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9. Drummer

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed, and in such desperate enterprises? If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps because it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. (219)

Thoreau has always managed to provoke distinguished writers to criticism. Exasperated by Thoreau’s preachy austerity, Hawthorne complained that “one feels ashamed to have any money, or a house to live in, or so much as two coats to wear.” A disappointed Emerson characterized the man assumed to be his best friend as difficult to like, reflexively contentious, and without ambition or literary talent. Three years after Thoreau’s death, James Russell Lowell emphasized his humorlessness and egoism and proposed that his books should have been shorter: “He registers the state of his personal thermometer thirteen times a day.” Henry James found the effect of Thoreau’s work diminished by “eccentricity” and observed that “it is only at his best that he is readable.” Robert Louis Stevenson called him a “prig” and a “skulker” and objected to his self-indulgent remoteness from even his friends: “A man who must separate himself from his neighbors’ habits in order to be happy, is in much the same case with one who requires to take opium for the same purpose.”

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1 A New Room

Craig Morgan Teicher Center for Literary Publishing ePub

Inaudible voice, silent voice,
voice in my head, voice of my head,

speaker of my thoughts, speaker
of thoughts I do not think but hear

in my thoughts when I am thinking,
voice of my brother, I have no brother,

tell me what I should do, tell me
I should not listen to you, if only

they could hear you, may they
never hear you, voice of my dead,

my child voice calling into the hallway
for comfort no one gets anymore,

though no one forgets, my dark
voice who lies with me every night

keeping me awake until you’ve
worried your words to sleep,

come here, sick voice, stern, pathetic
voice of my father, voice that tells

stories over and over, how does
hurting me protect me, sweet, worried

voice of my mother, voice that repeats
until words have no meaning, voice

that rehearses every word, cruel voice,
come here, only stories end, which are

words flocking to other words
like blood cells to wounds, come here.

There is no such thing as a happy
person. The hour has come

for generalizations, meaning
falsehoods winningly articulated.

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Medium 9780253003102

7 “Let the Rhythm Hit ’Em”: Hip-Hop, Prosody, and Meaning / Alessandro Porco

PAUL BUDRA Indiana University Press ePub


Hip-hop emerged in the South Bronx during the mid-1970s, the confluence of individual ingenuity (Grandmaster Flash developing his Quick Mix theory), diasporic flow from the Caribbean (DJ Kool Herc’s sound system, dance-hall toasting), African American vernacular traditions (signifyin’, the dozens, ballads), popular American music (funk, soul, rock, disco), a local party and club circuit (Audubon Theatre, Harlem World, T-Connection), and economic and educational policies that transformed urban spaces into post-industrial wastelands.1 Four elements constituted hip-hop culture: DJing, MCing, tagging, and break-dancing. Interactions between the four elements produced what Greg Dimitriadis describes as “multitiered event[s] . . . dependent on a whole series of artistic activities and competencies” (16). These events ranged from block parties – where, like in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, DJs siphoned power from streetlights into booming Jamaican sound systems, and this radical détournement of city energy enabled a sonic reclamation of public space as a positive, communal place for dance – to more intimate, antiphonal ciphers performed by MCs in local parks and, soon after, at shows in New York City venues, both uptown and downtown. Graffiti tags appeared across New York’s cityscape, most notably on subway trains, as commuting traces of disillusioned African American and Latino youth. B-boy dance crews participated in simulated battle, their popping and uprocking expanding and expending the martial body’s physis. With their sidekick MCs, pioneering hip-hop DJs, such as Kool Herc, Grand Wizzard Theodore, Grandmaster Flash, and Afrika Bambaataa, provided the soundtrack for the scene: “I’d throw on the Pink Panther theme for everybody . . . , and then I would play ‘Honky Tonk Woman’ by the Rolling Stones and just keep that beat going. I’d play something from metal rock records like Grand Funk Railroad. . . . I’d throw on ‘Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band’ – just that drum part” (Bambaataa qtd. in Perkins 9). The break-beats and wildstyle mixes of early DJ-centric hip-hop had a simple goal: make people dance.

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34. Examination of the Copula of Inclusion

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF



W r i t i n g s o f C . S. P e i rc e 1 8 9 0 – 1 8 9 2

X R (Y R Z ) ϭ Y R (X R Z ).

Form II gives no necessary formula.

General forms with three copulas






X R [Y R (Z R W )]

(X R Y ) R (Z R W )

[(X R Y ) R Z] R W

X R [(Y R Z ) R W]

[X R (Y R Z )] R W

Form I gives the necessary formulae

X R [Y R (Z R Z )]

X R [Y R (Z R Y )]

X R [Y R (Z R X )]

by (3Ј) by (3Ј)

mere cases under (2) and (3).

Form II gives the necessary formulae

(X R Y ) R (X R Y )

(X R Y ) R (Z R Z )

case of (1) case of (2)

Form III gives the necessary formulae


[(X R X ) R Y] R Y

Proof. Assume (X R X ) R Y is true. Then we are bound to admit Y is true. For by (1) X R X must be assumed true and thus by B, we have to admit that Y is true. So by A the formula holds.


[(X R Y ) R X] R X

Proof. For assume (X R Y ) R X. Then if we are forced to admit X is true, the formula holds by A. But by B if we assume X R Y we are bound to admit X is true. And if we assume X is not true by AЈ we are to take X R Y.

Form IV gives two necessary formulae, of which one,

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Kenneth Verity Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

THE DISRUPTION produced by World War I between the years 1914-18 might not, of itself, have brought an end to Romanticism, which had prevailed (in literature and the general conduct of life) since the closing years of the 18th century. But the post-war economic depression, coupled with a deepening spiritual dejection, brought a fundamental shift which unseated Romanticism. The seeds of change had been sown earlier.

At the end of the 1914-18 War, W.B. Yeats, profoundly moved by unrest in his own country (particularly the Easter Rebellion of 1916) and the rising militarism on the Continent, wrote a beautiful and prophetic poem, The Second Coming. The title is fatefully ironic, since it refers not to the promised return of the Saviour of the World but to an ominously inferred happening only hinted at in this prescient poem (the extract given seems strikingly relevant to the present era, following the fall of Communism):

Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
The best lack all conviction, while the worst
Are full of passionate intensity.

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