869 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781786392985

2 Aims and Principles of Organic Poultry Production

Blair, R. CABI PDF

2

Aims and Principles of

Organic Poultry Production

According to the Codex Alimentarius Com­ mission and the Joint Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/

World Health Organization (WHO) Food

Standards Programme, organic agriculture is:

‘a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agroecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity . . . emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs as opposed to using synthetic materials. The primary goal is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people . . . the systems are based on specific and precise standards of production which aim at achieving optimal agroecosystems which are socially, ecologically and economically sustainable’

(Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999).

Thus organic poultry production dif­ fers from conventional production and in many ways is close to the agriculture of

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786390547

10 Cloning, Editing and GMOs for Animal Enhancement

Grandin, T.; Whiting, M. CABI PDF

10

Cloning, Editing and GMOs for Animal Enhancement

Elisabeth Ormandy*

Animals in Science Policy Institute,Vancouver, Canada

Introduction

The genetic manipulation of domesticated animals (i.e. farm animals, companion animals and animals used for research) has been practised for many decades through the practice of selective breeding (sometimes called classical breeding) – that is, breeding of animals who have desired traits or mutations so that those traits are passed on, and often become more pronounced, in subsequent generations (Snow, 2003). In recent years, genetic manipulation of animals has taken the more direct form of genetic engineering, gene editing and cloning, but what is it that makes genetic engineering different from selective breeding? Breeding typically consists of three main steps: (i) amassing or producing new genetic diversity; (ii) picking out and testing different genotypes of distinguished superior genetic lines; and (iii) the release, dispersal and commercialization of the new progeny (see Gepts, 2002 for a description of these stages in crop breeding).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786394583

Mirtazapine as a Potential Drug to Treat Social Fears in Dogs: Five Case Examples

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Mirtazapine as a Potential Drug to

Treat Social Fears in Dogs: Five

Case Examples

Juan Argüelles1*, Jesús Enriquez1, Jon Bowen2 and Jaume Fatjó3

Ethoclinic Valencia, Behaviour Medicine Reference Service, Valencia,

Spain; 2Queen Mother Hospital for Small Animals, The Royal Veterinary

College, Hatfield, UK; 3Departament of Psychiatry, School of Medicine,

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: mirtazapine, fear, dogs

Introduction

Dogs who are fearful of people often show a reduced motivation to take food in

­threatening scenarios and during behaviour modification sessions. Benzodiazepines interfere with learning (Crowell-Davis and Murray, 2006) and SSRIs can further decrease appetite (Fitzgerald and Bronstein, 2013), thus limiting reward-based training. Mirtazapine has anxiolytic and appetite stimulant properties (Davis and

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253006455

5 The Descriptive Embryology of Male and Female Development

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

The study of embryology was extremely limited until the 1860s, when several techniques came together. One was the development of achromatic lenses, which allowed scientists to observe cells or other small objects without the confusion of chromatic aberration and spherical aberration. Chromatic aberration involves the breaking up of white light into a rainbow of concentric colors around an object. Spherical aberration is even worse because there is no central focus and competing points of convergence lead to a blurred image. Joseph Jackson Lister (1786–1869), whose more famous son, Joseph Lister (1827–1912), introduced antiseptic surgery, provided the solution.1

Like his father, Lister was a wine merchant. They were Quakers and fairly pious. Lister worked after hours on his interest in natural history. When he took up microscopy, he found the interference with sharp images annoying and switched to making his own lenses. Lister found that dissolving lead and other salts into glass changed the density within these glasses, which yielded different focal lengths when he made lenses from them. He eventually worked out a combination of two layers of molten glass (crown glass and flint glass), one correcting the other for both chromatic and spherical aberration. The resulting achromatic lenses revolutionized both astronomy (allowing bigger telescopic lenses) and biology (allowing compound microscopes that would multiply an object up to 2000 times. He began his experiments on lenses in 1824 and found a suitable achromatic lens in 1826, which he refined until publishing his findings in 1830.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643328

12 The Global Response for Prevention and Control of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: Key Milestones and Outcomes

Aikins, A.de-C.; Agyemang, C. CABI PDF

12

The Global Response for

Prevention and Control of

Chronic Non-communicable

Diseases: Key Milestones and

Outcomes

SHANTHI MENDIS* AND OLEG CHESTNOV

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

12.1 Key Milestones in the Global Response for Prevention and

Control of Non-communicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) currently cause more deaths than all other causes combined. The human, social and economic consequences of NCDs are felt by all countries. As the leading cause of death globally, NCDs were responsible for

38 million (68%) of the world’s 56 million deaths in 2012 [1]. Four major NCDs

(cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes) were responsible for 82% of these NCD deaths. These four NCDs can largely be prevented or controlled by means of effective policies that address shared risk factors, namely tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol, and by cost-effective early detection and treatment interventions [2].

