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2. Theory of Codes

Umberto Eco Indiana University Press ePub

When a code apportions the elements of a conveying system to the elements of a conveyed system, the former becomes the expression of the latter and the latter becomes the content of the former. A sign-function arises when an expression is correlated to a content, both the correlated elements being the functives of such a correlation.

We are now in a position to recognize the difference between a signal and a sign. A signal is a pertinent unit of a system that may be an expression system ordered to a content, but could also be a physical system without any semiotic purpose; as such it is studied by information theory in the stricter sense of the term. A signal can be a stimulus that does not mean anything but causes or elicits something; however, when used as the recognized antecedent of a foreseen consequent it may be viewed as a sign, inasmuch as it stands for its consequent (as far as the sender is concerned). On the other hand a sign is always an element of an expression plane conventionally correlated to one (or several) elements of a content plane.

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Indiana Connections

Edited and with an Introduction by Owen Indiana University Press ePub

Stop the Presses! Valiant Pyle makes it! 48th state is entered!

CISCO, Utah . . . . . . . .

Some states I have no more than a nodding acquaintance with. For instance, I merely went through Rhode Island on a train one night 10 years ago. In other states, I have spent weeks and months. I know Texas and Colorado and Virginia better than my own native Indiana.

A veteran flier finally uses a plane because he’s in a hurry, and
discovers that “coffee” is not always what it seems to be

INDIANAPOLIS, March—In case you’re contemplating a journey by air, I am prepared to offer, for the asking, a bit of eating-in-the-sky etiquet which might come in handy.

It all boils down to the simple advice: when dining aboard an air liner, look twice at your coffee before you put in cream and sugar. Might not hurt even to smell of it.

We were riding smoothly at 8000 feet over the Alleghenies, just before sunset, and the stewardess was so quiet about it all that I didn’t realize she was getting dinner ready till she put the tray across the arms of my seat.

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3 Anne Frank’s Moving Images

Edited by Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

Leshu Torchin

I have a vivid memory of watching the 1980 television adaptation of the Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett play The Diary of Anne Frank, especially my response to Melissa Gilbert, who played the role of Anne. Gilbert was then best known for portraying Laura Ingalls Wilder on the television series Little House on the Prairie (NBC, 1974–1983). Her Anne did not resemble the one I had imagined in my own prior reading of the diary. I didn’t care for the dramatic adaptation—I found the characterization of Anne too childish—and I suspect that the casting of Gilbert buoyed my annoyance, because I associated her primarily with what I perceived to be another unsatisfying interpretation of a beloved memoir: Wilder’s Little House series, rendered sentimental and borderline histrionic in the adaptation. This was not the stoic, complex, and vivid portrait of American pioneers that had proven so compelling in the original books.

Casting Gilbert as Anne demonstrates how media works inform one another, here adding layers of meaning that are extrinsic to the original work in question. To use a concept drawn from Chris Rojek’s work in tourist studies, Gilbert “drags” Wilder and her distinctly American memoir into a European narrative.1 This casting decision reinforces the Americanness of the telecast, rooted in the English-language adaptation of Anne’s diary for the Broadway stage. Gilbert’s performance as Anne exacerbated my dissatisfaction with the Hackett and Goodrich script. Yet for some other viewers—and for those who produced the 1980 telecast—Gilbert’s presence may have added value to the production precisely by enhancing its presentation of Anne Frank’s story as comparable to that of an American heroine. What is at issue here is not a question of what constitutes fidelity to the source text, its stage adaptation, or even the target audience. Rather, my recollection of this telecast points to the importance of considering the specific ways that the media of moving images contribute to public understandings of Anne and her diary. This issue concerns not only a sizable body of work—dozens of films and television programs, as well as countless online videos, all produced internationally over the past half-century in an array of genres. The issue also entails audiences, sometimes quite large, including both those who are also among the diary’s many readers and those who have no other acquaintance with Anne’s life and work.

