414 Chapters
Medium 9781622500253

The Writing Process: Paraphrasing and Summarizing/ Final Project: Essay

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

The Writing Process:

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Paraphrasing and summarizing—what’s the difference between the two?

Read these definitions:

Paraphrasing is the act of restating an author’s idea in different words.

The purpose of paraphrasing is to clarify the author’s meaning for the reader.

Summarizing is the act of briefly stating the main ideas and supporting details presented in a longer piece of writing.

Here is an example of an author’s original words followed by a paraphrase:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters.” (Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose) paraphrase: She saw the stage coming from below, possibly carrying mail.

Here is the entire original paragraph and a summary of it:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters. If she started in five minutes, she would arrive at the

Cornish Camp post office at about the same time as the stage. But the post office was in the company store, where there were always loiterers—teamsters, drifters, men hunting work—whom Oliver did not want her to encounter alone. And Ewing, the manager of the store, was a man she thought insolent. She must wait another two hours, till Oliver came home, to know whether there was mail. If the truth were known, these days she always looked at his hands, for the gleam of paper, before she looked at his face.” summary: She saw the stage coming, possibly with mail. She could go to the Cornish

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Medium 9781609947439

Chapter 1: Assessing Your Voice

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

If you ask people how they want their speech and voice to be described, they will probably say articulate, resonant, and knowledgeable, clear, persuasive, and confident. These are the characteristics of speakers you admire, and you want to be in that club because you know how very much it matters. As one of my clients said, “Every time you open your mouth, you put your business in the street” (i.e., you put your reputation on the line).

I will tell you a secret: People are not good judges of their own speaking characteristics. They may be aware that there’s something about the way they talk that is a problem for them and they make guesses about the specifics. Here’s what many clients say when they first come to see me:

”My voice is too high (too gravelly, too nasal, too …).”

“I mumble/swallow my words, and I don’t speak distinctly.”

“I am very uncomfortable with small talk, public speaking, and interaction with any authority figures.”

“My speech is too soft, and people are always telling me to speak up.”

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Medium 9781609947439

Chapter 2: Resolving Specific Problems

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Focusing attention on specific issues works! A vague wish about a generalized outcome doesn’t. In this section, I will give you steps to resolve specific problems. Select one communication goal that you are the most motivated to achieve. If there are more than one, you can always go back after you’ve made reasonable progress on your first goal.

Consider the feedback you’ve gotten from others. How does it match up with your own listening? Many people are quick to defend themselves against critical description by attacking the source. “Oh, he just says I’m too loud because he really doesn’t want me in the office anyway!” I have seen people discredit some excellent feedback this way.

On the other hand, now that you’ve heard a recording of your own voice, some of your biggest problems may seem clear to you. It is not unusual to have a listener in my office who is flabbergasted by his or her own recorded speech. “Good heavens! I can’t even understand me! That’s what they’ve been trying to tell me!” I’ve heard this many times.

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Medium 9780870819018

8. Derivation—Reduplication

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Reduplication is extremely common in Arapaho. It occurs as both an obligatory process and an optional one, depending on the circumstances, and produces a number of related semantic effects on the verb. Although primarily occurring on verb stems and preverbs, it also occurs with adverbial particles (which are largely derived from preverbs) and occasionally with pronouns (which are morphologically verbs).

Reduplication is produced by adding the derivational final /:n/ to the consonant (if present) and first vowel of the initial syllable of a preverb or verb stem, and then adding this element to the base preverb or verb stem. Abstractly, this takes the form:

(C)V1(V2) > (C)V1:n-(C)V1(V2)

Reduplication is applied prior to addition of /h/ in surface pronunciation for vowel-initial forms—in other words, the reduplicated form functions as a verb initial, not a preverb. The /n/ drops before following consonants, as always with this derivational final (see examples 6b, 9, 12, 24, 26, etc., below for examples with vowel-initial bases). Examples include:

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Medium 9781442265790

A Note From the Guest Editors

Collections Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Emily Clark and Greg Lambousy

The aim of this special issue A Note from the Guest Editors of Collections is twofold. It exploits the potential of Louisiana’s colonial documents to illuminate some of the rewards and challenges of the Atlantic World paradigm—a relatively recent way of researching, writing and thinking about the era that began when Europe, Africa, and the Americas encountered one another and were drawn into dynamic currents of economic, cultural, and political exchange between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Atlantic World gave birth to the transatlantic slave trade, the Columbian Exchange, and racial hierarchies. It ended with the abolition of slavery and the spasm of rebellions against European power marked by the American and Haitian Revolutions and Latin American independence movements. The Atlantic World was a transnational phenomenon, and although it overlaps what represented the colonial period for much of North America, its history is not easily told from the perspective of any one of the major colonial European powers that exercised sovereignty there. For this reason, the colonial records of Louisiana, which was held by both France and Spain, offer a particularly illuminating case study of the legacies of the Atlantic World in American archives. An ambitious project, undertaken by the Louisiana State Museum, to digitize these records has drawn renewed attention to their importance and their potential to contribute substantially to the growing field of Atlantic history. (This project is scheduled for completion in 2016.)

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