More than 40% of all NCD deaths globally in 2012 occurred before the age of

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642994

28 Gender Dimensions of Food and Nutrition Security: Women’s Roles in Ensuring the Success of Food-based Approaches

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

28

Gender Dimensions of Food and Nutrition Security: Women’s Roles in Ensuring the Success of Foodbased Approaches

Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW),*†

Economic and Social Development Department (ES)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Summary

This chapter argues for the importance of considering gender as a central variable in food-based approaches to food and nutrition security, given women’s key roles in household food preparation, allocation and distribution, timing, frequency and quantities, dietary choices, as well as in subsistence food production, which is the primary source of household access to food, especially among low-income populations with constrained access to market purchased food. The chapter discusses the importance of relying on the gender lens in designing food-based interventions for food and nutrition security because of the influence of gender in intergenerational and intra-generational nutritional outcomes. It illustrates the difference between food access and availability, and the greater vulnerability of women and children in extreme situations, such as seasonal food scarcity, food crises, climate change and complex emergencies. Concluding comments propose the integration of gender as crucial in food-based approaches to food and nutrition security, including two strengths of the Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division (ESW) of FAO in this regard – capacity development and enhancing the evidence base on women’s key roles in household food security.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786391858

13 Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

13

Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

Stephen Blakeway1* and Glen Olivier Cousquer2

1

Self-employed One Welfare Specialist, Devon, UK; 2Lecturer and Programme Coordinator in Conservation and One Health

Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK

*  Corresponding author: stephen.blakeway@outlook.com

126

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

Introduction

Tourists in the 21st century are diverse, multinational citizens of an increasingly interconnected world and are in a unique position to report injustice and to grow and spread humanity. Tourism can play and does play a significant role in tackling exploitation and safeguarding the welfare of non-human animals. Of the many animals who suffer exploitation in the name of tourism, mules and donkeys are attracting increasing attention.

Tourists may encounter donkeys and mules in a variety of situations. Both species are often found offering riding activities whether on beaches, in cities or in the countryside. Both species have earned a reputation as pack animals, ideally suited to mountainous terrain. They are also commonly found in sanctuaries where they serve as visitor attractions for tourists.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253014429

8 Gender and Reproductive Health in China: Partnership with Foundations and the United Nations

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Joan Kaufman, Mary Ann Burris, Eve W. Lee, and Susan Jolly

China’s sexual and reproductive health and rights story has a mixed history. On the one hand, huge improvements in basic health care since 1949, including access to and promotion of family planning and facility-based birth delivery and the legalization of abortion since the 1970s, have led to impressive reductions in maternal mortality and child survival (Fang and Kaufman 2008; Xing et al. 2011). On the other hand, the imposition of a strict birth control policy has led to major violations of reproductive rights and a highly distorted sex ratio at birth in favor of boys (Hvistendahl 2009). Activism by women’s groups and human rights advocates on reproductive rights is constrained by the uncompromising nature of the top-down population policy. A large youth population with rapidly changing sexual attitudes, identities, and behaviors (Zheng et al. 2010) has come of age in the last decade. These youth require information and services even while government services continue to focus on married couples and promote youth abstinence. An escalating AIDS epidemic (Ministry of Health, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and World Health Organization 2010) is challenged by the restrictions on civil society organizations that can best reach groups at risk and affected by the disease, and by continuing stigma.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786392459

1 Habitat Loss: Changing How Animals Think?

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

1

Habitat Loss: Changing

How Animals Think?

Paul C. Paquet and Shelley M. Alexander

1.1 Introduction

What if ecologists, conservationists, animal advocates, and decision makers conceived of habitat as an

‘experience’ comprising more than suitable patches of land and water where animals live, find food, shelter, protection, and mates for reproduction?

How might we view the effects of habitat loss and degradation if scientists and others considered that habitat for animals mirrors how we, as humans, experience our own environment: giving rise to language, emotion, feeling, morality, and culture?

We might then understand habitat to be the fabric of being, extending beyond the physical and numerical aspects that have traditionally limited the concept when applied to wild animals. Accordingly, we would recognize that the destruction of habitat means more as well; likely resulting in the impoverishment of community and individual well-being, and dramatically changing the way animals perceive and experience their environment. This ghettoization of experience in these otherwise vital ‘places’ is not unlike what homeless people who have been forced to live a marginal existence might suffer.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644479

