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Chapter Fourteen

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Terra’s occasional rampages put the newscasters in a quandary. Reports of earthquakes and volcanoes and pestilence in the wilds made life within the Enclosure seem all the more desirable. But if the wilds actually broke through the skin of the human system? And if Terra, on one of these violent sprees, actually killed a few people, swallowed an Arctic research team down a sudden throat of ice, or drowned a repair crew in the ocean outside Oregon City? That sort of news would be disquieting. The trick was to remind people of Terra’s brutality without making them brood too much about the Enclosure’s fragility.

So the first half meter of newsfax unscrolling on Zuni’s desk brought her word of the typhoon, without mentioning damage or casualties, FREAK STORM LASHES OREGON CITY, the headline proclaimed, DOME UNHARMED. At least my architecture is sound, she reflected wryly. How had the travel-tubes fared? No mention of that in the lead story. Curious, she skimmed over the week’s fashion news, skimmed rhetoric tournament results and summaries of World Council debates, skimmed the daily geometries and mating announcements, until she found, eight meters from the beginning of the scroll, a brief notice of damage to the Oregon-Alaska seatube. Typhoon generates high waves, the article stated. Seatube cracks—vacuum partially destroyed—commuter traffic disrupted—protective systems activated—wildergoers quickly repair damage.

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19. The Ethics of Terminology

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 478. [This is the second section of the 1903 Syllabus (pp. 10–14 of the printed version), published in CP 2.219–26.] Here Peirce argues for a rational approach to scientific terminology, in particular for philosophy. He gives several compelling reasons for wanting this kind of reform, among them that good language is the essence of good thought and that there can be no scientific progress without collaboration. Philosophy finds itself in the odd situation of having to retain popular language as a resource—part of its purpose being the study of common conceptions—while at the same time requiring a specialized vocabulary for analytical precision. Peirce concludes with seven rules for instituting a scientific terminology for philosophy. He will appeal to these rules to explain his own use of neologisms.

In order that my use of terms, notations, etc., may be understood, I explain that my conscience imposes upon me the following rules. Were I to make the smallest pretension to dictate the conduct of others in this matter, I should be reproved by [the] first of these rules. Yet if I were to develop the reasons the force of which I feel myself, I presume they would have weight with others.

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1. C. L. R. James Sees the World Steadily

Akinwumi Adesokan Indiana University Press ePub

Commenting on the writings of a cricket critic named Neville Cardus, C. L. R. James, the Trinidadian/black British writer, political activist, and theorist, makes a statement that is as true of James himself as it is of Cardus: “He says the same in more than one place” (James 1983, 195). This declaration that a piece of writing is only one instance of a vast and consistent reworking of themes and ideas also found elsewhere in his works is a succinct way of describing integration, the primary method in James’s writings, which I have taken as a model in this book. In this chapter I use the occasion of “Toward the Seventh: The Pan-African Congress—Past, Present and Future,” an essay James wrote in 1976, to elaborate on this method and to make three related claims. First, I claim that in spite of the diverse artistic, political, and cultural contexts of his literary output (in a career that spanned much of the twentieth century), James developed a style which he used to bring together ideas from different, often conflicting, political impulses and traditions. Second, given his personal and political choices, James’s work represents a promising, though not entirely successful, integration of the two putatively antagonistic processes of socialist tricontinentalism and neoliberal cosmopolitanism. Third, although “Toward the Seventh” apparently concerns itself specifically with African realities, James’s analysis and the topic’s historical context indicate that Pan-Africanism goes beyond Africa, pertaining to questions of social justice across the world. In the spirit of this Jamesian method, I read the thematic, stylistic, and theoretical aspects of the 1976 essay in conjunction with a number of texts that say the same thing in other places.

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Medium 9780253020659

Introduction: Mediterraneans and Migrations in the Global Era

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

I am neither French nor Moroccan, I am in between. I am Spanish!

—Mustapha Al Atrassi

The end of summer at the port of Melilla, a Spanish enclave in northern Morocco. Arabic music played loudly, drowning out the conversations of families in cars and vans. It was late at night in this remnant of Spain’s protectorate. About an hour earlier, the drivers were directed to form lines near the ferryboat so that Spanish customs security employees could check vehicles and identification papers. I was seventeen years old when, at this same port, I watched a dog sniff out a teenager hidden in a bag tucked under the feet of the rear seat passengers in the car parked in front of us. As my family waited to be searched, we observed the entire episode. From inside our car, we saw the frightened teenager being taken away, gasping for air and sweating heavily. We never knew what became of him or the other people in that vehicle. Every September on our way back to France, we would see young men walking back and forth on the rampart that overlooked the docks. They would get as close as possible to vehicles waiting to board the ferry in hopes of catching a ride. The vigilant agents of the Guardia Civil relentlessly chased the migrant hopefuls away. On one particular trip, I saw a young man try to board our ship by climbing up an anchor rope. Alerted by the cheering of travelers, agents ran to the ferry and attempted to shake the man off his precarious perch on the rope. The crowd grew anxious when he seemed likely to fall to the ground. Moroccan strangers were imploring God’s help. Some women covered their eyes, anticipating a tragic end. A few passengers were screaming. Two couples, however, who happened to be taking an evening walk took in the scene with seeming amusement, probably because they were accustomed to witnessing such events. The man was finally captured upon reaching the deck and then escorted into the rear of the patrol van and driven away in the night. This was one of several encounters I had with this type of chase on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar.

