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Chapter Eighteen

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

An expedition like this might have made sense for a young woman, blessed with stout legs and sound eyes, thought Zuni. But for me it is utter folly, in all likelihood my last folly.

She was resting at a bend of Salt Creek where the current bared a sweep of water-smoothed stones. The rock on which she perched had the melony shape and milky whiteness of a dinosaur’s egg. Having already stumbled across a Roosevelt elk and the pawprint of a bear this morning, she would not have been surprised to feel the stone cracking beneath her or to see reptilian skin gleaming inside. The muscles of earth were quite capable of heaving forth anything you could imagine.

A dinosaur would feel at home in this dripping rainforest. Rain pattered on the hood of her parka, but she paid it no mind. The things of the world had already lost their edges in her blurred sight, so the added blur of rain made little difference. With the present moment crackling before her, why mope about the past? The valley of cinders, that burnt-out place she could no longer think of as home, lay nearly two days of walking behind her. The sanitation port lay three days farther back. Not a bad trek for these old pins, Zuni thought, rubbing her knees. Just beyond this bend, she remembered, the land fell away along a fault, the creek leapt over the brink of an escarpment and tumbled into a pool below. From there it meandered across a meadow, sliced through the coastal ridge, and emptied into Whale’s Mouth Bay.

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Medium 9781857547658

‘You Must Change Your Life’: A Letter from Kakania

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

‘You Must Change Your Life’

A L  K

Does memory have a colour? If it does, it must lie somewhere in the palette between sepia and mahogany. A beautiful word the latter, even if I hear it these days as the spaced-out syllables of

Brecht’s decadent city, Mahagonny. Ma-ha-gon-ny. Mahagonny was the prototypic American city dreamed up in Europe. A city redolent of stiff-backed Biedermeier furniture, sepia daguerreotypes,

Havana cigars, Worcestershire sauce, cocoa and the little lumps of dehydrated meat extract Nietzsche used to live on. When I was a boy they were called Oxo cubes.

And the more I look around, the more my observation receives official imprimatur. Memory is brown. Drive down the superefficient tollways after the Channel Tunnel, those long concrete snakes cut around the contoured hills and ideological carcases of la bonne vieille France, and you can hardly miss them, deep ochre panels pointing out one architectural marvel after another, one battlefield after the next, the great arks bearing a generation’s collective undertakings and understanding into the next. Cut off from the landscape by your car’s metal cocoon the brown signs whiz past, pointers to what you almost slid through, at high speed, unawares. These are your didactic lessons for the day, visual lozenges of the continent’s history. And by the time you turn east of Paris to travel the four hundred odd kilometres to the flatland of the Rhine Valley – Verdun, le grès rose des Vosges, Strasbourg et sa cathédrale – and Germany takes over – schwäbische Alb, Ulmer Dom,

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Medium 9780253372048

26. Notes on Associative Multiple Algebra

Peirce, Charles S. PDF

228

WRITINGS OF CHARLES S. PEIRCE, 1879-1884

Notes on Associative Multiple

Algebra

MS 382: Winter 1880-81

I.

A multiple algebra is one in which there are units of different qualities capable of being added and multiplied together. Thus, ordinary algebra is a double algebra the units being unity and a square root of negative unity. An associative algebra is one in which the multiplication of the units, though not generally commutative, is always associative. A linear algebra is one in which the number of linearly independent expressions is finite; but this restriction seems to be of little moment.

The theory of associative multiple algebra includes that of groups, a group being a special kind of associative algebra. My father in his work entitled Linear Associative Algebra has given a method for the discovery of all such systems of algebra, and has given

All the single algebras, 2 in number

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doubler

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3

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"

"

triple

"

5

"

"

" quadruple " 11 "

"

"

"

7

0 quintuple

" " sextuple algebras containing any expres-

"

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Medium 9780253356437

Six Jean Améry: The Anguish of the Witness

Alvin H. Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

For me, being a Jew means feeling the tragedy of yesterday as an inner oppression. On my left forearm I bear the Auschwitz number; it reads more briefly than the Pentateuch or the Talmud and yet provides more thorough information.

