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Medium 9781786390394

1 Discovery, Classification and Functional Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides

Wang, G. CABI PDF

1 

Discovery, Classification and Functional

Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides

Guangshun Wang*

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine,

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495, USA

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides and proteins

(AMPs), first discovered in 1922, have attracted much research attention since the

1980s. These innate immune molecules are universal and over 2700 have been discovered in all life forms, ranging from bacteria to humans. AMPs can have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activities. The term ‘host defence peptide’ emphasizes immune modulatory functions such as chemotactic, apoptotic and wound healing properties. With further expansion in the known AMP functions beyond host defence, a natural and general term, ‘innate immune peptides’, may be used to cover antimicrobial, immune modulation and other functional roles of these molecules.

Efforts have also been made in unifying nomenclature and classification of AMPs.

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Medium 9781591202271

7. Prescriptions for Psychological Health: Antidepressants

M.D., Hyla Cass Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

We’re all prone to mood shifts, and it’s only natural to feel blue from time to time. Occasional bouts of sadness may even help us appreciate the good times. In any case, most of us will bounce back within a short time—hours, days, or even a week or two. Others may respond more seriously—withdraw from friends and family, find themselves unable to sleep, and head on a downward spiral toward a severe clinical depression. This affects one in five people at some time in their lives. The symptoms of depression are varied (for a listing, see the inset on page 114), and may occur one at a time or in combination, and generally come upon you gradually. They can be also brought on by a crisis.

As a psychiatrist, I’d like to explain depression and its treatment, both areas badly misunderstood by many patients and their families. At times, even doctors don’t have a clear grasp of what depression is and how it is best treated.

Most of us are able to take adversity in stride, yet clearly some people are more resilient than others, depending on genetics, personal history, and lifestyle.

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Medium 9781930538757

2 EBP, QI, and Research: Strange Bedfellows or Kindred Spirits?

Christine Hedges Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“If the nature of the work is properly appreciated and applied, it will stand in the same relation to the higher faculties as food is to the physical body.”

–J. C. Kumarappa

Ellen Fineout-Overholt

WHAT YOU’LL LEARN IN THIS CHAPTER

• EBP, QI, and research have different purposes.

• EBP, QI, and research have different processes.

• Worldviews influence clinical decision-making.

• EBP, QI, and research can assist clinicians in achieving best practice.

Another name for kindred spirit could be soul mate. There is an integration or interwoven aspect to this kind of relationship that transcends any differences. In Lucy Maude Montgomery’s book Anne of Green Gables (1908), the main character, Anne, is an orphan whose primary desire is to be loved. She craves a true kindred spirit with whom she can share her perceptions, experiences, adventures and failures…knowing that her kindred spirit friend will share all of these with authenticity.

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Medium 9781780643328

8 Community-based Interventions for Preventing Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in Low-and Middle-income Countries

Aikins, A.de-C. CABI PDF

8

Community-based

Interventions for Preventing

Chronic Non-communicable diseases in Low- and Middleincome Countries

JULIET ADDO1* AND STEVEN VAN DE VIJVER2

1London

School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2African

Population and Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

8.1 Introduction

Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a significant cause of premature morbidity and mortality globally. They have a huge impact on low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), where they often strike at younger ages and with more severe consequences. Current evidence points to a growing burden of NCDs in

LMICs with serious implications for economic development and growth [1]. The increasing burden of NCDs often disproportionately affects poorer populations, thereby widening health inequalities between and within populations. The principal NCDs contributing to the greatest burden of mortality globally are cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. These conditions generally share modifiable and preventable lifestyle-related risk factors including unhealthy nutrition over a prolonged period, tobacco use, physical inactivity and excessive use of alcohol [2]. Effective strategies to prevent NCDs need to address these risk factors and the adverse social and physical environments in which they thrive. Such public health strategies can either target entire populations or high-risk individuals in the population, or a combination of both.

