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6. Think Again!

Peirce, Charles S. PDF


W R I T I N G S OF P E I R C E , 1857-1866

Think Again!

P 1: Harvard Magazine

4 (April 1858): 100-105

He that knows better how to tame a shrew,

Now let him speak; 't is charity to show.


A writer in the Magazine has already awaked to the fact that Shakespeare is not what he is cracked up to be, and proclaims himself a reformer accordingly. But his business will be no very difficult task, if undertaken with characteristic modesty; for few of us either love or read the works of Shakespeare much. As for the Iliad and Odyssey, they have long been detested by Juniors and Freshmen generally, and the Vedas are now held up by professors to be laughed at by students.

Yet these three have been considered the sublimest poems out of the

Bible. Does all this show that the delicacies of Tennyson and Browning, or else the inevitable progress of the mind, have given us a distaste for the rudeness and meagreness of these old poets? No. At no time since Shakespeare's day, at least at no time since Nicholas Rowe, have they been so well appreciated. Johnson and Pope, for example, had no kindred feeling with either the Greek or the English poet. This will hardly be questioned, but I will support it by an example or two. Johnson never could wade through Homer, although he was well read on most other branches of Greek literature. He has the following criticism on Cymbeline:—

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2 Virginia Woolf and Musical Culture

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Mihály Szegedy-Maszák

ALTHOUGH VIRGINIA WOOLF WAS SKEPTICAL OF THE MERITS of any verbal approach to music, she was fascinated by the ideal of ut musica poesis. As she listened to a concert in 1915, she decided that “all descriptions of music are quite worthless” (D1: 33), yet she constantly drew inspiration from music. There is good reason to believe that as early as 1905 (PA 251) she became familiar with Walter Pater’s celebrated statement “All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music” (86), echoed by Oscar Wilde’s declaration in the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray: “From the point of view of form, the type of all the arts is the art of the musician” (17). “Its odd, for I’m not regularly musical, but I always think of my books as music before I write them,” she remarked toward the end of her life. “I want to investigate the influence of music on literature,” she added a few months before her death (L6: 426, 450).

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14. Humor through Yucatec Mayan Stories

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub



Yucatec Maya people have a bold and bawdy sense of humor, especially when expressed through stories about authority. Humorous, slapstick narratives about wayward priests, statues that magically come to life and run away from irate husbands, and descriptions of religious masses interpreted through the eyes of naive country Maya are enjoyed and retold to the delight of audiences—young and old, male and female.

In this chapter I explore the social and linguistic context for humor based on poking fun at religious authorities. The narratives for the analysis were spoken and recorded in Yucatec Mayan. As with many uses of the Mayan language in the Mexican Yucatan, attitudes, emotions, and humor are performed with greater exuberance when speaking Mayan as opposed to Spanish. Even prohibitions against off-color humor in cross-gender settings disappear when Mayan rather than Spanish is the language of communication. Once when I was teaching a class on Mayan grammar to bilingual schoolteachers at the Autonomous University of the Yucatan (Burns 1998), one of the women in the class asked if Spanish-speaking people lacked an interest in sex. I asked why she thought they were disinterested. She answered, “Well, they never make jokes about sex like we do, and they never seem to laugh.” Humor in Yucatec Mayan is less gender marked than that in Spanish or English. Maya women are known for their risqué comments, and they delight in catching men—whether their husbands or others—in a double entendre. “What hangs down all day from a man’s waist,” the same woman continued, “but stands upright all night?” When I wouldn’t answer for fear of saying something off-color, she said, “His machete! Ha ha ha,” to the delight of this male and female group of rural bilingual teachers.

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15 - Toward the Theoretical Practice of Conceptual Liberation: Using an Africana Studies Approach to Reading African American Literary Texts

Lovalerie King Indiana University Press ePub


Africana Studies is an academic extension of what Cedric Robinson has called “The Black Radical Tradition.” This tradition is notable for emerging out of a pre-existing constellation of African intellectual work, shaped by millennia of subsequent migration, adaptation, and improvisation. Through the central acts of translation and recovery,1 Africana Studies seeks to theorize out of long-view genealogies of African intellectual work. This process has been captured with striking impact by the writer and translator Ayi Kwei Armah, both in his fictional texts Two Thousand Seasons (1972), KMT: In the House of Life (2002), Osiris Rising (1995), and in his memoir/historiography The Eloquence of the Scribes (2006). Armah and other key theoreticians have set themselves the task of intentionally linking that series of migrations, adaptations, and improvisations from the origins of humanity to the present, integrating wave after wave of challenges and solutions to the problems of African human existence as a series of interlinked episodes, of which the period of enslavement and colonialism is a very recent and very temporary set of moments.

