202 Chapters
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Medium 9780253356390

1 Toward Neoliberalism

Molé, Noelle J. Indiana University Press ePub

While mobbing is a term recognized throughout the European Union, it has come to have a particular urgency and salience in Italy. Mapping the field of Italy’s dynamic political, social, and economic orders uncovers the historical conditions and tensions from which mobbing emerges. The discourse about mobbing reflects cultural apprehensions about the worst of global capitalism, reiterating its risks, effects, and human costs. The rapid replacement of Italy’s protectionist labor regime, once one of the world’s strongest, with neoliberal economic and social policies has played a significant role in shaping how workers might experience a sense of persecution and harassment at work. The social and economic history of stable work, as well as the speed with which neoliberalism has been implemented, has played a critical role in generating a set of moral orders in which the hasty removal of secure labor breeds fear, anxiety, and dread. Only in the context of Italy’s moral economy, in which protected labor has been seen as a right of citizenship, could precarious work be recognized as unethical and even health endangering.

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21 Parole, Good Time, and Discharge

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-one

parole, good time, and discharge

N

ow, to what you’ve all been waiting for: the frustrating rules governing an inmate’s release from prison. First—parole is not a right; it is not guaranteed to any inmate. Parole is a privilege. It is granted by the

Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, which consists of eighteen men and women who were appointed to their seats due to their avowed interest in law and order. Second—parole will be awarded when the members of the board decide, and their decision is subjective. It is also influenced by the political winds of the day, and by pressures brought to bear by overcrowded prisons and available money to build new ones.

So, if a convict tells you he is “up for parole,” don’t rush out to buy him clothes. All he is saying is that he is now eligible and that the board will shortly review his case and consider him for parole.

Before I go into details, let me stress those two points. Parole is not guaranteed, and there is no way to predict what the board will do in any given case. A man serving a twenty-year sentence for robbery may become eligible for parole after two and one-half years and be granted parole. Then again, he could be denied, reviewed every year thereafter and denied each time until he has done his entire twenty years, and it would all be perfectly legal, although rare.

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Medium 9781623491376

8. Who Regulates Water Use?

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub

WHO REGULATES WATER USE?

The rights to water and the conditions under which it may be used are further complicated in Texas because they are directly and indirectly subject to the jurisdiction of a myriad of governmental agencies, including these:

• Texas Commission on Environmental Quality;

• Texas Parks and Wildlife Department;

• one or more of the 99 groundwater conservation districts across the state;

• other special districts, such as the Edwards Aquifer Authority and the Houston-Galveston Subsidence District;

• municipalities, some of which are very powerful and influential, such as the San Antonio Water System (SAWS);

• river authorities, such as the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA)

• US Fish and Wildlife Service;

• US Environmental Protection Agency;

• rules of the Watermaster Program in Texas;

• rules and regulations of irrigation districts around Texas; and

• Texas Water Development Board.

This chapter, for the purposes of clarity and space, discusses in detail GCDs, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, the Watermaster Program, and the river authorities, with focus on the LCRA. Keep in mind that each municipality and many counties may also exert some jurisdiction over water in their areas. Some federal agencies have supralegal authority over the state agencies, but since the federal agencies are rarely involved in the day-to-day permitting and water management, detail about their activities is not included. I do mention, where appropriate, the significant effect of the federal agencies on any one water management and allocation situation statewide. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department has an impact on water management policies mostly through the wildlife management plans it supports statewide.

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Medium 9781574413175

Chapter 11: “No Trial for the Dead”

Bill Neal University of North Texas Press PDF

11

CHAPTER

“No Trial for the Dead”

The Vernon Murder Trial of John Beal Sneed

The Scene: The district courtroom in Vernon, Texas, February 11, 1913.

The Billing: The State of Texas v. John Beal Sneed, a murder trial.1

That billing, however, was somewhat misleading. What the packed courtroom witnessed when the curtain parted was less of a solemn, dignified, dispassionate judicial pursuit of truth and justice than . . . well, what would you call it? Part tragedy, part comedy, part farce, part melodrama, part pathos, part bare-knuckle brawl?

