657 Chapters
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Medium 9781780647463

16: Capturing Trapped Birds

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

16

Capturing Trapped Birds

Learning Objectives

action, allow some time (up to 24 h, if possible) for the bird to free itself. Some helpful tips include:

1. Problems to expect after birds have been trapped in a chimney.

2. Tricks to capture warehouse birds.

• Opening all doors/windows and turning out lights.

• Turning off any ceiling fans.

• Trying to create an environment that is quiet and free of activity for at least a few hours.

Birds trapped in chimneys

Owls may be trapped in chimneys during the nesting season when they are looking for a cavity to nest in. A bird may fall into the actual fireplace but it is more common for it to be trapped above the flue. If the bird is located above the flue, the flue door may have to be removed in order to extract the bird. Wear goggles to protect your eyes from falling soot and debris. Use of a long flexible pole with a loop on the end can assist in snagging the bird and gently pulling it down.

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Medium 9781786393845

Section 2 The Social Implications of Improved Animal Welfare

Pinillos, R.G. CABI PDF

Section 2

The Social Implications of Improved

Animal Welfare

© CAB International 2018. One Welfare: A Framework to Improve Animal Welfare and

Human Welfare (R. García Pinillos)�

23

24

Section 2

Section 2 of the One Welfare framework covers the connection between poor states of human and animal welfare. It examines cases involving animal welfare, socio-economic indicators and offences in different social contexts, including those taking place within underprivileged communities.

Improvements in animal welfare can support interventions tackling social issues (such as homelessness, hoarding, dog fighting and separation anxiety). Integrating animal welfare as part of general livelihood improvement programmes, including disaster and war responses, is seen as key to success.

We all live in a social configuration in which we have a shared life between humans and other animals. Animal and human welfare are interlinked in socio-economic issues, and poor animal welfare can generally be used as an indicator of much wider human well-being. We interact with animals in different ways within rural, urban or working environments.

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Medium 9780253006455

22 The Quest for a Unified Theory of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

I have attempted to explore the history of sex determination. As a biologist, my outlook is comparative, because the human story was largely built from findings about other mammals, insects, plants, and even viruses. Although there are a scattered few species that have resisted the most common mode of exchanging genetic information, the term “sexuality” applies across all of life (Table 22.1). We think of that common mode when we use the term sex determination. It implies a two-sex system, although, as we saw in paramecia, there can be several more than two mating types. There are also non-sexual (or more accurately, female-only) species of rotifers, such as Philodina roseola, that use horizontal transfer of DNA to supply an influx of new genes, either by ingesting other rotifers or from other things that they eat.1 When we apply sexuality to humans, the nuances increase because we invoke cognate terms like “gender” which is not applied to bacteria, or even fruit flies. We can speak of “feminism” as a human academic study, but the term has no meaning when applied to most of the animal and plant kingdoms. Among many animals, there are atypical hermaphrodites or intersexes, some arising as accidents of cell division, like “gynandromorphic” fruit flies. We do not use that biological term for chromosomal chimeras that are XX/XY, or for mosaics, like XY/X, in humans. The older literature calls them hermaphrodites or “true hermaphrodites,” defining such individuals as having both testicular and ovarian tissue. We do not apply the term “freemartin” to our offspring. That is an intersex associated with twinning in cattle. Instead we use the term “female pseudohermaphrodites” (XX or ovarian DSD) to describe the androgen-stressed embryo in its first and second trimester of development.

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Medium 9781780644394

17 Principles of Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Optimization for Antibiotic Dosing

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

17

Principles of Pharmacokinetic/

Pharmacodynamic Optimization for Antibiotic Dosing

Islam M. Ghazi, Joseph L. Kuti, and David P. Nicolau*

Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital,

Hartford, Connecticut, US

Introduction

The use of antimicrobial therapy presents infectious diseases clinicians with an increasing number of challenges. In particular, the rapid development of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is overwhelming the spectra of available antibiotics, and new agents are needed. Despite this paucity of antibiotics, regulatory, financial and technical issues have hindered the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Dose optimization through the application of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) principles is a pivotal strategy for maintaining the efficacy and utility of the current antibiotic armamentarium. In this chapter, we review PK/PD concepts and provide examples of how these concepts can be used to modify and optimize antimicrobial drug regimens in the clinical setting.

