380 Slices
Medium 9781538101391

Sparking Rural Community Dialogues with Digital Oral Histories

Juilee Decker Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sparking Rural Community Dialogues with Digital Oral Histories

William S. Walker

Cooperstown Graduate Program, SUNY Oneonta, Cooperstown, NY, william.walker@oneonta.edu

AbstractIn the past, oral history recordings often lay inert and ignored on archival or library shelves. The digital revolution has transformed accessibility to oral histories, primarily by opening digital archives to a variety of users. Nevertheless, many audiences, particularly in rural areas, still do not engage with these digital archives. By incorporating digital oral history content into public programs, however, public historians can involve their audiences in community dialogues that connect past and present and open new avenues for engaging with challenging contemporary issues. This approach employs the dialogue methodology of the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience and has been successfully implemented in rural central New York State. Collecting with the intention of incorporating oral histories into community dialogue programs shifts the focus from static preservation and exhibition to a dynamic model of sharing authority, which directly engages one’s local community.

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Medium 9781442267923

China Weeps: The Opium Wars and China’s Stolen History

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Olivia L. E. Blessing

P. O. Box 411, Griggsville, IL 62340; email: blessing.olivia@gmail.com

Abstract   In the mid-1700s, the relationship between the British Empire and Imperial China began to collapse over a series of cultural, economic, and ethical conflicts which would result in the First (1839–1842) and Second (1856–1860) Opium Wars—tumultuous events that would have a devastating and humiliating impact on Chinese history. The looting of the Yuanmingyuan Summer Palaces during the Second Opium War was a tragedy that would be as destructive to Chinese culture as the wars’ resulting treaties were to its territorial borders. Today, the Chinese continue to dispute the morality of both the wars and the subsequent looting of their Summer Palaces. It is thus unsurprising, then, that modern China has undertaken great effort to recover the artifacts from the Summer Palaces. While some of these attempts have been largely unsuccessful, it is clear that China will continue to pursue repatriation of lost relics. This struggle provides an excellent opportunity for examining both China’s modern approach to cultural heritage preservation and the potential problems existing in international laws hindering the protection of cultural resources throughout the world.

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Medium 9781574416367

Then the Walls Closed In

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781574411713

1: Enacting Federal Bilingual Education Legislation, 1965-1968

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

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CONTESTED POLICY

negative attitudes towards Mexican-origin children and discriminatory school actions such as structural exclusion, school discrimination, cultural suppression, and inappropriate English-only instruction. Bilingualism, they added, would help reverse these historical patterns by replacing exclusionary, discriminatory and English-only school policies with native language instruction, a culturally appropriate curriculum, inclusive hiring practices, and strong parental involvement. Structural inclusion of community, language, and culture, in other words, would lead to increased school success among language minority children. It also would lead to minority political empowerment and to the replacement of assimilation ideals in this country with pluralism.

ENACTING FEDERAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION LEGISLATION, 1965–1968

The official push for bilingual education began with the publication of an important report issued by the National Education Association in 1966.

This report publicized the negative impact of the schools on MexicanAmerican cultural identity and on their school performance. It documented many of the discriminatory educational policies affecting these children and argued that they contributed to low school performance and to alienation from the larger society. Traditional school policies and practices such as rigid “Anglicization” practices, English-only policies, no-Spanish speaking rules, and cultural degradation, the report argued, led to “damaged” self-esteem, resentment, psychological withdrawal from school and underachievement.24

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Medium 9781574411713

2: The Emerging Opposition

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

T H E E X P A N S I O N O F B I L I N G U A L E D U C AT I O N , 1 9 6 8 – 1 9 7 8

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bilingual education, established an Advisory Council on Bilingual Education, and vigorously monitored the development of regulations for the implementation of bilingual education policies. The OCR in the Department of Education became increasingly active in activities related to the compliance of the Lau decision.

The federal judiciary also became involved in bilingual education during the mid-1970s. The Supreme Court, as noted earlier, made a ruling favorable to bilingual education in 1974. Soon thereafter, several lower courts ruled on behalf of bilingual education advocates by mandating the use of native languages in the instruction of limited-Englishproficient children and by prohibiting the use of ESL methods.51

By the latter part of the 1970s, then, the federal role had increased tremendously as indicated by the participation of all three branches of the federal government in the making, implementing, and evaluating of bilingual education policy. It had also become more actively involved in local education by mandating bilingual education throughout the country.

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