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2. What Is a Sign? (1894)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 404. [Published in part in CP 2.281, 285, and 297–302. This work, probably composed early in 1894, was originally the first chapter of a book entitled “The Art of Reasoning,” but was then turned into the second chapter of Peirce’s multi-volume “How to Reason: A Critick of Arguments” (also known as “Grand Logic”).] In this selection Peirce gives an account of signs based on an analysis of conscious experience from the standpoint of his three universal categories. He discusses the three principal kinds of signs—icons, indices, and symbols—and provides many examples. He maintains, as he had earlier, that reasoning must involve all three kinds of signs, and he claims that the art of reasoning is the art of marshalling signs, thus emphasizing the relationship between logic and semiotics.

§1. This is a most necessary question, since all reasoning is an interpretation of signs of some kind. But it is also a very difficult question, calling for deep reflection.1

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15. The Nature of Meaning (Lecture VI)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MSS 314, 316. [Published in CP 5.151–79 (in part), and in HL, 221–39. This is the sixth Harvard lecture, delivered on 7 May 1903.] Peirce sets out from his concluding claim in Lecture V, that perceptual judgments involve generality. He gives a sustained discussion of the different kinds of reasoning—deduction, induction, and abduction—and discusses other logical conceptions relevant to the question of the nature of meaning. He will use “meaning” technically, he says, to “denote the intended interpretant of a symbol.” He then considers the role of perception in the acquisition of knowledge and the relation of perception to reasoning. Peirce claims that “every single item” of established scientific theory is the result of abduction but that the human faculty of “divining the ways of nature” is not subject to self-control. He argues that perception and abduction shade into one another and claims that pragmatism is the logic of abduction.

Ladies and Gentlemen:

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1 Border Crossings and Fractured Selves: A History of the Afghan Presence in Iran

Zuzanna Olszewska Indiana University Press ePub

A History of the Afghan Presence in Iran

GOLSHAHR

It doesn’t matter

on which side the sun came up,

on which side the moon went down.

In your alleys, sorrow.

In your alleys, beauty.

In your alleys, the sound of the handcart men

who cry out the freshness of their wares;

the footsteps that startle

the always-mute walls out of sleep;

the eyes that turn my dark midnights

into delirious muttering.

In your alleys

is a fluttering of wings that comes from distant mountains.

I begin from your farthest walls,

a place where even my friends don’t come anymore,

with my old briefcase in my hand,

like a shepherd whose sheep have all been torn apart by wolves,

like a commander to whom no letter is posted.

Longing for the wild winds of the Pamirs,

the song of a dobeiti in the mountains;

longing for the fresh fish of Helmand,

and soldiers invalided by war,

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27. The Basis of Pragmaticism in the Normative Sciences (1906)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 283. [Only a small part was published in CP 1.573–74, 5.448n, and 5.549–54. This paper, which was mostly composed in January 1906, is Peirce’s sixth attempt at writing his third Monist paper “The Basis of Pragmaticism.” The words “in the Normative Sciences” have been added to the title of this version.] How does one do philosophy? A proof of pragmaticism will have to be understood from the perspective of our answer to this question. Peirce sets out to situate philosophy among the “heuretic” sciences, and to characterize its purpose and method. He returns to a consideration of experience, here characterized as a “male” intrusion into the mind, the “female” field of available consciousness. From this union, knowledge is born. This is Aristotle’s idea of growth: first, the idea; second, the act; third, the life-giving principle. In selection 26, Peirce had considered why we should expect to find three fundamental elements in experience; here he examines why we should expect philosophy to separate naturally into three departments corresponding to the three kinds of experience. It is the second department, normative science, that becomes the main focus of this article, and the basis for Peirce’s proof of pragmaticism. All three normative sciences—esthetics, ethics (practics), and logic—are essential, but it is logic, the general theory of signs, that is now seen to be the key to the proof.