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Medium 9781780647463

10: Orthopedics

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF

10

Orthopedics

Learning Objectives

1. Proper triage: what can be repaired and what cannot?

2. Placing IM pins with and without an ESF tie-in.

3. The importance of post-op care.

4. Repair of humerus fractures.

5. Repair of ulna/radius fractures.

6. Repair of tibiotarsus fractures.

When treating avian fractures, we are often dealing with relatively acute cases in otherwise healthy birds that have simply had an unfortunate accident. Because of this, the prognosis can be quite good and recovery can be dramatic.

Unfortunately, fresh injuries are not always present on admission and sometimes you have to deal with a very thin or emaciated bird with an old, poorly healed fracture. This is particularly true with vultures that seem quite able to survive for weeks or months with a fracture or other injury.

Triage and Stabilization

Always provide analgesia and sedation prior to your examination and workup. An initial examination, including palpation of all long bones, examination of the head and eyes, as well as a VD radiograph, should take less than 10 min if you are properly prepared:

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Medium 9781780644554

2: The Planning Process

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

2 

The Planning Process

C. Sellwood1 and A. Wapling2

National Lead Pandemic Influenza, NHS England, London, UK; and Honorary

Associate Professor, Health Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and

Response, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

2

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response, NHS

England (South), UK

1

Key Questions 

• What is the process that should be adopted to undertake effective emergency preparedness?

• What are the stages that can be followed within this process?

• How often should the process be revisited?

2.1  Introduction

One of the greatest benefits of the emergency planning process is not

­necessarily the plan that is delivered at the end, but the actual process of

­developing the plan. Additionally, this often helpfully identifies who to speak to, how to communicate with them and, perversely, what NOT to do, all of which are essential aspects of responding promptly, appropriately and safely to a major incident. This chapter, which is based on a wider discussion on emergency preparedness and business continuity in Pandemic Influenza,

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Medium 9781937554996

2 Redefining Who We Are

Lucia Thornton Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

We are all elements of spirit, indestructible and eternal, and multiplexed in the divine.”

–William A. Tiller, PhD, Professor Emeritus Stanford University

Defining who we are is the first step in establishing a model of care. The way we perceive ourselves as human beings guides our practice, our research, and ultimately our body of knowledge. The way we define ourselves is one of the deepest underlying assumptions in a culture. Assumptions at this level are often taken for granted and are not usually articulated. However, deeply rooted assumptions are what affect why things happen or fail to happen in a culture (Carroll & Quijada, 2004).

The biomedical model that guides health care practices today has its origin in the mechanistic and reductionist thinking of the 17th century. In this model, guided by the discoveries and theories of such notables as Descartes and Newton, people are perceived to be the amalgamation of molecules and atoms that interact in a predictable fashion based on laws of mathematics, chemistry, and physics (Curtis & Gaylord, 2004). What can be seen, dissected, examined, and quantified are the phenomena of interest in modern medicine. This approach is responsible for many of the wondrous advances in medicine and health care over the last century. The advents of antibiotics, vaccinations, anesthesia, DNA research, advanced imaging, surgical interventions, and organ transplants, to name a few, are the products of mechanistic and reductionist methodology. It is a way of thinking, practicing, and perceiving that is deeply embedded in the health care and scientific communities.