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31. Ruins

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

In “Former Inhabitants and Winter Visitors,” Thoreau observes, “I am not aware that any man has ever built on the spot which I occupy,” a statement that provokes a creed:

Deliver me from a city built on the site of a more ancient city, whose materials are ruins, whose gardens cemeteries. The soil is blanched and accursed there. (178)

Walden, however, a book so full of allusions that it requires extensive footnotes, is itself an edifice “constructed on the site of a more ancient city,” the “heroic books” (71) Thoreau so often celebrates. In his repudiation of the Old World’s cities and his desire for a fresh start, Thoreau is typically American. But his reverence for older writers and their sacred texts, his devotion to learning, resemble a classicist’s deference. By using the boards from James Collins’s shanty for his own cabin, Thoreau had shown that he could build something new—something better, cleaner, more “economical”—out of something old. In building Walden, he intended to do the same thing.

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Chapter Twenty-Three

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Phoenix was a welcome sight as he came plodding through the avenues of roses, loaded down with two packs like some long-suffering donkey. Seeing him toil past the goldfish pools and over the Japanese bridge, Teeg felt a great tenderness. Love for her had tugged him up the brick path from the river, as it had tugged him from Oregon City and Jonah Colony. Could she stretch his love so thin it would snap? What if one time she ran away and he didn’t follow?

Three hours of quarreling with her mother had left her so upset that she could only manage to offer a numb greeting when Phoenix reached the front steps. The stranger who wore her mother’s face greeted him with open hostility. Vile offspring of the Enclosure, her mother had called him. But how could she look at Phoenix and find him hateful?

Teeg motioned him to a rocking chair and served him tea, ignoring her mother’s withering stare. For a long spell only the rockers made any noise as the three of them sat on the porch, sipping from cups of translucent china, looking out over the formal gardens. What little there was to say, after seventeen years of absence, Teeg and her mother had already said.

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Indiana University Connections

Edited and with an Introduction by Owen Indiana University Press ePub

What the country is worrying about—at least on the Doylestown
Road—seems to be neither Hitler nor Mussolini, but Julia

PHILADELPHIA—“Julia, come here! Julia, stop bothering the gentleman!”

Julia was a little puppy dog, who lives on the Doylestown road up north of Philadelphia, in one of those old farmhouses so frequently turned into “Ye Olde Oaken Bucket Inn for overnight guests.” . . .

The name of the imaginary inn refers to the prize that goes to the winner of the annual IU-Purdue football game. The trophy was not actually awarded to the winner until 1925 (which turned out to be a scoreless tie), so Pyle’s use of the name provides evidence that he was still very much aware of what was happening in Indiana.

Two sets of tires took Ernie through 38 states, 5 Canadian provinces, and half of Mexico; twice he ran out of gas and it was not an accident


In over 300 days of driving, there has been only one day when I had an appointment at a definite time at the other end. It was in southern Indiana, and an old school friend whom I hadn’t seen for 13 years was going to meet me at 12:30 for lunch in a town along the way.

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Medium 9780253001795

2. Queer “Tropics” of Night and the Caribe of “American” (Post) Modernism

DeGuzmán, María Indiana University Press ePub

We define nations tonight.

—Rane Arroyo, “Nights Without Dawns” for James Baldwin,
from The Portable Famine

I turn from night among Chicana/o cultural producers to an investigation of its uses among contemporary queer poets of Hispanic Caribbean descent who are living in the United States and are at least half Anglographic. What I mean by “Anglographic” is writing in English, hence “graphic” and not merely “Anglophone.” Why queer Anglographic poets of Caribbean descent? Why their deployments of tropes of night? What does an investigation of this cross section of variables—queer, Anglographic, poets, Caribbean descent, living in the United States—entail? A starting point for addressing these questions is the work on queer, transnational Caribbean and U.S. identity formations initiated in the mid to late 1990s. Scholars such as Manuel Guzmán have written about sexiles, “those who have had to leave their nation of origin on account of their sexual orientation.1 Arnaldo Cruz-Malavé,2 Rubén Ríos Ávila,3 Frances Negrón-Muntaner,4 José Quiroga,5 and Cruz-Malavé and Martin F. Manalansan6 have grappled with homosexuality and Caribbean displacements as forms of double sexual and geopolitical exile that intersect with each other in a history of colonialism. Lawrence La Fountain-Stokes synthesizes a great deal of this scholarship and contributes highly original and detailed readings of his own in his book Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora (2009).7