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24. The Doctrine of Necessity Examined

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

24

The Doctrine of Necessity Examined

5 November 1891

Morris Library

In the Monist for January, 1891, I endeavored to show what elementary ideas ought to enter into our view of the universe. I may mention that on those considerations I had already grounded a cosmical theory, and from it had deduced a considerable number of consequences capable of being compared with experience. This comparison is now in progress, but under existing circumstances must occupy many years.

I propose here to examine the common belief that every single fact in the universe is precisely determined by law. It must not be supposed that this is a doctrine accepted everywhere and at all times by all rational men. Its first advocate appears to have been Democritus the atomist, who was led to it, as we are informed, by reflecting upon the “impenetrability, translation, and impact of matter (ajntitupiva kai; fora; kai; plhgh; th`~ u}lh~).” That is to say, having restricted his attention to a field where no influence other than mechanical constraint could possibly come before his notice, he straightway jumped to the conclusion that throughout the universe that was the sole principle of action,—a style of reasoning so usual in our day with men not unreflecting as to be more than excusable in the infancy of thought. But Epicurus, in revising the atomic doctrine and repairing its defences, found himself obliged to suppose that atoms swerve from their courses by spontaneous chance; and thereby he conferred upon the theory life and entelechy. For we now see clearly that the peculiar function of the molecular hypothesis in physics is to open an entry for the calculus of probabilities. Already, the prince of philosophers had repeatedly and emphatically condemned the dictum of Democritus (especially in the

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14. The Three Normative Sciences (Lecture V)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 312. [Published in CP 5.120–50 and in HL 205–20. Untitled by Peirce, this fifth Harvard lecture was delivered on 30 April 1903.] Peirce reviews his classification of the sciences, especially the normative sciences: esthetics, ethics, and logic. He argues that reasoning is a form of action and is thus subject to ethical considerations; in particular, it is subject to the need for self-control. The logically good, Peirce says, is a species of the morally good, and the morally good is itself a species of the esthetically good. Now the esthetically good involves the choice of aims, or purposes. Pragmatism comes back in at this point, for pragmatism involves the conception of actions relative to aims. Peirce continues his lecture by considering different types of reasoning or argumentation with respect to their logical goodness, and concludes by claiming that although we have neither immediate consciousness nor direct experience of generality, nevertheless we perceive generality: it “pours in” with our perceptual judgments.

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Epilogue: A “Second Holocaust”?

Alvin H. Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

The use of even one nuclear bomb inside Israel will destroy everything. … It is not irrational to contemplate such an eventuality.

FORMER IRANIAN PRESIDENT HASHEMI RAFSANJANI

The second Holocaust. It’s a phrase we may have to begin thinking about. A possibility we may have to contemplate. A reality we may have to witness.

RON ROSENBAUM

Shortly before the end of the last century, the political scientist Walter Truett Anderson published a brief article calling attention to a spate of books that struck him as constituting a new subgenre of literature. These works were all about “the end of” something—history, affluence, the nation-state, education, work, ideology, etc. Spotting over nine hundred titles that began with those portentous three words, Anderson realized that, with the approaching end of the twentieth century, a trend was in the making. In part, he decried it, labeling the easy recourse to the rhetoric of termination “promiscuous” and little more than a “literary device.” At the same time, he acknowledged that the emergence of a voluminous literature projecting “the end of” so much that was familiar and valued needed to be taken seriously. Were we moving not only into a new century but a profoundly different world, marked by a “final shutdown of some piece of life as we have known it to be or hoped for it to become?”1 Anderson suspected we were.

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4 An Afterlife for Junk Prints: Serials and Other “Classics” in Late-1920s Tehran

Jennifer M Bean Indiana University Press ePub

Kaveh Askari

VOLUMES LIKE THIS one underscore how rapidly film historians have been revising the maps of silent film culture in recent years. Not only is there a growing body of research on emergent cinemas outside of Europe and the United States, but the increasingly fine-grained maps of film cultures within European and North American towns have revealed their own overlooked peripheries.1 In either case, whether researching urban Shanghai or rural Ontario, a consistent corollary emerges: engaging the complexity of silent cinema’s geographies necessarily complicates its chronologies.2 It would make for a much simpler history had each newly released feature or serial film circulated provincially and globally with speed and uniformity. But the physical realities of film prints moving across trade borders and through intermediary institutions, such as international exchanges and government censorship bureaus, create messy periodizations. Quite frankly, the boundaries between early cinema and later film cultures are far more permeable than we have assumed. Their characteristics overlap in ways that warrant more focused attention. In a very general sense any study of distribution attends to the intermediary life of film, but the speed and directness of film circulation vary enormously from region to region. In places that differ widely from general trends, the effect is not so much a local film culture lagging behind the production centers as a film culture out of synch.

