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5. Water: Shared Ownership

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub

WATER: SHARED OWNERSHIP

States neighboring Texas claim ownership of their surface water and groundwater. The states share surface water, from major boundary rivers to hundreds of streams and creeks. The Red River and the Sabine River form part of our boundaries with Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Texas shares transboundary aquifers with New Mexico, and the Rio Grande springs from Colorado and New Mexico headwaters. In any dispute between states over surface water, the only court with jurisdiction is the United States Supreme Court.

OKLAHOMA, ARKANSAS, LOUISIANA, AND NEW MEXICO

To date there have been few disputes with our neighboring states other than some boundary disputes with Oklahoma as the Red River meanders—disputes concerning oil and gas reserve locations. The Sabine River between Texas and Louisiana is located in the wet area of the state in relation to rainfall, so the potential for disputes over water issues is lessened. However, the Sabine springs from headwaters in Texas, and any diversion of Sabine flow would certainly concern Louisiana, as any diversion of the Sabine on the Louisiana side would Texas. The Canadian River flows through the Texas Panhandle from New Mexico through a large part of Oklahoma. Any diversions by New Mexico and/or Texas concern Oklahoma. In the early twentieth century the Elephant Butte Reservoir on the Rio Grande caused quite a debate, but Texas and New Mexico came to agreement and the reservoir was built.

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Medium 9781574413175

Chapter 5: To the Courts

Bill Neal University of North Texas Press PDF

5

CHAPTER

To the Courts

From Guns to Gavels

AS THE STORY OF THE BLOODY Boyce-Sneed feud continued

to unfold for more than two years—more melodramatic than any modern soap opera—lurid newspaper accounts of a scandalous romance, the stalking, the killings, and the sensational murder trials titillated readers all across America and Canada (where the press continued to take an unusually condescending and voyeuristic interest). Every twist of the tale seemed even more unbelievable than the last, and it not only shocked the nation but shook the pillars of West

Texas society.

The courtroom dramas, riveting enough as they were in their own right, also served to bring into sharp focus the marked differences between the liberal values emerging in the northern states and the traditional Victorian morals, customs, and religious beliefs still so deeply imbedded in southern culture—all this at the dawning of the new century when these “Old South” values were first beginning to be seriously challenged.

<=

When they slammed shut the jailhouse door on John Beal Sneed for the killing of Colonel Boyce, the entire drama abruptly shifted

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Medium 9781902375014

6.4 Implications of survey findings

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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Medium 9781902375014

1.3 Interpreting ISO 9001

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 1

Development and implementation of ISO 9000

1.1 Introduction

Formal quality management systems are increasingly recognised worldwide as an essential attribute of any business. The objectives of quality management are to create and sustain management systems that are sound professionally, commercially, operationally and contractually.

In the 1970s, a large number of national standards were developed for quality systems used in the manufacturing, military and nuclear industries. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, formal quality management techniques were applied in many other business sectors including the service industry and professional organisations. The first quality management standards were not drafted for professional services but these still form the basis for all third party assessments in the service industry. The services provided by building professionals such as architects, engineers and quantity surveyors, unlike a product, often cannot be easily set down tangibly. These services and judgements are highly personalised and intangible. Issues change from time to time and very often there is no single way or an absolute answer to a set of problems, which cannot simply be reduced to pre-planned checklists and routines.

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Medium 9781902375014

5.7 Contractors’ site staff

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9780253020925

6 Regulating Land Rights in Late Nineteenth-Century Salt: The Limits of Legal Pluralism in Ottoman Property Law

Schull, Kent F. Indiana University Press ePub

Nora Barakat

THIS ARTICLE EXAMINES the relationship between different district-level decision-making bodies in the late nineteenth-century Ottoman context. Using Sharia court records and property registers produced in the rural Syrian district of Salt as well as investigations from the district that reached Istanbul, I explore the roles and personnel of various courts and bureaucratic offices involved in allocating rights to landed property and settling disputes over land. With this examination, I aim to add nuance to characterizations of the late Ottoman legal system as pluralistic. These descriptions have emphasized Ottoman litigants’ abilities to choose between multiple state-sanctioned legal forums with overlapping duties, especially Sharia and Nizamiye courts, to obtain the most beneficial ruling.1 I argue that in the realm of property law, litigants had different goals when approaching the various courts and bureaucratic agencies governing land relations in Salt and their cases had different possible outcomes. Investigating the discrete roles of these government agencies and courts in different areas of late Ottoman law and governance is crucial for a deeper understanding of litigants’ experience of the late Ottoman legal environment.