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Medium 9781607320982

CHAPTER SIX: APRAXIA

Christopher M. Filley University Press of Colorado ePub

Apraxia is an acquired disorder of skilled purposeful movement (Heilman and Rothi 2003; Greene 2005). As with aphasia and dysphasia, the term dyspraxia is sometimes used to denote less severe apraxia, but like aphasia, apraxia is far more commonly used for all degrees of severity. The theoretical importance of apraxia relates to the phenomenon of tool use, one of the key developments in human evolution that contributed to enhanced adaptation to the physical environment (Lewis 2006). In the clinical setting, apraxia can pose a significant impediment to patients with stroke and other brain lesions as they attempt to resume a normal life (Hanna-Pladdy, Heilman, and Foundas 2003). Diminished capacity to use tools such as pencils, forks, and toothbrushes in daily living may cause patients to experience a less favorable outcome in rehabilitation and potential lasting motor system disability. The term apraxia is often used as shorthand for ideomotor apraxia (see below), the most common and clinically important variety of the syndrome, but apraxia is best considered a generic designation for cognitive motor impairment. Thus apraxia represents a loss of motor skill qualitatively distinct from paresis much as aphasia is distinct from dysarthria. In clinical practice, an apraxic patient must be shown to have a disorder of skilled movement not caused by significant paresis, akinesia, ataxia, sensory loss, inattention, poor comprehension, or other cognitive impairment. Apraxia is commonly encountered with aphasia, but it is not simply an aspect of linguistic dysfunction; the concurrence of the two syndromes is more likely a result of the neuroanatomic proximity of the language and higher motor systems than a manifestation of a common underlying mechanism. Like aphasia, however, apraxia is typically caused by ischemic cerebrovascular disease. In essence, apraxia is a syndrome of higher motor dysfunction in the same way that agnosia (Chapter 7) represents higher sensory impairment.

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Medium 9780755250301

Chapter 4 Internal Operations

Yasmin Khan Bright Pen ePub
Medium 9781780644394

32 Role of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Pediatrics

LaPlante. K. CABI PDF

32

Role of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Pediatrics

Jennifer L. Goldman1* and Jason G. Newland2

1

University of Missouri-Kansas City and Children's Mercy Hospital,

Missouri, Kansas City, US; 2Washington University School of Medicine in

St. Louis and St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Missouri, US

Introduction

Antimicrobial stewardship has been an effective strategy to improve antibiotic prescribing in pediatrics. A significant reduction in antibiotic use has been observed in freestanding children’s hospitals with active antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and in outpatient settings where stewardship principles have been implemented (Andrews et al., 2012;

Gerber et al., 2013a; Hersh et al., 2015). This chapter will describe current knowledge regarding antimicrobial use in children, the negative consequences of excess antimicrobial prescribing, the factors unique to pediatric antimicrobial stewardship, and the successful stewardship strategies implemented in the inpatient and outpatient settings.

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Medium 9781855756328

CHAPTER ONE: The role of space and location in psychotherapy, play, and theatre

Jonathan Pedder Karnac Books ePub

The role of space and location in
psychotherapy, play, and theatre

“When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face …

(1 Corinthians 13:11, 12)

This paper explores common links between psychotherapy, play, and theatre, especially where they take place and what conditions are necessary to bring them to life, so that we can see through the glass less darkly. Trainee therapists beginning psychotherapy either individually or in a group ask, “Do we begin the session, or do we leave it to the patients and remain silent?; should we look at patients or avoid their gaze either in individual therapy or in a group when singled out for a communication at the beginning?” The question of technique here is, “What is the right level of tension needed to set psychotherapy going”.

Prominent among my various starting points was the work of Winnicott that developed out of his original paper, “transitional objects and transitional phenomena” (1953), leading to the series of studies assembled in his book Playing and Reality (Winnicott, 1971). A further starting point for me arose from reflecting on the increased skill needed by actors in the modern theatre when they are not sheltered or framed by the traditional proscenium arch, with its obvious parallel problem for the therapist when not sheltered by traditional medical frames of reference such as uniforms or institutions. This discussion of psychotherapy is initially tallied to what is variously known as dynamic, analytically orientated, interpretative, or insight-orientated psychotherapy. However, the concept of insight is fraught with difficulties, as pointed out by Aubrey Lewis (1934). Here, the older meaning he gives is relevant: “originally it meant internal sight, that is to say, seeing with the eyes of the mind, having inner vision and discernment”. Yet, how can we see into other people’s minds? As Hayman (1974) said, “Unlike the sciences—the humanities, history and many other disciplines—what we constantly discuss are things that we literally cannot see or visualize”. That is why some feel more comfortable with a presentation of repertory grids where an attempt is made to present a patient’s inner world in pictorial terms that we can all see and measure. As a surgical colleague once said, “Surgery is so satisfying because you can look and see if your diagnosis is right.”