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Epilogue: A “Second Holocaust”?

Alvin H. Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

The use of even one nuclear bomb inside Israel will destroy everything. … It is not irrational to contemplate such an eventuality.


The second Holocaust. It’s a phrase we may have to begin thinking about. A possibility we may have to contemplate. A reality we may have to witness.


Shortly before the end of the last century, the political scientist Walter Truett Anderson published a brief article calling attention to a spate of books that struck him as constituting a new subgenre of literature. These works were all about “the end of” something—history, affluence, the nation-state, education, work, ideology, etc. Spotting over nine hundred titles that began with those portentous three words, Anderson realized that, with the approaching end of the twentieth century, a trend was in the making. In part, he decried it, labeling the easy recourse to the rhetoric of termination “promiscuous” and little more than a “literary device.” At the same time, he acknowledged that the emergence of a voluminous literature projecting “the end of” so much that was familiar and valued needed to be taken seriously. Were we moving not only into a new century but a profoundly different world, marked by a “final shutdown of some piece of life as we have known it to be or hoped for it to become?”1 Anderson suspected we were.

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6. Spirits of Bandung: A Sarcastic Subject Writes to Empire

Akinwumi Adesokan Indiana University Press ePub

One of the most fascinating ironies of neoliberal globalization is that the wide-ranging and deep-running transformations of the world that have accompanied this socioeconomic (dis)order have not crippled political actions of the most uncompromisingly radical kind. If anything, those transformations have often freed radical political imaginations. Technological, institutional, and demographic changes such as I have discussed throughout this book—the emergence of “network society,” the dominance of postmodernist, pixilated, or fragmented identities, antipodal identifications, the crisis of modern sovereignty in the polyforum—all suggest different ways of being in and engaging with the world that are hardly reducible to (though not necessarily incompatible with) the old antagonism characteristic of classical binarisms. Perhaps Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s reminder that unresolved antagonism is the preferred political situation in a social space (2001, xvi) makes this situation less ironic. This renewed antagonism is the spur for the political writings of Arundhati Roy, the Indian (Keralan) writer who is the focus of the present chapter.

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5 Occupations and Food

Vladimir Nalivkin Indiana University Press ePub

ISLAM RECOGNIZES staying at home and working hard as the best deeds for a woman. A pious, hardworking Sart man is called sufi (pure, godly), and a housewifely woman is mastura (homebody),1 but very few young women can qualify for this description.2 Having observed men and women for several years, we have come to the conclusion that there is a huge difference between them when they are the same age. A woman up to twenty-five or thirty years of age usually has little interest in housework or any other labor. If she is not forced to work by poverty or a husband’s pressure, she would not lift her finger and would run around visiting others, strumming a dutor [two-stringed lute], pounding a tambourine, and gossiping; the most she can do is sew a new dress for herself. The man is the other way round; before thirty to thirty-five, he is extremely hardworking, serious, and ambitious. In many families, he takes on the heaviest load in agriculture, crafts, and trade starting at age ten or twelve, while the majority of girls who are soon to be brides can do almost nothing. However, when they become mature, the roles of an average man and woman change. He often becomes deficient in energy and sedentary, even lazy; she, on the contrary, does not lose her energy and ambition until a very advanced age and, with very rare exceptions, becomes very energetic, good at homemaking, and hardworking. We see old gray-haired women who spend the whole day on their feet, never stop working, baking bread or sewing or weaving or preparing food, moki dek yurubti, running back and forth like a weaver’s shuttle.