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Medium 9781780644554

2: The Planning Process

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

2 

The Planning Process

C. Sellwood1 and A. Wapling2

National Lead Pandemic Influenza, NHS England, London, UK; and Honorary

Associate Professor, Health Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and

Response, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

2

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response, NHS

England (South), UK

1

Key Questions 

• What is the process that should be adopted to undertake effective emergency preparedness?

• What are the stages that can be followed within this process?

• How often should the process be revisited?

2.1  Introduction

One of the greatest benefits of the emergency planning process is not

­necessarily the plan that is delivered at the end, but the actual process of

­developing the plan. Additionally, this often helpfully identifies who to speak to, how to communicate with them and, perversely, what NOT to do, all of which are essential aspects of responding promptly, appropriately and safely to a major incident. This chapter, which is based on a wider discussion on emergency preparedness and business continuity in Pandemic Influenza,

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Medium 9781780648583

PART VII: TRANSFORMATION

Butler, C.D. CABI PDF

29 

Health Activism and the Challenge of Climate Change

Colin D. Butler1 and Sue Wareham2

Faculty of Health, The University of Canberra, Australia,

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health,

The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and

Benevolent Organisation for Development, Health & Insight

(BODHI); 2Medical Association for Prevention of War (Australia)

1

The improvement of medicine will eventually prolong human life, but the improvement of social conditions can achieve this result more rapidly and more successfully.

(Rudolf Virchow, 1879)

29.1 Introduction

The direct relationship between patient and doctor or other health-care professional has traditionally been the essence of clinical prac­ tice. It is what most health-care practitioners train to do and how they spend most of their working lives. However, it is a role that is increas­ ingly recognized as having limits, for it can often be one of patching up or simply reacting to the damage wrought by a host of factors that affect human health, be they social, economic or environmental. Recently, health activism has been introduced as a subject in some health courses. Many important advances in human health and welfare have occurred through bet­ ter understanding of and education about the links between our health and external factors.

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Medium 9780253355270

8 Shifting Existences, or Being and Not-Being

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

The struggle of therapeutic practitioners—both biomedical and traditional—to articulate objects of knowledge that will travel between the hospital and the healer’s home has, to this point, drawn our attention to moments of interference and encounter. Translation, however, requires some combination of political will, social desire, technological need, and ethical demand. What of times when there is no will to translate? Or when there is an active refusal to entertain the possibility of translation? This chapter is about maladies and objects of therapeutic care that remain inaccessible to biomedical practitioners and unintelligible to scientific medicine. It is about the spaces where there is absence, denial, and silence, at least from the perspective of medical science. To the healer, the unseemly growths, dirty breast milk, and oversized heads discussed below are telling clues about which actors are catalyzing the maladies in question, but to the doctor, these symptoms are insignificant and lifeless. For Binti Dadi each of these symptoms provides a glimpse into the unfolding of a person, body, devil, ancestor, and world. In the Newala District Hospital, however, they are neither cause nor symptom but rather non-events, even impossibilities. While at times healers resist the absences and silences forged by biomedicine, at other times they protect them, claiming them as their own, even reveling in them. For the spaces where scientific translation falters turn out to be exactly where the matters of maladies refuse to be subdued or domesticated.

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Medium 9781780643960

13: Tuberculosis in Companion Animal Species

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

13 

1

Tuberculosis in Companion

Animal Species

Danièlle A. Gunn-Moore1* and Stephanie Lalor2

University of Edinburgh, Roslin, UK; 2Willows Veterinary Centre and Referral Service, Solihull, UK

Introduction

Mycobacteria of importance to companion animals, that is, cats and dogs, include (i) obligate pathogens that can cause tuberculosis;

(ii) mycobacteria that are difficult to grow so their environmental niche is difficult to determine, which can cause feline leprosy syndrome

(FLS) and canine leproid granuloma syndrome

(CLGS); and (iii) facultatively pathogenic opportunistic saprophytes, which can cause non-­ tuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM). Regardless of which mycobacteria are involved, most cats present with cutaneous disease which can some­ times progress to pulmonary or systemic disease; only occasional cases present with primary systemic disease. In comparison, most canine cases have disseminated disease at the time of diagnosis.