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Medium 9780253018380

1 Remediating Space: Adaptation and Narrative Geography

Jane Stadler Indiana University Press ePub

The formal characteristics of films, novels, and plays privilege varied expressions of imaginative geography and these cultural narratives, we argue, not only mediate and represent space, place, and location but are themselves mediated representational spaces. Furthermore, films, novels, and plays also open themselves up to further remediation in the form of cross-media adaptation or, to push the point further, in the form of geovisualization and the spatial analysis it enables. Adaptation studies is an exciting, dynamic, and rapidly developing interdisciplinary field, and yet, like narrative theory, it has not fully or directly accounted for the question of space. Adaptation studies has been more concerned with questions of fidelity (or the validity of those questions), lines of influence, and transmediality and with the translation of space, place, and landscape between narrative forms being rarely addressed.

In compiling and constructing our Cultural Atlas of Australia, we encountered many texts in which the geographical setting of the narrative was modified—to greater or lesser degrees—across adaptations. For instance, John Curran’s 1998 film adaptation of Andrew McGahan’s cult “grunge” novel, Praise (1992), is filmed in Sydney rather than in Brisbane—the city in which the novel is set and with which it is intimately connected. Although McGahan wrote the screenplay for Curran’s adaptation, and although the narrative setting of the film version remains, broadly speaking, the same (that is, urban Australia in the early 1990s), the choice of filming location means that the adaptation loses some of the novel’s locational and regional specificity—namely, its focus on the then low-rent, inner-city Brisbane suburbs of New Farm and Fortitude Valley.1 A more dramatic example is Scott Hicks’s The Boys Are Back (2009), a film adaptation of British journalist Simon Carr’s memoir about his experiences raising his sons in New Zealand following the death of his wife. Hicks’s adaptation is neither set nor filmed in New Zealand; instead, it transplants the entire narrative to Australia, from Hawke’s Bay on the east coast of New Zealand’s north island to Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, and its environs—over 2000 miles (3219 km.) and another country away. Film adaptations may also, of course, provide a more heightened sense of location, simply by virtue of the fact they must be filmed somewhere, if they are being filmed on location, and this is particularly the case when the narrative setting of the adapted text is fictional, ambiguous, or only loosely sketched (as in the case of George T. Miller’s 1982 film adaptation of A. B. “Banjo” Paterson’s 1890 poem “The Man from Snowy River”). Stage adaptations are more likely, as we will see in the case study presented here, to reduce the geographical specificity of the original text while promoting a stronger sense of symbolic or mythic space. A case in point is Stephan Elliott’s 2006 stage adaptation of his highly successful film The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994), which will be further analyzed in chapter 5. The film follows a busload of drag queens as they travel from Sydney to Alice Springs, visiting Broken Hill, Coober Pedy, the Painted Desert at Oodnadatta, and Kings Canyon en route. In Elliott’s stage adaptation, the bus itself, rather than the locations it travels to, becomes by necessity the primary backdrop and the site for much of the production’s action.

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2. [Lecture on Practical Logic]

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

8

W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1872-1878

^Lecture on Practical Logic7

MS 191: Summer-Fall 1872

I suppose that the fundamental proposition from which all metaphysics takes its rise is that opinions tend to an ultimate settlement

& that a predestinate one. Upon most subjects at least sufficient experience, discussion, and reasoning will bring men to an agreement; and another set of men by an independent investigation with sufficient experience, discussion, and reasoning will be brought to the same agreement as the first set.

Hence we infer that there is something which determines opinions and which does not depend upon them. To this we give the name of the real. Now this real may be regarded from two opposite points of view.

In the first place, to say that thought tends to come to a determinate conclusion, is to say that it tends to an end or is influenced by a final cause. This final cause, the ultimate opinion, is independent of how you, I, or any number of men think. Let whole generations think as perversely as they will; they can only put off the ultimate opinion but cannot change its character. So the ultimate conclusion is that which determines opinions and does not depend upon them and so is the real object of cognition. This is idealism since it supposes the real to be of the nature of thought.

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9 Thresholds of New African Dramaturgies in France Today

Edited by Frieda Ekotto and Kenneth W H Indiana University Press ePub

Mária Minich Brewer

Not all voices can be heard at the same time in the same story/history.

Kossi Efoui, Solo d’un revenant

THIS COLLECTION OF essays, Rethinking African Cultural Productions, offers an occasion to question theater’s physical and symbolic borders, frontiers, separations, and border crossings. Working as it does across multiple thresholds and dimensions simultaneously, whether of time, space, language, or the body, the art of the theater engages its public in critical considerations of and across borders. A new generation of African diasporic playwrights of the 1990s have thoroughly reinvented the social and symbolic possibilities for new theatrical languages. In this essay, I propose to map out some of the theatrical thresholds implicit in such a project of reinventing a new theatricality. This critical work on thresholds, I argue, needs to focus explicitly on the symbolic, social, and material dimensions of writing for performance.

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