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4. Raphael and Michael Angelo compared as men

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF


W R I T I N G S OF P E I R C E , 1857-1866

Thus, in their best days, Michael Angelo was old, Raphael young, and we can discern, by comparing them together that they have corresponding faults.

Michael Angelo, for instance, seemed (at this time1) to want self-Michael Angelo, for instance, seemed (at this time1) to want selfconfidence: he feared to undertake the painting of the Sistine Chapel, a task which I need not say he proved equal to. Raphael never would have hesitated in such a case; he erred the other way, a fact which we never should know, however, if he had not attempted to imitate

Michael Angelo. But observe how Michael Angelo in his old age is still young; he retains his vivacity, he retains his power, and when he can no longer hope to improve and sees himself outdone by a stripling, envy, which would seem almost inevitable, finds no place in his bosom.

Raphael, too, is old in his youth, which is very well proved by the fact that the heat of his temperament in nowise retarded the maturity of his mind.

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Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF




P 268a: Boston:

Little, Brown, & Company, 1883: iii-vi

These papers, the work of my students, have been so instructive to me, that I have asked and obtained permission to publish them in one volume.

Two of them, the contributions of Miss Ladd (now Mrs. Fabian

Franklin) and of Dr. Mitchell, present new developments of the logical algebra of Boole. Miss Ladd's article may serve, for those who are unacquainted with Boole's Laws of Thought, as an introduction to the most wonderful and fecund discovery of modern logic. The followers of Boole have altered their master's notation, mainly in three respects.

1st. A series of writers, Jevons in 1864, Peirce in 1867, Grassmann in 1872, Schroder in 1877, and McColl in 1877, successively and independently declared in favor of using the sign of addition to unite different terms into one aggregate, whether they be mutually exclusive or not. Thus, we now write

European + Republican to stand for all Europeans and republicans taken together, without intending to count twice over the European republicans. Boole and

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Medium 9780253008053

4. Wiesel and the Stories of the Rabbis

Edited by Steven T Katz and Alan Rosen Indiana University Press ePub


ELIE WIESEL IS OUR generation's teller of tales. He uses stories to keep alive Jewish memory. His retellings of tales are frequently better known than the original. More hasidic tales are probably known through his retelling than any since Martin Buber. Similarly, his recounting of biblical and talmudic narratives has done much to make them not only known but tellable. This essay focuses on his retelling of talmudic lore in his book Wise Men and Their Tales.1 There, he relates how much he was enamored of the intricacies of the Talmud, dazzled by the workings of its dialectics, flabbergasted by its ruthless honesty, piqued by its arcane tales, amazed at its pious yet flawed characters, and astonished at its incessant questioning. Identifying with its nonfinality, he is taken in by its open-endedness as well as taken aback by its strangeness. For him, the Talmud is the spine of Judaism, without which we would have gone limp long ago. It is what kept Jews upright, walking tall throughout their lachrymose history. Without it, the spiritual reality would have succumbed to the material one.

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4. The Subject of Semiotics

Umberto Eco Indiana University Press ePub

Since it has been said that the labor of sign production also represents a form of social criticism and of social practice, a sort of ghostly presence, until now somewhat removed from the present discourse, finally makes an unavoidable appearance. What is, in the semiotic framework, the place of the acting subject of every semiosic act?

If one of the topics of a theory of sign production is the relationship between sender and addressee, which constitutes the basis for a consideration of the various kinds of ‘speech acts’, one could remark that very little attention has been devoted, in the preceding chapters, to the ‘transcendental’ or ‘empirical’ protagonist of these processes.

A theory of the relationship sender-addressee should also take into account the role of the ‘speaking’ subject not only as a communicational figment but as a concrete historical, biological, psychic subject, as it is approached by psychoanalysis and related disciplines. Anyway the approach followed in this book requires that the following assumptions be made:

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Book Three

Ovid Indiana University Press ePub


The Story of Cadmus

And now the god put off the bull’s disguise,

Revealed himself at last. They had reached the shores

Of Crete, when the girl’s father, King Agenor,

Unknowing what had happened to his daughter,

Ordered his son, named Cadmus, to go and find her,

Threatening exile as a punishment

For failure, in that single action showing

Devotion toward his daughter, toward his son

Harsh wickedness. And Cadmus roamed the world

In vain—for who is good enough detective

To catch Jove cheating?—and became an exile

Leaving both fatherland and father’s anger.