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Medium 9781574411522

3 Food

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter three

food

I

nmates in Texas prison eat in the chow halls because they have to, not because they want. Any chef will tell you that the quality of a meal drops with the amount of people you have to feed. In TDCJ, minimally trained cooks prepare from 1,000 to 3,000 meals three times a day, under minimal quality standards, and with only the pride they and an occasional professional wearing TDCJ gray bring to their jobs. The courts have ruled, and rightly so, that good taste cannot be dictated. The standard applied to institutional meals is that they be hot and nutritious. In turn, state dieticians and various medical experts set out the nutritional standards TDCJ follows. Inmates get three meals a day, and if an inmate eats all that he is offered, he will be assured of the minimal daily requirements of vitamins and minerals that medical experts say he needs to survive.

Meals consist of: three four-ounce servings of three different vegetables; a four-ounce serving of beans; a scoop of potatoes or rice; a piece of meat

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Medium 9781605099866

Tool A: Filing a Sarbanes-Oxley Whistleblower Complaint

Tom Devine Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 resulted from the congressional response to problems highlighted in the corporate failures of Enron and World-Com.1 Trust and confidence in financial markets were eroded by the daily news of accounting irregularities and possible fraudulent acts occurring at major corporations around the country.2 The legislation sought to establish a framework to deal with conflicts of interest that undermined the integrity of the capital markets. The act is applicable to public companies only.3

To secure the integrity of the capital markets, Congress determined that meaningful protections must be provided for whistleblowers.4 Congress attempted to protect the corporate whistleblower from being punished for having the moral courage to break the corporate code of silence.5 As Senator Patrick Leahy acknowledged during the debate regarding the act, When sophisticated corporations set up complex fraud schemes, corporate insiders are often the only ones who can disclose what happened and why.6

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 18 – Lockdowns

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

lockdowns

Rarely does TDCJ label anything so accurately. A lockdown is just that—every inmate in the locked-down wing, block, dorm, or unit is confined to his cell or cubicle, with no movement, no work, no recreation, no school, no visit, and with sometimes only cold sack lunches to eat for weeks on end. Lockdowns may last from hours to months and are imposed by wardens for different reasons. Although the ranking officer on duty has the authority to order a lockdown, anything lasting more than a few hours and affecting more than a few inmates will be ordered by a warden, and it must be justified to the regional and system directors.

Some wardens order lockdowns every six months or so to search the unit for tobacco, drugs, or weapons. These lockdowns are usually in the middle of the week, last only twenty-four to seventy-two hours, and do not disrupt visiting schedules. Many inmates welcome these lockdowns, as they offer three-day vacations from work. However, if a unit is plagued by continual violence, or if a riot is believed imminent, officials will order a lockdown that may last from a seventy-two-hour cooling off period to months. These longer lockdowns usually are on close-custody wings, where more violent inmates are concentrated.

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Medium 9781902375014

3.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 3

Managing change under ISO 9000

3.1 Introduction

An effective quality management system is one which adopts customer-oriented strategies and has an organisational form which can respond efficiently to customer preference. It should also encourage innovations - new technologies, new markets, new customer applications of existing products, new products, new organisational forms, new requirements for entrepreneurial activities - and be flexible enough to meet social and economic changes in the environment. The improvement of existing quality management systems through flexibility and innovation will increase product and service quality. This will in turn enhance and advance the organisation’s business objective.

The “segmentalist” and “integrative” concepts are examined in this chapter using detailed case studies of two construction firms. These should be removed from or implemented into the organisation where necessary. Organisations must adopt the “integrative” approach which looks ahead to the challenges of the future rather than the “segmentalist” approach which is contented with past accomplishments. A corporate renaissance must be created within the organisation to take on these challenges and implement change and innovation. It is therefore necessary to develop the humanistic factors and a “participatory management” environment. However, in so doing, the technical aspects are also of importance and should not be totally ignored. These are collectively the key elements to maintaining a quality management system effectively.

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Medium 9780870819506

8. Exempt Wells

P. Andrew Jones University Press of Colorado ePub

The fourth category of water in Colorado is groundwater withdrawn from Exempt Wells. Exempt Wells are a kind of “wild card” in Colorado groundwater law because they are allowed in Tributary, Non-Tributary, Not Non-Tributary, and Designated Groundwater aquifers alike and are not subject to the rules of administration governing any of those categories. Once granted, these wells are not subject to any administration other than monitoring by the state to ensure that withdrawals and uses are consistent with the terms of the permit. Individually, these wells withdraw small amounts of water, but they have been granted in large enough numbers—approximately 165,000 statewide—that their impacts are significant in both hydrologic and economic terms.1 Exempt Wells are similar to Non-Tributary and Not Non-Tributary Groundwater and Designated Groundwater in the sense that they are all exceptions to Colorado’s general rule that all wells are to be considered tributary to the state’s natural streams and administered pursuant to the terms of the priority system.