JEAN AMÉRY

To turn from a consideration of Holocaust victims to Holocaust survivors is to turn, one expects, from the dead to the living. In fact, though, the relationship of the living to the dead is less clearly defined within the troubled precincts of Holocaust memory. Far from encountering two sharply differentiated types—“victims” and “survivors”—one often finds an ontological status that is blurred and ambiguous. Lawrence Langer calls it “death-life.” The term is awkward but points suggestively to a mental state that Langer posits may be a “neglected legacy of the Holocaust experience.” Primo Levi exemplified it when, late in life, he confessed, “I had the sensation that I was living but without being alive.”1 In a wry allusion to Hamlet, Elie Wiesel puts it this way: “The problem is not: to be or not to be. But rather: to be and not to be.”2 The difficult experience of simultaneously living two existences—of being both here and still “there”—is familiar to Holocaust survivors. In the minds of many, the dead and those who have returned from the dead constitute a single, continuous, fated community.

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Medium 9780856832468

8 IDEALS AND DREAMS

Kenneth Verity Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

DURING THE LATE 18th century and the early half of the 19th, far-reaching revolutionary political changes were occurring in many areas of the world. A parallel upheaval in literature occurred, which contributed its own dimension to what became known as the Romantic Movement. Its adherents reacted against the restrictions of the classical style, valuing instead the importance of imagination, the free expression of emotion, and the beauty of life and nature. English Romantic poetry written in the first half of the 19th century represents a high point in the history of English literature. The following poets, with their spiritual characteristic, were prominent in the Romantic Movement in England:

Blake

The earliest poet of the group; a fundamental Christian.

Wordsworth

A poet with a pantheistic ‘natural piety’.

Byron

A writer who explored the passionate and the demonic.

Keats

Sensitive responses to eternal problems – art, life, death.

Shelley

An atheist whose poetry connected extremes of feeling.

Coleridge

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Medium 9780253006257

4 - Hip Hop (Feat. Women Writers): Reimagining Black Women and Agency through Hip Hop Fiction

Lovalerie King Indiana University Press ePub

EVE DUNBAR

“It's bigger than religion / Hip Hop / It's bigger than my niggas / Hip Hop,” chants Erykah Badu on “The Healer” off her 2008 release, New Amerykah, Part One: 4th World War. While Badu is typically considered a neo-soul artist, she is deeply enmeshed in the Hip Hop music world, occupying roles that range from singing hooks on popular rap songs to engaging in highly publicized romantic relationships with male artists. In this range of possibilities, female emcee does not rank highly. Still, “The Healer” speaks not only to Badu's claims on Hip Hop but also to her vision of what the music might be and become. In no uncertain words, Badu simultaneously raises Hip Hop to religious significance, while claiming it away from black men. Either rhetorical shift might be a form of sacrilege to some, but I begin with Badu's mantra in order to provide a historical perspective for understanding black popular cultural production during the first decade of the twenty first century and the role of women within the spheres of Hip Hop and black popular fiction. Sandwiched between the legal and personal troubles that dogged many female rappers1 and the interstellar rise of female rapper Nicki Minaj,2 Badu's chant speaks to the possibilities for the black female imagination in Hip Hop.

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Medium 9780253011992

1. The World of the Brivnshteler

Alice Nakhimovsky Indiana University Press ePub

The age of the brivnshteler was an age of modernization, which some Russian Jews pursued, some resisted, and most accommodated to one degree or another. The brivnshteler served as an agent of change, guiding Jewish readers in their adaption of new social, cultural, and economic realities. It was also a reflection of change, encompassing within its pages almost the full range of Jewish responses to modernization.

The earliest Russian brivnshtelers appeared against a backdrop of political and social fragmentation. In the early nineteenth century, the authority wielded by the rabbinate was under attack, as the spread of Hasidism gave rise to a competing religious establishment. The cohesion of Jewish communities was further broken by the military draft instituted by Nicholas I. With no good way out, community leaders used the children of the poor to fulfill conscription quotas dodged by the rich through influence and bribes. The kahal—the autonomous Jewish community council—continued to run local communities even after being formally outlawed in 1844,1 but its authority over individuals was considerably weakened.

