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4: Introduction

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 4

THE FINAL PUSH, 1990 S

INTRODUCTION

Opposition to bilingual education decreased in the early 1990s, at least within the executive and legislative branch of the federal government.

The constant need for Latino votes by the Republican Party as well as the election of a Democratic president blunted attacks against this policy in the first half of the 1990s. By mid-decade, however, organized opposition to bilingual education significantly increased throughout the country.

The resurgence in opposition was due to several factors, including the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994, the Republican control of both houses of Congress during the 1994 elections, the state initiatives against bilingual education in California and Arizona, and public opinion polls indicating that most Americans, including apparently Latinos, opposed bilingual education.

Opponents became more diverse in this decade. In addition to conservative special interest groups such as the Republican Party, Anglo parent groups, administrators, assimilationists and U.S. English groups, they also included the following groups:

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A Corner Cupboard Spills Family History

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

NOTES FROM THE FIELD

Cheryl Harper

Artist/independent curator and organizer of exhibition projects, charperartist@hotmail.com

Abstract As baby boomers assist their parents in downsizing to their next stage of life, many adult children are inheriting collections that have been passed down through generations. Instead of dispersing objects that may no longer have family stories or information connected to them, one may, with the assistance of Internet search engines, genealogical sites, and historical libraries, discover lost context for these heirlooms. The results may restore history to some objects, create avenues for further research, and identify objects that may be sold within specialized markets and auctions. This case study explains how an art historian with assistance from her amateur genealogist husband approached their family legacy of objects.

The Harper corner cupboard is not fancy, has only residual evidence of the original milk paint finish typical of such Pennsylvania Berks County furniture, but has been stubbornly passed down through generations for at least 150 years. A family story is that when the banks of the river near the family home overflowed, the cupboard floated down the Schuylkill and was rescued, without, one assumes, much paint. Lisa Minardi, assitant curator at the Winterthur Museum, dated through photos, the cabinet circa 1830. She observed that oak grained paint was a later popular Victorian treatment. Every female Harper who owned it placed her own precious belongings and bric-a-brac locked behind twelve panes of hand-molded glass resting on a bottom cabinet with a single panel door. There are holes on the underside of four deep shelves where cups once hung, a double track of grooves that surround the perimeter to hold plates, and short wood stops to keep trays in place at the rear. In 2014, I became the designated person to pack up its contents. My late mother-in-law, its most recent owner, never spoke much about what she chose to put in the cupboard and generally was not at all interested in fine things but the contents in the cabinet included a variety of ceramic, glass, silver, and other intriguing objects. I am an art historian and independent curator and so the mysteries of the corner cupboard contents became the springboard to a serious research project for me, the next caretaker.

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Conclusion: Contestation and Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

This brief history focused on one of the most contentious and misunderstood policies in the country: federal bilingual education. It traced and explained, in bold sketches, the rise and fall of federal bilingual education policy during the years from 1960 to 2001 and the role played by the contending groups of supporters and opponents in its development.

Three major findings were presented in this book. First, this study showed that contestation, conflict, and accommodation were integral aspects of federal bilingual education policy development. From its origins in the 1960s to the present, different groups with competing notions of ethnicity, assimilation, pedagogy, and power have contended, clashed, struggled, and negotiated with each other for hegemony in the development and implementation of bilingual education. Second, contextual forces over time, especially electoral politics and a changing political climate at the national, state, and local level, significantly shaped the contours and content of this policy. Finally, those supportive of or opposed to federal bilingual education displayed a wide array of political, educational, and social reasons for their actions.

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1: Contextual Factors

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

6

CONTESTED POLICY

light questions about national identity, the federal role in school change, power, and pedagogy, and eventually contributed to the enactment of the federal Bilingual Education Act of 1968.

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

Research on bilingualism—i.e., on the impact and extent of “nonEnglish languages” in American society—began to influence many of the arguments that advocates would use to support bilingual education policy. This new research questioned two prominent myths in education: the myth of the negative impact of bilingualism on intelligence and on academic achievement and the myth of the declining significance of ethnicity in American life as implied by the melting pot theory of assimilation.

Research on Bilingualism

Since the 1920s, research on intelligence and achievement had indicated that bilingualism was an obstacle to success. This research showed a negative relationship between dual language capabilities and intelligence.

However, in the early 1960s a gradual shift occurred in this literature.

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CHAPTER SEVEN. Amazonian Ritual Communication in Relation to Multilingual Social Networks

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Ellen B. Basso

In this chapter I describe several approaches to how we might enhance our understanding of Amazonian ritual communication, offering suggestions for incorporating aspects of language use in the region into the new orientation to regional ethnogenesis (Hornborg 2005). As we have learned from studies of Amazonian welcoming rituals and other ceremonial dialogues, ritual practice probes the sources of community, helping participants to understand how latent hostility and tension among participants are transformed into some concrete, positive social relationships. Writers exploring this subject have adopted processual, affective, and ultimately evolutionary models involving the “sensory preconditions of meaning” (Urban 1986, 1988, 1989, 2002; Erikson 2000; Surrallés 2003). Along the same lines, a look at the more private “little” rituals of everyday life (Haviland 2009) demonstrates their considerable overlap with public discursive contexts (Basso 2007, 2009a, 2009b). Joking and avoidance relations, greetings, leave-takings, protests, and the languages of trade and marketing seem to have important resonances within the far-better-known public ceremonial practices of Amazonia. Furthermore, linguistic anthropology oriented to psychological questions about experience and personal meaning is also one of the rare sites of interest in the specific details of non-communitarian “chaotic” discourse and of “language ordeals” (Basso 2009a), communicative phenomena that have quickly led us away from assuming the presence of social “community” and “solidarity,” the idea of inherently unified communities. This suggests that people can belong to many communities or cultures at once, an idea that may be combined with the fact that “many traditional communities have had elaborate internal differentiation from time immemorial” (Gumperz 1996b:362). What these data suggest are the benefits of (1) an orientation to social networks rather than to sodalities; (2) a recognition of multilingual discursive areas rather than an assumption of monolingualism; and (3) the value of looking at stance alignments between participants in ritual practice, particularly the epistemic and evidential aspects of ritual communication and how these are manifested in what has been called the “I” of discourse (Urban 1989; Rumsey 2000).

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