He sought Apollo’s oracle, a suppliant

Asking what land to live in, and Apollo

Replied: “In lonely lands there will come to meet you

A heifer, one who has never worn the yoke

Nor drawn the curve of the plough. Follow the creature

Till she lies down to rest, and there establish

The city walls, and call the land Boeotia.”

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Epilogue: A Life of Its Own—The Anne Frank Tree

Edited by Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

If not for Anne Frank’s diary, the chestnut tree that stood behind 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam would have lived and died unnoticed during the almost 180 years of its life. But once news spread that this tree was ailing, it acquired a life of its own—moreover, a life that seems destined to continue in perpetuity. Alive or dead, the Anne Frank Tree, as it has come to be known, has become the most protean of metaphors. Many people have found meaning and solace in the tree in ways they never seem to have found in the diary, although the diary is always cited as the source text for the tree’s singular significance. The tree joined the other two material icons of Anne Frank’s story, the original diary notebook and the building at 263 Prinsengracht, well after their stature was secured and is inherently dependent on them for its significance. However, the tree’s ontological status as a living organism endows it with an immortality of a different order. And what truly gives the tree its immortality—what makes it more than just another tree—are the creative responses it has generated within a wide public.

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4. Note on the Progress of Experiments for comparing a Wave-length with a Metre

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF


W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

Note on the Progress of Experiments for comparing a Wave-length with a Metre

P 136: American Journal of Science and Arts,

3rd ser. 18 (July 1879): 51

To C. P. PATTERSON, Superintendent U.S. Coast and Geodetic



The following is the present state of the Spectrum metre business.

The deviation of a spectral line (Van der Willigen's No. 16) has had three complete measures using a certain gitter of 340— lines to the

Zi millimetre. The double deviation (the angle measured) was found to be


June 23

June 29 and July 2

Sep. 4 and Aug. 27


89° 54'

89° 54'





An error of 0"4 in this would occasion an error of one micron in the metre. These measures were previously communicated to you, but owing to an erroneous value of the coefficient of expansion of glass having been used (the value for iron having been inadvertently substituted) they did not seem to agree so well as they do. There were two other complete measures but in regard to one of them there is a doubt about the thermometer used, and in regard to the other there is a doubt about the part of the line set on.

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6. On the Algebraic Principles of Formal Logic

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF


Algebraic Principles of Logic, 1879

On the Algebraic Principles of

Formal Logic

MS 348: Fall 1879

There are two purposes of a logical algebra, viz.:—1st The mathematical purpose of solving problems, of finding the conclusion to be drawn from given premises, and 2nc* The logical purpose of analyzing inferences and showing precisely upon what their validity depends.

The latter is to my mind the first object to be fulfilled. After an algebra has been constructed to do that, it will probably need various modifications to fit it for mathematical uses. These modifications though improvements from a mathematical point of view will appear defects when viewed from a logical or analytical standpoint. At present I seek only logical perfection in the algebra of logic.

The effort to trace analogies between ordinary or other algebra and formal logic has been of the greatest service; but there has been on the part of Boole and also of myself a straining after analogies of this kind with a neglect of the differences between the two algebras, which must be corrected, not by denying any of the resemblances which have been found, but by recognizing relations of contrast between the two subjects.

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Politics & Politicians

Edited and with an Introduction by Owen Indiana University Press ePub

Portrait of a politician in a smoke-filled room: Ernie encounters Jim Watson in a Pullman cubicle, and that grand old vote-getter shows his technique

WASHINGTON—I was sitting alone in the smoking compartment, reading a magazine. The train was bouncing through the night at 70 miles an hour, making an awful racket. I thought I’d go to bed pretty soon. But just then the curtain was pulled aside, and who should walk in but Jim Watson.