Whatever you called it, it was well larded with generous helpings of hyperbole, nonsense, and old-fashioned tent-revival-style hallelujahs and hellfire damnations.

The judicial cast for both sides was the same as it had been during the Beech Epting trial except the prosecution added Vernon lawyer Cecil Story to its roster while the defense added Vernon lawyer Harry Mason. Judge James Nabers again presided.

Jury selection proved both entertaining and revealing. Each prospect was tested on his views on the unwritten law. Several candidly admitted that they believed the unwritten law was higher than

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Medium 9781574411676

8 “I came to kill you.”

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter eight

“I came to kill you.”

“I did what I did and now I have jobs to finish; I still have people I want to kill.”

—Abdelkrim Belachheb quoted by his friend Mohamed

I

A

s the red taillights of Belachheb’s white station wagon faded and disappeared to the north, seven of his victims lay on Ianni’s floor bleeding to death—or already dead. Terry Rippa was the first to return to the barroom. “And nobody was in the bar at all, and I went down and checked with John and he was conscious, and then

I walked up to the front and I did not check pulses or anything. It was quite a mess—the tables, broken glass, and the victims—and I checked on all five the best I could by observing, and they all appeared to be dead except for a few minutes later Marcell was moving.”1

With his military medical training on his mind, John McNeill thought he was going to bleed to death in a matter of minutes. But he was surprisingly alert. “That son-of-a-bitch was in Farfallo’s an hour or two before,” he told Terry.

“Just hold on,” Terry replied.

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Medium 9780253001924

7 Realistic Expectations: South Dakota’s Experience with the Voting Rights Act

Edited by Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

For thirteen years, from 1989 through 2002, I served as the election supervisor for the state of South Dakota. In 2002 I was elected secretary of state in a three-way race with 56 percent of the vote. In 2006 I was unopposed for re-election, which was the first time in the history of South Dakota that a candidate for secretary of state was unopposed. My involvement in election administration ended in 2011 when term limits prevented me from running for re-election. I mention these facts only to establish with the reader my long-term and respected involvement in administering elections in South Dakota.

Native Americans are the largest minority population in South Dakota. The 2010 census reported that 8.8 percent of our population was American Indian. Of South Dakota’s 814,180 residents, 71,817 reported being full American Indian. An additional 10,229 residents report some American Indian racial background.1

Approximately one-third of the time I spent on election-related responsibilities as secretary of state was devoted to Native American voter needs. Some of that time involved compliance with the temporary provisions of the Voting Rights Act such as Section 5 (preclearance) and Section 203 (minority-language provisions). Significant amounts of time were involved defending the state in ACLU-inspired lawsuits involving Native American voting issues.

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Medium 9781574411522

A Short History of Texas Prisons

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

A Short History of Texas Prisons

In order to understand the Texas prison system and how it deals with inmates and their families, you need to know a little of Texas prison history and the psychology that drives prison officials.

First, prisons don’t make money for the state, and this irritates bureaucrats to no end—that, with more than 100,000 able-bodied, convicted criminals at their disposal, the Texas Department of Criminal

Justice (TDCJ) cannot be labor intensive enough to at least break even, or make a dollar, as it used to. At one time, under the convict lease system—in which corporations or wealthy individuals would lease convicts from the state for private use—enough money was made so that

Texas didn’t need to appropriate funds from prisons. Convicts used to be leased to railroads, plantations, and mining corporations. However, the lessors—Ward Dewey Corporation of Galveston, which leased the entire penitentiary from 1871 to 1877; E. H. Cunningham and L. A. Ellis, who leased Huntsville prison from January 1878 to March 1893; and many others—spread the wealth around. They paid Texas officials for the right to have their hired prisoners pile up the profits.

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix E Recreation Requirements

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix E

Recreation Requirements

Following are the minimum hours of recreation to be given each inmate, as agreed to under Ruiz. Units may offer more but not less. For these purposes, dayroom time is counted as recreation (rec) time. (In mid2001, staffing shortages were serving as an excuse for certain units to begin scaling back these requirements.)