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1. Read's Theory of Logic

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

Read's Theory of Logic, 1879


Read's Theory of Logic1

P 148: Nation 28 (3 April 1879): 234-35

This work is the fruit of a travelling scholarship. But in all his travels the author seems never to have come across any modern logic, except in English. Three views, he observes, have been taken of logic; which, if limited to England, is true. Some writers consider it as a study of the operations of the understanding, thus bringing it into close relations with psychology. Others regard it as an analysis of the conditions which must be conformed to in the transformations of verbal expressions in order to avoid the introduction of falsehood.

While others again—our author among them—think the propositions of logic are facts concerning the things reasoned about.

There is certainly this to be said in favor of the last opinion, namely, that the question of the validity of any kind of reasoning is the question how frequently a conclusion of a certain sort will be true when premises of a certain sort are true; and this is a question of fact, of how things are, not of how we think. But, granted that the principles of logic are facts, how do they differ from other facts? For facts, in this view, should separate themselves into two classes, those of which logic itself takes cognizance and those which, if needed, have to be set up in the premises. It is just as if we were to insist that the principles of law were facts; in that case we should have to distinguish between the facts which the court would lay down and those which must be brought out in the testimony. What, then, are the facts which logic permits us to dispense with stating in our premises? Clearly those which may always be taken for granted: namely, those which we cannot consistently doubt, if reasoning is to go on at all; for example, all that is implied in the existence of doubt and of belief, and of the passage from one to the other, of truth and of falsehood,

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Medium 9780253017581

5 Reading and Being Read: Jamaica Kincaid

Lesley Larkin Indiana University Press ePub

Jamaica Kincaid

IMPLICIT IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTERS IS THE PREMISE THAT literary works possess agency at the reading encounter, and that this agency is often realized pedagogically. Specifically, I have argued that modern and contemporary African American literary works often seek to train readers in how to read self-critically, collaboratively, and against stereotype. The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man purports to teach readers about “authentic” black culture while in fact serving as a primer for the ideological mechanisms that produce middle-class white masculinity. Their Eyes Were Watching God trains its audience in the art of speakerly reading, while Seraph on the Suwanee shows them what happens when this practice serves the interest of white capitalism rather than racial and economic justice. Invisible Man models and solicits dialogical and critically self-reflexive reading as a means of interrupting the drive to abstraction promoted by New Critical pedagogies. And Push and Erasure, especially when taken together, train readers to recognize the racist stereotypes embedded in color-blind and multiculturalist discourse and to seek multiple representations of blackness, rather than taking any single text as representative.

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Medium 9780253372086

46. The Sciences in Their Order of Generality

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF
Medium 9780253015723

7 Reading Amadís in Constantinople: Spanish Fiction in the Key of Diaspora

David A. Wacks Indiana University Press ePub

In exile, facing the painful reality of being Jews and no longer being Spaniards, the Sepharadim chose to continue to be Jews and Spaniards at the same time.

Samuel Armistead and Joseph Silverman, En torno al Romancero sefardí

Sephardic authors in the generation following the expulsion gave voice to a new layer of diasporic consciousness, of being in diaspora from Spain. Ibn Verga’s work couches this consciousness in a Sephardic humanist voice, building on and reacting to the humanist historiography of Spain and Italy, creating a diasporic counterhistory to that of the official chronicler of the Spanish royalty. Joseph Karo’s project, while patently spiritual and not concerned with temporal history, still demonstrates a familiarity with the current belief that human agency was now a factor one must take into account when discussing the sweep of human history, even when the parameters of that history are determined by God. Both adapted the intellectual practices of the dominant culture into specifically Jewish intellectual traditions. Ibn Verga, more than Karo, deliberately repackages Spanish culture as Sephardic culture, writing as he does from outside the Spanish imperium and in a literary language that had a rapidly shrinking audience on the Iberian Peninsula itself.