I had never seen him before, but I recognized him from his pictures. We stared at each other as if we were about to speak, and then I raised up sort of automatically, like a knee-reflex, and said: “Aren’t you Senator Watson?”

“Why, yes,” he said. And he came over with his hand out ready for a big shake. He sat right down and started talking.

Some rough things have been said about Jim Watson and his political philosophies, and they may all be true. But you’ll have a mighty tough time trying not to like him.

I asked him if it wasn’t likely that he knew more Hoosiers than anybody else in the state. He said yes, he expected he did. After all, he’s been campaigning Indiana for 50 years, and he likes people, and remembering them is his stock in trade.

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Epilogue: Toward a Theory and Pedagogy of Responsible Reading: Toni Morrison

Lesley Larkin Indiana University Press ePub

Toward a Theory and Pedagogy of Responsible Reading

Toni Morrison

ABOUT TWO-THIRDS OF THE WAY INTO TONI MORRISONS THE Bluest Eye is a heartbreaking scene. Cholly, whom readers know as an African American father who raped and impregnated his daughter, is an innocent boy fooling around with a girl in a forest. Suddenly, several white hunters appear and force Cholly and the girl to have sex for their amusement. It is a difficult scene to teach. Many students struggle not only with Morrison’s intimate descriptions of sexual violence but also with their sense that Morrison, by exploring how unspeakable suffering comes to pass, asks readers to forgive the unforgivable. Morrison presents Cholly’s victimization as a link in the chain that leads (in nonlinear, “jazz-shaped,” fashion) to his daughter’s victimization.1 The narrative transition to Pecola’s trauma is unsatisfactory by design: “So it was on a Saturday afternoon,” explains the narrator, that Cholly “staggered home reeling drunk” and raped his daughter (161).

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6 Empire and Diaspora: Solomon ibn Verga’s Shevet Yehudah and Joseph Karo’s Magid Meisharim

David A. Wacks Indiana University Press ePub

Diaspora is not a uniform experience, and each author’s work refracts the experience of Sephardic diaspora in very different ways. Both Solomon ibn Verga and Joseph Karo were born in Spain and left in 1492 while still quite young. For both of them, the experience of expulsion and displacement was a major influence on their worldview and shaped their intellectual innovations in ways that had a profound impact on later Jewish thought. Ibn Verga, a historiographer, is author of the book Shevet Yehudah, a chronicle of ancient and medieval persecutions and expulsions of European Jewish communities. The rabbinical thinker and kabbalist Karo is best known as the author of a highly influential code of Jewish law, the Shulkhan Arukh, but it is his mystical treatise, Magid Meisharim (The Preacher of the Righteous) that we will consider here. In both cases, the diaspora of the Sepharadim from the Iberian Peninsula was key in their intellectual and spiritual formation and left a profound imprint on their work. Though the exile from Spain and Portugal was hardly the only such trauma to take place during the Middle Ages, it was a disaster on an unprecedented scale and as such provoked very strong reactions in the Jewish world.

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Hell as the Mirror Image of Paradise

Dante Alighieri Indiana University Press ePub

Hell as the Mirror Image of Paradise


The Divine Comedy is a circular poem. Hell only yields its intended message(s) when it is seen as a mirror image of Paradise, when it is understood in terms of what it is not. For Dante, Hell is the least important part of the poem—he would probably have been distressed to know how many people read only Hell. At the very least, Hell must be read within the context of the whole. I will attempt one such reading here in terms of the political or socio-political message of the poem.1 The political propaganda of the Comedy is an aspect which is often ignored by modern critics and readers, though it was obvious to Dante’s earliest commentators. The three large socio-political issues which were important in contemporary political theory—and which are not irrelevant now—are the relation of the individual to society, the relative advantages of smaller and larger political structures (city, kingdom, empire), and the conflict between the church and the secular state.