G1, G2, and G3 Minimum—Four hours weekday, one of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard. Seven hours weekend, two of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard

G 4 Medium—Four hours weekday, one of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard. Five hours weekend, two of which must be in a gym or outside rec yard

G 5 Close—Two hours daily, outside rec only

Administrative segregation:

Level I—One hour out-of-cell rec each day, with at least two hours weekly outside; Or two hours out-of-cell rec five days per week, with two hour weekly outside; Or three hours out-of-cell four days per week, with three hours weekly outside. (The Level I schedule will be decided upon by the warden or his/her designee.)

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Medium 9780253017314

1 Security and Liberty: The Imaginary Balance

David P Fidler Indiana University Press ePub

NICK CULLATHER

If one truism captures the tenor of discussion surrounding the Snowden revelations, it is the recurring metaphor of balance between liberty and security. In May 2013, three days after Snowden fled to Hong Kong but before his disclosures began, President Obama maintained his administration was “working hard to strike the appropriate balance between our need for security and preserving those freedoms that make us who we are.”1 Later, as the magnitude of National Security Agency’s mass surveillance became clear from Snowden’s leaks, editorialists condemned the president in almost the same words: George W. Bush had “tipped the balance too far from liberty towards security,” wrote The Economist, “and it has stayed there under Barack Obama.”2

On December 16, 2013, a federal district judge ruled the NSA’s domestic telephony metadata program “probably unconstitutional,” and observed that the case was “the latest chapter in the Judiciary’s continuing challenge to balance the national security interests of the United States with the individual liberties of our citizens. . . . In the months ahead, other Article III courts, no doubt will wrestle to find the proper balance consistent with our constitutional system.”3 On December 27, 2013, another judge in a different circuit upheld the NSA’s telephony metadata program in dismissing a lawsuit from the American Civil Liberties Union. Referring to the 9/11 Commission, this judge stated that “[t]he choice between liberty and security is a false one, as nothing is more apt to imperil civil liberties than the success of a terrorist attack on American soil.”4

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Medium 9781574411829

4. Boot Camps

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 4

Boot Camps

BACKGROUND

Boot camps are highly popular residential intermediate sanctions typically used for young offenders and provide for very structured and military-like activities such as strict discipline, physical training and labor, drill, and a regimented schedule of daily activities. Boot camps differ from other intermediate sanctions in that participants are incarcerated, albeit for short and intensive terms, participants are often under the jurisdiction of state or county correctional departments and therefore considered inmates, and many boot camps are located on or near prison grounds.

Although the term boot camp is often used synonymously with shock incarceration, boot camps are actually only one form of shock incarceration. Shock incarceration programs vary, but the common feature is that an offender is confined for some period; this incarceration experience is typically brief but intense. As the term suggests, the idea behind shock incarceration is to provide a deterrent shock or jolt to the offender. To achieve this sense of shock, boot camps are structured and emphasize discipline and rigorous physical training. Boot camps differ from other forms of shock incarceration in that participants are separated from other inmates, participate in physical training drill, and the atmosphere of the program is militaristic in nature with a strict daily structure of activities (MacKenzie & Shaw, 1993).

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Medium 9781574413175

Chapter 6: “The Greatest Legal Battle Ever”

Bill Neal University of North Texas Press PDF

6

CHAPTER

“The Greatest Legal Battle Ever”

The 1912 Fort Worth Murder Trial of John Beal Sneed

WHAT A TANTALIZING TREAT was in store for trial spectators

poised on the edge of their seats breathlessly waiting to witness what had been billed as “The Greatest Legal Battle Ever Fought in Texas Courts”1 featuring those larger-than-life characters they had heard and read so much about—John Beal Sneed, Lena Snyder

