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CHAPTER TEN. Linguistic Diversity Zones and Cartographic Modeling: GIS as a Method for Understanding the Prehistory of Lowland South America

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Östen Dahl, J. Christopher Gillam, David G. Anderson, José Iriarte, and Silvia M. Copé

The vast geographic scale, time depth, linguistic variability, and inherent complexity of long-term cultural trajectories influencing social ethnogenesis in lowland South America have presented scholars with many challenges in the past century (see Hornborg and Hill, this volume). However, it is this multifaceted character of the problem that lends itself to meaningful interpretations of ethnic identity and transformation in Amazonia. Traditional methods that focus on specific localities or groups and then extrapolate to the broader area often create generalization where differentiation is due. With few exceptions, our ability as anthropologists to manage and manipulate vast quantities of cultural and environmental data has lagged behind the technological advances of recent decades. Nonetheless, progress is being made on the technological side as user-friendly applications become more mainstream in the academic setting.

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Appendix B: Samples of Tim’s Essays

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

Here are two essays Tim wrote in his freshman year of college: one, a textual analysis of an article by an ethicist, written for Freshman Writing, and the other, a historical essay interpreting events and texts for a western civilization course, also Tim’s first year at the university.


The last decade’s discoveries in genetic science have opened discussions at the dinner table, laboratory, and Congress on questions that ten years ago existed solely on the pages of science fiction. Their relevance is now real, casting confusion over the decisions of birth, illness, treatment, and death. Is it morally justified, many ask, to read a fetus’ genetic code, allowing the parents to abort a handicapped child? Is it right to consider altering the DNA, the very map of life? Isn’t the integrity of life threatened by manipulating genetic traits?

Answers given to questions of right and wrong in genetic therapy range widely. Many fear that people who altered the genetic makeup of individuals would be “playing God.” Other invoke the experience of the Nazi era in Germany and oppose any development of gene-altering processes, concerned that it will lead to similar atrocities. Still others suggest that any new technology that is useful should be put into practice.

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Usage: Formal and Informal English

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Usage: Formal and Informal English

Just as your choice of clothing varies depending on the situation, so can your speech and writing. Depending on your audience and purpose, you decide whether to use informal English or formal English. What is the difference? The everyday language you use when speaking is informal English. In informal writing, you can use contractions and slang, although you must still follow the standard rules of grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Informal English is appropriate for writing dialogue, stories, personal essays, poems, letters to friends, and journal entries. Here is an example of informal English:

I’ve never seen fans so crazy about their team. They couldn’t sit still! It was fun to see them all psyched up about every play. ormal English is best used for serious purposes. These include essays, newspaper

F articles, formal reports, letters of application, speeches, and most school assignments.

Here is an example of formal English:

The first time a hot-air balloon took to the air with passengers was in 1783.

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5. Derivation—Verb Finals

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Arapaho verb stems always consist of at least an initial root and a final element, the latter of which is usually abstract (in a few cases, certain verbs have a null abstract final). It is common for medial elements, and also concrete (lexical) finals, to occur as well, but discussion of these will be delayed until chapter 6. The combination of initial and final elements produces the verb stem. The initial roots contribute much of the lexical meaning to verb stems. Prototypically, they refer to either actions or states (/tew/ ‘to separate from a whole’, /be’/ ‘red’). The finals serve to indicate the stem class of the verb (AI, II, TA, TI). There are several different finals used to form each stem class, however, and the contrasting finals contribute important elements to the meaning of the stem itself, as well as licensing particular semantic categories of NPs that may serve as objects of the verb. The stems are thus best thought of as constructions whose meaning is the product of both lexical and non-lexical elements.

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CHAPTER TWELVE. Change, Contact, and Ethnogenesis in Northern Quechua: Structural Phylogenetic Approaches to Clause-Embedding Predicates

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Pieter Muysken

This chapter is part of a research program focused on the long-term history and development of the South American languages. It tries to study grammatical properties of these languages as potential indices of genetic relationships. Under current analyses, based on years of research and using the well-established methods of historical linguistics, over 100 language families are postulated, many of them quite small or even unaffiliated or isolated languages, the so-called isolates. This is very surprising since other continents may have only half a dozen families, even though they were settled much earlier in the course of human history. South America is the most recently settled continent. There is widespread consensus that research in the coming years will yield further insights into links among now-recognized families, but I am pursuing the exploration of possible structural relationships because structural features as clusters may be more stable and revelatory of deep-time genetic links.

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