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Medium 9780253356864

19. Kittlybenders

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

It affords me no satisfaction to commence to spring an arch before I have got a solid foundation. Let us not play at kittlybenders. There is a solid bottom every where. (222)

In the third Norton critical edition of Walden, William Rossi’s footnote defines kittlybenders as “a game in which children attempt to run or skate on thin ice without breaking it” (222), but the word would probably be entirely forgotten if Thoreau had not mentioned it as something not to play. Since Thoreau enjoyed skating, covering, according to Richardson (334), as much as thirty miles at a stretch and reaching fourteen miles an hour, why does he reject kittlybenders? Thoreau’s characteristic strategy in Walden involves using architectural and spatial vocabulary to represent thinking and living. Thus, kittlybenders’ literal danger serves as a metaphor for the hazards of a life without foundations, an argument without grounds. “There is a solid bottom everywhere,” Thoreau reminds us, in a figure that recurs in Walden:

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Medium 9780253211903

9. On Science and Natural Classes (1902)

Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 427. [Published in CP 1.203-37. Written in February 1902, this selection comes from Chapter II of Peirce’s projected book, “Minute Logic.”] In this selection, excerpted from a broader discussion on logic and the classification of sciences, Peirce discusses his theory of natural classes and classification, and presents his conception of science. The problem of natural classes had been of interest to Peirce from early in his career, when he was concerned with distinguishing his views from those of J. S. Mill, but here he refines his views by giving final causation a prominent role in his theory. Natural classes are defined by final causes, though not necessarily by purposes. peirce then characterizes science as “a living thing,” not the collection of “systematized knowledge on the shelves.” Science is what scientists do; it “consists in actually drawing the bow upon truth with intentness in the eye, with energy in the arm.” Peirce argues that the divisions of science that have grown out of its practice are natural classes.

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Medium 9780253008053

17. Whose Testimony? The Confusion of Fiction with Fact

Steven T Katz Indiana University Press ePub

LAWRENCE L. LANGER

THROUGHOUT MOST OF his life Primo Levi insisted that his first book, Se questo é un uomo (If This Is a Man, published in the United States as Survival in Auschwitz), was not the work of a writer but simply a compilation of stories he had been telling to friends and strangers since his return from Auschwitz in October 1945. He had, he said repeatedly, no interest in producing a literary work but only a desire—indeed, a compelling need—to inform the world about his experience in Auschwitz, and in so doing to make a contribution to the history rather than to the literature of the Holocaust. He began work on the book soon after his return and finished it at the end of 1946. As is well known, he then submitted the manuscript without success to some of Italy's major publishers until a minor independent house agreed to issue a small edition of 2,000 in October 1947. It received little attention, sold 1,500 copies, and was quickly forgotten.

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Medium 9780253016300

3 Aryeh Lev Stollman’s The Far Euphrates: Re-Picturing the Pre-Memory Moment

Emily Miller Budick Indiana University Press ePub

Re-Picturing the Pre-Memory Moment

CYNTHIA OZICKS THE SHAWL is not primarily about the problem of subject position. Yet it frames that problem in ways that open up the subject of Holocaust fiction to dazzling new scrutiny. In Art Spiegelman’s Maus the problem of subject position moves to the center of the text. Frame after frame as the novel unfolds, and frame within frame as we read each of the storytellers/story-listeners enfolded within the other, we experience the profound impact of every listener’s fantasies and fears concerning the stories being told. Each of these subject positions in turn gets expressed in the stories each listener turned narrator tells. In both The Shawl and Maus the exposure of the characters’ subjectivities within the texts and of the author outside it frames our own reading. It holds up to us the mirror of the characters’ (and sometimes the authors’) failures to examine or deal adequately with their own fears and fantasies about the Holocaust. These fantasies and fears reflect not only their conscious thoughts about the Holocaust but also their largely unconscious motivations and incentives to think and behave in certain ways.

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3. Awake

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

Morning is when I am awake and there is a dawn in me. Moral reform is the effort to throw off sleep.… To be awake is to be alive. I have never yet met a man who was quite awake. How could I have looked him in the face?