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5 Europe Bound: Shooting “Illegals” at Sea

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

On January 14, 2011, Tunisian President Aziz el Abidine Ben Ali fled Tunisia. Following the tragic death of protester Mohamed Bouazizi, demonstrations spread to various parts of the country, precipitating the Jasmine Revolution, the first revolution of the Arab Spring. Bouazizi was a twenty-six-year-old Tunisian man who set himself on fire in front of the Préfecture of Sidi Bouzid on December 17, 2010. Bouazizi’s self-immolation was an expression of his despair at his condition as an unemployed college graduate. His irreversible act was a physical migration out of an unbearable plight, because both physical and symbolic burnings are called hrig in Arabic. The extreme gesture is an unauthorized crossing over into death where the promise of a better life or the end of an ordeal is imaginable. Indeed, suicide is a religiously condemned practice. For lack of better professional opportunities, Bouazizi had resorted to selling produce. He set himself on fire after the municipal police confiscated his merchandise for not having a proper permit. Eighteen days after his desperate gesture, the young man died at the Ben Arous Burn and Trauma Center, and his fate set the Arab Spring in motion. The emergence of this revolution and subsequent ones in the region is partly attributed to the energy and dedication of the citizens ready to die at the hands of the police state1 to fight for justice and to denounce hogra.2 Some, like Bouazizi, sacrificed themselves—in Bouazizi’s case, it involved burning, in the literal sense of the term.3

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Book Seven

Ovid Indiana University Press ePub


The Story of Jason and Medea

So over the deep the Minyans went sailing.

They had seen Phineus, dragging out his years

In everlasting night, and Boreas’ sons

Had driven the Harpies from the poor old king.

They suffered much, but came at last with Jason,

Their brilliant leader, to the muddy waters

Where Phasis meets the sea. They went to the king,

Claiming the golden fleece, by Phrixus given,

And heard the dreadful terms, enormous labors.

And the king’s daughter burned with sudden passion,

And fought against it long, and when her reason

Could not subdue her madness, cried: “Medea,

You fight in vain; there is some god or other

Against you. I am wondering whether this

May be the thing called love, or something like it.

Why should my father’s orders seem too cruel?

They are too cruel! A fellow I have hardly

Much more than seen may die, and I am fearful!

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11 Critical Thinking: Scholars Reread the Diary

Edited by Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

Sally Charnow

The publication of De Dagboeken van Anne Frank by the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation in 1986 marks a threshold in how Anne’s diary has been read, taught, and discussed. An English translation, The Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition (referred to hereafter as the Critical Edition), appeared in 1989, followed by translations into German, French, and Japanese; a revised edition was issued in Dutch and in English in 2003.1 This new version of the diary initiated a wave of new scholarly scrutiny of the already iconic work long known to American readers as The Diary of a Young Girl. Whereas the diary had long received attention from historians as a document of Jewish resistance to Nazi persecution during World War II, more recent scholarship has read and discussed Frank’s work as an example of women’s or adolescent writing, autobiography, coming-of-age narrative, or Holocaust literature. Cultural historian Berteke Waaldijk, for example, argued in 1993 that “Anne Frank’s symbolic value as an innocent victim of fascism should not prevent us from reading her diaries as a literary work. The outrage of her death is in no way diminished by taking her seriously as a writer.”2 More recently, author Francine Prose explains: “Like most of Anne Frank’s readers, I had viewed her book as the innocent and spontaneous outpourings of a teenager. But now, reading it as an adult, I quickly became convinced that I was in the presence of a consciously crafted work of literature.”3 Waaldijk, Prose, and other scholars and writers offer, in effect, new mediations of the diary through a distinctive approach to reading the text made possible in large measure by the publication of the Critical Edition. These new readings also reflect recent developments both in the academy and in public discussion. In particular, more recent scholarship on Anne’s diary draws on historians’ interest in diary writing as social practice, on literary scholars’ attention to diary writing as a form of women’s writing and literature, and on the study of adolescence from a variety of perspectives.4

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