10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253014856

Conclusions: The History of Medicine in Twentieth-Century China

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

AT THE START of this project, we knew we were attempting something unusual in scholarly terms, for at least three reasons. Firstly, we asked historians who were specialized in one half of the twentieth century—either before or after the foundation of the Peoples’ Republic of China in 1949—to consider their topics across the “long” twentieth century. We were interested to see the contours of continuity and change over the longer time frame in order to avoid the teleologies of any one political regime. Secondly, we asked scholars from different scholarly communities to collaborate, so that our synthetic project would make visible the importance of different national and cultural perspectives on the interpretation of medical history. Fortunately, the last few decades of relative open exchange between China and the West means that we were able to call on experts based in China, Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, Taiwan/Republic of China, Britain, Canada, Australia, and the United States. Lastly, we decided not to limit ourselves to the development of “modern” medicine in China, even though that was the original remit of the China Medical Board. The engagement of the state with Chinese medicine was most pronounced during the Maoist era (1949–1976), but the whole history of modern medicine in China has been framed by the contrast and competition with indigenous medicine. We felt that any survey of medicine in twentieth-century China needed to take this encounter into account.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253012241

1 The Trouble with Intersex: History Lessons

Ellen K. Feder Indiana University Press ePub

In a Short talk he delivered in 2000 at the American Association for the History of Medicine, pediatric endocrinologist Jorge Daaboul reflected on the revelatory character of history in his own practice. He recounts that he had begun to have serious doubts about the standard of care that made imperative the surgical normalization of atypical genitalia in children. Though this was the standard in which he had been trained—in the tradition of Lawson Wilkins, the founder of pediatric endocrinology, and John Money, the preeminent psychologist of sexual difference—he began to pose to his colleagues the questions he had come to ask himself, namely, whether the standard was genuinely in the best interests of their young patients. The uniform responses to his questions, he told his audience in 2000, yielded two arguments in defense of the standard. First, “intersexed individuals,” his colleagues told him, “could not possibly live normal lives as intersexed individuals and . . . the only chance they had for happiness and psychological well being was the establishment of a secure male or female gender identity. Second, there simply was no precedent for [such individuals] living as normal people in our society” (Daaboul 2000).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781845936839

12: Animal Health Surveillance

Sergeant, E.; Perkins, N. CABI PDF

12

Animal Health Surveillance

12.1  Introduction

Surveillance of animal health (and disease) is an important aspect of veterinary ­activity and also of information to assist in policy determination and decision making. Surveillance can take a wide variety of forms and produces many different outputs, all of which contribute to our knowledge and understanding of disease occurrence and distribution and factors affecting the health of livestock and other species.

At a fundamental level, surveillance information is critical for many of the decisions required to be made about disease control and prevention on a day-to-day basis.

For example, before embarking on a programme to control and perhaps eventually eradicate a disease, such as foot-and-mouth disease, from a country, it is essential to know things such as: how much of the disease is there; what impact is it having on animals and their owners and on the country as a whole; is the amount of disease increasing, decreasing or unchanging; where does it occur; are there areas where it does not occur or is less common, etc.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253010544

10 Lessons for the World

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

Five Discourses Emerged in our analysis of the interview transcripts: (1) being normal through work and men; (2) disclosure for better or worse; (3) taking care of children; (4) caring for violent men; and (5) women’s bodies. Sometimes these mirror the dominant discourse about HIV, sometimes they pose alternative discourses, and always they reveal the tensions and links between oppression and resistance.

Our discussions of these five topics shows the women we interviewed drawing upon common ways of talking about femininity and normalcy as a means to reconstruct themselves as humans in the face of dominant discourses, which present HIV-positive women as something less than human. All five topics share an overarching core feature of wrestling with the problem of stigma and using notions and practices of femininity to attempt to overcome stigma and appear as normal and acceptable. Within each discourse, however, we also found ambiguity, contradiction, and resistance. At the same time the women attempt to appear “normal,” they also question and sometimes even challenge these constructs of what it means to be real women.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780870818981

Part II. CARING SCIENCE AS CONTEXT

Jean Watson University Press of Colorado ePub

The original text begins with a discussion of nursing as the Philosophy and Science of Caring. I now ponder suggesting that today, almost thirty years later, it perhaps could equally be framed as Caring: The Philosophy and Science of Nursing. Discussions and ambiguity remain as to the nature of Caring Science and its relation to nursing science. Rhetorical questions arise, such as, are there distinct differences between the two? Do they overlap? Do they intersect? Are they one and the same? These questions perhaps remain, but the present work offers a distinct position. By transposing the order of Nursing and Caring, it invites a new discourse and context.

My position is this: Caring Science as a starting point for nursing as a field of study offers a distinct disciplinary foundation for the profession; it provides an ethical, moral, values-guided meta-narrative for its science and its human phenomena, its approach to caring-healing-person-nature-universe. It reintroduces spirit and sacred dimensions back into our work and life and world. It allows for a reunion between metaphysics and the material-physical world of modern science.

See All Chapters

Load more