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5 Bull Connor Is Long Dead: Let’s Move On

Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

Over time, the Voting Rights Act has evolved into one of the most ambitious legislative efforts in the world to define the appropriate balance between the political representation of majorities and minorities in the design of democratic institutions.

RICHARD H. PILDES, PROFESSOR OF
LAW, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

In January 2009 Barack Obama became the first black leader of the free world, winner of an election in which his race was clearly no barrier, and may well have been an advantage. He won a larger share of the white vote than the previous two nominees of his party, and turnout for African Americans ages eighteen to forty-four was higher than that for whites.1 President Obama’s victory was unmistakably the end of an era and the welcome beginning of a new one. Whatever one thinks of his politics, his stunning success is a historic turning point. Integration was the aim of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and much of the 1960s, and, by the ultimate test, American politics is now integrated. Blacks have been a major force in American politics for decades – and now they have reached its highest peak.

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2. Development, Goals, and Structure of Intermediate Sanctions Programs

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 2

Development, Goals, and

Structure of Intermediate

Sanctions Programs

THE EMERGENCE OF INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS

Prior to the 1980s, the standard sentencing options for judges consisted of probation or incarceration. Although community-based programs, such as probation, restitution, community service, and halfway houses, were available in the 1960s and 1970s, they lost credibility and support mainly because they were shown to be ineffective in a number of ways

(Tonry, 1997). It was not until the early 1980s as correctional crowding became a serious problem that alternatives to incarceration, or intermediate sanctions, were formally organized into state correctional options (Lurigio & Petersilia, 1992). Boot camps and intensive supervision probation and parole emerged in the middle 1980s and the other, fragmented assortment of programs, such as community service and home confinement, were “repackaged” and formally implemented as intermediate sanctions. Three main correctional issues prompted the need for change in corrections and led to the formal development of intermediate sanctions in the middle 1980s: a lack of success with felony probationers and to a lesser extent, parolees, severe overcrowding in prisons and jails, and inadequate sentencing choices.

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Medium 9781574411676

12 “An altered state of consciousness”

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter twelve

“An altered state of consciousness”

“Brain damage is fairly common.”

—Dr. John Mullen an Assistant Professor of

Neurological Surgery and Neurology

I

A

fter the defense rested, Norman Kinne lined up witnesses who had dealings with Belachheb and were ready to testify that he was perfectly sane. Oh, he was odd, and in their minds maybe a little crazy, but he was certainly someone who had enough mental capacity to know the difference between right and wrong.

The first of the witnesses was Beth.1 She was a secretary for a law firm and the person who had introduced Abdelkrim

Belachheb to Joanie. She described Belachheb as a selfish schemer who readily admitted that he needed to marry a woman who had money—an American who could help him secure permanent residency in the United States. According to Beth, he seemed to have found what he wanted in Joanie, who spent large sums of her limited income on his expensive tastes. He had nice clothes, memberships in clubs, and drank to excess in plush bars and restaurants (not to mention his custom wig). Beth even testified that

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5.4 Method statements and work procedures

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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4. Boot Camps

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 4

Boot Camps

BACKGROUND

Boot camps are highly popular residential intermediate sanctions typically used for young offenders and provide for very structured and military-like activities such as strict discipline, physical training and labor, drill, and a regimented schedule of daily activities. Boot camps differ from other intermediate sanctions in that participants are incarcerated, albeit for short and intensive terms, participants are often under the jurisdiction of state or county correctional departments and therefore considered inmates, and many boot camps are located on or near prison grounds.

Although the term boot camp is often used synonymously with shock incarceration, boot camps are actually only one form of shock incarceration. Shock incarceration programs vary, but the common feature is that an offender is confined for some period; this incarceration experience is typically brief but intense. As the term suggests, the idea behind shock incarceration is to provide a deterrent shock or jolt to the offender. To achieve this sense of shock, boot camps are structured and emphasize discipline and rigorous physical training. Boot camps differ from other forms of shock incarceration in that participants are separated from other inmates, participate in physical training drill, and the atmosphere of the program is militaristic in nature with a strict daily structure of activities (MacKenzie & Shaw, 1993).

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