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Medium 9781937554637

1 Introduction to Clinical Research Operations

R. Jennifer Cavalieri Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Perhaps you have opened this book because you have questions about clinical research—not theory or regulatory questions, but everyday questions about the details and intricate aspects of conducting research, such as “How do I know which regulations are the most important ones to start learning, and how can I find them?” or “How do I objectively assess whether a trial is feasible?” or “What are the risks for starting a new clinical trial, and how can I mitigate those risks?” or “How do I leverage the existing resources at my site and reach my study goals?” These are the right questions to be asking whether you are new to research or trying to optimize an existing research program. The biggest challenge facing investigators and their research staff can be figuring out how to “do” the study activities and how to “do” them as efficiently as possible.

Research professionals may discuss operational details in sidebar conversations or when orienting or teaching new employees, but published discussions of research operations are often limited to brief summaries of study methods. This book provides examples of the activities involved in clinical trial operations at an academic research site.

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Medium 9780253014856

6 Schistosomiasis

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

Farewell to the God of Plague

Mao Zedong

While reading the June 30th edition of the People’s Daily, I found that Yujiang County has rid itself of schistosoma. With my mind racing, I could not sleep. A light breeze brought its warmth, as the rising sun approached my window. Looking at the southern sky in the distance, I happily set my pen to paper.

I.

II.

Crystal-clear water

And emerald hills

Are many,

But of what use?

So many poplars and willows

Dangle in the spring wind.

The people of China

Number six hundred million,

Even Hua Tuo, the legend,

Was helpless

Before this little bug.

Each one as great as Shun or Yao.

Under our command,

Red rain flows like waves,

In thousands of villages

Bursting with weeds,

Men are dying.

Whirling in the wind.

With great effort, we can turn

Green mountains

Tens of thousands of homes

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Medium 9780253006455

21 What Does It Mean to Have an Assigned Sex?

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Long before birth certificates existed, babies were assigned their sex by examination of their external genitals: a penis and scrotum defined a male; a vagina and female pudenda defined a female. Children were then raised as infant boys or infant girls. They were assigned roles expected of their community. These varied. Some societies had both sexes involved in the same activities (e.g., butchering, farming, making tools) and some had one sex specialized in a division of labor. For almost all societies, until late in the twentieth century, raising infants was primarily and necessarily a female role, because women nursed babies. Things changed as the child got older. Fathers may have played significant roles teaching boys how to hunt if that was an assigned male role in that community. Some groups heeded the advice of older men and others heeded the advice of older women. Women in general were midwives delivering children until the eighteenth century in industrialized countries. Each society had a response to exceptions to the expected roles and sexuality assigned at birth. The larger the group was, the more these unusual events occurred, and the more society had to find explanations for them and ways to accommodate them. Those responses varied with religion and other traditions. It is characteristic of humans to generalize from a relatively small sample size.

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Medium 9781786394583

‘Long-stay Dogs’ in Shelters: Studying Factors Related to Adoptability of Difficult to Adopt Dogs in Catalonia

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�‘Long-stay Dogs’ in Shelters:

Studying Factors Related to

Adoptability of Difficult to Adopt

Dogs in Catalonia

Marta Calcerrada1*, Lorena Torre1, Paula Calvo1,

Jonathan Bowen1,2 and Jaume Fatjó1

Chair Affinity Foundation Animals and Health, Universitat Autònoma de

Barcelona,Spain; 2Royal Veterinary College, University of London, UK

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: long-stay, dogs, adoption, shelter, behaviour problems

Introduction

Animal shelters usually house ‘long-stay dogs’, whose characteristics make their adoption difficult. Their main profiles include: dangerous (under Spanish legislation), senior, chronic disease or with behavioural problems. Our aim was to explore the motivations of potential adopters when choosing these dogs.

Material and Methods

An online survey investigated general motivations for dog adoption and responsible ownership. Participants were recruited via email campaigns from three shelters in Catalonia. Kruskal–Wallis (KW), and Mann–Whitney U tests were performed to compare scoring for dog profiles and analyse factors related to motivations to adopting each.

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