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9. Some Historical Continuities in Lowland Maya Magical Speech Genres: Keying Shamanic Performance

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub


Keying Shamanic Performance


The Yucatecan Maya genre of u thanil literally means “the word of” but is perhaps better translated as “incantation” (Gubler 1996; Roys 1965). U thanil are often performed for the purposes of curing, although incantations related to other domains of life, such as fire drilling and hunting, also appear in the documentary record. Most of the known Colonial examples of this genre appear in the manuscript known as the Ritual of the Bacabs (Arzápalo Marín 1987; Roys 1965).1 The extant manuscript copy of the Ritual of the Bacabs dates to the late eighteenth century; however, some framing devices of the u thanil genre appear in Late Classic Maya hieroglyphic texts, predating these Colonial examples by a millennium. As such, the Ritual of the Bacabs is an important point of departure for identifying some historical continuities and discontinuities of lowland Maya magical speech genres. Although known Classic Maya hieroglyphic texts were neither the antecedents of, nor themselves composed as, incantations, I argue that some Classic period texts incorporate framing devices from the otherwise unwritten antecedents of u thanil to connect the activities of political elites to the medium of shamanic performance.

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10 As Time Goes By

Ray E. Boomhower Indiana University Press ePub

AS A GRADUATE STUDENT AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITYS Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, Illinois, Jim Borg took an independent writing class in the fall of 1975 that required him to research and write an article that might be suitable for publication in such national periodicals as Esquire or The New Yorker. A few months earlier, Chicago newspapers had been full of reports about the death of Steven Stawnychy, a recruit at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center who had been abused by his instructors. On the evening of June 3, 1975, Stawnychy had committed suicide by letting himself be struck by a Chicago and North Western train. “He walked over and laid his head down on the tracks,” said the engineer of the train that hit Stawnychy. “When I realized what he was up to, I just went into ‘emergency’ and tried to stop – but, of course, it was too short a distance.” For his article, Borg wanted to “put all the pieces together into a comprehensive story that also looked at Stawnychy’s background” in an attempt to unravel why the recruit had taken his own life.1

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1. The Voice of a Native Informer: Salomon Maimon Describes Life in Polish Lithuania / Liliane Weissberg

Gabriella Safran Indiana University Press ePub

Salomon Maimon Describes Life in Polish Lithuania


The discipline of ethnography, writing—graphein—about ethnicity as scholarly endeavor, is an invention of the late eighteenth century, when descriptions of peoples, their customs, and their cultures began to flourish. Of course, travel accounts of foreign lands and their populations existed earlier, as well as descriptions of foreign customs and lifestyles, but it was only in the late eighteenth century that these texts were viewed as “scientific,” as part of a scholarly discipline, or Wissenschaft.

Early scientific literature in this field was mostly written in German. The historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller took part in the second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–1743) and issued descriptions of various peoples and tribes.1 His account may be the first detailed description of a foreign encounter cast for a reading public at home. August Ludwig von Schlözer published his Vorstellung einer Universalgeschichte (Introduction to Universal History) in 1772, and his colleague at the University of Göttingen, Johann Christoph Gatterer, translated his genealogical knowledge into his own version of world history.2 Both authors aimed to expand historical and geographical knowledge by turning to the East. While Müller still sought to describe peoples, or engage in “Völker-Beschreibung” (1740),3 these scholars began to coin terms that would name the emerging discipline and separate it from the already existing field of history. The new research would be named ethnographia (1767–1771), Völkerkunde (1771–1775), or ethnologia (1781–1783).4

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20. Chapter IV. The Logic of Plural Relatives

Peirce, Charles S. PDF

Logic of Plural Relatives, 1880


which the term denotes; and the denotation may be limited by specifying what the other n objects are.

Logic may be divided into the logic of non-relatives, the logic of dual relatives or those of the first degree and order, and the logic of plural relatives. Any relative having x as one of its correlates may be combined with a triple relative having x for its relate and having two correlates to produce a relative having one more correlate than the first. And conversely any relative having more than one correlate may be regarded as a compound of two, one of which has all the correlates of the first except two and also x, while the other is a triple relative having x for its relate and for its two correlates those two of the first relative which are absent from the second. If in the last two sentences we everywhere interchange the words relate and correlate, they remain equally true; it follows that every plural relative not triple may be regarded as a compound of triple relatives; so that we may conceive all terms to be single, dual, or triple.1