There are few data on the prevalence of feline and canine tuberculosis around the world. Mycobacterial infections are seen in companion animals more frequently in some countries than others; for example, Australia and parts of Africa and America (North and

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Medium 9780253355270

3 Making Tanzanian Traditional Medicine

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

In 1968, a research officer in the Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Development attended the first Symposium on African Medicinal Plants, which was held in Senegal. Upon his return, he claimed for scientists the role of transforming “the old or indigenous ways of curing diseases” into “new” forms of modern treatment (see first epigraph to Part 1). His argument for transforming “primitive medicaments” through scientific investigation reflected the broader recommendations crafted during this gathering of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) member states (Kasembe 1968). The symposium marked a shift in emphasis from the colonial prohibition against some healing practices to the funding, research, and legalization of traditional medicine in postcolonial Africa.

The ontological implications of the colonial separation of belief and knowledge, spirit and substance, and harming and healing have structured the postcolonial search for the scientific truth of traditional medicine. The newly independent Tanzanian government focused its attention on the commodification of plant, animal, and mineral products that might enable Africa to better position itself in a variety of global relationships. The idea that science might convert plant, animal, and mineral products into desperately needed pharmaceuticals found purchase in the highest levels of the first post-independence administration, led by Julius Nyerere. Stocking the new network of clinics and dispensaries that comprised the fledgling national health care service with pharmaceutical drugs ate up a significant proportion of the nation’s hard currency reserves. Tanzanian leaders hoped that scientific research into medicinal plants would offer a solution to the economic challenges cash-strapped African countries faced. By recasting plant material as a resource for an indigenous pharmaceutical industry, traditional medicine held out the promise of greater economic independence.

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Medium 9781786391858

16 Animal Welfare and Tourism: The Threat to Endangered Species

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

16

Animal Welfare and Tourism:

The Threat to Endangered

Species

John M. Sellar*

Retired, formerly of CITES, Switzerland

*  Corresponding author: john.m.sellar@globalinitiative.net

138

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Animal Welfare and Tourism: The Threat to Endangered Species

Introduction

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was established in 1973 and, for over four decades, has sought to ensure that trade in the animals and plants listed in its Appendices is legal and sustainable (see CITES, n.d.a). This piece of international law only addresses aspects of welfare in relation to the transportation of live animals across borders and at no other time.

Its existence does, however, provide a legal basis for national authorities in one part of the world to investigate the circumstances following the discovery of, for example, non-indigenous specimens in their territory. Regrettably, the need to do so has been demonstrated on several occasions in recent years.

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Medium 9781786392459

15 Animal Experience of Domestication

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

15

Animal Experience of Domestication

Xavier Boivin

15.1 Introduction

The present period is fascinating for those who are interested in the human–animal relationships.

Ethical debate is taking place in many organizations and governments about the many uses/abuses of animals; whether they produce food, clothes, or are used for work, company, or leisure. In recent years, animals have been legally defined as sentient beings in many national and transnational regulations. What does this change from a domestication perspective? Many of these animals in close contact with humans have come from a very long process of domestication where these ethical questions were very often disregarded. Through generations, domesticated species have been impacted by the various socio-historical contexts in which they live.

