360 Slices
Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER FIVE. Generic Pots and Generic Indians: The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis in the Middle Orinoco

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Kay Tarble de Scaramelli and Franz Scaramelli

Epidemic disease, slave raiding, and the displacement and relocation of indigenous groups under the colonial mission regime resulted in dramatic transformations in the ethnic conformation of the middle Orinoco area, as in other parts of America. Nonetheless, after the expulsion of the missionaries following the war of independence, native societies had the opportunity to redefine themselves vis-à-vis the fledgling Republics of Colombia and Venezuela. This process involved the coalition of small, remnant groups into viable multiethnic communities and the appearance of new ethnic identities. At the same time, a non-indigenous Criollo/Llanero (creole/ranger or cowboy) identity was evolving out of the combination of escaped slaves, former mission Indians, poor mestizos, mulattos, and blancos de orilla (whites from the periphery), who joined forces to exploit the abundant feral cattle in the savannahs, but who eventually were forced to enter the workforce as peons and cow-hands on the privately owned ranches in the area. As a part of this post-colonial process, ethnic, racial, and class lines were redrawn. A supra-ethnic identity, the generic Indio, emerged for indigenous peoples, as opposed to the generic Criollo or Racional, a gloss for Spanish-speaking sectors formerly divided into multiple castas during the colonial period. The colonial casta distinctions were largely abandoned as indigenous and non-indigenous sectors became increasingly polarized.

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Medium 9780874216592

Chapter 4 - Learning To Write History

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

You get good at taking a situation that’s extremely diffuse and … infinitely variable. With so many variables you would have to write a huge linear equation to describe [it]. It’s not even linear. You get good at saying okay, really casting out what’s not relevant … reduce it to one or two or three variables so you can kind of see what’s going on … if I had to I could always say something cogent about the material … although I flapped a lot, I could always kind of reduce these big things to, you know, something.

—Tim, senior year

This comment, about history writing, was made after Tim had completed the requirements for a major in history and had started his second major in engineering. So in part, it is a reflection of his understanding of writing in history, and in part a reflection of the differences he perceived between writing in history and writing in engineering. The comment was made “off the cuff.” It is glib and cursory. And yet, there is truth to the comment as well: it represents the limited knowledge and skill Tim gained in history writing as an undergraduate and suggests the road to expertise in writing in a discipline is a long one. This chapter will reveal, in part, what the beginnings of such a process were for this writer.

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Medium 9781442265790

“The Most Wonderful Collection of Original Documents in the United States”

Collections ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Susan Tucker

Archivist Emeritus, Newcomb Archives, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat (1862–1931) and Laura Louise Porteous (1875– 1952) worked in New Orleans during the first half of the twentieth century to transcribe, translate, and index the Louisiana Historical Society’s (LHS) vast collection of French and Spanish colonial judicial records. This essay places the body of their work for the LHS in national perspective, describes their lives in the context of evolving roles for women in New Orleans cultural institutions, and considers the significance of their work for past and future scholars.1

A cast of men in Louisiana—leaders born and educated in the northeastern U.S. and France as well as influential native residents of the francophone and anglophone sectors of New Orleans—founded the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) in 1836. Almost immediately, they began collecting colonial records, but it was not until the early twentieth century that they gained sustained intellectual and physical control of the documents.2

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Medium 9781908372307


Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

If you have a fear of public speaking or are nervous giving presentations I want you to know its not your fault... Its the fault of your Public Speaking Monkeys or, in the visual shorthand I often use to refer to them in this book:


These little fellas are a little bit like wild animals running loose inside your mind. Theyre often out of control and therefore cause you problems. Theyre the voices in our heads; the ones responsible for last-minute presentation nerves, acute anxiety and the fear of public speaking. You know the ones dont you? They whisper or perhaps even roar discouraging and often negative remarks; the voices say familiar things like:


More often than not the monkey voices are negative internal voices that put doubt in your mind about your presenting abilities. Perhaps you find the anxiety sometimes stops you even trying to get up to speak so you miss opportunities. The result could be a missed promotion, a lost sale or just that frustrating feeling of not getting your views heard.

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Medium 9781936757114

Appendix 3: Additional Metadata Elements

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub

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