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Medium 9780253372086

34. Examination of the Copula of Inclusion

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF



W r i t i n g s o f C . S. P e i rc e 1 8 9 0 – 1 8 9 2

X R (Y R Z ) ϭ Y R (X R Z ).

Form II gives no necessary formula.

General forms with three copulas






X R [Y R (Z R W )]

(X R Y ) R (Z R W )

[(X R Y ) R Z] R W

X R [(Y R Z ) R W]

[X R (Y R Z )] R W

Form I gives the necessary formulae

X R [Y R (Z R Z )]

X R [Y R (Z R Y )]

X R [Y R (Z R X )]

by (3Ј) by (3Ј)

mere cases under (2) and (3).

Form II gives the necessary formulae

(X R Y ) R (X R Y )

(X R Y ) R (Z R Z )

case of (1) case of (2)

Form III gives the necessary formulae


[(X R X ) R Y] R Y

Proof. Assume (X R X ) R Y is true. Then we are bound to admit Y is true. For by (1) X R X must be assumed true and thus by B, we have to admit that Y is true. So by A the formula holds.


[(X R Y ) R X] R X

Proof. For assume (X R Y ) R X. Then if we are forced to admit X is true, the formula holds by A. But by B if we assume X R Y we are bound to admit X is true. And if we assume X is not true by AЈ we are to take X R Y.

Form IV gives two necessary formulae, of which one,

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Medium 9780253015723

2 Allegory and Romance in Diaspora: Jacob ben Elazar’s Book of Tales

David A. Wacks Indiana University Press ePub

Thirteenth-century Sephardic author Jacob ben Elazar lived and worked in Toledo, a city so often described as multicultural or diverse that it has become a bit of a cliché. Ross Brann, for example, writes of a “singularly Iberian cultural pluralism.” Francisco Márquez Villanueva describes late thirteenth-century Toledo as a city that is “still Eastern” (todavía oriental).1 Our aim here is not to go into a full accounting of the cultural life of Ben Elazar’s hometown, nor to critique the various theories of convivencia that have leaned heavily on Toledo as a case study.2 Rather, I aim to read two of Ben Elazar’s Tales, written in the full flush of Toledo’s “multiculturality,” as a case study in diasporic literature. Seen from this angle, Ben Elazar’s work is not only a site of transition between Arabic and Christian literary practice, or an example of a literary convivencia, but also an example of the cultural work of the diasporic writer.

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Medium 9780253356864

28. Question

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

After a still winter night I awoke with the impression that some question had been put to me, which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer in my sleep, as what—how—when—where? But there was dawning Nature, in whom all creatures live, looking in at my broad windows with serene and satisfied face, and no question on her lips. I awoke to an answered question, to Nature and daylight. The snow lying deep on the earth dotted with young pines, and the very slope of the hill on which my house is placed, seem to say, Forward! Nature puts no question and answers none which we mortals ask. (189)

This lovely, mysterious passage, both as hushed and as brazen as a cold-bright winter day, suggests an alternative to the standard image of Thoreau the spiritual explorer who, after the Elysian Fields of Walden Pond, would watch his own imaginative powers steadily diminish. Sherman Paul, who most eloquently diagnoses this melancholy position, observes that “after Walden … his Journals became increasingly a repository of scientific facts.… Where once he had told how the summer felt to him, he now merely recorded the temperature.” For Paul, “the considerable barrenness of these Journals” attests to Thoreau’s inability to recapture the “extended ecstasy” of the woods, those “rare intervals” he had described in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, when “we rise above the necessity of virtue into an unchangeable morning light, in which we have only to live right on and breathe the ambrosial air” (Week, 369).

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17. Idleness

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

Walden offers itself as a practical book, but anyone hoping to find a set of immediately operable instructions will be confronted by its contradictory advice. On the one hand, the book’s first two chapters and its “Conclusion”—at once Thoreau’s most hectoring and inspiring—propose deliberation and effort as the means to a vivid, wide-awake life. In one of Walden’s most famous sentences, Thoreau declares, “I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by a conscious endeavor” (64). The key word endeavor will return near the end:

I learned this, at least, by my experiment; that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours. (217)

His repeated insistence that we “put the foundations” under our “castles in the air” (217) casts these parts of Walden in the active voice: we can work on our lives. “To affect the quality of the day,” he concludes, “that is the highest of arts” (65).

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Medium 9780253011992

3. Beyond Letters

Alice Nakhimovsky Indiana University Press ePub

While model letters are the heart and soul of brivnshtelers, almost all manuals include other information that might come in handy for their readers. It is standard for the letters sections to be preceded by lists and guides, such as alphabetical lists of men’s and women’s names, common Hebrew words or phrases in Yiddish, common abbreviations and their glosses, salutations in Hebrew with Yiddish glosses, days of the week and months in Hebrew, and alphabets in several languages (such as Yiddish, Russian, German). Usually relegated to the back of the book is information deemed useful for business, such as templates for contracts, IOUs, invoices, and even entire courses on bookkeeping. The text for tnoyim, traditional engagement contracts, is also a common feature.

More unusual, but not unheard of, is the inclusion of short verse (often with an edifying message, such as “Pure Truth,” the poem presented here) and jokes and fables. Then there are the anomalies, a few of which we have included in this chapter. These include Lion Dor’s imagined “correspondence” between older and newer editions of his own brivnshteler; Bloshteyn’s etiquette rules for young Jewish ladies; and Goldshteyn-Gershonovitsh’s laundry list.

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