As examples, most of the present breeds of dogs, horses, and cattle were created in the second half of the 19th century, alongside the development of modern conceptions in animal husbandry and controlled breeding practices. As with the production of other goods, animals were considered biological

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Medium 9780253006455

7 The Discovery of Sperm in Higher Eukaryotes

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Semen has long been recognized as necessary for producing offspring. It is liquid, somewhat viscous, and usually clear or slightly cloudy in appearance; certainly the unaided eye can see no visible body within it. The Greeks, especially through Hippocrates and later Galen, embraced a theory of vital fluids, which they called humors. Blood was considered the major constituent of life, at least among vertebrates. It was considered the progenitor of semen in the male body, and believed to be the hereditary material that allowed a species to generate offspring in its likeness.

Semen was endowed with a capacity to impose form on the pliable material supplied by females. That material was also thought to be blood: sometimes it was associated with menstrual blood, and sometimes it was thought to be another type of semen. Female semen was not clarified, like male semen, but still bloodlike and clotted—a type of miniscule clay ready to be molded into shape by the empowering effect of male semen. For more than two thousand years, arguments were made about the relative roles that males and females play in forming a new individual through their fluids, which were commingled after copulation. There were inside–outside theories in which the male supplied the outer components of the new baby. There were theories in which the female role was passive, being shaped exclusively by the male, forcing some observable phenomena, such as the equal contributions made to the skin color of the offspring of a black person and a white person, to be swept under a mental rug.

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Medium 9781780644394

7 Colonization and Its Importance for the Emergence of Clinical Resistance

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

7

Colonization and Its Importance for the Emergence of Clinical

Resistance

Curtis J. Donskey*

Case Western Reserve University and Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs

Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, US

Introduction

Selective pressure exerted by antimicrobials plays a central role in the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Systemic antimicrobials exert selective pressure not only on infecting microorganisms, but also on the normal microbiota of the host (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, upper respiratory tract, and skin). Although a minority of those acquiring colonization with resistant pathogens develop infection, colonized individuals serve as a major reservoir for transmission. The intestinal tract is a particularly important source for the dissemination of resistant pathogens, including Enterococcus spp., Gram-negative bacilli,

Clostridium difficile, Candida spp., and Staphylococcus aureus (Vollaard and Clasener, 1994; Cole et  al.,

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Medium 9781786392459

26 Animal Welfare Protection in the Face of Shrinking Public Resource

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

26

Animal Welfare Protection in the

Face of Shrinking Public Resource

Sophia Hepple

26.1 Introduction

This chapter considers how animals can (and historically have been) protected with limited or even no public resource, and indeed with limited or no animal protection laws. Many governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) actively contributed significant resources during the 20th century to research in animal welfare science and in protecting animal welfare through both education and enforcement. These contributions have been fundamental in developing and driving forward minimum welfare standards through all stages of an animal’s life, not only at a regional or country level but also on a global scale. These same governments and NGOs are now facing cuts in available funds and resources to protect animal welfare during the 21st century. Governments are increasingly focused on risk-based inspections to manage the worst offenders while charitable organizations involved in animal protection have to think more

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Medium 9781780646824

7: The Slave Trade in Parasites

Webber, R. CABI PDF

The Slave Trade in Parasites

7

Hookworm Disease

Between 1910 and 1914, the Rockefeller Foundation undertook a massive campaign to rid the southern states of the USA from hookworm disease.

There was a reasonably effective treatment and by giving it to as much of the population as possible it was hoped to free the country from this debilitating disease.

The hookworm lives in the intestines where the adult worm invaginates a piece of mucosa from which it extracts blood and nutrients. Eggs are passed in the faeces and they hatch into larvae in the soil after 8–10 days to produce the infective form, which is able to pierce the skin of the foot in the generally unshod individual (Fig. 7.1). Once the larva has managed to penetrate the skin, it migrates to a blood or lymphatic vessel, where it is carried to the lungs, and breaking out through the alveolar wall, it passes up through the trachea and down the oesophagus, back into the intestines.

Despite this extensive journey through the body, the hookworm causes no serious damage and it is only within the gut, where it develops into an adult, that it causes any pathological changes. A few worms are no problem, indeed might even confer benefit (see Chapter 14), but a heavy load can lead to anaemia, and in the young child be the determinant of survival into adult life. Some 60–120 worms will produce slight anaemia, whereas over

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