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Medium 9781902375014

8.3 Comparing TQM with ISO 9000

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 8

Total Quality Management

8.1 Introduction

While quality management systems will help to promote good quality construction, it should be realised that the building industry is, however, frequently characterised by diverse professionals as well as a heavy dependence on foreign labour in some countries. This diversity and reliance can lead to cultural, social as well as professional stratification. Hence, to achieve quality construction, there is a need for all parties involved in the building process to cultivate a teamwork mindset. Unfortunately, such a mindset appears to be still lacking in today’s construction industry. It follows from such a situation that a more rational management approach for the construction process needs to be identified. The existing system of project implementation frequently leads to conflicts among the parties involved in the building process, hence rendering the system devoid of effective communication and teamwork. As construction projects become more varied and complex in nature, a fresh management paradigm seems imperative. In this context, a shift from the profession based scenario to a project-oriented team based scenario may be envisaged. The various disciplines should function within such a team culture, guided by policies, procedures and systems whilst focusing on the objectives and benefits identified for the project from the outset.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 20 – Racism, Gangs and Violence

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWENTY

racism, riots, and gangs

A Time cover story in the early 1980’s declared the East Texas prison unit of Eastham “America’s Toughest Prison,” a distinction hotly disputed by other Texas prison units. The entire then-Texas Department of Corrections rocked after Judge William Wayne Justice ordered the building tender system dismantled as a result of Ruiz v. Estelle. Without its inmate goons to keep order, TDC was exposed as almost criminally understaffed.

Coupled with the mass resignings and reassignments of many old-time guards and wardens—who had flourished under Director W.J. Estelle’s term—the lack of supervision left a power vacuum that was soon exploited by burgeoning prison gangs. Flexing their muscles, the various gangs waged war for the right to control the prison drug trade and jumped at the opportunity to settle old scores. The murder rates rocketed as the media fueled the killing frenzy by publicly lamenting the records for violent deaths that TDCJ convicts were daily rewriting. Clemens, Ellis, I, Coffield, Ramsey I, Darrington—where a 1984 triple murder in a sunlit dayroom prompted TDC’s first system-wide lockdown as officials frantically tried to isolate gang members—all laid valid claims to the dubious title of America’s deadliest joint.

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Medium 9781574411522

24 Helping Ex-Cons Stay out of Prison

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-four

helping ex-cons stay out of prison

W

hy do we kill, or rob, or sell drugs, or write hot checks, or beat up strangers, or abuse and rape women and children? Why are we criminals? Is it because we are poor? Because we were abused ourselves?

Because our friends do it? Do our criminal actions arise from need, rage, despair, or simple greed?

I don’t know if anyone can answer these questions. However, once someone is convicted and comes to prison, that person is identified in a way and molded into something he wasn’t before. The guy on the corner who we suspected was “up to no good” is now a full-fledged convict, and a convict trying to stay out after release from prison will face a different set of problems than a young person who is just now breaking the law and has yet to go to prison.

I have no insights to offer those who wish to keep people out of trouble and out of jail. If you are reading this, it is probably too late for that, anyway. What I have to offer is hope—that with your help, your loved one in prison can, upon release, defy the odds and stay out. This may sound strange; hope, and suggestions on how to stay free from a man in for the third time, in the face of cold statistics that show almost sixty percent of all convicts returning to prison.

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Medium 9780749468750

6. Overcoming walls of doubt: excite and enrol stakeholders

Rajiv Narang Kogan Page ePub

06

Overcoming walls of doubt

Excite and enrol stakeholders

We need to hire mavericks; only people with this kind of a rebellious attitude can come up with innovative ideas and see them through to the end.

This notion of a maverick acting like a Lone Ranger to conceive of and succeed with a radical idea can and does work for entrepreneurs. However, in large organizations, if mavericks become lone rangers, though they still can and do conceive bright new ideas, they are rarely able to make them happen.

Many organizations have also romanticized the Skunkworks approach, originating in Lockheed Martin in the 1950s. They create a small team, separate it from the main organization and give it autonomy ring fence it to develop innovations. Again Skunkworks often do succeed in coming up with big ideas, but seldom does it translate into innovation success, especially in large organizations (Lockheed Martin, 1943).

Walls of doubt

A passionate team in an organization breaks through mental-model boundaries and succeeds in coming up with an orbit-shifting idea! Its been a great voyage of discovery so far and they are now ready to share it and showcase it to the rest of the organization. They also now need the expertise of other functions, others who have not been involved in the journey so far, to develop the idea into a working solution. The team believes the others will be equally excited and will come forward to contribute actively in growing the big idea into an in-market success.

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