99 Chapters
Medium 9780253007452

2 Getting It “Ju … st Right!”

Michael Lempert Indiana University Press ePub

 

Many people think about the difference between the 2003–2004 presidential campaign and that of 2007–2008 in terms of the centrality of the Internet, the number of voters of various demographic groups who cast ballots on Election Day, and so forth. One of the important comparisons, however, not to be overlooked if one is focused on how Message politics works in America, is what we can term the “Goldilocks Principle of Message-ing.” There is a “ju … st right!” use of Message, neither too much—especially of the negative kind—nor too little—especially of one’s own positive kind, the communicative weakness or absence of which renders one extremely vulnerable to the other candidates’ inevitable barrage of the negative.

So, notwithstanding its apparent effectiveness in shaping the results of the election in 2004 (for President George W. Bush was, in fact, reelected), the powerful Republican Message machine ascribed to the genius of Karl Rove seemed, in retrospect, to call the very enterprise of Message-ing into a kind of official disrepute among the media connoisseurs and much of the public—if, paradoxically, it was still clandestinely admired for its decisive success. Hence, one of the important stances in the 2008 election cycle was to seem to be above, beyond, or in some way independent of Message. And interestingly the two figures who would emerge as the respective candidates of the major parties in 2008 very much embraced an “anti-Message” or “post-Message” Message, at least in their parties’ primary campaigns and somewhat beyond. As a demonstration of what we might term reversion to the institutional norm, however, we must note that in the final phases of the 2008 campaigns, Message, and in particular negative Message attempting to define the opponent, was once again in full force. Here we compare these two electoral cycles in more detail in respect of telling moments of “too much,” “too little,” and “ju … st right” Message.

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Medium 9780253019417

1 Reinventing Ethnopoetics

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

LISTENING FOR VOICES

Robert Moore

ASSESSING THE LEGACY of Dell Hymes (1927–2009) in ethnopoetics should entail assessing ethnopoetics more broadly, as a “legacy” in its own right within American cultural and linguistic anthropology since the 1960s. For indeed, ethnopoetics in the broad sense emerged more as a movement than as another subfield of (linguistic) anthropology, and it emerged at the same time and among the same generational cohort that produced Reinventing Anthropology (Hymes 1972), “the ‘anti-textbook’ of anthropology’s then mid-career political Left” (Silverstein 2010, 935). Like Reinventing Anthropology, ethnopoetics—the term was coined in 1968 by Jerome Rothenberg (Quasha 1976, 65)—emerged in the context of a generational struggle between practitioners working in a number of different but overlapping fields of inquiry and expressive practice: academic anthropology, folklore, literary criticism, poetry, and what we now call performance art. Today we are separated from this period by at least two (demographic) generations, hence the need to ask, in the conclusion below, what parts of this legacy are still usable and active for students of narrative and other discourse practices today.

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Medium 9781936764976

PART VI Grammar Instruction

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub

PART VI

Grammar Instruction

Many teachers struggle with how to teach grammar. Often, teachers teach it in isolation by exposing students to lists of rules that they are expected to learn and apply in their writing. Peter Smagorinsky (2008) claims that “the teaching of grammar apart from speaking and writing is among the most widely employed, yet least effective, practices in the English teacher’s repertoire” (p. 159). Additionally, the National Council of Teachers of English (1985) states that repetitive grammar drilling “hinders development of students’ oral and written language” (¶1). Furthermore, research confirms the idea that this type of instruction is not only ineffective but also has a negative effect on students’ writing (Graham & Perin, 2007c). It becomes difficult for students to understand when and how to use grammar when it is not embedded within writing instruction. However, knowledge of grammar is essential for constructing texts. It is also critical for diverse learners, such as English learners, who must understand the rules and forms of the English language.

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Medium 9780253357137

Part 2. Endangered Species and Emergent Identities

Edited by Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

Jill Constantino

When we swat flies, eat dolphin-safe tuna, use bug spray, or give money to protect pandas we are deciding which nonhuman beings belong in particular places and which do not. When we fill our universities, issue travel visas, consider the land rights of indigenous people, or prohibit the passage of immigration laws, we are making decisions about human belonging. What are the factors that influence “belonging”? How long must a being exist in one place in order to belong? Do creatures belong after a quantifiable period of time, or is their belonging more dependent on qualitative factors like being the first to a place, being among the last in a place, being unique to a place, or claiming an origin myth involving that place? What characteristics must a being exhibit in order to be protected or eradicated? Clearly, belonging is subject to various cultural factors and scientific findings.

The variables and characteristics that form categories of value differ from species to species and emerge from different time frames. For nonhuman beings, evolutionary time provides a context through which to determine endemism or native status. For humans, historical time provides a ground for the construction of indigenous identities, often connoting special value and special rights. But what happens when the contexts of human and nonhuman creatures merge? In nature reserves, national parks, coastlands, farms, logging sites, and even in our cities, how might we decide which beings have the right to the resources and the privileges of the places they inhabit? When people craft their own identities of value in the arbitrary constructions of belonging, how do they negotiate between and among the frames of evolutionary time and historical time?

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4 Ethno-Blooperology

Michael Lempert Indiana University Press ePub

 

On Tuesday morning, the twenty-third of October 2007, former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney seemed to some to have done it. Talking to the Greenwood, South Carolina, chamber of commerce on free trade agreements, he digressed to focus on the threat of radical Islam and the “War on Terror.” He sharply criticized the opposition of the local Democratic aspirant for the presidential nomination, former senator John Edwards, to Bush administration policies captioned by the phrase the War on Terror. “I think that is a position which is not consistent with the fact,” Romney said, presumably intending either “with the facts” or just “with fact.” Grammatical error. Slip of the old phrase generator. A minor—a miniscule—dysfluency of parole, actualized language. But Romney went on, as long as he was criticizing Senator Edwards, seeming to spread the partisan criticism wider:

Actually, just look at what Osam—uh—Barack Obama, said just yesterday. Barack Obama calling on radicals, jihadists of all different types, to come together in Iraq. “That is the battlefield. That is the central place,” he said. “Come join us under one banner.”

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