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One Popular Culture and the Politics of Memory

Alvin H. Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

Most people willingly deceive themselves with a doubly false faith: they believe in eternal memory (of men, things, deeds, peoples) and in rectification (of deeds, errors, sins, injustice). Both are sham. The truth lies at the opposite end of the scale: everything will be forgotten and nothing will be rectified. All rectification (both vengeance and forgiveness) will be taken over by oblivion. No one will rectify wrongs; all wrongs will be forgotten.


We say “Holocaust” as if there were an established consensus on the full range of historical meanings and associations that this term is meant to designate. In fact, no such consensus exists. The image of the Holocaust is a changing one, and just how it is changing, who is changing it, and what the consequences of such change may be are matters that need to be carefully and continually pondered. Such reflection will be undertaken here on the basis of the following assumptions:


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Medium 9780253012463

6 Flying Dutchmen, Wandering Jews: Romantic Opera, Anti-Semitism, and Jewish Mourning in Mrs. Dalloway

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Emma Sutton

IN APRIL 1921 VIRGINIA WOOLF MADE THE FOLLOWING ENTRY in her diary: “L.[eonard] explained the plan of his new book – a revised version of the Wandering Jew. Very original & solid, it seemed to me; & like a good business man, I pressed him to promise it for the press [ . . . ] a solid big book like L.’s is essential” (D2: 111–12). Woolf’s admiration for the “originality” of Leonard’s “essential” book leaves unspoken the fact that Leonard was not alone in planning a work on the Wandering Jew in the early 1920s; Mrs. Dalloway might equally be described as a “revised version” of this legend. Woolf’s novel is haunted by Richard Wagner’s Romantic opera Der fliegende Holländer (1843), and, as Wagner’s description of his protagonist as “this Ahasuerus of the seas” reminds us, the figure of the Flying Dutchman was frequently equated with the Wandering Jew, his fate read as an allegory of Jewish “redemption” (Prose Works 1: 17).1 It will come as no surprise to scholars of Woolf and music that Woolf’s fiction should be informed by a Wagnerian intertext, although Wagner’s influence on Mrs. Dalloway is far less conspicuous than on The Voyage Out, Jacob’s Room, The Years, or The Waves, for instance. In these texts Woolf’s diegetic allusions to, and the formal influence of, Wagner are extensive and more explicit.2 Mrs. Dalloway has played a relatively small part in analyses of Woolf and music to date;3 its debt to Wagner’s opera is opaque and its references to music relatively few, but Woolf’s commanding knowledge of Wagner’s oeuvre and her lifelong engagement with it in her fiction invite us to consider the discreet parallels between the texts seriously. Wagner’s version of the legend was one Woolf had ample opportunity to hear, and the Woolfs’ record collection later included a recording of excerpts of the opera.4 In the third volume of his autobiography, Leonard made the qualified observation that there was “more, perhaps, to be said for the early Wagner” than Der Ring (BA 50). Mrs. Dalloway’s intertextuality with Wagner’s opera places the novel in a matrix of discourses about music and Jews that includes this specific text representing the archetypal “Jew” “redeemed” by woman’s love, Wagner’s other operatic representations of Jews and Jewishness, and his published essays and private comments on Jews and music. It also inevitably engages other anti- and philo-Semitic discourses about music in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from fiction and poetry to popular caricature, racial theory, and academic musicology. This essay introduces Woolf’s responses to discourses about Jews and music through a twofold focus. First, it traces the relationship between Mrs. Dalloway and Der fliegende Holländer, exploring the significance of Wagner’s opera to Woolf’s novel. In doing so, it proposes that Woolf’s postwar interest in Wagner’s text crystallized around the figure of the displaced wanderer and the sexual politics of female self-sacrifice that are essential to this Wagnerian model of tragedy. Second, it considers the role and representation of Jewish individuals and religious practice in the novel. It suggests that Mrs. Dalloway’s intertextuality with Wagner’s opera is juxtaposed with its representations of displaced Jews in pre- and postwar England and with the novel’s extensive debts to Jewish mourning practice, shivah.5 As Leena Kore Schröder acknowledges, there “can be no straightforward account” of Woolf’s attitudes toward Jews and Jewishness (298); we have, collectively, been rightly attentive to Woolf’s anti-Semitism and that of her contemporaries, but this attention has arguably discouraged consideration of the possibility that such negative views of Jews coexisted with more sympathetic, informed, and creative responses to Judaism. Without wishing to act as an apologist for Woolf, I hope that this analysis of her knowledge and fictional use of Jewish theology might encourage further consideration of this underexplored subject.