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12 Anne Frank on Crank: Comic Anxieties

Edited by Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

Edward Portnoy

There was a certain actress, a terrible actress, that played Anne
Frank. She was so bad that when the Nazis came on [stage],
the audience yelled out, “She’s upstairs in the attic!”

Fyvush Finkel in Der Komediant, 1999

Making a joke about Anne Frank seems to be widely regarded as an act of bad taste. Why, then, would someone do so? Such jokes may engage some of the same challenging ideas about Anne’s significance in contemporary culture as do works of avant-garde video, performance, or visual art, but joking lacks the protective valence of these “high-culture” media. In addition to being provocative, these jokes are lowbrow; they are vulgar in both senses of the term. Seeking to explain this kind of humor, the psychologist Martin Grotjahn argued that “jokes grow best on the graves of fresh anxieties.”1 What then, are the anxieties on which Anne Frank jokes rely, and what makes them fresh, nearly seventy years after her death?

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24. The Axioms of Number

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

Axioms of Number, 1880-81



Number is singly infinite: any number can be reached by successive minimum steps. More precisely, if every number smaller than but not smaller than a number smaller than another is in any transitive relation to that other, then every number smaller than another is in the same transitive relation to that other.


In any counting, every object of the lot counted is counted off by a number.


No number in any counting counts off anything counted off by any other number in the same counting.


No object in any counting is counted off by any number that counts off any other object in the same counting.


In any counting, every number counting off an object is less than every number that does not count off an object.


The lot counted being finite, there is a final number in every counting of it.


The final number of a count counts off an object.


In any counting, the final number of the count is greater than any other number that counts off an objec/tj

Definitions of Addition and Multiplication.

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34. Tracks and Paths

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

Thoreau’s attention to the Fitchburg train, roaring past five times a day barely six hundred yards from his cabin, moves characteristically from sounds—“the rattle of railroad cars,” “the whistle of the locomotive,” the earth-shaking thunder of the engine (81–82)—to the word track itself, mobilized as a metaphor for deadening routine. Watching the railroad workers ride by prompts the first shift into this other register:

The men on the freight trains, who go over the whole length of the road, bow to me as an old acquaintance, they pass me so often, and apparently they take me for an employee; and so I am. I too would fain be a track-repairer somewhere in the orbit of the earth. (81)

The train’s whistle, a “warning to get off the track” (81), gives Thoreau what he needs, an image of dehumanizing mechanization that “regulates a whole country,” an implacable “fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside” (83). Stephen Fender has described the railroad’s effect on Concord: it enabled the transcendentalists’ connection to their Cambridge and Boston colleagues while damaging local businesses suddenly thrown into competition with metropolitan stores. Immediately apparent was the loss of local time, as the railroad’s scheduling mandated standardized time zones: with the train’s arrival, Thoreau observes, “the farmers set their clocks by them” (83).

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Seven Primo Levi: The Survivor as Victim

Alvin H. Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

After Auschwitz everything returns us to Auschwitz.


The suicide of Jean Améry, like that of numerous other Holocaust writers, raises troubling questions about the possible links between the lingering effects of Holocaust trauma and a self-inflicted death. Literary scholars, social scientists, psychiatrists, and writers themselves have made serious inquiries into the roots of suicide among those who survived the camps, wrote about their experiences, and later took their own lives. Their analyses differ significantly and offer no definitive answers. Given the range of motives behind such deaths, this absence of consensus is no surprise. In some cases, suicide seems impulsive—a rash and sudden act; in others, it may have a more rational, premeditated character. Acute depression is often a contributing factor, as are the pains that accompany old age, illness, and bodily decrepitude. Apart from rare instances where suicide is deliberately chosen as a form of political protest—the death of Shmuel Zygielbojm is a prominent example—in the majority of cases, it is unlikely that the etiology of such death can be traced to a single cause. As Primo Levi noted in his late reflections on Améry, included in The Drowned and the Saved, “Jean Améry’s suicide, which took place in Salzburg in 1978, like other suicides, admits of a cloud of explanations.”1

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