We must learn to reawaken and keep ourselves awake, not by mechanical aids, but by an infinite expectation of the dawn. (64)

Walden’s rich mysteriousness often derives from Thoreau’s own ambivalence. “The fact is,” he reported to his journal, “I am a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a natural philosopher to boot” (J, 5 March 1853). Emerson’s Neoplatonic transcendentalism had regarded the material world as a set of signs pointing to more important spiritual truths, and Walden often reflects that lesson. Thus, although Thoreau provides the exact details of planting and nurturing his crops, insisting “I was determined to know beans,” he immediately shifts registers: “Not that I wanted beans to eat … but, perchance, as some must work in fields if only for the sake of tropes and expression, to serve a parable-maker one day” (111). In “Brute Neighbors,” a chapter nominally devoted to the pond’s wildlife, Thoreau strikes the same note, proposing that “animals … are all beasts of burden, in a sense, made to carry some portion of our thoughts” (153).

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2. Narnia: An Imaginary Land as Container of Moral and Emotional Adventure

Margaret Rustin Karnac Books ePub

C.S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia are among the most successful of a long line of books for children which use the device of transporting children into a world outside our everyday world of experience.1 In such worlds, we can encounter different kinds of tiny creatures, different historical moments and landscapes, and child heroes can have adult-scale adventures. The child reader can bear the terrors of moral choices in which the death of goodness is at stake, in the knowledge that the children facing these also have a secure place back home in the ordinary world of family life and school, where adults are of human dimensions, and children’s responsibilities are limited. Lewis described the books as ‘fairy tales’, and drew attention to the implicit appeal to both adults and children of this genre and his writing, and the series is one which can be read at multiple levels of sophistication. The popularity of the Narnia books is in part based on the satisfaction available to adult and child in a shared reading, and the possibility for a child to re-read old favourites at changing levels of understanding.

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Medium 9780253372024

APPENDIX

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

493

Oliver to Peirce, 1871

invertible, facient-mvertible,

faciend-invertible], non-mvertibleJ

; whereof,

for convenience you denote all but the first by one sign; while addition, being commutative, is of only 2 kinds? And here is a question of notation: your (xy)z = xyz is far more neatly written than Hamilton's (xy)z = xzy; but is not his the most natural in its relation to the usual subject-matter?—These are the chief questions that I would care to raise now, concerning pp. 1-5; though there are 1 or 2 others that I must look at again.

As regards notation, your z(yx) = zyx is very neat, if you write y z

(x ) = xyz. So is >- or —<. I had abandoned it for ) or (, as easier written; but >— lends itself better to work like that /on p.y 31.

Of +, and — we will speak presently. /Andy the new notation on these pages, is apparently well-suited for your present purpose, but I agree with you in not recommending it for GENERAL Algebra. Thus, the comma can hardly be spared from its old use as a non-commutative mark of mere collection;

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Medium 9780253007278

15 Fast and Loose

Gerald Sorin Indiana University Press ePub

Two months after Being Red came out, Howard told an apparently credulous journalist from People’s Weekly, “Ideally, I would prefer to spend my life on the third floor of a tenement in a run-down neighborhood surrounded by left-wing lunatics.” Fast, however, was making this pronouncement from his splendid seven-figure home in Greenwich. And he admitted that his house in that affluent Connecticut suburb was a “form of exile from the gritty life of an urban activist.”1

In speaking earlier with another journalist from Bridgeport Newsday, Fast had begun to contrast the plight of the poor during the Great Depression with what he called the “Easy Street” now provided by public welfare, but then broke off—apparently having realized that he sounded further to the right than he had intended. “I’m not against welfare,” he protested mightily.2 And later with the same degree of defiance he said that the $3 million he was worth was mostly in Treasury bonds. “Not a penny in unearned wealth. Just the sweat of my own labor,” Fast said, again missing an opportunity to have a serious discussion in the media about the nature and causes of poverty and the wide gap between rich and poor in post-Reagan America, and perhaps to remind himself and his wealthy Connecticut neighbors that Marx had once said, quite correctly, that poverty was a political condition and not an economic inevitability.3

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