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Medium 9780253008053

21. Teaching through Words, Teaching through Silence: Education after (and about) Auschwitz

Steven T Katz Indiana University Press ePub



REMEMBRANCE AND EDUCATION are closely related concepts. In some sense they are synonymous. If people have learned something they remember what others have told them or what they have read. After a process of learning students remember facts and stories, recollections of former events, tales of the past and historical incidents. In short, students have learned at least some aspects of “tradition,” meaning teachings and tales that have been passed down for centuries or even longer. In an ideal world learners bring what they remember in close contact with their own life experience or make it part of their life-world and identity.

In this light Elie Wiesel's words, work, and message devoted to memory have had a tremendous educational impact. The book Night1 is the cornerstone of an opus magnum that—like an ellipse—has two foci: (1) the remembrance of the Shoah and (2) humanistic values for today's world and for the future. The scope of his work thus encompasses both past and future. These two dimensions are central for any education, because young people must learn things that come from earlier times (language, writings, literature, historical events, any form of tradition, art, music) in order to understand themselves and the world in the present and to be prepared for the future. In the remainder of this contribution I shall explore Wiesel's writings in order to highlight aspects that are of educational relevance.

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Medium 9781857547658

A Lance for Hire: Four Hundred Years of Don Quixote

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

A Lance for Hire

F H Y  D Q

Miguel de Unamuno called it ‘the Spanish Bible’; Don Quixote may not be holy writ, but like all great literature it describes us.

Cervantes steps out of Spain when its golden age had waned so rapidly as to seem ‘no more than an illusion’ and tarries in ours.

We, on the other hand, remain within its thousand pages and are unable to lift ourselves out of its rather plot-poor scenery to the vanishing point that would bring it wholly within our historical purview.

I mention the vanishing point advertantly, because Cervantes lived at a juncture in European history that had already witnessed not only the Iberian discovery of the globe in the search for precious metals and spices and the invention of the printing press in the Rhine Valley, but a ground-breaking shift in trade practices that would eventually to lead to the superseding of feudal Europe itself. The discovery of perspective in Florentine art and architecture accompanied the import of that dangerous cipher zero out of the east. Zero has no referent in nature; it exists only in the mind.

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28. [Jevons's Studies in Deductive Logic]

Peirce, Charles S. PDF


W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

[Jevons Js Studies in Deductive Logic7

P 198: Nation 32 (31 March 1881): 227

Studies in Deductive Logic. By W. Stanley Jevons, LL.D. (London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1880.)

Some forty years ago the two mathematicians, De Morgan and

Boole, commenced a reform of formal logic. Their researches were continued by a number of other excellent thinkers (Mr. Jevons among them) in different countries, and the work is now so far advanced that the new logic is beginning to take its place in the curriculum of the universities, while many persons have imagined that some almost magical power of drawing conclusions from premises was to be looked for, and that logic would prove as fertile in new discoveries as mathematics. Concerning such hopes Professor Sylvester says: "It seems to me absurd to suppose that there exists in the science of pure logic anything which bears a resemblance to the infinitely developable and interminable heuristic processes of mathematical science."

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43. The Great Men of History

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


The Great Men of History

January 1892

Houghton Library

The following list of men who produce upon us the impression of greatness has been drawn up with great care. Of course, different students would make somewhat different lists; but in the main they would agree. A few names have been added in brackets which, though they are not exactly great, are very extraordinary.

Athanasius. 296–376.


Attila. 434–453.

Scourge of God.

St. Augustine. 354–430.


Augustus Caesar. B.C.63–A.D.14.


Marcus Aurelius. 121–180.

Emperor and moralist.

Sebastian Bach. 1685–1750.


Francis Bacon. 1561–1626.


Roger Bacon. 1214–1292.


Carl Ernst von Baer. 1792–1876.


Honoré de Balzac. 1799–1850.


Barneveldt. 1549–1619.


[Chevalier Bayard]. 1476–1524.

Le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche.

Thomas à Becket. 1117–1170.

Statesman and ecclesiastic.

Abelard. 1079–1142.


Aeschylus. B.C. 525–456.

Tragic poet.

Alcibiades. B.C. 450–404.


Alexander the Great. B.C. 356–323.