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38. On the Logic of Number

Peirce, Charles S. PDF

Logic of Number, 1881


On the Logic of Number

P 187: American Journal of Mathematics

4 (1881): 85-95

Nobody can doubt the elementary propositions concerning number: those that are not at first sight manifestly true are rendered so by the usual demonstrations. But although we see they are true, we do not so easily see precisely why they are true; so that a renowned

English logician has entertained a doubt as to whether they were true in all parts of the universe. The object of this paper is to show that they are strictly syllogistic consequences from a few primary propositions. The question of the logical origin of these latter, which

I here regard as definitions, would require a separate discussion. In my proofs I am obliged to make use of the logic of relatives, in which the forms of inference are not, in a narrow sense, reducible to ordinary syllogism. They are, however, of that same nature, being merely syllogisms in which the objects spoken of are pairs or triplets. Their validity depends upon no conditions other than those of the validity of simple syllogism, unless it be that they suppose the existence of singulars, while syllogism does not.

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Johnson, Owen V. Indiana University Press ePub

The homing pundit breaks his long silence and
solves the solution of most everything

. . .

MY FOLKS—They got through the winter all right, with a few heavy colds but nothing worse. The new oil heater worked fine. My Aunt Mary was thinking about going to Finland to drive an ambulance, but the armistice stopped that. . . .1

Census catches Ernie and spoils his little scheme

BIRMINGHAM, Ala.— . . .

We slowed down in Orlando, to see the boy who was my closest chum from the time we were eight until we were 18, back in Indiana. His name is Thad Hooker and, like me, he is no longer much of a boy.

In the years that have passed his new acquaintances have warped “Thad” into “Ted,” and that is the name he goes by now. He has heard it so long he hardly answers to his old name.

He puts lath on new houses for a living, and there are plenty of new houses in Orlando, and pretty ones too. But my friend both lives and laths in order to be able to fish. He has come a long way from the tree-pole and cork-floater fishing of our creek days.

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41. Review of Chambers’s Pictorial Astronomy

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


Review of Chambers’s

Pictorial Astronomy

26 November 1891

The Nation

Pictorial Astronomy for General Readers. By George F. Chambers, F.R.A.S. Macmillan & Co. 1891. 16mo, pp. 267.

There is no lack of popular books about astronomy by those who look upon the subject from the inside, as, Herschel, Secchi, Newcomb,

Langley, Young, Lockyer, Ball. Mr. Chambers is none of these. He is not a scientific observer of the stars, nor has he an ordinary astronomer’s acquaintance with celestial mechanics. He is a well-known compiler of astronomical books, useful in their way, but marked by incompleteness and a want of discrimination. The present little treatise will serve the purpose of a person who wants some light reading with pictures touching most of those important topics of astronomy that call for no mental exertion, about right in most of its statements, and not seriously unjust in many of its appreciations. To show how simple everything is here made, we annotate a short passage taken almost at random. The numerals in parentheses refer to our remarks below:

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Paris, France: An Afternoon with Mavis Gallant

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

Paris, France

A A  M G

At her suggestion we met up on the terrace of Le Dôme. In several years of living in Paris, I’d never been there. Too much the mythic sanctuary perhaps, too obviously smart-set these days to attract a novice. And climbing up the stairs at métro Vavin just outside the café, it occurred to me that there couldn’t be too many writers left in Paris bold enough to be so obviously literary. It was clearly a refuge for Mavis Gallant; one of her press photographs shows her sitting with a demi-tasse in front of her. The lettering on the cup says it for Le Dôme. And once inside, I could see it was a strategic choice

– a neutral zone just round the corner from her apartment in the sixième with a view down the boulevard Montparnasse, an area of

Paris which serves as setting for several of her stories. Choose a coffee-house and you announce to the world what you think of it:

Le Dôme’s fame started back in the s, when the patron of the nearby La Rotonde refused to serve a young American woman who had the culot to sit hatless and smoke on his terrace. Before the First World War it had been one of Apollinaire’s haunts; the early dômiers were principally German painters, Französlinge, and as he noted in his Paris-Journal, the café’s name to ‘tedescan’ ears has the sonorous boom – der Dom – of an actual cathedral. And wasn’t this the café that had made poor young V.S. Pritchett feel ‘cast down’, having sat there while the Twenties span dizzily about him?

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