Sneed, and Al Boyce—who would disgorge all those juicy, intimate details of the scandalous romance and the killing of a Texas pioneer icon. As fascinating as that promised to be, yet another riveting story would unfold as the trial progressed—one that only the more seasoned courtroom railbirds were likely to have anticipated. How could any trial lawyer, no matter how skillful, experienced, or imaginative, devise and execute a viable trial strategy that would stand any chance of keeping John Beal Sneed’s neck out of a noose? Public sentiment in Fort Worth was tilted in favor of the prosecution: the defendant had killed an unarmed old man—a prominent and respected pioneer—whose only crime was an attempt to protect his son from unjust prosecution. The state’s case seemed to have “slam-dunk” written all over it. One thing was certain: to have any chance of success, the defendant would have to enlist the services of a courtroom wizard. Or wizards. Plus, perhaps,

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11 Visits and Calls

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter eleven

visits and calls

T

here are prisons in some states that allow conjugal visits between inmates and their spouses. There are prisons where visitors are encouraged to have picnics with their loved ones, who are allowed to bring in food, and the prisons provide barbecue facilities. Visits in those states are almost unsupervised, with inmates and their families left alone until they abuse the privilege. Texas is not one of those states. In Texas, it is assumed that all inmates will, if given the opportunity, smuggle in contraband or will otherwise abuse the visiting process. In order to prevent this, Texas limits the contact between visitors and convicts severely.

Visits in Texas prisons fall into two categories: general and special. General visits are further divided into two categories: contact and non-contact, or regular visits. Every convict in Texas prison is allowed some type of visit, unless he is in a locked-down status or in punitive segregation.

While an inmate is at Diagnostic, he is advised to designate ten people he would like to have on his visiting list. Each is subject to approval by

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4 Clothing

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter four

clothing

T

hink about what your taste in clothes says about you. Your wardrobe reflects your personality. Your grasp of fashion, your sense of color and texture, your hairstyle—all say something about your individuality.

The state prison does not want inmates to be individuals. It pursues policies that result in depersonalization, in a loss of personal identity, and it then justifies these policies in the name of security. There are various reasons for this. The first is that inmates who look like inmates dressed similarly, and all unlike the general population – are easy to recognize if they escape. An inmate who walked out the front gate wearing jeans, a designer shirt, and a pair of brand-name tennis shoes would easily merge with everyone else. Depersonalization is also for the guards’ benefit. If they do not see us as people, but as a mass of interchangeable inmates, they will not readily form associations with us. They will not have sympathy for us, show us leniency, or worse, bring us drugs and guns. Lastly, inmates who lose their sense of self are less likely to rebel.

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Medium 9780253006295

8 Lessons from Suffering: How Social Justice Informs Spirituality

john a. powell Indiana University Press ePub

EIGHT

Lessons From Suffering

HOW SOCIAL JUSTICE INFORMS SPIRITUALITY

As people who live – in a broad sense – together, we cannot escape the thought that the terrible occurrences that we see around us are quintessentially our problems. They are our responsibility – whether or not they are also anyone else’s.

Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom

[The] need to face and understand our suffering, and to change toward new values, is perhaps the basic spiritual narrative – the common core of world spirituality.

Roger Gottlieb, Joining Hands: Politics and Religion Together for Social Change

Much of the literature on the relationship between social justice and spirituality focuses on how spirituality has informed and inspired social justice work. Relatively little attention is paid to how social justice might inform the practice and development of spirituality. These spheres, however, share a deep concern with suffering, which is a central concern and animating force of both. Social justice and spirituality are, moreover, in a recursive relationship, on which I focus here.

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23 The Echo

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-three

the echo

T

he Echo is the Texas Prison Newspaper—our newspaper. It is tabloid-sized and published every month or two, then distributed via truck mail to the units and then to the living quarters. The Echo has been published more or less continuously since 1928 and has a circulation of

100,000 or so, giving it some standing among Texas papers.

The Echo’s contents can be divided into three types of articles: reprints of penal-related stores written for other papers; occasional columns or editorials written by the Echo’s staff; and recognition-type pieces: graduation notices, results of sports tournaments, and similar short articles submitted by inmates.

There is a Letters to the Editor page, and an advice column written by a mystery convict. This columnist, who like Madonna and Elvis has reached first-name status—Dear Darby—offers sarcastic and hilarious advice to letters that are genuine but often sound made-up. His column is a tradition and undoubtedly the most-read part of any given issue.

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