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Medium 9780253006257

1 - The Point of Entanglement: Modernism, Diaspora, and Toni Morrison's Love

Lovalerie King Indiana University Press ePub


We must return to the point from which we started. Diversion is not a useful ploy unless it is nourished by reversion: not a return to the longing for origins, to some immutable state of being, but a return to the point of entanglement, from which we forcefully turned away; that is where we must ultimately put to work the forces of creolization, or perish.


“The hooked C's on the silverware worried me because I thought he took casual women casually. But if doubled C's were meant to mean Celestial Cosey, he was losing his mind.”


Erzulie always holds the idea of love in suspension, for those who serve are after recollections of those experiences that must defeat or question that love.


A glance at selected journalistic assessments of Toni Morrison's novel Love reveals the intellectual shallowness and implicit critical contempt that are hallmarks of journalistic reviews of Black expressivity.1 Here is the judgment on Morrison provided for the New York Times by Michiko Kakutani:

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16. Promptuarium of Analytical Geometry

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


Promptuarium of Analytical

Geometry c. 1890

Houghton Library

Let P1 and P2 be any two points.



Now consider this expression l P1 ϩ (1 Ϫ l ) P2 where l is a number. P1 and P2 are not numbers, and therefore the binomial cannot be understood exactly as in ordinary algebra; but we are to seek some meaning for it which shall be somewhat analogous to that of algebra. If l ϭ 0, it becomes

0 P1 ϩ 1 P 2 and this we may take as equal to P2, making 0 P1 ϭ 0 and 1 P2 ϭ P2.

Then if l ϭ 1, the expression will become equal to P1. When l has any other value, we may assume that the expression denotes some other point, and as l varies continuously we may assume that this point moves continuously. As l passes through the whole series of real values, the point will describe a line; and the simplest assumption to make is that this line is straight. That we will assume; but at present we make no further assumption as to the position of the point on the line when l has values other than 0 and 1. We may write l P1 ϩ (1 Ϫ l ) P2 ϭ P3.

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15. A Comparison of Narrative Style in Mopan and Itzaj Mayan

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub



Itzaj and Mopan Maya are members of the Yukatekan branch of the Mayan language family spoken in the Maya lowlands of Guatemala and Belize. The distribution of Yukatekan languages at the time of contact is shown on map 15.1. As indicated on the map, Itzaj and Mopan territories are near one another. The Peten was under Mayan control until the Spanish Conquest of the Itzaj in 1697, a century and a half after the rest of the Mayan territories came under Spanish control (Hofling 2004, 2009; Jones 1998, 2009). Immediately prior to the Conquest, the Mopans were under Itzaj control, but the two groups did not have amicable relations. The Itzajs and Mopans appear to have fought one another repeatedly before the Spanish arrived. After the Conquest in 1697, both groups became more isolated. While some forced resettlement mixed both groups, for the most part they seem to have had little contact with one another in modern times (Hofling 2008).

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Medium 9780856832468


Kenneth Verity Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

The crown of literature is poetry.
It is its end and aim; it
is the sublimest activity of
the human mind.

W. Somerset Maugham

THE WORD poem derives from the Greek poiema, ‘something made, created’, and hence a work of art. A poem is a metrical composition, a work of verse, which may be in rhyme, blank verse, or a combination of the two. Its innate structure might require a fixed number of syllables, as does the sonnet (which has 14 lines, each containing 10 syllables) or the Japanese haiku (which has 17 syllables).

W.H. Auden (1907-73) suggests that, ‘In poetry you have a form looking for a subject and a subject looking for a form. When they come together successfully you have a poem.’ T.S. Eliot, in The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933), asserts that ‘no generation is interested in Art in quite the same way as any other; each generation, like each individual, brings to the contemplation of art its own categories of appreciation, makes its own demands upon art, and has its own uses of art.’ Poetry is an art form and as such its composition may be considered in two parts: what is expressed and how it has been achieved. In general, art is created in a sequential process which takes the conception forward from inception to completion:

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5 Terra Incognita: Mapping the Uncertain and the Unknown

Jane Stadler Indiana University Press ePub

The concept of terra incognita—unknown land—occupies a significant place in the Australian spatial imaginary. The notion that an antipodean landmass—a “great south land”—lay undiscovered (by the West, at least) in the unmapped emptiness below the known world fired the imaginations of philosophers, geographers, and explorers for some two thousand years before Europeans first made landfall on Australian coasts. According to Paul Arthur:

The concept of the antipodes was born out of an ancient geographical theory of balance. A giant southern continent (one far larger than the Australian landmass) featured in the classical imagination as early as the fifth century BC. Greek thinkers, including Pythagoras, Aristotle, and later Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy, supported the belief that the earth was spherical and that a great south land must exist to balance those of the northern hemisphere. These were theories that formed a basis for Renaissance geographical thought. (“Antipodean” 1864)

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33. Note on 0°

Peirce, Charles S. PDF


W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

Note on 0°

MS 399: Fall 1881-Spring 1882

Dr. Franklin has already pointed out that 0° is not indeterminate, except in special cases. But the matter may be considered from a somewhat different point of view from his. We know that unless x is of an infinite order, log x is of the zero order: hence, if x = 0 and y = 0, we have log xy — y log x = 0 unless either x be of an infinite order or y be of a zero order. In the former case, the form is not properly 0°, for xy = 0°°° — 0", the value of which depends upon the relation of the order of y to the order of the order of x. In the latter case, where y is of a zero order, the form is again not properly 0°, but is xv = 0°°. Properly speaking, then, 0° = 1, 0°° = 0, 0°°° = 1, etc.

From this point of view, it appears that the only quantity that is truly of the zero order, is unity. But what shall we say to such quantities as log 0, which are undoubtedly of a zero order without being unity?

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I Epilogue

Larry Lockridge Indiana University Press ePub

My brother and I were horsing around on our twin beds, struggling over the small lead replica of the Empire State Building our father had brought back from the East. Ernest aimed it at me as if it were a gun—“Bang! Bang! Pow!”—and on my back I deflected the bullets, kicking up at him fearlessly. Our anarchy was the better for knowing we’d have to put on Sunday School penitentials before long. The door opened and in walked our mother and Grandma Lockridge, which stopped our play. They were sleepy-eyed. Ernest, aged nine, knew something was wrong. Our mother placed her hand gently on his shoulder and said, “Honey, your father is dead. He died last night.”

Ernest screamed and fell sobbing on the floor and I, aged five, was puzzled and a little embarrassed, for Mom and Grandma didn’t make it sound so bad. Our father had been tired, he needed a rest, he was now in a warm and sunny land, but no, he wouldn’t be coming home soon.

I tried to see my father in a space above my own, walking carefree amid trees and flowers, and hoped he’d soon be rested up.

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2 Virginia Woolf and Musical Culture

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Mihály Szegedy-Maszák

ALTHOUGH VIRGINIA WOOLF WAS SKEPTICAL OF THE MERITS of any verbal approach to music, she was fascinated by the ideal of ut musica poesis. As she listened to a concert in 1915, she decided that “all descriptions of music are quite worthless” (D1: 33), yet she constantly drew inspiration from music. There is good reason to believe that as early as 1905 (PA 251) she became familiar with Walter Pater’s celebrated statement “All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music” (86), echoed by Oscar Wilde’s declaration in the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray: “From the point of view of form, the type of all the arts is the art of the musician” (17). “Its odd, for I’m not regularly musical, but I always think of my books as music before I write them,” she remarked toward the end of her life. “I want to investigate the influence of music on literature,” she added a few months before her death (L6: 426, 450).

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8 Literary Afterlives of Anne Frank

Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

Sara R. Horowitz

As a book in which the act of writing figures so centrally and self-consciously, Anne Frank’s widely read diary has, not surprisingly, engendered an especially rich array of literary responses. These include the literary efforts of inspired teenagers as well as poems and prose fiction by accomplished adult authors and extend to other works—exhibitions, films—in which Frank’s writing and the act of reading it become subjects of interest in themselves. As she is known as a chronicler and a symbol of something beyond her own life and historical moment, the literary figuring of Anne Frank and her diary gives a sense of the ways in which her life and writing have been engaged and given meaning. Her diary provides a model for later journaling under oppressive regimes or difficult economic, social, and personal circumstances. The matters that Frank mulls as she waits out the war—issues of divine and human nature, meaningfulness, identity, sexuality—as well as the unknowingness of the diary, and the imponderability of her fate—take on new dimensions in the hands of later novelists and filmmakers. Reaching across time and continents and in a range of languages, the reimagined Anne is understood as speaking not only to such things as anti-Semitism, human nature, and good and evil, but also to contemporary Jewish identity, fascism, sexuality, psychic pain, abuse, and resistance.

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