatnagar2 and Norton W. Milgram1

CanCog Technologies, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Nestlé Purina Research,

St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3Vivocore Incorporated, Fergus, Ontario, Canada

1

Funding: This project was funded as contract research by Nestlé Purina Research to

CanCog Technologies.

Conflict of interest: Yuanlong Pan, Hui Xu and Sandeep Bhatnagar are employees of

Nestlé Purina Research.

Keywords: antioxidants, arginine, cognitive dysfunction syndrome, medium chain triglycerides, brain nutrient blend

Introduction

Previous studies have shown that diets supplemented with medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT) or brain protection blend nutrient blend (BPB)1 enhance learning, memory and problem-solving ability in senior pets (Pan et al. 2010, 2013). The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with MCT and BPB on pet dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).

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Medium 9781937554873

4 Men in Nursing: Historical Career Perspectives

Christopher Lance Coleman Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Steven A. Marks, MS, RN
Jeffrey L. Bevan, MSN, RN, FNP-BC, CEN

Even though more men are choosing nursing as a profession, many areas of nursing still remain difficult for males to enter. Historically, nursing has been a female-dominated field. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010), men represent 8.9% of the U.S. nursing workforce (see Figure 4.1). However, men currently account for 11.4% of students in baccalaureate programs, 9.9% of students in graduate programs, 6.8% of students in research doctorate programs, and 9.4% of practice doctorate programs (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2012). See Figure 4.2. So, progress has been made recently with regard to men making inroads into the nursing demographic, but barriers and stigmas still exist, both in the nursing profession itself and in U.S. society. As this chapter discusses, embracing men in nursing through a culture of inclusion has had mixed results. This chapter explores the following:

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Medium 9781591202042

CHAPTER 6 - Atypical Hypothyroidism: Peripheral Defects

James K. Rone Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

I

n this chapter, we will continue down the list of ways the thyroid train might jump the rails, which we began in Chapter 5. We have covered the top (central) part of the systemthe brain and the pituitary gland. Now, well hit points south.

POINT 3MAKING AND SECRETING T4 AND T3

We will skip this point since most of the book deals with it. Defects here, by the way, are not atypical. They comprise all cases of typical primary hypothyroidism.

POINT 4TRANSPORT PROTEINS

I am aware of no one suffering a clinically relevant problem due to a breakdown of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) or other proteins that carry thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. There are genetic disorders of thyroid hormone transport, none of which is thought to alter the overall function of the system. One reference states: It is clear that no one of the proteins is required for good health. The basis for these conclusions is the observation that free thyroxine (FT4) levels dont change when transport protein function is abnormal. In other words, the validity of the mainstream position requires us to assume that serum FT4 levels accurately reflect tissue thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) status. That is, assume the truth of the free hormone hypothesis, which argues that only thyroid hormone free in the serum, not thyroid hormone stuck to proteins, can exert effects on the body.

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